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Audiology Research
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2039-4330 - ISSN (Online) 2039-4349
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 347-356: Lateralization Pattern of the
           Weber Tuning Fork Test in Longstanding Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss:
           Implications for Cochlear Implantation

    • Authors: Mohamed Bassiouni, Sophia Marie Häußler, Stefan Gräbel, Agnieszka J. Szczepek, Heidi Olze
      First page: 347
      Abstract: The Weber tuning fork test is a standard otologic examination tool in patients with unilateral hearing loss. Sound should typically lateralize to the contralateral side in unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The observation that the Weber test does not lateralize in some patients with longstanding unilateral deafness has been previously described but remains poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients with unilateral profound hearing loss (single-sided deafness or asymmetric hearing loss) for at least ten years. In this patient cohort, childhood-onset unilateral profound hearing loss was significantly associated with the lack of lateralization of the Weber tuning fork test (Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.05) and the absence of tinnitus in the affected ear (Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.001). The findings may imply a central adaptation process due to chronic unilateral auditory deprivation starting before the critical period of auditory maturation. This notion may partially explain the poor outcome of adult cochlear implantation in longstanding single-sided deafness. The findings may suggest a role for the Weber test as a simple, quick, and economical tool for screening poor cochlear implant candidates, thus potentially supporting the decision-making and counseling of patients with longstanding single-sided deafness.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12040036
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 357-376: Validation of the Maltese
           Adaptive Auditory Speech Test (AAST)

    • Authors: Pauline Miggiani, Frans Coninx, Karolin Schaefer
      First page: 357
      Abstract: The Adaptive Auditory Speech Test (AAST) was developed to record the Speech Recognition Threshold (SRT) in children in quiet or with background noise. AAST is an interlingually valid and reliable standardised tool with speech material developed in several languages. The Maltese version of the Adaptive Auditory Speech Test (AAST) was developed to examine the speech recognition skills of 208 children and 40 Maltese-speaking adults in quiet, noise and high frequency. The aims were to determine the norms in these three settings in adults and children aged 4 years and older. The Maltese version of AAST confirms an age dependent norm threshold with a significant improvement in threshold being observed as children grow older, similar to other AAST versions. This was evident across the three test settings. An approximate difference of 10 dB was also noted between 4-year-old and 10-year-old children in AAST in quiet. Thresholds of 10-year-olds and adults were similar in both the quiet and high frequency versions. Implications for post Universal Newborn Hearing Screening using these tools are addressed.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12040037
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 212-223: Audiovestibular Disorders
           after COVID-19 Vaccine: Is There an Association'

    • Authors: Davide Pisani, Federico Maria Gioacchini, Pasquale Viola, Alfonso Scarpa, Alessia Astorina, Massimo Re, Gianmarco Marcianò, Francesco Manti, Roberta Anzivino, Giuseppe Chiarella
      First page: 212
      Abstract: The SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign is probably one of the most historic public hygiene measures in modern medicine. The drama of the pandemic has forced the scientific community to accelerate the development and commercialization of vaccines, thereby enhancing the phases of active surveillance. Among the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) reported, those of an audiovestibular interest, such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo, constitute a very small percentage. There are many plausible etiological hypotheses, and scientific research needs to pay more attention to the correct collection of data, which up until now have often been inadequate and fragmented, on which to base future studies. SSNHL, new onset tinnitus, vertigo, and dizziness require a prompt evaluation, while the proposed treatment is the same as it is for events unrelated to vaccination. These are uncommon adverse events, and the risk rates for these diseases have not increased in conjunction with the COVID-19 vaccinations, therefore there is no justification of any hesitation towards the vaccination campaign.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030024
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 224-248: Adverse Audio-Vestibular
           Effects of Drugs and Vaccines Used in the Treatment and Prevention of
           COVID-19: A Review

    • Authors: Magdalena B. Skarzynska, Monika Matusiak, Piotr H. Skarzynski
      First page: 224
      Abstract: (1) Background: The purpose of this article is to review pharmacological treatments for COVID-19 (currently approved by the EMA (European Medical Agency) and FDA (Food and Drug Administration)) and highlight their potential audio-vestibular side-effects as an ototoxic adverse reaction. (2) Methods: Review of the available literature in the scientific databases PubMed, ResearchGate, Scopus, and ScienceDirect, and in summaries of product data sheets. (3) Results: In accordance with EBM (evidence-based medicine) the treatment of COVID-19 by using lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, amantadine, oseltamivir, and ivermectin is no longer recommended for patients suffering from COVID-19 due to a lack of clinical data, publications, and recommendations. There were 39 publications and 15 summaries of product characteristics (as other sources of data) which were also used in this analysis. Adverse events could be permanent or disappear over time. Following treatment for COVID-19, the most frequent adverse audio-vestibular reactions reported in clinical trials and publications in the area of audiology and otorhinolaryngology were: dizziness, blurry vision with dizziness, nasopharyngitis, dysgeusia, and tinnitus. As far as vaccines are concerned, dizziness as an ototoxic effect was uncommon and occurs only in hypersensitive people who experience anaphylactic shock. (4) Conclusions: The ototoxicity of the drugs discussed here does not have as severe symptoms as the drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 in 2020 (e.g., hydroxychloroquine), and relates mainly to disorders of the vestibulocochlear system. However, there is still a need to monitor ototoxic side-effects because of potential interactions with other ototoxic drugs. Many of the drugs approved by EMA and FDA are new, and not every side-effect is known.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030025
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 249-259: The Navigation Ability Test
           (NAT 2.0): From Football Player Performance to Balance Rehabilitation in
           Chronic Unilateral Vestibular Loss

    • Authors: Paolo Gamba, Riccardo Guidetti, Cristiano Balzanelli, Maurizio Bavazzano, Andrea Laborai
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Aim of the Study: in humans, spatial orientation consists of the ability to move around the environment through memorized and pre-programmed movements, according to the afferent sensory information of the body and environmental analysis of the Central Nervous System (CNS). The purpose of this study is to analyze the abilities of professional athletes, such as footballers, to use mental navigation systems, cognitive maps, and memorized motor patterns in order to obtain better physical performance and to obtain useful information for training both non-sports subjects and vestibular patients for rehabilitation purposes. Materials and Methods: all the motor performances of sportsmen, healthy non-sporting subjects, or vestibular patients are based on the acquisition of visual–spatial and training information. In this study, we analyzed the visual–spatial performance of 60 trained sportsmen (professional footballers), 60 healthy non-sports subjects, and 48 patients affected by chronic unilateral vestibular loss by means of the Navigation Ability Test 2.0. A score based on the number of targets correctly reached in the various tests quantifies the degree of performance of the subjects. Results: NAT 2.0 scores progressively improve from vestibular subjects to healthy non-sporting subjects to footballers. NAT 2.0 scores improve in all three subject groups as the number of tasks performed in all patient groups increases, regardless of gender and age. Conclusions: the analysis of performance data through NAT 2.0 in athletes (footballers) opens new perspectives for rehabilitation purposes, regardless of age, sex, and training conditions, both in healthy non-sporting subjects to improve their sporting potential and in patients affected by chronic vestibular dysfunction, in order to optimize their motor skills and prevent falls.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030026
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 260-272: Otoacoustic Emissions in

    • Authors: Geoffrey A. Manley
      First page: 260
      Abstract: Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) that were sound-induced, current-induced, or spontaneous have been measured in non-mammalian land vertebrates, including in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. There are no forms of emissions known from mammals that have not also been observed in non-mammals. In each group and species, the emission frequencies clearly lie in the range known to be processed by the hair cells of the respective hearing organs. With some notable exceptions, the patterns underlying the measured spectra, input-output functions, suppression threshold curves, etc., show strong similarities to OAE measured in mammals. These profound similarities are presumably traceable to the fact that emissions are produced by active hair-cell mechanisms that are themselves dependent upon comparable nonlinear cellular processes. The differences observed—for example, in the width of spontaneous emission peaks and delay times in interactions between peaks—should provide insights into how hair-cell activity is coupled within the organ and thus partially routed out into the middle ear.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030027
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 273-280: The Ethics of Translational

    • Authors: Aleksandra Bendowska, Roksana Malak, Agnieszka Zok, Ewa Baum
      First page: 273
      Abstract: Translational research moves promising primary research results from the laboratory to practical application. The transition from basic science to clinical research and from clinical research to routine healthcare applications presents many challenges, including ethical. This paper addresses issues in the ethics of translational audiology and discusses the ethical principles that should guide research involving people with hearing loss. Four major ethical principles are defined and explained, which are as follows: beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice. In addition, the authors discuss issues of discrimination and equal access to medical services among people with hearing loss. Despite audiology’s broad field of interest, which includes evaluation and treatment of auditory disorders (e.g., deafness, tinnitus, misophonia, or hyperacusis) and balance disorders, this study focuses primarily on deafness and its therapies.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030028
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 281-289: Definition of Tinnitus

    • Authors: Aldo Messina, Alessandro Corvaia, Chiara Marino
      First page: 281
      Abstract: Tinnitus is generally defined as the perception of sound in the absence of vibration of an external elastic body. If this definition appears useful to differentiate tinnitus from somatosounds, it is not suitable for distinguishing it from psychiatric hallucinations. Nor does this solution define a temporal limit of duration of the perception, which is important for distinguishing pathological tinnitus from those occasional noises that we all perceive from time to time. A complete definition appears necessary not only to achieve homogeneity in epidemiological studies but also to set up correct and personalized therapeutic schemes. An analogy with neuropsychiatric studies and, in particular, the concept of auditory hallucinosis are proposed by the authors to define tinnitus. According to the authors, tinnitus is auditory hallucinosis, and similarly, vertigo is spatial hallucinosis.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030029
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 290-296: Long-Term Surgical Results of
           Cortical Mastoid Bone Osteomas

    • Authors: Giulia Donati, Luca Oscar Redaelli de Zinis
      First page: 290
      Abstract: Background: Though osteomas can commonly arise in the cranial bones, an extra canalicular mastoid bone location is a rare entity with less than 200 cases described to date. We present three cases of cortical mastoid bone osteomas and compare them with cases presented in the literature. Methods: In this study, we used a retrospective chart analysis. Results: All three patients presented after years of progressively increasing postauricular swelling without symptoms. Temporal bone non-contrast CT allowed accurate preoperative diagnosis. Surgical treatment was performed for cosmetic issues with minimal postoperative morbidity. Complete excision was achieved in all cases, and to date, there is no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions: Mastoid osteomas are rare benign slow-growing tumors. They usually present as a painless cosmetic disfigurement and are otherwise asymptomatic. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice when they cause esthetic discomfort or are symptomatic. Recurrences are infrequently reported.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030030
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 297-306: An Adaptation and Validation
           Study of the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) in
           Italian Normal-Hearing Children

    • Authors: Chiara Falzone, Letizia Guerzoni, Erica Pizzol, Enrico Fabrizi, Domenico Cuda
      First page: 297
      Abstract: This study aimed to translate and adapt the English version of the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) for children and for parents into the Italian language; validate SSQ for hearing children and their parents; and evaluate the discriminant validity of the instrument. A group of 102 normal-hearing Italian children, aged between 9 and 16 years, and their parents were included in this study. A group of 31 parents of normal-hearing Italian children aged between 6 and 8 years was also included. A group of 57 hearing-impaired Italian children aged between 9 and 16 years, and their parents were also included, as well as a group of 30 parents of hearing-impaired Italian children aged between 6 and 8 years. Cronbach’s alpha in the SSQ for parents was 0.92; it was 0.95 in the SSQ for children. Guttmann’s split-half coefficient in SSQ for children for both λ4 and λ6 was 0.98; in SSQ for parents in λ4 was 0.96 and λ6 was 0.95. These data provide evidence for the discriminant validity of the SSQ scale (p-value < 0.001). Italian SSQ scales for children and for parents are now available.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030031
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 307-315: Sensorineural Hearing Loss
           Post-COVID-19 Infection: An Update

    • Authors: Virginia Fancello, Giuseppe Fancello, Stavros Hatzopoulos, Chiara Bianchini, Francesco Stomeo, Stefano Pelucchi, Andrea Ciorba
      First page: 307
      Abstract: The course of COVID-19 infection may be complicated by a variety of neurological manifestations. Since the inner ear is vulnerable to viruses, sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) has been reported to occur following the SARS-CoV-2 infection, often resulting in long-term morbidity and worsening the quality of life. The interest in how the virus affects the inner ear has gradually increased since the pandemic’s spread, but little is still known about the SNHL potentially caused by SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possible association between SNHL and COVID-19 infection, through a systematic literature review. Currently available data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may hamper cochlear function; however, available reports are still limited. Large cohort and prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of this viral infection in the inner ear.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030032
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 316-326: Correlation of SVINT and
           Sensory Organization Test in Children with Hearing Loss

    • Authors: Solara Sinno, Fadi Najem, Georges Dumas, Kim Smith Abouchacra, Art Mallinson, Philippe Perrin
      First page: 316
      Abstract: Objective: The skull vibration-induced-nystagmus test (SVINT) is a noninvasive and effective screening tool for the function of the otolith and canal structures in children. It can instantaneously assess vestibular asymmetry. This study aimed to analyze the SVINT results of healthy children vs. children with hearing loss (HL) and to correlate it with sensory organization test (SOT) results as a functional balance evaluation tool. Design: This case-controlled study compared the results of SVINT to the results of the SOT of the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) in a control group of 120 healthy normal-hearing children (i.e., NH group) vs. hearing loss (HL) group of 60 children, including 30 children with hearing aids (HAs) and 30 children with a unilateral cochlear implant (CI). The SVINT results were compared to the caloric test (CaT) and video head impulse test (vHIT) and associated with SOT scores. Results: Thirty-one children in the HL group had normal SVINT and normal SOT results. A total of 21 children in the HL group had SVINT-negative and abnormal results in the SOT (possibly due to bilateral vestibular loss (BVL)). Eight children in the HL group had positive SVINT and abnormal SOT results. However, none of the children had only positive SVINT with normal SOT findings. Moreover, 52% of children had a normal result on both the SOT and CaT, whereas 27% had abnormal results on both tests (17% bilateral weakness and 10% unilateral), and 22% had the only result of the SOT suggesting a functional abnormality. Similarly, when associating the result to vHIT, 51% had normal results on both tests, and 25% had abnormal results (13% bilateral and 12% unilateral weakness). Conclusion: SVINT findings can be correlated with SOT findings in the case of the unilateral vestibular lesion (UVL), which adds a diagnostic value in these pediatric cases but may differ in the case of the bilateral vestibular lesion (BVL). However, SVINT findings need to be cautiously interpreted in light of other test findings such as the SOT, CaT, and vHIT.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030033
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 327-336: Impact of the COVID-19
           Lockdown on Patients with Chronic Tinnitus—Preliminary Results

    • Authors: Alessandra Fioretti, Eleonora Natalini, Gianluigi Triggianese, Rebecca Eibenstein, Anna Maria Angelone, Maria Lauriello, Alberto Eibenstein
      First page: 327
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown measures are both causes of psychological distress. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychological effects of lockdown measures on patients with subjective chronic tinnitus diagnosed before the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of n = 77 patients with chronic tinnitus was contacted by mail/phone for a survey between June 2021 and September 2021. All patients filled out questionnaires on tinnitus distress (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI) and eight items of the Tinnitus Sample Case History (TSCH) about tinnitus history (i.e., loudness, pitch, perception, tinnitus location), stress, and related conditions (noise annoyance, vertigo/dizziness, headache). Forty patients with chronic tinnitus filled out the survey. No significant differences of total THI mean scores (p > 0.05) were found compared to the results obtained before the COVID-19 pandemic and after lockdown. Regarding depression and anxiety, the female population showed a significant increase in scores obtained from the BDI (p < 0.0170) and the BAI (p < 0.049). Only two patients (0.5%) were infected by COVID-19 (positive RT-PCR), and they did not report any worsening of tinnitus. According to the data of the literature, our patients experienced a heterogeneous course of tinnitus, and the severity of tinnitus was not significantly affected by lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030034
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 337-346: Apogeotropic Horizontal Canal
           Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: Zuma e Maia Maneuver versus Appiani
           Variant of Gufoni

    • Authors: Marta Alvarez de Linera-Alperi, Octavio Garaycochea, Diego Calavia, David Terrasa, Nicolas Pérez-Fernández, Raquel Manrique-Huarte
      First page: 337
      Abstract: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common disorders that causes dizziness. The incidence of horizontal semicircular canal (HSC) BPPV ranges from 5% to 40.5% of the total number of BPPV cases diagnosed. Several studies have focused on establishing methods to treat BPPV caused by the apogeotropic variant of the HSC, namely, the Appiani maneuver (App). In 2016, a new maneuver was proposed: the Zuma e Maia maneuver (ZeM), based on inertia and gravity. The aim of this study is to analyze the efficacy of App versus ZeM in the resolution of episodes of BPPV produced by an affectation of the horizontal semicircular canal with apogeotropic nystagmus (Apo-HSC). A retrospective, quasi-experimental study was conducted. Patients attended in office (November 2014–February 2019) at a third-level hospital and underwent a vestibular otoneurology assessment. Those who were diagnosed with Apo-HSC, treated with App or ZeM, were included. To consider the efficacy of the maneuvers, the presence of symptoms and/or nystagmus at the first follow up was studied. Patients classified as “A” were those with no symptoms, no nystagmus; “A/N+”: no symptoms, nystagmus present during supine roll test; “S”: symptoms present. Previous history of BPPV and/or otic pathology and calcium levels were also compiled. From the 54 patients included, 74% were women. The average age was 69. Mean follow-up: 52.51 days. In those patients without previous history of BPPV (n = 35), the probability of being group “A” was 63% and 56% (p = 0.687) when treated with App and ZeM, respectively, while being “A/N+” was 79% and 87% for App and ZeM (p = 0.508). Of the 19 patients who had previous history of BPPV, 13% and 64% were group “A” when treated with App and ZeM (p = 0.043), and 25% and 82% were “A/N+” after App and ZeM, respectively (p = 0.021). In conclusion, for HSC cupulolithiasis, ZeM is more effective than App in those cases in which there is a history of previous episodes of BPPV (“A”: 64% (p = 0.043); “A/N+”: 82% (p = 0.021)).
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030035
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 96-98: Publisher’s Note: We
           Changed Page Numbers to Article Numbers for Articles Published in
           Audiology Research Volume 1–Volume 10, Issue 1

    • Authors: Audiology Research Editorial Office Audiology Research Editorial Office
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Audiology Research [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020012
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 99-112: Spatial Release from Masking
           for Tones and Noises in a Soundfield under Conditions Where Targets and
           Maskers Are Stationary or Moving

    • Authors: M. Torben Pastore, William A. Yost
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Stationary visual targets often become far more salient when they move against an otherwise static background–the so-called “pop out” effect. In two experiments conducted over loudspeakers, we tested for a similar pop-out effect in the auditory domain. Tone-in-noise and noise-in-noise detection thresholds were measured using a 2-up, 1-down adaptive procedure under conditions where target and masker(s) were presented from the same or different locations and when the target was stationary or moved via amplitude-panning. In the first experiment, target tones of 0.5 kHz and 4 kHz were tested, maskers (2–4, depending on the condition) were independent Gaussian noises, and all stimuli were 500-ms duration. In the second experiment, a single pink noise masker (0.3–12 kHz) was presented with a single target at one of four bandwidths (0.3–0.6 kHz, 3–6 kHz, 6–12 kHz, 0.3–12 kHz) under conditions where target and masker were presented from the same or different locations and where the target moved or not. The results of both experiments failed to show a decrease in detection thresholds resulting from movement of the target.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020013
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 113-125: Subtotal Petrosectomy (SP) in
           Cochlear Implantation (CI): A Report of 92 Cases

    • Authors: Ignacio Arístegui, Gracia Aranguez, José Carlos Casqueiro, Manuel Gutiérrez-Triguero, Almudena del Pozo, Miguel Arístegui
      First page: 113
      Abstract: In most cases, cochlear implantation is a straightforward procedure. Nevertheless, there are clinical situations in which the presence of the middle ear may compromise access and/or the outcome in terms of complications. This article includes a series of patients for whom we eliminated the middle ear to facilitate placement of the electrode array of the implant and/or reduce potential complications. A total of 92 cases in 83 patients, managed by the senior author, are included in this series. Different indications are outlined that justify associating a subtotal petrosectomy technique with cochlear implantation. The steps of the technique are described. We include complications from this series that compare favorably with standard techniques.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 126-131: Is Skull Vibration-Induced
           Nystagmus Useful in Vestibular Neuritis Follow Up'

    • Authors: Ma Piedad García Díaz, Lidia Torres-García, Enrique García Zamora, Ana Belén Castilla Jiménez, Vanesa Pérez Guillén
      First page: 126
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain and the saccade regrouping pattern PR score of the Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) and its relationship with the slow-phase velocity (SPV) of skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN) in recovery after a unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). A total of 36 patients suffering from vestibular neuritis (VN) were recruited and followed up for twelve months. In every visit, horizontal vHIT and an SVIN were performed, as well as VOR gain; PR score and the SPV of SVIN were measured. We observed a positive association between the VOR gain difference and the SPV of SVIN over time (probability greater than 0.86). Additionally, we obtained a positive association between the SPV of SVIN and the PR score in successive visits (odds ratio (OR) = −0.048; CI [0.898, 1.01]), with a probability of 0.95. Our results confirm that SPV of SVIN; VOR gain difference; and PR score decrease over time after a UVL. Both tests are useful in the follow-up of VN, as they could reflect its clinical compensation or partial recovery.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020015
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 132-142: Is Skull-Vibration-Induced
           Nystagmus Modified with Aging'

    • Authors: Giampiero Neri, Letizia Neri, Klajdi Xhepa, Andrea Mazzatenta
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Background: Despite clinical practice utilizing the Dumas test (SVINT), some questions remain unanswered, including the age-related changes in frequency (FN) and slow-phase angular velocity (SPAV). This study aims to retrospectively evaluate their variations in subjects affected by unilateral peripheral vestibular loss (UPVL). Methods: We evaluated the selected samples based on the results of the SVINT, the results of the vestibular-evoked potentials (C-VEMP and O-VEMP), and the results of the head impulse test (HIT) and we compared the results against the age of the patients. We calculated the timing between the onset of UPVL and clinical evaluation in days. The presence or absence of VEMP indicated the UPVL severity. UPVL and BPPV patients with spontaneous or pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus were compared. Results: Statistical analysis showed changes in the FN and SPAV depending on age and the side of the application of the stimulus. We also observed that, in the UPVL, the severity of the disease modifies the SPAV, but not the frequency. Conclusions: The SVINT is a simple, reliable, and straightforward test that, if evaluated instrumentally, can show significant differences with aging. Further studies need to be performed to refine the clinical significance of the test and clarify its physiological background.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020016
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 143-151: The Effect of the Use of
           Hearing Aids in Elders: Perspectives

    • Authors: Daniele Monzani, Riccardo Nocini, Maria Teresa Presutti, Chiara Gherpelli, Federica Di Berardino, Silvia Ferrari, Gian Maria Galeazzi, Gaia Federici, Elisabetta Genovese, Silvia Palma
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Older adults with hearing loss have difficulties during conversation with others because an elevated auditory threshold reduces speech intelligibility, especially in noisy environments. Listening and comprehension often become exhausting tasks for hearing-impaired elders, resulting in social isolation and depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the advantages of hearing aid use in relation to relief from listening-related fatigue, which is still controversial. Participants included a sample of 49 hearing-impaired elders affected by presbycusis for whom hearing aids were prescribed. The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale was used to assess cognitive, physical and psychosocial fatigue. The vitality subscale of the Short Form Health Survey 36 and a single item of the multi-dimensional Speech, Spatial and Quality Hearing Scale (“Do you have to put a lot of effort to hear what is being said in conversation with others'”) were also used. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire was used to investigate daily errors related to lack of memory and reduced mindedness. Hearing aids rehabilitation resulted in improved speech intelligibility in competing noise, and a significant reduction in cognitive and psychosocial fatigue and listening effort in conversation. Vitality was also improved and a significant reduction in the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire scores was observed. Findings from the study indicate that the use of hearing aids in older impaired-listeners provide them not only with an increased auditory function but also with a reduction in listening-related fatigue and mindedness.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020017
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 152-161: Atypical Positional Vertigo:
           Definition, Causes, and Mechanisms

    • Authors: Sergio Carmona, Guillermo Javier Zalazar, Martin Fernández, Gabriela Grinstein, João Lemos
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Paroxysmal positional vertigo is a frequent cause for consultation. When approaching these patients, we try to differentiate central from peripheral causes, but sometimes we find manifestations that generate diagnostic doubts. In this review, we address atypical paroxysmal positional vertigo, reviewing the literature on the subject and giving a provisional definition of atypical positional vertigo as well as outlining its causes and pathophysiological mechanisms.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 162-170: Analysis of the Acoustic
           Transcranial Bone Conduction

    • Authors: Catherine Dufour-Fournier, Arnaud Devèze, Jonathan Barbut, Erick Ogam, Issam Saliba, Catherine Masson
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Objectives: (1) To analyze the preferential pathways of sound transmission and sound waves travelling properties in the skull and (2) to identify the location(s) on the skull where bone conduction to the cochlea is optimal. Study design: Basic research Methods: Nine cadaveric heads were placed in an anechoic chamber and equipped with six Bone Anchored Hearing Aids (BAHA™) implants (Cochlear™, Sydney, NSW, Australia) and fifteen accelerometers. A laser velocimeter was used to measure cochlear response by placing a reflector on the round window. Different frequency sweeps were applied to each implant, and measurements were recorded simultaneously by the laser velocimeter and accelerometers. Results: Low-frequency sound waves mostly travel the frontal transmission pathways, and there is no clear predominant pattern for the high frequencies. The mean inter-aural time lag is 0.1 ms. Optimal sound transmission to the cochlea occurs between 1000 and 2500 Hz with a contralateral 5 to 10 dB attenuation. The implant location does not influence mean transmission to the cochlea. Conclusion: There is a pattern of transmission for low frequencies through a frontal pathway but none for high frequencies. We were also able to demonstrate that the localization of the BAHA™ implant on the skull had no significant impact on the sound transmission, either ipsi or contralaterally.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020019
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 171-181: Audiologist’s
           Perspective in Auditory Rehabilitation: Implications for Ethical Conduct
           and Decision-Making in Portugal

    • Authors: Tatiana Marques, Margarida Silvestre, Bárbara Santa Rosa, António Miguéis
      First page: 171
      Abstract: Ethical standards in audiology have been continuously improved and discussed, leading to the elaboration of specific regulatory guidelines for the profession. However, in the field of auditory rehabilitation, audiologists are still faced with circumstances that question their ethical principles, usually associated with the support of the hearing aids industry. The study explores the decision-making process and ethical concerns in auditory rehabilitation as they relate to the practice of audiology in Portugal. An online questionnaire constructed by the authors was used and sent to the email addresses of a list of audiologists, registered with the Portuguese Association of Audiologists. The questionnaire was answered by 93 audiologists with clinical experience in auditory rehabilitation for more than one year. The collected data demonstrated that audiometric results and clinical experience are the most important factors for decision-making in auditory rehabilitation practice. Moreover, incentives from the employers or manufacturers were identified as the main cause of ethical dilemmas. This study highlights the ethical concerns regarding the clinical practice of auditory rehabilitation in Portugal, revealing that the decision-making process is complex and, specifically in this field, the current practice may not be adequate for effective compliance with professional ethical standards.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020020
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 182-190: NeonaTal Assisted
           TelerehAbilitation (T.A.T.A. Web App) for Hearing-Impaired Children: A
           Family-Centered Care Model for Early Intervention in Congenital Hearing

    • Authors: Emma Landolfi, Grazia Isabella Continisio, Valeria Del Vecchio, Nicola Serra, Ernesto Burattini, Massimiliano Conson, Elio Marciano, Carla Laria, Annamaria Franzè, Antonio Caso, Anna Rita Fetoni, Rita Malesci
      First page: 182
      Abstract: Background: An early hearing detection and intervention program (EHDI) is the first step for the habilitation of children with permanent hearing impairment (PHI). Actually, early intervention programs have increasingly shifted toward family involvement, emphasizing that the child’s family should take an active role in the habilitation process. Therefore, familiar empowerment is the best way to improve a child’s emerging abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate parental self-efficacy beliefs and involvement as well as the language skills of deaf or hard of hearing DHH children who were habilitated with hearing aids and followed using the T.A.T.A web app (NeonaTal Assisted TelerehAbilitation), an example of asynchronous telepractice. Methods: The study describes the early stages of the habilitation program of 15 PHI children followed through the T.A.T.A. web app, which empowers families through a weekly questionnaire submitted during the first 270 to 360 days of their child’s life, for 14 weeks. The family involvement rate scale (FIRS) was used to evaluate parental compliance, and all children received in-person visits at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Results: The children showed greater auditory perceptual skills at the end of the training period on the basis of both the Infant Listening Progress Profile (ILiP) score and the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and FIRS scales. In other words, the auditory skills improved with age as well as with parental participation. Conclusions: The T.A.T.A. web app promotes a proactive management and a tailored habilitation through an active familiar involvement, easily achieved in clinical routine and in emergency settings without additional costs.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020021
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 191-201: Validation of the
           LittlEARS® Questionnaire in Hearing Maltese-Speaking Children

    • Authors: Pauline Miggiani, Frans Coninx, Karolin Schaefer
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Objectives: To adapt the LittlEARS® Auditory Questionnaire into the Maltese language and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Maltese version of the questionnaire for hearing children. Methods: The English version of LittlEARS® Auditory Questionnaire was adapted into Maltese using a translation/back translation procedure. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 398 parents of normal hearing children aged between 5 days and 36 months completed the Maltese version of LittlEARS®. Psychometric validation was performed through scale analysis, item analysis, and analysis of reliability and validity. A non-linear regression model was derived to obtain normative data for expected and minimum values of total scores from the questionnaire according to age. Results: Predictive accuracy (Guttman’s lambda) was 0.921, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value was 0.921, and the split-half reliability coefficient was 0.949. The Pearson correlation coefficient between scores and age was 0.903. The regression analysis showed that 82% of the variance in the total scores can be explained by age. Norm curves were comparable to the original German data. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the Maltese version of LittlEARS® is a valid and reliable tool to evaluate auditory development in children less than two years of age.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 202-211: Skull Vibration-Induced
           Nystagmus and High Frequency Ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials
           in Superior Canal Dehiscence

    • Authors: Ángel Batuecas-Caletrío, Alejandra Jara, Victor Manuel Suarez-Vega, Susana Marcos-Alonso, Hortensia Sánchez-Gómez, Nicolas Pérez-Fernández
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Background: Although diagnostic criteria have been established for superior canal dehiscence syndrome, cases in which the diagnosis is not easy are frequent. On those occasions, some tests such as vibration-induced nystagmus or vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials can offer invaluable help due to their high sensitivity and specificity. Methods: We studied 30 patients showing superior canal dehiscence or “near-dehiscence” in a CT scan. Skull vibration-induced nystagmus and high frequency ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials are performed in each patient. The aim of the study is to determine how useful both tests are for detection of superior canal dehiscence or near-dehiscence. Results: Of the 60 temporal bones studied, no dehiscence was the result in 22, near-dehiscence in 17 and a definite finding in 21. In 10/30 patients, there was no SVIN (Skull vibration induced nystagmus) during otoneurological testing, while in 6/30, induced nystagmus was mainly horizontal, and in 14/30 there was vertical up-beating. All patients had a positive oVEMP (Ocular vestibular evoked myiogenic potentials) at 0.5 kHz in both ears and the HFoVEMP (High frequency ocular vestibular evoked myiogenic potentials) response was positive in 25/60 (41.6%) of the ears studied and in 19/30 of the patients evaluated (in 6 it was positive in both ears). Up-beat SVIN will point to a SCD (Superior Canal Dehiscence) mainly when HFoVEMP are present, and when this is negative there is a high probability that it is not a SCD. Conclusions: When SVIN and HFoVEMP results are added (or combined), they not only improve the possibilities of detecting SCD, but also the affected side.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020023
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 22-32: Characterization of Balance
           Problems and Rehabilitation Needs of Patients with
           Ménière’s Disease

    • Authors: Ilmari Pyykkö, Nora Pyykkö, Jing Zou, Vinaya Manchaiah
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Background: To explore and characterize balance problems in subjects with Ménière’s disease (MD). Methods: A total of 539 people with MD with a mean age of 61.9 years, mean disease history of 15.6 years, and 79.5% females were recruited. The online questionnaire, consisting of 39 questions, including both structured and open-ended questions, focused on symptoms of MD, balance problems, impacts of the complaints, and quality of life (QoL). Results: After hearing loss (58%) and tinnitus (50%), balance problems (44%) were among the most commonly reported MD complaints, even higher than the impact of vertigo (40%). However, only 22% reported that those balance problems made obvious impacts in their daily lives. The most common balance problem that significantly reduced QoL was tripping (34%). Swaying (25%) had a limited impact on QoL, whereas rocking (10%) was less common but caused a significant impact on QoL. Non-defined balance problems were reported at 18%; these were occasional and correlated with vertigo attacks. Older participants had more frequent tripping problems. Younger participants more frequently reported swaying and rocking. Conclusions: Risk factors predicting poor postural control were mostly related to complaints reflecting otolith pathology. Different types of postural problems require different strategies to manage balance control and cope with the disease.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 33-41: Cochlear Implant in Patients
           with Intralabyrinthine Schwannoma without Tumor Removal

    • Authors: Andrea Laborai, Sara Ghiselli, Domenico Cuda
      First page: 33
      Abstract: (1) Background: Schwannomas of the vestibulocochlear nerve are benign, slow-growing tumors, arising from the Schwann cells. When they originate from neural elements within the vestibule or cochlea, they are defined as intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILSs). Cochlear implant (CI) has been reported as a feasible solution for hearing restoration in these patients. (2) Methods: Two patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) due to sudden sensorineural hearing loss and ipsilateral tinnitus were the cases. MRI detected an ILS. CI was positioned using a standard round window approach without tumor removal. (3) Results: The hearing threshold was 35 dB in one case and 30 dB in the other 6 mo after activation. Speech audiometry with bisillables in quiet was 21% and 27% at 65 dB, and the tinnitus was completely resolved or reduced. In the localization test, a 25.9° error azimuth was obtained with CI on, compared to 43.2° without CI. The data log reported a daily use of 11 h and 14 h. In order to not decrease the CI’s performance, we decided not to perform tumor exeresis, but only CI surgery to restore functional binaural hearing. (4) Conclusions: These are the sixth and seventh cases in the literature of CI in patients with ILS without any tumor treatment and the first with SSD. Cochlear implant without tumor removal can be a feasible option for restoring binaural hearing without worsening the CI’s performance.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 42-65: Usher Syndrome

    • Authors: Alessandro Castiglione, Claes Möller
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common genetic condition responsible for combined loss of hearing and vision. Balance disorders and bilateral vestibular areflexia are also observed in some cases. The syndrome was first described by Albrecht von Graefe in 1858, but later named by Charles Usher, who presented a large number of cases with hearing loss and retinopathy in 1914. USH has been grouped into three main clinical types: 1, 2, and 3, which are caused by mutations in different genes and are further divided into different subtypes. To date, nine causative genes have been identified and confirmed as responsible for the syndrome when mutated: MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, and USH1G (SANS) for Usher type 1; USH2A, ADGRV1, and WHRN for Usher type 2; CLRN1 for Usher type 3. USH is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Digenic, bi-allelic, and polygenic forms have also been reported, in addition to dominant or nonsyndromic forms of genetic mutations. This narrative review reports the causative forms, diagnosis, prognosis, epidemiology, rehabilitation, research, and new treatments of USH.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 66-76: Validation of the Tinnitus
           Acceptance Questionnaire: Japanese Version

    • Authors: So Takabatake, Mariko Takahashi, Kayoko Kabaya, Yoshimasa Sekiya, Kenichi Sekiya, Ikuma Harata, Masaki Kondo, Tatsuo Akechi
      First page: 66
      Abstract: This study aimed to develop and validate a Japanese version of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ), an instrument that measures the process of intentional acceptance of adverse experiences associated with tinnitus. A total of 125 patients with chronic tinnitus from multiple institutions participated in this study. Participants completed the Japanese versions of the TAQ, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Valuing Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A second TAQ was administered 1–2 weeks later. Because the model fitted poorly in confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis was conducted, which yielded a two-factor structure that was divided into forward and reversed item groups. Hypotheses regarding criterion and construct validity were clearly supported. A high Cronbach’s α coefficient value was obtained for the TAQ total score (0.88). The interclass correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability was within the acceptable range (0.95). The results of the exploratory factor analysis were considered to be due to artifacts caused by the characteristics of the Japanese language. The present study confirmed the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the TAQ in measuring tinnitus-specific receptivity.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 77-78: Bone and Cartilage Conduction

    • Authors: Tadashi Nishimura
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Auditory sensation is an important sensation for human beings [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 79-86: The Reliability of Contralateral
           Suppression of Otoacoustic Emissions Is Greater in Women than in Men

    • Authors: W. Wiktor Jedrzejczak, Edyta Pilka, Malgorzata Pastucha, Krzysztof Kochanek, Henryk Skarzynski
      First page: 79
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) between men and women. The strength of the MOCR was measured in terms of the suppression of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) by contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS). The difference between TEOAEs with and without CAS (white noise) was calculated as raw decibel TEOAE suppression as well as normalized TEOAE suppression expressed in percent. In each subject, sets of measurements were performed twice. Reliability was evaluated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient, the standard error of measurement, and the minimum detectable change (MDC). The study included 40 normally hearing subjects (20 men; 20 women). The estimates of MOCR for both genders were similar. Nevertheless, the reliability of the MOCR was poorer in men, with an MDC around twice that of women. This can be only partially attributed to slightly lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in men, since we used strict procedures calling for high SNRs (around 20 dB on average). Furthermore, even when we compared subgroups with similar SNRs, there was still lower MOCR reliability in men.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 87-88: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of
           Audiology Research in 2021

    • Authors: Audiology Research Editorial Office Audiology Research Editorial Office
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 89-94: Objective Detection of the
           Speech Frequency Following Response (sFFR): A Comparison of Two Methods

    • Authors: Fan-Yin Cheng, Spencer Smith
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Speech frequency following responses (sFFRs) are increasingly used in translational auditory research. Statistically-based automated sFFR detection could aid response identification and provide a basis for stopping rules when recording responses in clinical and/or research applications. In this brief report, sFFRs were measured from 18 normal hearing adult listeners in quiet and speech-shaped noise. Two statistically-based automated response detection methods, the F-test and Hotelling’s T2 (HT2) test, were compared based on detection accuracy and test time. Similar detection accuracy across statistical tests and conditions was observed, although the HT2 test time was less variable. These findings suggest that automated sFFR detection is robust for responses recorded in quiet and speech-shaped noise using either the F-test or HT2 test. Future studies evaluating test performance with different stimuli and maskers are warranted to determine if the interchangeability of test performance extends to these conditions.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010010
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 95: Correction: Martini, A.; Cassina,
           M. Victor A. McKusick, the “Father of Medical Genetics”.
           Audiol. Res. 2021, 11, 636–638

    • Authors: Alessandro Martini, Matteo Cassina
      First page: 95
      Abstract: In the original article [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
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