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  Subjects -> DISABILITY (Total: 103 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 310 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aequitas : Revue de Développement Humain, Handicap et Changement Social     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Disability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
American Annals of the Deaf     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Aphasiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Assistive Technology: The Official Journal of RESNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Audiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Augmentative and Alternative Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autism in Adulthood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
British Journal of Learning Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102)
British Journal of Special Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Disability Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Deafness & Education International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Disability & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Disability & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Disability and Health Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Disability Compliance for Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Disability Studies Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Distúrbios da Comunicação     Open Access  
Early Popular Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health Expectations     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Hearing, Balance and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Intellectual Disability Australasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Audiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal for Healthcare Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Aging and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Assistive Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Disability & Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Disability Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Disability Studies in Education     Open Access  
Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Enabling Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Gerontological Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Intellectual Disability - Diagnosis and Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Policy and Practice In Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 92)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness     Hybrid Journal  
Learning Disabilities : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Learning Disability Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Mental Health Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Music and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Physical Disabilities : Education and Related Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Public Policy and Aging Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Research and Practice in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Espaço     Open Access  
Revista Española de Discapacidad     Open Access  
Revista Herediana de Rehabilitacion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue francophone de la déficience intellectuelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Siglo Cero. Revista Española sobre Discapacidad Intelectual     Open Access  
Sign Language Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Speech Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Stigma and Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Technology and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tizard Learning Disability Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Topics in Language Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Visual Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Visual Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Visual Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Visual Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Working with Older People     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)

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Audiology Research
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2039-4330 - ISSN (Online) 2039-4349
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 212-223: Audiovestibular Disorders
           after COVID-19 Vaccine: Is There an Association'

    • Authors: Davide Pisani, Federico Maria Gioacchini, Pasquale Viola, Alfonso Scarpa, Alessia Astorina, Massimo Re, Gianmarco Marcianò, Francesco Manti, Roberta Anzivino, Giuseppe Chiarella
      First page: 212
      Abstract: The SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign is probably one of the most historic public hygiene measures in modern medicine. The drama of the pandemic has forced the scientific community to accelerate the development and commercialization of vaccines, thereby enhancing the phases of active surveillance. Among the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) reported, those of an audiovestibular interest, such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo, constitute a very small percentage. There are many plausible etiological hypotheses, and scientific research needs to pay more attention to the correct collection of data, which up until now have often been inadequate and fragmented, on which to base future studies. SSNHL, new onset tinnitus, vertigo, and dizziness require a prompt evaluation, while the proposed treatment is the same as it is for events unrelated to vaccination. These are uncommon adverse events, and the risk rates for these diseases have not increased in conjunction with the COVID-19 vaccinations, therefore there is no justification of any hesitation towards the vaccination campaign.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030024
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 224-248: Adverse Audio-Vestibular
           Effects of Drugs and Vaccines Used in the Treatment and Prevention of
           COVID-19: A Review

    • Authors: Magdalena B. Skarzynska, Monika Matusiak, Piotr H. Skarzynski
      First page: 224
      Abstract: (1) Background: The purpose of this article is to review pharmacological treatments for COVID-19 (currently approved by the EMA (European Medical Agency) and FDA (Food and Drug Administration)) and highlight their potential audio-vestibular side-effects as an ototoxic adverse reaction. (2) Methods: Review of the available literature in the scientific databases PubMed, ResearchGate, Scopus, and ScienceDirect, and in summaries of product data sheets. (3) Results: In accordance with EBM (evidence-based medicine) the treatment of COVID-19 by using lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, amantadine, oseltamivir, and ivermectin is no longer recommended for patients suffering from COVID-19 due to a lack of clinical data, publications, and recommendations. There were 39 publications and 15 summaries of product characteristics (as other sources of data) which were also used in this analysis. Adverse events could be permanent or disappear over time. Following treatment for COVID-19, the most frequent adverse audio-vestibular reactions reported in clinical trials and publications in the area of audiology and otorhinolaryngology were: dizziness, blurry vision with dizziness, nasopharyngitis, dysgeusia, and tinnitus. As far as vaccines are concerned, dizziness as an ototoxic effect was uncommon and occurs only in hypersensitive people who experience anaphylactic shock. (4) Conclusions: The ototoxicity of the drugs discussed here does not have as severe symptoms as the drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 in 2020 (e.g., hydroxychloroquine), and relates mainly to disorders of the vestibulocochlear system. However, there is still a need to monitor ototoxic side-effects because of potential interactions with other ototoxic drugs. Many of the drugs approved by EMA and FDA are new, and not every side-effect is known.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030025
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 249-259: The Navigation Ability Test
           (NAT 2.0): From Football Player Performance to Balance Rehabilitation in
           Chronic Unilateral Vestibular Loss

    • Authors: Paolo Gamba, Riccardo Guidetti, Cristiano Balzanelli, Maurizio Bavazzano, Andrea Laborai
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Aim of the Study: in humans, spatial orientation consists of the ability to move around the environment through memorized and pre-programmed movements, according to the afferent sensory information of the body and environmental analysis of the Central Nervous System (CNS). The purpose of this study is to analyze the abilities of professional athletes, such as footballers, to use mental navigation systems, cognitive maps, and memorized motor patterns in order to obtain better physical performance and to obtain useful information for training both non-sports subjects and vestibular patients for rehabilitation purposes. Materials and Methods: all the motor performances of sportsmen, healthy non-sporting subjects, or vestibular patients are based on the acquisition of visual–spatial and training information. In this study, we analyzed the visual–spatial performance of 60 trained sportsmen (professional footballers), 60 healthy non-sports subjects, and 48 patients affected by chronic unilateral vestibular loss by means of the Navigation Ability Test 2.0. A score based on the number of targets correctly reached in the various tests quantifies the degree of performance of the subjects. Results: NAT 2.0 scores progressively improve from vestibular subjects to healthy non-sporting subjects to footballers. NAT 2.0 scores improve in all three subject groups as the number of tasks performed in all patient groups increases, regardless of gender and age. Conclusions: the analysis of performance data through NAT 2.0 in athletes (footballers) opens new perspectives for rehabilitation purposes, regardless of age, sex, and training conditions, both in healthy non-sporting subjects to improve their sporting potential and in patients affected by chronic vestibular dysfunction, in order to optimize their motor skills and prevent falls.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030026
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 260-272: Otoacoustic Emissions in
           Non-Mammals

    • Authors: Geoffrey A. Manley
      First page: 260
      Abstract: Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) that were sound-induced, current-induced, or spontaneous have been measured in non-mammalian land vertebrates, including in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. There are no forms of emissions known from mammals that have not also been observed in non-mammals. In each group and species, the emission frequencies clearly lie in the range known to be processed by the hair cells of the respective hearing organs. With some notable exceptions, the patterns underlying the measured spectra, input-output functions, suppression threshold curves, etc., show strong similarities to OAE measured in mammals. These profound similarities are presumably traceable to the fact that emissions are produced by active hair-cell mechanisms that are themselves dependent upon comparable nonlinear cellular processes. The differences observed—for example, in the width of spontaneous emission peaks and delay times in interactions between peaks—should provide insights into how hair-cell activity is coupled within the organ and thus partially routed out into the middle ear.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030027
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 273-280: The Ethics of Translational
           Audiology

    • Authors: Aleksandra Bendowska, Roksana Malak, Agnieszka Zok, Ewa Baum
      First page: 273
      Abstract: Translational research moves promising primary research results from the laboratory to practical application. The transition from basic science to clinical research and from clinical research to routine healthcare applications presents many challenges, including ethical. This paper addresses issues in the ethics of translational audiology and discusses the ethical principles that should guide research involving people with hearing loss. Four major ethical principles are defined and explained, which are as follows: beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice. In addition, the authors discuss issues of discrimination and equal access to medical services among people with hearing loss. Despite audiology’s broad field of interest, which includes evaluation and treatment of auditory disorders (e.g., deafness, tinnitus, misophonia, or hyperacusis) and balance disorders, this study focuses primarily on deafness and its therapies.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12030028
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 96-98: Publisher’s Note: We
           Changed Page Numbers to Article Numbers for Articles Published in
           Audiology Research Volume 1–Volume 10, Issue 1

    • Authors: Audiology Research Editorial Office Audiology Research Editorial Office
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Audiology Research [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020012
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 99-112: Spatial Release from Masking
           for Tones and Noises in a Soundfield under Conditions Where Targets and
           Maskers Are Stationary or Moving

    • Authors: M. Torben Pastore, William A. Yost
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Stationary visual targets often become far more salient when they move against an otherwise static background–the so-called “pop out” effect. In two experiments conducted over loudspeakers, we tested for a similar pop-out effect in the auditory domain. Tone-in-noise and noise-in-noise detection thresholds were measured using a 2-up, 1-down adaptive procedure under conditions where target and masker(s) were presented from the same or different locations and when the target was stationary or moved via amplitude-panning. In the first experiment, target tones of 0.5 kHz and 4 kHz were tested, maskers (2–4, depending on the condition) were independent Gaussian noises, and all stimuli were 500-ms duration. In the second experiment, a single pink noise masker (0.3–12 kHz) was presented with a single target at one of four bandwidths (0.3–0.6 kHz, 3–6 kHz, 6–12 kHz, 0.3–12 kHz) under conditions where target and masker were presented from the same or different locations and where the target moved or not. The results of both experiments failed to show a decrease in detection thresholds resulting from movement of the target.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020013
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 113-125: Subtotal Petrosectomy (SP) in
           Cochlear Implantation (CI): A Report of 92 Cases

    • Authors: Ignacio Arístegui, Gracia Aranguez, José Carlos Casqueiro, Manuel Gutiérrez-Triguero, Almudena del Pozo, Miguel Arístegui
      First page: 113
      Abstract: In most cases, cochlear implantation is a straightforward procedure. Nevertheless, there are clinical situations in which the presence of the middle ear may compromise access and/or the outcome in terms of complications. This article includes a series of patients for whom we eliminated the middle ear to facilitate placement of the electrode array of the implant and/or reduce potential complications. A total of 92 cases in 83 patients, managed by the senior author, are included in this series. Different indications are outlined that justify associating a subtotal petrosectomy technique with cochlear implantation. The steps of the technique are described. We include complications from this series that compare favorably with standard techniques.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 126-131: Is Skull Vibration-Induced
           Nystagmus Useful in Vestibular Neuritis Follow Up'

    • Authors: Ma Piedad García Díaz, Lidia Torres-García, Enrique García Zamora, Ana Belén Castilla Jiménez, Vanesa Pérez Guillén
      First page: 126
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain and the saccade regrouping pattern PR score of the Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) and its relationship with the slow-phase velocity (SPV) of skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN) in recovery after a unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). A total of 36 patients suffering from vestibular neuritis (VN) were recruited and followed up for twelve months. In every visit, horizontal vHIT and an SVIN were performed, as well as VOR gain; PR score and the SPV of SVIN were measured. We observed a positive association between the VOR gain difference and the SPV of SVIN over time (probability greater than 0.86). Additionally, we obtained a positive association between the SPV of SVIN and the PR score in successive visits (odds ratio (OR) = −0.048; CI [0.898, 1.01]), with a probability of 0.95. Our results confirm that SPV of SVIN; VOR gain difference; and PR score decrease over time after a UVL. Both tests are useful in the follow-up of VN, as they could reflect its clinical compensation or partial recovery.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020015
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 132-142: Is Skull-Vibration-Induced
           Nystagmus Modified with Aging'

    • Authors: Giampiero Neri, Letizia Neri, Klajdi Xhepa, Andrea Mazzatenta
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Background: Despite clinical practice utilizing the Dumas test (SVINT), some questions remain unanswered, including the age-related changes in frequency (FN) and slow-phase angular velocity (SPAV). This study aims to retrospectively evaluate their variations in subjects affected by unilateral peripheral vestibular loss (UPVL). Methods: We evaluated the selected samples based on the results of the SVINT, the results of the vestibular-evoked potentials (C-VEMP and O-VEMP), and the results of the head impulse test (HIT) and we compared the results against the age of the patients. We calculated the timing between the onset of UPVL and clinical evaluation in days. The presence or absence of VEMP indicated the UPVL severity. UPVL and BPPV patients with spontaneous or pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus were compared. Results: Statistical analysis showed changes in the FN and SPAV depending on age and the side of the application of the stimulus. We also observed that, in the UPVL, the severity of the disease modifies the SPAV, but not the frequency. Conclusions: The SVINT is a simple, reliable, and straightforward test that, if evaluated instrumentally, can show significant differences with aging. Further studies need to be performed to refine the clinical significance of the test and clarify its physiological background.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020016
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 143-151: The Effect of the Use of
           Hearing Aids in Elders: Perspectives

    • Authors: Daniele Monzani, Riccardo Nocini, Maria Teresa Presutti, Chiara Gherpelli, Federica Di Berardino, Silvia Ferrari, Gian Maria Galeazzi, Gaia Federici, Elisabetta Genovese, Silvia Palma
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Older adults with hearing loss have difficulties during conversation with others because an elevated auditory threshold reduces speech intelligibility, especially in noisy environments. Listening and comprehension often become exhausting tasks for hearing-impaired elders, resulting in social isolation and depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the advantages of hearing aid use in relation to relief from listening-related fatigue, which is still controversial. Participants included a sample of 49 hearing-impaired elders affected by presbycusis for whom hearing aids were prescribed. The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale was used to assess cognitive, physical and psychosocial fatigue. The vitality subscale of the Short Form Health Survey 36 and a single item of the multi-dimensional Speech, Spatial and Quality Hearing Scale (“Do you have to put a lot of effort to hear what is being said in conversation with others'”) were also used. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire was used to investigate daily errors related to lack of memory and reduced mindedness. Hearing aids rehabilitation resulted in improved speech intelligibility in competing noise, and a significant reduction in cognitive and psychosocial fatigue and listening effort in conversation. Vitality was also improved and a significant reduction in the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire scores was observed. Findings from the study indicate that the use of hearing aids in older impaired-listeners provide them not only with an increased auditory function but also with a reduction in listening-related fatigue and mindedness.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020017
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 152-161: Atypical Positional Vertigo:
           Definition, Causes, and Mechanisms

    • Authors: Sergio Carmona, Guillermo Javier Zalazar, Martin Fernández, Gabriela Grinstein, João Lemos
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Paroxysmal positional vertigo is a frequent cause for consultation. When approaching these patients, we try to differentiate central from peripheral causes, but sometimes we find manifestations that generate diagnostic doubts. In this review, we address atypical paroxysmal positional vertigo, reviewing the literature on the subject and giving a provisional definition of atypical positional vertigo as well as outlining its causes and pathophysiological mechanisms.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 162-170: Analysis of the Acoustic
           Transcranial Bone Conduction

    • Authors: Catherine Dufour-Fournier, Arnaud Devèze, Jonathan Barbut, Erick Ogam, Issam Saliba, Catherine Masson
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Objectives: (1) To analyze the preferential pathways of sound transmission and sound waves travelling properties in the skull and (2) to identify the location(s) on the skull where bone conduction to the cochlea is optimal. Study design: Basic research Methods: Nine cadaveric heads were placed in an anechoic chamber and equipped with six Bone Anchored Hearing Aids (BAHA™) implants (Cochlear™, Sydney, NSW, Australia) and fifteen accelerometers. A laser velocimeter was used to measure cochlear response by placing a reflector on the round window. Different frequency sweeps were applied to each implant, and measurements were recorded simultaneously by the laser velocimeter and accelerometers. Results: Low-frequency sound waves mostly travel the frontal transmission pathways, and there is no clear predominant pattern for the high frequencies. The mean inter-aural time lag is 0.1 ms. Optimal sound transmission to the cochlea occurs between 1000 and 2500 Hz with a contralateral 5 to 10 dB attenuation. The implant location does not influence mean transmission to the cochlea. Conclusion: There is a pattern of transmission for low frequencies through a frontal pathway but none for high frequencies. We were also able to demonstrate that the localization of the BAHA™ implant on the skull had no significant impact on the sound transmission, either ipsi or contralaterally.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020019
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 171-181: Audiologist’s
           Perspective in Auditory Rehabilitation: Implications for Ethical Conduct
           and Decision-Making in Portugal

    • Authors: Tatiana Marques, Margarida Silvestre, Bárbara Santa Rosa, António Miguéis
      First page: 171
      Abstract: Ethical standards in audiology have been continuously improved and discussed, leading to the elaboration of specific regulatory guidelines for the profession. However, in the field of auditory rehabilitation, audiologists are still faced with circumstances that question their ethical principles, usually associated with the support of the hearing aids industry. The study explores the decision-making process and ethical concerns in auditory rehabilitation as they relate to the practice of audiology in Portugal. An online questionnaire constructed by the authors was used and sent to the email addresses of a list of audiologists, registered with the Portuguese Association of Audiologists. The questionnaire was answered by 93 audiologists with clinical experience in auditory rehabilitation for more than one year. The collected data demonstrated that audiometric results and clinical experience are the most important factors for decision-making in auditory rehabilitation practice. Moreover, incentives from the employers or manufacturers were identified as the main cause of ethical dilemmas. This study highlights the ethical concerns regarding the clinical practice of auditory rehabilitation in Portugal, revealing that the decision-making process is complex and, specifically in this field, the current practice may not be adequate for effective compliance with professional ethical standards.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020020
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 182-190: NeonaTal Assisted
           TelerehAbilitation (T.A.T.A. Web App) for Hearing-Impaired Children: A
           Family-Centered Care Model for Early Intervention in Congenital Hearing
           Loss

    • Authors: Emma Landolfi, Grazia Isabella Continisio, Valeria Del Vecchio, Nicola Serra, Ernesto Burattini, Massimiliano Conson, Elio Marciano, Carla Laria, Annamaria Franzè, Antonio Caso, Anna Rita Fetoni, Rita Malesci
      First page: 182
      Abstract: Background: An early hearing detection and intervention program (EHDI) is the first step for the habilitation of children with permanent hearing impairment (PHI). Actually, early intervention programs have increasingly shifted toward family involvement, emphasizing that the child’s family should take an active role in the habilitation process. Therefore, familiar empowerment is the best way to improve a child’s emerging abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate parental self-efficacy beliefs and involvement as well as the language skills of deaf or hard of hearing DHH children who were habilitated with hearing aids and followed using the T.A.T.A web app (NeonaTal Assisted TelerehAbilitation), an example of asynchronous telepractice. Methods: The study describes the early stages of the habilitation program of 15 PHI children followed through the T.A.T.A. web app, which empowers families through a weekly questionnaire submitted during the first 270 to 360 days of their child’s life, for 14 weeks. The family involvement rate scale (FIRS) was used to evaluate parental compliance, and all children received in-person visits at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Results: The children showed greater auditory perceptual skills at the end of the training period on the basis of both the Infant Listening Progress Profile (ILiP) score and the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and FIRS scales. In other words, the auditory skills improved with age as well as with parental participation. Conclusions: The T.A.T.A. web app promotes a proactive management and a tailored habilitation through an active familiar involvement, easily achieved in clinical routine and in emergency settings without additional costs.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020021
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 191-201: Validation of the
           LittlEARS® Questionnaire in Hearing Maltese-Speaking Children

    • Authors: Pauline Miggiani, Frans Coninx, Karolin Schaefer
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Objectives: To adapt the LittlEARS® Auditory Questionnaire into the Maltese language and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Maltese version of the questionnaire for hearing children. Methods: The English version of LittlEARS® Auditory Questionnaire was adapted into Maltese using a translation/back translation procedure. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 398 parents of normal hearing children aged between 5 days and 36 months completed the Maltese version of LittlEARS®. Psychometric validation was performed through scale analysis, item analysis, and analysis of reliability and validity. A non-linear regression model was derived to obtain normative data for expected and minimum values of total scores from the questionnaire according to age. Results: Predictive accuracy (Guttman’s lambda) was 0.921, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value was 0.921, and the split-half reliability coefficient was 0.949. The Pearson correlation coefficient between scores and age was 0.903. The regression analysis showed that 82% of the variance in the total scores can be explained by age. Norm curves were comparable to the original German data. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the Maltese version of LittlEARS® is a valid and reliable tool to evaluate auditory development in children less than two years of age.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 202-211: Skull Vibration-Induced
           Nystagmus and High Frequency Ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials
           in Superior Canal Dehiscence

    • Authors: Ángel Batuecas-Caletrío, Alejandra Jara, Victor Manuel Suarez-Vega, Susana Marcos-Alonso, Hortensia Sánchez-Gómez, Nicolas Pérez-Fernández
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Background: Although diagnostic criteria have been established for superior canal dehiscence syndrome, cases in which the diagnosis is not easy are frequent. On those occasions, some tests such as vibration-induced nystagmus or vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials can offer invaluable help due to their high sensitivity and specificity. Methods: We studied 30 patients showing superior canal dehiscence or “near-dehiscence” in a CT scan. Skull vibration-induced nystagmus and high frequency ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials are performed in each patient. The aim of the study is to determine how useful both tests are for detection of superior canal dehiscence or near-dehiscence. Results: Of the 60 temporal bones studied, no dehiscence was the result in 22, near-dehiscence in 17 and a definite finding in 21. In 10/30 patients, there was no SVIN (Skull vibration induced nystagmus) during otoneurological testing, while in 6/30, induced nystagmus was mainly horizontal, and in 14/30 there was vertical up-beating. All patients had a positive oVEMP (Ocular vestibular evoked myiogenic potentials) at 0.5 kHz in both ears and the HFoVEMP (High frequency ocular vestibular evoked myiogenic potentials) response was positive in 25/60 (41.6%) of the ears studied and in 19/30 of the patients evaluated (in 6 it was positive in both ears). Up-beat SVIN will point to a SCD (Superior Canal Dehiscence) mainly when HFoVEMP are present, and when this is negative there is a high probability that it is not a SCD. Conclusions: When SVIN and HFoVEMP results are added (or combined), they not only improve the possibilities of detecting SCD, but also the affected side.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12020023
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 22-32: Characterization of Balance
           Problems and Rehabilitation Needs of Patients with
           Ménière’s Disease

    • Authors: Ilmari Pyykkö, Nora Pyykkö, Jing Zou, Vinaya Manchaiah
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Background: To explore and characterize balance problems in subjects with Ménière’s disease (MD). Methods: A total of 539 people with MD with a mean age of 61.9 years, mean disease history of 15.6 years, and 79.5% females were recruited. The online questionnaire, consisting of 39 questions, including both structured and open-ended questions, focused on symptoms of MD, balance problems, impacts of the complaints, and quality of life (QoL). Results: After hearing loss (58%) and tinnitus (50%), balance problems (44%) were among the most commonly reported MD complaints, even higher than the impact of vertigo (40%). However, only 22% reported that those balance problems made obvious impacts in their daily lives. The most common balance problem that significantly reduced QoL was tripping (34%). Swaying (25%) had a limited impact on QoL, whereas rocking (10%) was less common but caused a significant impact on QoL. Non-defined balance problems were reported at 18%; these were occasional and correlated with vertigo attacks. Older participants had more frequent tripping problems. Younger participants more frequently reported swaying and rocking. Conclusions: Risk factors predicting poor postural control were mostly related to complaints reflecting otolith pathology. Different types of postural problems require different strategies to manage balance control and cope with the disease.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 33-41: Cochlear Implant in Patients
           with Intralabyrinthine Schwannoma without Tumor Removal

    • Authors: Andrea Laborai, Sara Ghiselli, Domenico Cuda
      First page: 33
      Abstract: (1) Background: Schwannomas of the vestibulocochlear nerve are benign, slow-growing tumors, arising from the Schwann cells. When they originate from neural elements within the vestibule or cochlea, they are defined as intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILSs). Cochlear implant (CI) has been reported as a feasible solution for hearing restoration in these patients. (2) Methods: Two patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) due to sudden sensorineural hearing loss and ipsilateral tinnitus were the cases. MRI detected an ILS. CI was positioned using a standard round window approach without tumor removal. (3) Results: The hearing threshold was 35 dB in one case and 30 dB in the other 6 mo after activation. Speech audiometry with bisillables in quiet was 21% and 27% at 65 dB, and the tinnitus was completely resolved or reduced. In the localization test, a 25.9° error azimuth was obtained with CI on, compared to 43.2° without CI. The data log reported a daily use of 11 h and 14 h. In order to not decrease the CI’s performance, we decided not to perform tumor exeresis, but only CI surgery to restore functional binaural hearing. (4) Conclusions: These are the sixth and seventh cases in the literature of CI in patients with ILS without any tumor treatment and the first with SSD. Cochlear implant without tumor removal can be a feasible option for restoring binaural hearing without worsening the CI’s performance.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 42-65: Usher Syndrome

    • Authors: Alessandro Castiglione, Claes Möller
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common genetic condition responsible for combined loss of hearing and vision. Balance disorders and bilateral vestibular areflexia are also observed in some cases. The syndrome was first described by Albrecht von Graefe in 1858, but later named by Charles Usher, who presented a large number of cases with hearing loss and retinopathy in 1914. USH has been grouped into three main clinical types: 1, 2, and 3, which are caused by mutations in different genes and are further divided into different subtypes. To date, nine causative genes have been identified and confirmed as responsible for the syndrome when mutated: MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, and USH1G (SANS) for Usher type 1; USH2A, ADGRV1, and WHRN for Usher type 2; CLRN1 for Usher type 3. USH is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Digenic, bi-allelic, and polygenic forms have also been reported, in addition to dominant or nonsyndromic forms of genetic mutations. This narrative review reports the causative forms, diagnosis, prognosis, epidemiology, rehabilitation, research, and new treatments of USH.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 66-76: Validation of the Tinnitus
           Acceptance Questionnaire: Japanese Version

    • Authors: So Takabatake, Mariko Takahashi, Kayoko Kabaya, Yoshimasa Sekiya, Kenichi Sekiya, Ikuma Harata, Masaki Kondo, Tatsuo Akechi
      First page: 66
      Abstract: This study aimed to develop and validate a Japanese version of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ), an instrument that measures the process of intentional acceptance of adverse experiences associated with tinnitus. A total of 125 patients with chronic tinnitus from multiple institutions participated in this study. Participants completed the Japanese versions of the TAQ, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Valuing Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A second TAQ was administered 1–2 weeks later. Because the model fitted poorly in confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis was conducted, which yielded a two-factor structure that was divided into forward and reversed item groups. Hypotheses regarding criterion and construct validity were clearly supported. A high Cronbach’s α coefficient value was obtained for the TAQ total score (0.88). The interclass correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability was within the acceptable range (0.95). The results of the exploratory factor analysis were considered to be due to artifacts caused by the characteristics of the Japanese language. The present study confirmed the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the TAQ in measuring tinnitus-specific receptivity.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 77-78: Bone and Cartilage Conduction

    • Authors: Tadashi Nishimura
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Auditory sensation is an important sensation for human beings [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 79-86: The Reliability of Contralateral
           Suppression of Otoacoustic Emissions Is Greater in Women than in Men

    • Authors: W. Wiktor Jedrzejczak, Edyta Pilka, Malgorzata Pastucha, Krzysztof Kochanek, Henryk Skarzynski
      First page: 79
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) between men and women. The strength of the MOCR was measured in terms of the suppression of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) by contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS). The difference between TEOAEs with and without CAS (white noise) was calculated as raw decibel TEOAE suppression as well as normalized TEOAE suppression expressed in percent. In each subject, sets of measurements were performed twice. Reliability was evaluated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient, the standard error of measurement, and the minimum detectable change (MDC). The study included 40 normally hearing subjects (20 men; 20 women). The estimates of MOCR for both genders were similar. Nevertheless, the reliability of the MOCR was poorer in men, with an MDC around twice that of women. This can be only partially attributed to slightly lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in men, since we used strict procedures calling for high SNRs (around 20 dB on average). Furthermore, even when we compared subgroups with similar SNRs, there was still lower MOCR reliability in men.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 87-88: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of
           Audiology Research in 2021

    • Authors: Audiology Research Editorial Office Audiology Research Editorial Office
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 89-94: Objective Detection of the
           Speech Frequency Following Response (sFFR): A Comparison of Two Methods

    • Authors: Fan-Yin Cheng, Spencer Smith
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Speech frequency following responses (sFFRs) are increasingly used in translational auditory research. Statistically-based automated sFFR detection could aid response identification and provide a basis for stopping rules when recording responses in clinical and/or research applications. In this brief report, sFFRs were measured from 18 normal hearing adult listeners in quiet and speech-shaped noise. Two statistically-based automated response detection methods, the F-test and Hotelling’s T2 (HT2) test, were compared based on detection accuracy and test time. Similar detection accuracy across statistical tests and conditions was observed, although the HT2 test time was less variable. These findings suggest that automated sFFR detection is robust for responses recorded in quiet and speech-shaped noise using either the F-test or HT2 test. Future studies evaluating test performance with different stimuli and maskers are warranted to determine if the interchangeability of test performance extends to these conditions.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010010
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 95: Correction: Martini, A.; Cassina,
           M. Victor A. McKusick, the “Father of Medical Genetics”.
           Audiol. Res. 2021, 11, 636–638

    • Authors: Alessandro Martini, Matteo Cassina
      First page: 95
      Abstract: In the original article [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 1-9: Interdisciplinary Approaches to
           the Study of Listening Effort in Young Children with Cochlear Implants

    • Authors: Amanda Saksida, Sara Ghiselli, Stefano Bembich, Alessandro Scorpecci, Sara Giannantonio, Alessandra Resca, Pasquale Marsella, Eva Orzan
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Very early bilateral implantation is thought to significantly reduce the attentional effort required to acquire spoken language, and consequently offer a profound improvement in quality of life. Despite the early intervention, however, auditory and communicative outcomes in children with cochlear implants remain poorer than in hearing children. The distorted auditory input via the cochlear implants requires more auditory attention resulting in increased listening effort and fatigue. Listening effort and fatigue may critically affect attention to speech, and in turn language processing, which may help to explain the variation in language and communication abilities. However, measuring attention to speech and listening effort is demanding in infants and very young children. Three objective techniques for measuring listening effort are presented in this paper that may address the challenges of testing very young and/or uncooperative children with cochlear implants: pupillometry, electroencephalography, and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We review the studies of listening effort that used these techniques in paediatric populations with hearing loss, and discuss potential benefits of the systematic evaluation of listening effort in these populations.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010001
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 12, Pages 10-21: Fifty Years of Development of
           the Skull Vibration-Induced Nystagmus Test

    • Authors: Solara Sinno, Sébastien Schmerber, Philippe Perrin, Georges Dumas
      First page: 10
      Abstract: This review enumerates most of the studies on the Skull Vibration-Induced Nystagmus Test (SVINT) in the past 50 years from different research groups around the world. It is an attempt to demonstrate the evolution of this test and its increased interest around the globe. It explores clinical studies and animal studies, both permitting a better understanding of the importance of SVINT and its pathophysiology.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres12010002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 491-507: The Enduring Controversy of
           Cervicogenic Vertigo, and Its Place among Positional Vertigo Syndromes

    • Authors: Marcello Cherchi, Frank E. DiLiberto, Darío A. Yacovino, Sunit Das
      First page: 491
      Abstract: The idea of cervicogenic vertigo (CV) was proposed nearly a century ago, yet despite considerable scrutiny and research, little progress has been made in clarifying the underlying mechanism of the disease, developing a confirmatory diagnostic test, or devising an appropriately targeted treatment. Given the history of this idea, we offer a review geared towards understanding why so many attempts at clarifying it have failed, with specific comments regarding how CV fits into the broader landscape of positional vertigo syndromes, what a successful diagnostic test might require, and some practical advice on how to approach this in the absence of a diagnostic test.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040045
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 508-523: Sound Localization and
           Lateralization by Bilateral Bone Conduction Devices, Middle Ear Implants,
           and Cartilage Conduction Hearing Aids

    • Authors: Kimio Shiraishi
      First page: 508
      Abstract: Sound localization in daily life is one of the important functions of binaural hearing. Bilateral bone conduction devices (BCDs), middle ear implants, and cartilage conduction hearing aids have been often applied for patients with conductive hearing loss (CHL) or mixed hearing loss, for example, resulting from bilateral microtia and aural atresia. In this review, factors affecting the accuracy of sound localization with bilateral BCDs, middle ear implants, and cartilage conduction hearing aids were classified into four categories: (1) types of device, (2) experimental conditions, (3) participants, and (4) pathways from the stimulus sound to both cochleae. Recent studies within the past 10 years on sound localization and lateralization by BCDs, middle ear implants, and cartilage conduction hearing aids were discussed. Most studies showed benefits for sound localization or lateralization with bilateral devices. However, the judgment accuracy was generally lower than that for normal hearing, and the localization errors tended to be larger than for normal hearing. Moreover, it should be noted that the degree of accuracy in sound localization by bilateral BCDs varied considerably among patients. Further research on sound localization is necessary to analyze the complicated mechanism of bone conduction, including suprathreshold air conduction with bilateral devices.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040046
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 524-536: Genetics of Inner Ear
           Malformations: A Review

    • Authors: Davide Brotto, Flavia Sorrentino, Roberta Cenedese, Irene Avato, Roberto Bovo, Patrizia Trevisi, Renzo Manara
      First page: 524
      Abstract: Inner ear malformations are present in 20% of patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Although the first descriptions date to the 18th century, in recent years the knowledge about these conditions has experienced terrific improvement. Currently, most of these conditions have a rehabilitative option. Much less is known about the etiology of these anomalies. In particular, the evolution of genetics has provided new data about the possible relationship between inner ear malformations and genetic anomalies. In addition, in syndromic condition, the well-known presence of sensorineural hearing loss can now be attributed to the presence of an inner ear anomaly. In some cases, the presence of these abnormalities should be considered as a characteristic feature of the syndrome. The present paper aims to summarize the available knowledge about the possible relationships between inner ear malformations and genetic mutations.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040047
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 537-546: Audiological Performance of
           ADHEAR Systems in Simulated Conductive Hearing Loss: A Case Series with a
           Review of the Existing Literature

    • Authors: Enrico Muzzi, Valeria Gambacorta, Ruggero Lapenna, Giulia Pizzamiglio, Sara Ghiselli, Igor Caregnato, Raffaella Marchi, Giampietro Ricci, Eva Orzan
      First page: 537
      Abstract: A new non-invasive adhesive bone conduction hearing device (ABCD) has been proposed as an alternative solution for reversible bilateral conductive hearing loss in recurrent or long-lasting forms of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children that cannot undergo surgical treatment. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of ABCD in children with OME. Twelve normal-hearing Italian-speaking volunteers, in whom a conductive hearing loss was simulated, participated in the study. The free-field average hearing threshold was determined and, to evaluate binaural hearing skills, loudness summation and the squelch effect were assessed. Five conditions were tested: (1) unaided without earplugs, (2) unaided with bilateral earplugs, (3) aided right ear with bilateral earplugs, (4) aided left ear with bilateral earplugs, and (5) bilateral aid with bilateral earplugs. Post-hoc analysis showed a significant statistical difference between plugged, unplugged, and each aided condition. The main results were a better loudness summation and a substantial improvement of the squelch effect in the bilaterally aided. Our results suggest that ABCD is a valid treatment for patients with conductive hearing loss that cannot undergo bone conduction implant surgery. It is also important to consider bilateral aids in order to deal with situations in which binaural hearing is fundamental.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040048
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 547-556: Hyperacusis in Autism Spectrum
           Disorders

    • Authors: Ali A. Danesh, Stephanie Howery, Hashir Aazh, Wafaa Kaf, Adrien A. Eshraghi
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Hyperacusis is highly prevalent in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population. This auditory hypersensitivity can trigger pragmatically atypical reactions that may impact social and academic domains. Objective: The aim of this report is to describe the relationship between decreased sound tolerance disorders and the ASD population. Topics covered: The main topics discussed include (1) assessment and prevalence of hyperacusis in ASD; (2) etiology of hyperacusis in ASD; (3) treatment of hyperacusis in ASD. Conclusions: Knowledge of the assessment and treatment of decreased sound tolerance disorders within the ASD population is growing and changing.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040049
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 557-566: The Neural Basis of Skull
           Vibration Induced Nystagmus (SVIN)

    • Authors: Ian S. Curthoys
      First page: 557
      Abstract: I list a summary of the major clinical observations of SVIN in patients with total unilateral vestibular loss (TUVL) and show how basic results from neurophysiology can explain these clinical observations. The account integrates results from single neuron recordings of identified semicircular canal and otolith afferent neurons in guinea pigs in response to low frequency skull vibration with evidence of the eye movement response in cats to selective semicircular canal stimulation (both individual and combined) and a simple model of nystagmus generation to show how these results explain most of the major characteristics of SVIN.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040050
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 567-581: Item Response Theory
           Investigation of Misophonia Auditory Triggers

    • Authors: Silia Vitoratou, Nora Uglik-Marucha, Chloe Hayes, Mercede Erfanian, Oliver Pearson, Jane Gregory
      First page: 567
      Abstract: Misophonia is characterised by a low tolerance for day-to-day sounds, causing intense negative affect. This study conducts an in-depth investigation of 35 misophonia triggers. A sample of 613 individuals who identify as experiencing misophonia and 202 individuals from the general population completed self-report measures. Using contemporary psychometric methods, we studied the triggers in terms of internal consistency, stability in time, precision, severity, discrimination ability, and information. Three dimensions of sensitivity were identified, namely, to eating sounds, to nose/throat sounds, and to general environmental sounds. The most informative and discriminative triggers belonged to the eating sounds. Participants identifying with having misophonia had also significantly increased odds to endorse eating sounds as auditory triggers than others. This study highlights the central role of eating sounds in this phenomenon and finds that different triggers are endorsed by those with more severe sound sensitivities than those with low sensitivity.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040051
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 582-593: DFNA20/26 and Other
           ACTG1-Associated Phenotypes: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    • Authors: Ugo Sorrentino, Chiara Piccolo, Chiara Rigon, Valeria Brasson, Eva Trevisson, Francesca Boaretto, Alessandro Martini, Matteo Cassina
      First page: 582
      Abstract: Since the early 2000s, an ever-increasing subset of missense pathogenic variants in the ACTG1 gene has been associated with an autosomal-dominant, progressive, typically post-lingual non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) condition designed as DFNA20/26. ACTG1 gene encodes gamma actin, the predominant actin protein in the cytoskeleton of auditory hair cells; its normal expression and function are essential for the stereocilia maintenance. Different gain-of-function pathogenic variants of ACTG1 have been associated with two major phenotypes: DFNA20/26 and Baraitser–Winter syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly disorder. Here, we report a novel ACTG1 variant [c.625G>A (p. Val209Met)] in an adult patient with moderate-severe NSHL characterized by a downsloping audiogram. The patient, who had a clinical history of slowly progressive NSHL and tinnitus, was referred to our laboratory for the analysis of a large panel of NSHL-associated genes by next generation sequencing. An extensive review of previously reported ACTG1 variants and their associated phenotypes was also performed.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040052
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 594-602: Audiometric Characteristics
           and Tinnitus Features in a Cohort of 170 Spanish Patients

    • Authors: María Cuesta, Pedro Cobo
      First page: 594
      Abstract: Background: Tinnitus is a rather prevalent, quite heterogeneous, and difficult to treat auditory disorder. The aim of this article is to provide the design and results of a cross-sectional study related to audiological and tinnitus features in a group of 170 Spanish patients. Methods: Audiometric characteristics were assessed on the basis of the pure-tone audiometry of both ears in 170 tinnitus patients and 85 control subjects. The audiometric status of each tinnitus participant was assessed on the basis of the average auditory threshold (AAT) in the whole frequency range (from 125 Hz to 8 kHz), and low (from 125 Hz to 2 kHz) and high (from 3 kHz to 8 kHz)-frequency intervals. Tinnitus features were evaluated through personal interview with patients and included tinnitus duration, laterality, pitch, sound, and distress (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI). Correlational analysis was carried out between audiological (AAT) and tinnitus (THI) variables. Results: A very weak Spearman rank correlation factor is found between both variables. Conclusions: The subjective outcome of tinnitus distress (THI) was not correlated with the objective measure of hearing loss (AAT) in our cohort.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040053
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 603-608: Skull Vibration-Induced
           Nystagmus Test (SVINT) in Vestibular Migraine and Menière’s Disease

    • Authors: Roberto Teggi, Omar Gatti, Marco Familiari, Iacopo Cangiano, Mario Bussi
      First page: 603
      Abstract: Background: Vestibular migraine (VM) and Menière’s disease (MD) are the two most frequent episodic vertigo apart from Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) differential diagnosis for them may be troublesome in the early stages. SVINT is a newly proposed vestibular test, which demonstrated to be fast and reliable in diagnoses above all of peripheral vestibular deficits. Methods: We retrieved clinical data from two groups of subjects (200 VM and 605 MD), enrolled between 2010 and 2020. Among others, these subjects were included when performing a SVINT. The purpose of the study is to assess if SVINT can be useful to differentiate the two episodic disorders. Results: 59.2% of MD subjects presented as positive with SVINT while only 6% did so with VM; among other tests, only video HIT demonstrated a different frequency in the two groups (13.1% and 0.5%, respectively), but the low sensitivity in these subjects makes the test unaffordable for diagnostic purposes. Conclusions: Since SVINT demonstrated to be positive in a peripheral vestibular deficit in previous works, we think that our data are consistent with the hypothesis that, in the pathophysiology of VM attacks, the central vestibular pathways are mainly involved.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040054
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 609-617: A Rare Case of Perrault
           Syndrome with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: Cochlear Implantation
           Treatment and Literature Review

    • Authors: Francesca Forli, Luca Bruschini, Beatrice Franciosi, Roberta Battini, Gemma Marinella, Stefano Berrettini, Francesco Lazzerini
      First page: 609
      Abstract: Perrault syndrome (PRLTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by ovarian failure in females and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in both genders. In the present paper we describe a child affected by PRLTS3, due to CLPP homozygous mutations, presenting auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) with bilateral progressive SNHL. This is the first case reported in the literature of an ANSD in PRLTS3. CLPP is a nuclear encoded mitochondrial protease directed at the mitochondrial matrix. It is encoded on chromosome 19. This protease participates in mitochondrial protein quality control by degrading misfolded or damaged proteins, thus maintaining the normal metabolic function of the cell. In PRLTS3, the peptidase activity of CLPP is suppressed. Neurological impairments involved in PRLTS3 suggest that the pathogenic mutations in CLPP might trigger a mitochondrial dysfunction. A comprehensive description of the clinical and audiological presentation, as well as the issues related to cochlear implant (CI) procedure and the results, are addressed and discussed. A brief review of the literature on this topic is also provided.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040055
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 618-628: Skull Vibration Induced
           Nystagmus Test: Correlations with Semicircular Canal and Otolith
           Asymmetries

    • Authors: Christol Fabre, Haoyue Tan, Georges Dumas, Ludovic Giraud, Philippe Perrin, Sébastien Schmerber
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Background: To establish in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders relations between skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN) different components (horizontal, vertical, torsional) and the results of different structurally related vestibular tests. Methods: SVIN test, canal vestibular test (CVT: caloric test + video head impulse test: VHIT), otolithic vestibular test (OVT: ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential oVEMP + cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential cVEMP) performed on the same day in 52 patients with peripheral vestibular diseases (age < 65 years), and 11 control patients were analyzed. Mixed effects logistic regression analysis was performed to assert whether the presence of nystagmus in SVIN (3D analysis) have an association with the presence of peripheral vestibular dysfunction measured by vestibular explorations (CVT or OVT). Results: We obtained different groups: Group-Co (control group), Group-VNT (dizzy patients with no vestibular tests alterations), Group-O (OVT alterations only), Group-C (CVT alterations only), Group-M (mixed alterations). SVIN-SPV horizontal component was significantly higher in Group-M than in the other groups (p = 0.005) and correlated with alterations of lateral-VHIT (p < 0.001), caloric test (p = 0.002) and oVEMP (p = 0.006). SVIN-SPV vertical component was correlated with the anterior-VHIT and oVEMP alterations (p = 0.007; p = 0.017, respectively). SVIN-SPV torsional component was correlated with the anterior-VHIT positivity (p = 0.017). SVIN was the only positive test for 10% of patients (83% of Group-VNT). Conclusion: SVIN-SPV analysis in dizzy patients shows significant correlation to both CVT and OVT. SVIN horizontal component is mainly relevant to both vestibular tests exploring lateral canal and utricle responses. SVIN-SPV is significantly higher in patients with combined canal and otolith lesions. In some patients with dizziness, SVIN may be the only positive test.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040056
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 629-635: Genetics & Epigenetics of
           Hereditary Deafness: An Historical Overview

    • Authors: Alessandro Martini, Flavia Sorrentino, Ugo Sorrentino, Matteo Cassina
      First page: 629
      Abstract: Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common sensory impairments worldwide and represents a critical medical and public health issue. Since the mid-1900s, great efforts have been aimed at understanding the etiology of both syndromic and non-syndromic HL and identifying correlations with specific audiological phenotypes. The extraordinary discoveries in the field of molecular genetics during the last three decades have contributed substantially to the current knowledge. Next-generation sequencing technologies have dramatically increased the diagnostic rate for genetic HL, enabling the detection of novel variants in known deafness-related genes and the discovery of new genes implicated in hearing disease. Overall, genetic factors account for at least 40% of the cases with HL, but a portion of affected patients still lack a definite molecular diagnosis. Important steps forward have been made, but many aspects still have to be clarified. In particular, the role of epigenetics in the development, function and pathology of hearing is a research field that still needs to be explored. This research is extremely challenging due to the time- and tissue-dependent variability of the epigenetic changes. Multisystem diseases are expected to be investigated at first: specific epi-signatures have been identified for several syndromic disorders and represent potential markers for molecular diagnostics.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040057
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 636-638: Victor A. McKusick, the
           “Father of Medical Genetics”

    • Authors: Alessandro Martini, Matteo Cassina
      First page: 636
      Abstract: The Special Issue “Genetics of hearing loss” is dedicated to Victor A [...]
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040058
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 639-652: Electrocochleography in
           Auditory Neuropathy Related to Mutations in the OTOF or OPA1 Gene

    • Authors: Rosamaria Santarelli, Pietro Scimemi, Chiara La Morgia, Elona Cama, Ignacio del Castillo, Valerio Carelli
      First page: 639
      Abstract: Auditory Neuropathy (AN) is characterized by disruption of temporal coding of acoustic signals in auditory nerve fibers resulting in alterations of auditory perceptions. Mutations in several genes have been associated to the most forms of AN. Underlying mechanisms include both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic damage involving inner hair cell (IHC) depolarization, neurotransmitter release, spike initiation in auditory nerve terminals, loss of auditory fibers and impaired conduction. In contrast, outer hair cell (OHC) activities (otoacoustic emissions [OAEs] and cochlear microphonic [CM]) are normal. Disordered synchrony of auditory nerve activity has been suggested as the basis of both the alterations of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and reduction of speech perception. We will review how electrocochleography (ECochG) recordings provide detailed information to help objectively define the sites of auditory neural dysfunction and their effect on receptor summating potential (SP) and neural compound action potential (CAP), the latter reflecting disorders of ribbon synapses and auditory nerve fibers.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040059
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 653-672: Benefits of Parent Training in
           the Rehabilitation of Deaf or Hard of Hearing Children of Hearing Parents:
           A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Ilaria Giallini, Maria Nicastri, Laura Mariani, Rosaria Turchetta, Giovanni Ruoppolo, Marco de Vincentiis, Corrado De Vito, Antonio Sciurti, Valentina Baccolini, Patrizia Mancini
      First page: 653
      Abstract: The present study is a systematic review on the effectiveness of Parent Training (PT) and coaching in deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) rehabilitation programs which reviews and synthesizes the existing body of evidence to assess the benefits of these programs in enhancing parents’ sensitivity, responsivity and promoting language development in DHH children during the first years after HA fitting or CI activation. Five published studies met the Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcomes (PICO) inclusion criteria and were eligible to be included, but heterogeneity in terms of the study design, interventions and outcomes did not allow for performing a meta-analysis. All included studies shared the view that a parent’s learning is a circular (rather than frontal) process, and the results appear promising in terms of enhancing parents’ responsiveness and promoting DHH child language development. Nevertheless, the available evidence was judged to not be robust enough due to limitations in the studies’ designs. Further high-quality evidence is needed to evaluate the true degree of clinical value and the cost effectiveness of PT programs aimed at increasing parents’ responsiveness to their DHH children.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040060
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 673-690: Verification of a Mobile
           Psychoacoustic Test System

    • Authors: Jordana C. Soares, Sangamanatha A. Veeranna, Vijay Parsa, Chris Allan, Winnie Ly, Minh Duong, Paula Folkeard, Sheila Moodie, Prudence Allen
      First page: 673
      Abstract: Many hearing difficulties can be explained as a loss of audibility, a problem easily detected and treated using standard audiological procedures. Yet, hearing can be much poorer (or more impaired) than audibility predicts because of deficits in the suprathreshold mechanisms that encode the rapidly changing, spectral, temporal, and binaural aspects of the sound. The ability to evaluate these mechanisms requires well-defined stimuli and strict adherence to rigorous psychometric principles. This project reports on the comparison between a laboratory-based and a mobile system’s results for psychoacoustic assessment in adult listeners with normal hearing. A description of both systems employed is provided. Psychoacoustic tests include frequency discrimination, amplitude modulation detection, binaural encoding, and temporal gap detection. Results reported by the mobile system were not significantly different from those collected with the laboratory-based system for most of the tests and were consistent with those reported in the literature. The mobile system has the potential to be a feasible option for the assessment of suprathreshold auditory encoding abilities.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040061
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 691-705: Intracorporeal Cortical
           Telemetry as a Step to Automatic Closed-Loop EEG-Based CI Fitting: A Proof
           of Concept

    • Authors: Andy J. Beynon, Bart M. Luijten, Emmanuel A. M. Mylanus
      First page: 691
      Abstract: Electrically evoked auditory potentials have been used to predict auditory thresholds in patients with a cochlear implant (CI). However, with exception of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAP), conventional extracorporeal EEG recording devices are still needed. Until now, built-in (intracorporeal) back-telemetry options are limited to eCAPs. Intracorporeal recording of auditory responses beyond the cochlea is still lacking. This study describes the feasibility of obtaining longer latency cortical responses by concatenating interleaved short recording time windows used for eCAP recordings. Extracochlear reference electrodes were dedicated to record cortical responses, while intracochlear electrodes were used for stimulation, enabling intracorporeal telemetry (i.e., without an EEG device) to assess higher cortical processing in CI recipients. Simultaneous extra- and intra-corporeal recordings showed that it is feasible to obtain intracorporeal slow vertex potentials with a CI similar to those obtained by conventional extracorporeal EEG recordings. Our data demonstrate a proof of concept of closed-loop intracorporeal auditory cortical response telemetry (ICT) with a cochlear implant device. This research breaks new ground for next generation CI devices to assess higher cortical neural processing based on acute or continuous EEG telemetry to enable individualized automatic and/or adaptive CI fitting with only a CI.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040062
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 706-717: Executive Functions and
           Deafness: Results in a Group of Cochlear Implanted Children

    • Authors: Andrea De Giacomo, Alessandra Murri, Emilia Matera, Francesco Pompamea, Francesco Craig, Francesca Giagnotti, Roberto Bartoli, Nicola Quaranta
      First page: 706
      Abstract: Objects: This study aimed to evaluate the Executive Function (EF) domains in a group of profoundly deaf children treated with cochlear implant (CI) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) children. The secondary aim was to evaluate the influence exerted by the age at cochlear implant activation on EFs. Materials and Methods: 32 children were enrolled into two groups: group A of 17 CI users with a mean age of 8.78 years and group B of 15 NH subjects with a mean age of 7.99 years (SD + 2.3). All subjects were tested using the following tests: the subtests for working memory of the neuropsychological evaluation battery for the developmental age (Batteria di valutazione neuropsicologica per l’età evolutive), inhibition and control of the impulsive response—CAF, and the tower of London test. Results: No children with CIs scored within the normal range in the tests administered for the evaluation of EF domains. The same scores were significantly lower when compared with scores obtained by NH children. Children with younger age at CI activation showed better executive performances in planning, working memory (backward digit span), and cognitive flexibility (categorical fluency). Conclusion: The results of this study highlight that cochlear implantation plays a role in improving hearing and consequently influences the development of EFs in deaf children.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11040063
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 301-312: Skull Vibration-Induced
           Nystagmus Test in a Human Model of Horizontal Canal Plugging

    • Authors: Georges Dumas, Christol Fabre, Anne Charpiot, Lea Fath, Hella Chaney-Vuong, Philippe Perrin, Sébastien Schmerber
      First page: 301
      Abstract: Background/Aim: the aim of this study was to assess the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test (SVINT) results and vestibular residual function after horizontal semicircular canal (HSCC) plugging. Methods: In this retrospective chart review performed in a tertiary referral center, 11 patients who underwent unilateral horizontal semicircular canal plugging (uHSCCP) for disabling Menière’s disease (MD) were included. The skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN) slow-phase velocity (SPV) was compared with the results of the caloric test (CaT), video head impulse test (VHIT), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) performed on the same day. Results: Overall, 10 patients had a strong SVIN beating toward the intact side (Horizontal SVIN-SPV: 8.8°/s ± 5.6°/s), 10 had a significant or severe ipsilateral CaT hypofunction, 10 had an ipsilateral horizontal VHIT gain impairment, and 3 had altered cVEMP on the operated side. Five had sensorineural hearing worsening. SVIN-positive results were correlated with CaT and horizontal VHIT (HVHIT) results (p < 0.05) but not with cVEMP. SVIN-SPV was correlated with CaT hypofunction in % (p < 0.05). Comparison of pre- and postoperative CaT % hypofunction showed a significant worsening (p = 0.028). Conclusion: SVINT results in a human model of horizontal canal plugging are well correlated with vestibular tests exploring horizontal canal function, but not with cVEMP. SVINT always showed a strong lesional nystagmus beating away from the lesion side. SVIN acts as a good marker of HSCC function. This surgical technique showed invasiveness regarding horizontal canal vestibular function.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030028
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 313-326: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing
           Loss in Mild COVID-19: Case Series and Analysis of the Literature

    • Authors: Filippo Ricciardiello, Davide Pisani, Pasquale Viola, Elisabetta Cristiano, Alfonso Scarpa, Antonio Giannone, Giuseppe Longo, Giuseppe Russo, Marco Bocchetti, Ciro Coppola, Marco Perrella, Flavia Oliva, Giuseppe Chiarella
      First page: 313
      Abstract: Background: There is growing evidence of otoneurological involvement of SARS-CoV-2, such as tinnitus and balance disorders and smell and taste disorders, but HL in COVID-19 patients has still been marginally studied. Investigating the role of SARS-CoV-2 as an aetiological factor of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL) may offer the opportunity to address treatment strategies to maximize clinical recovery and avoid side effects. Methods and results: For this purpose, we will present case studies of five patients who experienced SSNHL during COVID-19. Patients were selected from COVID-19 positive adult subjects with mild clinical presentation, admitted to the outpatient Ear Nose and Throat Department of Cardarelli Hospital due to the onset of SSNHL during the infection. All underwent a complete audio-vestibular investigation before and after SSNHL treatment protocol. Each patient is described with a detailed analysis. Conclusions: SSNHL could be an occasional symptom of COVID-19, even in mild manifestations of the disease. Our experience leads us to underline the value of promptly recognizing and addressing this and other uncommon symptoms, giving patients the opportunity to receive early treatment.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030029
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 327-334: Vibrational and Acoustical
           Characteristics of Ear Pinna Simulators That Differ in Hardness

    • Authors: Ryota Shimokura, Tadashi Nishimura, Hiroshi Hosoi
      First page: 327
      Abstract: Because cartilage conduction—the transmission of sound via the aural cartilage—has different auditory pathways from well-known air and bone conduction, how the output volume in the external auditory canal is stimulated remains unknown. To develop a simulator approximating the conduction of sound in ear cartilage, the vibrations of the pinna and sound in the external auditory canal were measured using pinna simulators made of silicon rubbers of different hardness (A40, A20, A10, A5, A0) as measured by a durometer. The same procedure, as well as a current calibration method for air conduction devices, was applied to an existing pinna simulator, the Head and Torso Simulator (hardness A5). The levels for vibration acceleration and sound pressure from these pinna simulators show spectral peaks at dominant frequencies (below 1.5 kHz) for the conduction of sound in cartilage. These peaks were likely to move to lower frequencies as hardness decreases. On approaching the hardness of actual aural cartilage (A10 to A20), the simulated levels for vibration acceleration and sound pressure approximated the measurements of human ears. The adjustment of the hardness used in pinna simulators is an important factor in simulating accurately the conduction of sound in cartilage.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030030
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 335-341: How Is the Cochlea Activated
           in Response to Soft Tissue Auditory Stimulation in the Occluded Ear'

    • Authors: Miriam Geal-Dor, Haim Sohmer
      First page: 335
      Abstract: Soft tissue conduction is an additional mode of auditory stimulation which can be initiated either by applying an external vibrator to skin sites not overlying skull bone such as the neck (so it is not bone conduction) or by intrinsic body vibrations resulting, for example, from the heartbeat and vocalization. The soft tissue vibrations thereby induced are conducted by the soft tissues to all parts of the body, including the walls of the external auditory canal. In order for soft tissue conduction to elicit hearing, the soft tissue vibrations which are induced must penetrate into the cochlea in order to excite the inner ear hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. This final stage can be achieved either by an osseous bone conduction mechanism, or, more likely, by the occlusion effect: the vibrations of the walls of the occluded canal induce air pressures in the canal which drive the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles and activate the inner ear, acting by means of a more air conduction-like mechanism. In fact, when the clinician applies his stethoscope to the body surface of his patient in order to detect heart sounds or pulmonary air flow, he is detecting soft tissue vibrations.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030031
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 342-356: Optimization of the Speech
           Test Material in a Group of Hearing Impaired Subjects: A Feasibility Study
           for Multilingual Digit Triplet Test Development

    • Authors: Marcin Masalski, Martyna Adamczyk, Krzysztof Morawski
      First page: 342
      Abstract: Background: The development of the global digit-in-noise test requires optimization of each language version on a group of normal-hearing native-speakers. An alternative solution may be an adaptive optimization during ongoing tests in a group of subjects with unknown hearing impairments. The objective of the research was to compare the optimization results between these groups. Methods: Digit triplets consisting of three pseudo-randomly selected digits were presented in speech-shaped noise at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), according to the protocol of the final speech test. Digit-specific and position-specific speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were determined and compared between groups. Results: The study sample consisted of 82 subjects, 26 normal-hearing subjects and 56 patients with diverse hearing disorders. Statistically significant differences in digit-specific SRTs between the control and the investigated group were obtained for three digits in continuous noise (digits 0, 4, 6; p-value of 0.04, 0.03, 0.05) and two in modulated noise (digits 1 and 6; p-value of 0.05 and 0.01). An analysis including only ears with SRTs within the range of the normal hearing control group showed no statistically significant differences between digits. Conclusion: Optimization of speech material can be carried out in a group of subjects with unknown hearing impairments, provided the ears with scores outside normal range are rejected.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030032
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 357-364: Word Categorization of Vowel
           Durational Changes in Speech-Modulated Bone-Conducted Ultrasound

    • Authors: Tadao Okayasu, Tadashi Nishimura, Akinori Yamashita, Yoshiki Nagatani, Takashi Inoue, Yuka Uratani, Toshiaki Yamanaka, Hiroshi Hosoi, Tadashi Kitahara
      First page: 357
      Abstract: Ultrasound can deliver speech information when it is amplitude-modulated with speech and presented via bone conduction. This speech-modulated bone-conducted ultrasound (SM-BCU) can also transmit prosodic information. However, there is insufficient research on the recognition of vowel duration in SM-BCU. The aim of this study was to investigate the categorization of vowel durational changes in SM-BCU using a behavioral test. Eight Japanese-speaking participants with normal hearing participated in a forced-choice behavioral task to discriminate between “hato” (pigeon) and “haato” (heart). Speech signal stimuli were presented in seven duration grades from 220 ms to 340 ms. The threshold at which 50% of responses were “haato” was calculated and compared for air-conducted audible sound (ACAS) and SM-BCU. The boundary width was also evaluated. Although the SM-BCU threshold (mean: 274.6 ms) was significantly longer than the ACAS threshold (mean: 269.6 ms), there were no differences in boundary width. These results suggest that SM-BCU can deliver prosodic information about vowel duration with a similar difference limen to that of ACAS in normal hearing.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030033
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 365-372: HIF-1α as a Target Molecule
           in the Use of Triazino-Indole Derivative on the Acoustic Trauma Model

    • Authors: Vladimir L. Pastushenkov, Leonid G. Buynov, Maksim S. Kuznetsov, Vladimir V. Dvorianchikov, Lev A. Glaznikov, Aleksandr L. Pastushenkov
      First page: 365
      Abstract: The effect of triazino-indole derivative (Trisan) on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) expression level in the organ of Corti, when administering it for therapeutic and preventive purposes, was investigated using an acoustic trauma model in experimental animals (female F1 hybrids of CBA and C57BL/6 lines). Cytoflavin was used as a comparator product. Study product Trisan (1% solution) was injected intravenously, intramuscularly and intraperitoneally, in the dose of 5, 7 and 10 mg/kg 2 h after the acoustic trauma for therapeutic purposes and in the dose of 5, 7 and 10 mg/kg for 3 days before the acoustic trauma for preventive purposes. IHC methods were used to investigate the organ of Corti. Trisan was observed to increase HIF expression in hair cells and neurons of the spiral ganglion in case of acoustic trauma. Depending on the dose, the increased HIF-1 expression in hair cells and spiral ganglion occurred both after therapeutic and preventive use of Trisan. Maximum HIF expression in hair cells and ganglion was noted at the therapeutic and preventive drug dose of 10 mg/kg. Following experimental results, we conclude that the otoprotective effect of triazino-indole derivative is realized via its effect on HIF metabolism, which makes it a target molecule for the drug.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030034
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 373-383: Effectiveness of Aural-Oral
           Approach Based on Volubility of a Deaf Child with Late-Mapping Bilateral
           Cochlear Implants

    • Authors: Paris Binos, Elena Theodorou, Thekla Elriz, Kostas Konstantopoulos
      First page: 373
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of aural-oral habilitation (AO) over the traditional speech-language therapy, based on the number of vocalization-volubility of a deaf child with late-mapping bilateral cochlear implants using sequential measurements. Methods: The spontaneous productions during child interactions were analyzed. The child (CY, 7;0 years old) with a mean unaided pure-tone average (PTA) hearing loss >80 dB HL was assessed by using an assessment battery. Study design consisted of two phases: (a) baseline (end of speech therapy) and (b) end of AO treatment. Protophones were analyzed via acoustical analysis using PRAAT software. Results: One-way repeated-measure ANOVAs were conducted within and between phases. The analyses revealed significant differences between the ‘phase’ and the vocalization outcome (F = 9.4, df = 1, p = 0.035). Post hoc analyses revealed the significant difference between the mean number of disyllable vocalizations of AO approach (p = 0.05). The mean number of vocalizations was calculated for each protophone type, but no other significant difference was measured. Conclusions: AO approach proved effective as measured through volubility. The outcome of this study is indicative and is a starting point for broader research.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030035
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 384-388: Modulation of Vestibular
           Microphonics: A Historical Note

    • Authors: Hero P. Wit
      First page: 384
      Abstract: Modulation of microphonics has recently been used to investigate the sensitivity of the utricle in the vestibular organ of the guinea pig. The same technique was used more than 30 years ago to obtain information on the processing of rotational stimuli in the horizontal semicircular canals of the pigeon. Data from that time were reanalysed to give a relation that describes the mechano-electrical transduction (MET) process in vestibular hair cells.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030036
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 389-409: A Switched Algorithm for
           Adaptive Feedback Cancellation Using Pre-Filters in Hearing Aids

    • Authors: Linh Thi Thuc Tran, Sven Erik Nordholm
      First page: 389
      Abstract: Acoustic coupling between microphone and loudspeaker is a significant problem in open-fit digital hearing aids. An open-fit compared to a close-fit hearing aid significantly lowers the signal quality and limits the achievable maximum stable gain. Adaptive feedback cancellation (AFC) enables an efficient approach to reduce the impact of acoustic coupling. However, without careful consideration, it can also introduce bias in estimating the feedback path due to the high correlation between the loudspeaker signal and the incoming signal, especially when the incoming signal is spectrally coloured, e.g., speech and music. The prediction error method (PEM) is well known for reducing this bias. The presented study aims to propose a switched PEM with soft-clipping (swPEMSC) that allows for further improvement in convergence/tracking rates, resulting in a better ability to recover from unstable/howling status. This swPEMSC employs a new update rule inspired by a soft-clipping based stability detector (SCSD). It allows to pick up either the PEMSC-NLMS or PEMSC-APA depending on the magnitude of the effective feedback signal; howling corresponds to a large feedback signal. The PEMSC-NLMS with a small step-size ensures a low steady-state error, but slow convergence/tracking rates, while PEMSC-APA with a large step-size allows for fast convergence/tracking rates, but a high steady-state error. By combining those approaches, the proposed approach can take advantage of good characteristics from both. Experimental results using different types of incoming signals and an abrupt change of feedback paths show that the swPEMSC can shorten unstable periods (howling) by improving the convergence and tracking rates while retaining a low steady-state error and good signal quality.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030037
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 410-417: Clinical Trial for Cartilage
           Conduction Hearing Aid in Indonesia

    • Authors: Ronny Suwento, Dini Widiarni Widodo, Tri Juda Airlangga, Widayat Alviandi, Keisuke Watanuki, Naoko Nakanowatari, Hiroshi Hosoi, Tadashi Nishimura
      First page: 410
      Abstract: Hearing improvement represents one of the may valuable outcomes in microtia and aural atresia reconstruction surgery. Most patients with poor development in their hearing function have had a severe microtia. Conventional methods to improve hearing function are bone conduction and bone anchored hearing aids. Cartilage conduction hearing aids (CCHA) represents a new amplification method. This study assessed the outcomes and evaluated the impact and its safety in the patients with microtia and aural atresia whose hearing dysfunction did not improve after surgery for ear reconstruction in our hospital. Hearing functions were evaluated with pure tone audiometry or sound field testing by behavioral audiometry and speech audiometry before and after CCHA fitting. As a result, there was a significant difference between unaided and aided thresholds (p < 0.001). Speech recognition threshold and speech discrimination level also significantly improved with CCHA. The average functional gains of 14 ears were 26.9 ± 2.3 dB. Almost all parents of the patients reported satisfaction with the performance of CCHA, and daily communication in children with hearing loss also became better than usual.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030038
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 418-422: Benign Paroxysmal Positional
           Vertigo (BPPV) in COVID-19

    • Authors: Pasqualina Maria Picciotti, Giulio Cesare Passali, Bruno Sergi, Eugenio De Corso
      First page: 418
      Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe BPPV in COVID-19 patients by discussing the possible mechanisms underlying the onset of this vertigo. Methods: We studied eight patients (4 F, 4 M, aged between 44 and 69 years) with COVID-19 infections complaining of vertigo. Patients were evaluated at the end of infection with an accurate clinical history, and the investigation of spontaneous, positional and positioning nystagmus. Results: The vestibular findings showed benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in all the patients. Three patients had a mild phenotype of the COVID infection, whereas five subjects were hospitalized for the COVID infection and in three cases intensive care was required. Vestibular evaluation showed an involvement of posterior semicircular canals in five patients and horizontal in three. Three patients were treated with the Epley maneuver, two with Semont, one with Lempert and two with Gufoni maneuvers. Conclusions: We hypothesize that BPPV in COVID-19 infections can be relate to drugs, prolonged bed rest and to direct damage by viral infection on the peripheral vestibular system and in particular on the otolitic membrane due to the cytopathic effect of the virus and to the inflammatory response. Studies on large series of patients are needed to confirm our preliminary observation and to better evaluate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BPPV in these patients.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030039
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 423-442: Genetic Determinants of
           Non-Syndromic Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct: A Review

    • Authors: Sebastian Roesch, Gerd Rasp, Antonio Sarikas, Silvia Dossena
      First page: 423
      Abstract: Hearing loss is the most common sensorial deficit in humans and one of the most common birth defects. In developed countries, at least 60% of cases of hearing loss are of genetic origin and may arise from pathogenic sequence alterations in one of more than 300 genes known to be involved in the hearing function. Hearing loss of genetic origin is frequently associated with inner ear malformations; of these, the most commonly detected is the enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). EVA may be associated to other cochleovestibular malformations, such as cochlear incomplete partitions, and can be found in syndromic as well as non-syndromic forms of hearing loss. Genes that have been linked to non-syndromic EVA are SLC26A4, GJB2, FOXI1, KCNJ10, and POU3F4. SLC26A4 and FOXI1 are also involved in determining syndromic forms of hearing loss with EVA, which are Pendred syndrome and distal renal tubular acidosis with deafness, respectively. In Caucasian cohorts, approximately 50% of cases of non-syndromic EVA are linked to SLC26A4 and a large fraction of patients remain undiagnosed, thus providing a strong imperative to further explore the etiology of this condition.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030040
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 443-451: Compound Heterozygosity for
           OTOA Truncating Variant and Genomic Rearrangement Cause Autosomal
           Recessive Sensorineural Hearing Loss in an Italian Family

    • Authors: Rocco Pio Ortore, Maria Pia Leone, Orazio Palumbo, Antonio Petracca, Eleonora M. C. Trecca, Aurelio D’Ecclesia, Ciro Lucio Vigliaroli, Lucia Micale, Francesco Longo, Salvatore Melchionda, Marco Castori
      First page: 443
      Abstract: Hearing loss (HL) affects 1–3 newborns per 1000 and, in industrialized countries, recognizes a genetic etiology in more than 80% of the congenital cases. Excluding GJB2 and GJB6, OTOA is one of the leading genes associated with autosomal recessive non-syndromic HL. Allelic heterogeneity linked to OTOA also includes genomic rearrangements facilitated by non-allelic homologous recombination with the neighboring OTOAP1 pseudogene. We present a couple of Italian siblings affected by moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) due to compound heterozygosity at the OTOA locus. Multigene panel next-generation sequencing identified the c.2223G>A, p.(Trp741*) variant transmitted from the unaffected mother. Assuming the existence of a second paternal deleterious variant which evaded detection at sequencing, genomic array analysis found a ~150 Kb microdeletion of paternal origin and spanning part of OTOA. Both deleterious alleles were identified for the first time. This study demonstrates the utility of an integrated approach to solve complex cases and allow appropriate management to affected individuals and at-risk relatives.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030041
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 452-462: Investigating Performance of
           cVEMP and oVEMP in the Identification of Superior Canal Dehiscence in
           Relation to Dehiscence Location and Size

    • Authors: Maxime Maheu, Ahlem Elblidi, Issam Saliba
      First page: 452
      Abstract: Compare the sensitivity and specificity of cVEMP (500 Hz), oVEMP (500 Hz and 4 kHz) in the identification of SSCD. A secondary objective was to identify the influence of dehiscence size and location on cVEMP and oVEMP responses. Methods: Individuals with unilateral (n = 16) and bilateral (n = 10) scan confirmed SSCD were assessed using air-conducted cVEMP and oVEMP Results: For cVEMP, an amplitude cutoff of 286.9 μV or a threshold cutoff of 67.5 dBnHL revealed, respectively, a sensitivity of 75% and 70.6% and a specificity of 69.4% and 100%. For oVEMP (500 Hz), an amplitude cutoff of 10.8 μV or a threshold cutoff of 77.5 dBnHL revealed a sensitivity of 83.33% and a specificity of 87.5% and 80%, respectively. oVEMP (4 kHz), an amplitude cutoff of 3.1 μV, revealed a high specificity of 100% but a low sensitivity of 47.2%. A positive correlation was noted between the length of the SSCD and the cVEMP and oVEMP (500 Hz) thresholds and cVEMP amplitude. Conclusions: Our results support the use of oVEMP in the identification of SSCD. The presence of oVEMP (500 Hz) with an amplitude higher or equal to 10.8 μV, a threshold lower or equal to 77.5 dBnHL or oVEMP (4 kHz) amplitude of 3.1 μV represents the most useful to identify SSCD.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030042
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 463-473: Genetic and Non Genetic
           Hearing Loss and Associated Disabilities: An Epidemiological Survey in
           Emilia-Romagna Region

    • Authors: Elisabetta Genovese, Silvia Palma, Valeria Polizzi, Giovanni Bianchin, Michela Cappai, Shaniko Kaleci, Alessandro Martini, Andrea Ciorba, Paolo Stagi
      First page: 463
      Abstract: Hearing loss is one of the most common congenital sensory disorders. It can be associated with several comorbidities, in particular developmental disabilities (DD). In Emilia-Romagna (ER), a region in Northern Italy, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) provide the diagnostic framework and treatment for these conditions. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of hearing loss, both isolated or in association with comorbidities, in the juvenile population. The study draws its data from the ER Childhood and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Information System (SINPIAER), an Administrative Healthcare Database collecting the clinical data of all those who have attended CAMHS since 2010. The most frequent type of hearing loss was bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, which was present in 69–72% of the cases, while bilateral conductive hearing loss was the second most common type, ranging from 8 to 10%. Among DD, congenital malformations, mental retardation, visual impairment, and cerebral palsy were the most common. In particular, autism spectrum disorders show increasing incidence and prevalence among CAMHS users in ER region. In-depth knowledge of hearing loss epidemiology and related conditions, such as developmental disabilities, in the juvenile population is crucial for disease prevention, health planning, and resource allocation.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030043
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 474-490: Auditory Processing Disorder
           Test Battery in European Portuguese—Development and Normative Data for
           Pediatric Population

    • Authors: Jorge Humberto Martins, Marisa Alves, Susana Andrade, Isabel Falé, António Teixeira
      First page: 474
      Abstract: There is an increasing need for state-of-the-art Central Auditory Processing assessment for Portuguese native speakers, applicable as early as possible. As a contribution to answering this need, this paper presents a new battery for Central Auditory Processing assessment for European Portuguese applicable to children aged 5 and above, named BAPA-PE, providing information regarding test selection and development. The battery consists of six behavioral tests: Staggered Spondaic Words (SSW) for European Portuguese, Filtered Speech, Speech in Noise, Detection Interval in Noise, Duration, and Frequency Pattern. The normative data for children aged 5 to 12 are also reported. A sample was obtained of 217 subjects without ear pathology and with typical development. Each age group was composed of at least 30 children. All children were evaluated using pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, impedance, and otoacoustic emissions. Normative scores are reported for each of the six auditory processing tests. The assessment is applicable to young children (aged 5 and 6). The statistical analyses showed significant effects in scores of Age for all tests and of Ear for several tests. The main result from the work presented, the Auditory Processing Assessment Battery—European Portuguese (BAPA-PE), is available for clinical use with normative data. This battery is a new tool for behaviorism assessment of European Portuguese speakers with suspected central auditory pathology and for monitoring the results of auditory training.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11030044
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 129-149: Interactions between Cognition
           and Hearing Aid Compression Release Time: Effects of Linguistic Context of
           Speech Test Materials on Speech-in-Noise Performance

    • Authors: Jingjing Xu, Robyn M. Cox
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Recent research has established a connection between hearing aid (HA) users’ cognition and speech recognition performance with short and long compression release times (RT). Contradictive findings prevent researchers from using cognition to predict RT prescription. We hypothesized that the linguistic context of speech recognition test materials was one of the factors that accounted for the inconsistency. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between HA users’ cognition and their aided speech recognition performance with short and long RTs using materials with various linguistic contexts. Thirty-four older HA users’ cognitive abilities were quantified using a reading span test. They were fitted with behind-the-ear style HAs with adjustable RT settings. Three speech recognition tests were used: the word-in-noise (WIN) test, the American four alternative auditory feature (AFAAF) test, and the Bamford-Kowal-Bench speech-in-noise (BKB-SIN) test. The results showed that HA users with high cognitive abilities performed better on the AFAAF and the BKB-SIN than those with low cognitive abilities when using short RT. None of the speech recognition tests produced significantly different performance between the two RTs for either cognitive group. These findings did not support our hypothesis. The results suggest that cognition might not be important in prescribing RT.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020013
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 150-166: The Development of a
           Paediatric Phoneme Discrimination Test for Arabic Phonemic Contrasts

    • Authors: Hanin Rayes, Ghada Al-Malky, Deborah Vickers
      First page: 150
      Abstract: Objective: The aim of this project was to develop the Arabic CAPT (A-CAPT), a Standard Arabic version of the CHEAR auditory perception test (CAPT) that assesses consonant perception ability in children. Method: This closed-set test was evaluated with normal-hearing children aged 5 to 11 years. Development and validation of the speech materials were accomplished in two experimental phases. Twenty-six children participated in phase I, where the test materials were piloted to ensure that the selected words were age appropriate and that the form of Arabic used was familiar to the children. Sixteen children participated in phase II where test–retest reliability, age effects, and critical differences were measured. A computerized implementation was used to present stimuli and collect responses. Children selected one of four response options displayed on a screen for each trial. Results: Two lists of 32 words were developed with two levels of difficulty, easy and hard. Assessment of test–retest reliability for the final version of the lists showed a strong agreement. A within-subject ANOVA showed no significant difference between test and retest sessions. Performance improved with increasing age. Critical difference values were similar to the British English version of the CAPT. Conclusions: The A-CAPT is an appropriate speech perception test for assessing Arabic-speaking children as young as 5 years old. This test can reliably assess consonant perception ability and monitor changes over time or after an intervention.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020014
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 167-178: Clinical and Electromyographic
           Assessment of Swallowing in Individuals with Functional Dysphonia
           Associated with Dysphagia Due to Muscle Tension or Atypical Swallowing

    • Authors: Paulina Krasnodębska, Agnieszka Jarzyńska-Bućko, Agata Szkiełkowska, Jędrzej Bartosik
      First page: 167
      Abstract: Introduction: Over the past few years, attention has been paid to the coexistence of dysphonia with dysphagia, in the context of functional disorders. The aim of this work was to objectify logopaedic examination of dysphonic patients with coexisting swallowing difficulties by surface electromyography. Methods: The material of the work included 58 patients with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD). Each patient underwent otolaryngologic, phoniatric and logopaedic examination. We collected information about medical history and asked patients to fill out Reflux Symptom Index (RSI), Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) and Swallowing Disorder Scale (SDS). The algorithm of dysphagia diagnostics in our clinic assumes parallel surface electromyography (SEMG) during Functional Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing. Results: In comparison to patients suffering from atypical swallowing, patients with muscle tension dysphagia (MTDg) obtained higher values from almost all questionnaires. Logopaedic evaluation revealed abnormalities in the structure and efficiency of the articulatory organs and in the assessment of primary functions. Patients with more abnormalities in logopaedic examination had significantly higher infrahyoid muscle activity during swallowing observed in EMG. Patients with non-normative swallowing pattern had significantly greater asymmetry of the average and maximum amplitude of masseters, as well as submental muscles. Patients with higher percent of muscles asymmetry gained higher scores in questionnaires. Conclusions: Surface electromyography objectifies logopaedic examination of patients with swallowing difficulties. The results of this work showed that, apart from longer swallows, patients with MTDg differ from patients with non-normative swallowing patterns in the muscle activity measured by SEMG, abnormalities in logopaedic evaluation and the severity of complaints reported by patients.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020015
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 179-191: Adult Users of the Oticon
           Medical Neuro Cochlear Implant System Benefit from Beamforming in the High
           Frequencies

    • Authors: Bianca Bastos Cordeiro, Marcos Roberto Banhara, Carlos Maurício Cardeal Mendes, Fabiana Danieli, Ariane Laplante-Lévesque, Chadlia Karoui, Michel Hoen, Marine Ardoint, Fanny Gauvrit, Romane Demullier, Christophe Vincent
      First page: 179
      Abstract: The Oticon Medical Neuro cochlear implant system includes the modes Opti Omni and Speech Omni, the latter providing beamforming (i.e., directional selectivity) in the high frequencies. Two studies compared sentence identification scores of adult cochlear implant users with Opti Omni and Speech Omni. In Study 1, a double-blind longitudinal crossover study, 12 new users trialed Opti Omni or Speech Omni (random allocation) for three months, and their sentence identification in quiet and noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio) with the trialed mode were measured. The same procedure was repeated for the second mode. In Study 2, a single-blind study, 11 experienced users performed a speech identification task in quiet and at relative signal-to-noise ratios ranging from −3 to +18 dB with Opti Omni and Speech Omni. The Study 1 scores in quiet and in noise were significantly better with Speech Omni than with Opti Omni. Study 2 scores were significantly better with Speech Omni than with Opti Omni at +6 and +9 dB signal-to-noise ratios. Beamforming in the high frequencies, as implemented in Speech Omni, leads to improved speech identification in medium levels of background noise, where cochlear implant users spend most of their day.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020016
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 192-199: Hearing Loss in Children:
           Clinical-Epidemiological Data from Two Different Provinces of the Same
           Region

    • Authors: Silvia Palma, Andrea Ciorba, Laura Nascimbeni, Mariachiara Pecovela, Laura Negossi, Stefano Pelucchi, Paolo Stagi, Elisabetta Genovese
      First page: 192
      Abstract: Background: In many countries, neonatal hearing screening programs (NHS) have been available for many years; however, because of the presence of hearing loss at late onset, early hearing detection programs (EHDP) have been implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate all cases of infantile hearing loss under the care of two different provinces of a regional health service since the introduction of NHS. Methods: Clinical data (the presence of audiological risk factors, age at which children are placed under the care of health service, entity of hearing loss, treatment, and exposure to bilingualism) were retrospectively collected during the period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2018, starting from the IT management system used in all of the regional neuropsychiatric services. Results: In total, 124 children were included—116 cases failed the screening, 1 case had an untraceable result, and 7 cases (5.6%) had hearing screening that passed. Most of the children were placed under the care of a neuropsychiatric infantile and adolescence (NPIA) service within the first year of life. The main differences across the two provinces concerned the percentages of audiological risk factors and the number of unilateral hearing loss cases. Conclusion: In order to plan and manage hearing rehabilitation programs for children in the best way, it is very important to know the local clinical-epidemiological features of the population.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020017
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 200-206: Integrated Bimodal Fitting for
           Unilateral CI Users with Residual Contralateral Hearing

    • Authors: Gennaro Auletta, Annamaria Franzè, Carla Laria, Carmine Piccolo, Carmine Papa, Pasquale Riccardi, Davide Pisani, Angelo Sarnelli, Valeria Del Vecchio, Rita Malesci, Elio Marciano
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to compare, in users of bimodal cochlear implants, the performance obtained using their own hearing aids (adjusted with the standard NAL-NL1 fitting formula) with the performance using the Phonak Naìda Link Ultra Power hearing aid adjusted with both NAL-NL1 and a new bimodal system (Adaptive Phonak Digital Bimodal (APDB)) developed by Advanced Bionics and Phonak Corporations. Methods: Eleven bimodal users (Naìda CI Q70 + contralateral hearing aid) were enrolled in our study. The users’ own hearing aids were replaced with the Phonak Naìda Link Ultra Power and fitted following the new formula. Speech intelligibility was assessed in quiet and noisy conditions, and comparisons were made with the results obtained with the users’ previous hearing aids and with the Naída Link hearing aids fitted with the NAL-NL1 generic prescription formula. Results: Using Phonak Naìda Link Ultra Power hearing aids with the Adaptive Phonak Digital Bimodal fitting formula, performance was significantly better than that with the users’ own rehabilitation systems, especially in challenging hearing situations for all analyzed subjects. Conclusions: Speech intelligibility tests in quiet settings did not reveal a significant difference in performance between the new fitting formula and NAL-NL1 fittings (using the Naída Link hearing aids), whereas the performance difference between the two fittings was very significant in noisy test conditions.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020018
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 207-219: Review of Bone Conduction
           Hearing Devices

    • Authors: Susan E. Ellsperman, Emily M. Nairn, Emily Z. Stucken
      First page: 207
      Abstract: Bone conduction is an efficient pathway of sound transmission which can be harnessed to provide hearing amplification. Bone conduction hearing devices may be indicated when ear canal pathology precludes the use of a conventional hearing aid, as well as in cases of single-sided deafness. Several different technologies exist which transmit sound via bone conduction. Here, we will review the physiology of bone conduction, the indications for bone conduction amplification, and the specifics of currently available devices.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020019
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 220-226: Meta-Analysis—Correlation
           between Spiral Ganglion Cell Counts and Speech Perception with a Cochlear
           Implant

    • Authors: Yew-Song Cheng, Mario A. Svirsky
      First page: 220
      Abstract: The presence of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) is widely accepted to be a prerequisite for successful speech perception with a cochlear implant (CI), because SGCs provide the only known conduit between the implant electrode and the central auditory system. By extension, it has been hypothesized that the number of SGCs might be an important factor in CI outcomes. An impressive body of work has been published on findings from the laborious process of collecting temporal bones from CI users and counting the number of SGCs to correlate those numbers with speech perception scores, but the findings thus far have been conflicting. We performed a meta-analysis of all published studies with the hope that combining existing data may help us reach a more definitive conclusion about the relationship between SGC count and speech perception scores in adults.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020020
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 227-243: Effect of Auditory Distraction
           on Working Memory, Attention Switching, and Listening Comprehension

    • Authors: Naveen K. Nagaraj
      First page: 227
      Abstract: The effect of non-informational speech spectrum noise as a distractor on cognitive and listening comprehension ability was examined in fifty-three young, normal hearing adults. Time-controlled tasks were used to measure auditory working memory (WM) capacity and attention switching (AS) ability. Listening comprehension was measured using a lecture, interview, and spoken narratives test. Noise level was individually set to achieve at least 90% or higher speech intelligibility. Participants’ listening comprehension in the presence of distracting noise was better on inference questions compared to listening in quiet. Their speed of information processing was also significantly faster in WM and AS tasks in noise. These results were consistent with the view that noise may enhance arousal levels leading to faster information processing during cognitive tasks. Whereas the speed of AS was faster in noise, this rapid switching of attention resulted in more errors in updating items. Participants who processed information faster in noise and did so accurately, more effectively switched their attention to refresh/rehearse recall items within WM. More efficient processing deployed in the presence of noise appeared to have led to improvements in WM performance and making inferences in a listening comprehension task. Additional research is required to examine these findings using background noise that can cause informational masking.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 244-253: Perception Mechanism of
           Bone-Conducted Ultrasound and Its Clinical Use

    • Authors: Tadashi Nishimura, Tadao Okayasu, Akinori Yamashita, Hiroshi Hosoi, Tadashi Kitahara
      First page: 244
      Abstract: It is generally believed that ultrasound cannot be heard. However, ultrasound is audible when it is presented through bone conduction. Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) has unique characteristics; the most interesting is its perception in patients with profound deafness. Some patients can perceive it and discriminate speech-modulated BCU. Previous reports have suggested that BCU can be used for a hearing aid or tinnitus sound therapy. In this review, the perception of BCU at both the peripheral and central levels was investigated based on previous studies, although some of them remain controversial. We also investigated the clinical use of BCU. To develop hearing aids utilizing BCU, the encoding of speech signals into BCU has to be established. The outcomes of the reported speech modulations were evaluated. Furthermore, the suppression of tinnitus by BCU was reviewed, and the feasibility of the application of BCU to tinnitus treatment was investigated.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020022
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 254-262: Cartilage Conduction Hearing
           and Its Clinical Application

    • Authors: Tadashi Nishimura, Hiroshi Hosoi, Ryota Shimokura, Chihiro Morimoto, Tadashi Kitahara
      First page: 254
      Abstract: Cartilage conduction (CC) is a form of conduction that allows a relatively loud sound to be audible when a transducer is placed on the aural cartilage. The CC transmission mechanism has gradually been elucidated, allowing for the development of CC hearing aids (CC-HAs), which are clinically available in Japan. However, CC is still not fully understood. This review summarizes previous CC reports to facilitate its understanding. Concerning the transmission mechanism, the sound pressure level in the ear canal was found to increase when the transducer was attached to the aural cartilage, compared to an unattached condition. Further, inserting an earplug and injecting water into the ear canal shifted the CC threshold, indicating the considerable influence of cartilage–air conduction on the transmission. In CC, the aural cartilage resembles the movable plate of a vibration speaker. This unique transduction mechanism is responsible for the CC characteristics. In terms of clinical applications, CC-HAs are a good option for patients with aural atresia, despite inferior signal transmission compared to bone conduction in bony atretic ears. The advantages of CC, namely comfort, stable fixation, esthetics, and non-invasiveness, facilitate its clinical use.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020023
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 263-274: Management of Residual Hearing
           with Cartilage Conduction Hearing Aid after Lateral Temporal Bone
           Resection: Our Institutional Experience

    • Authors: Noritaka Komune, Yoshie Higashino, Kazuha Ishikawa, Tomoko Tabuki, Shogo Masuda, Kensuke Koike, Takahiro Hongo, Kuniaki Sato, Ryutaro Uchi, Masaru Miyazaki, Ryo Shimamoto, Nana Akagi Tsuchihashi, Ryunosuke Kogo, Teppei Noda, Nozomu Matsumoto, Takashi Nakagawa
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Background: There is no guideline for hearing compensation after temporal bone resection. This study aimed to retrospectively analyze surgical cases with reconstruction for hearing preservation after temporal bone malignancy resection and propose a new alternative to compensate for hearing loss. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients who underwent lateral temporal bone surgery for temporal bone malignancy at our institution and examined their hearing abilities after surgery. Result: The hearing outcomes of patients with an external auditory meatus reconstruction varied widely. The mean postoperative air–bone gap at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ranged from 22.5 dB to 71.25 dB. On the other hand, the average difference between the aided sound field thresholds with cartilage conduction hearing aid and bone conduction thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ranged from −3.75 to 41.25. More closely located auricular cartilage and temporal bone resulted in smaller differences between the aided sound field and bone conduction thresholds. Conclusions: There is still room for improvement of surgical techniques for reconstruction of the auditory meatus to preserve hearing after temporal bone resection. The cartilage conduction hearing aid may provide non-invasive postoperative hearing compensation after lateral temporal bone resection.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020024
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 275-283: Hearing Screening among
           First-Grade Children in Rural Areas and Small Towns in Małopolskie
           Voivodeship, Poland

    • Authors: Weronika Swierniak, Piotr Skarzynski, Elzbieta Gos, Natalia Czajka, Monika Matusiak, Patryk Hartwich, Magdalena Skarzynska
      First page: 275
      Abstract: Undiagnosed hearing deficits hamper a child’s ability to learn. Hearing screening in school aged children helps detect educationally significant hearing loss and prevents negative impacts on academic achievement. The main purpose of this study was to improve early detection and assess the incidence of hearing disorders in first-graders from rural areas and small towns in the Małopolskie Voivodeship of Poland. There were 5029 children aged 6–7 years. Hearing thresholds were measured over the frequency range 0.5–8 kHz. A result was considered positive (abnormal) if the hearing threshold was worse than 20 dB HL at one or more frequencies. The prevalence of hearing loss was estimated in terms of four-frequency hearing loss, high-frequency hearing loss, and low-frequency hearing loss. Parents filled in a brief audiological questionnaire. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 24. Of all the children, 20.5% returned a positive result and were referred for further audiological diagnoses. The estimated prevalence of hearing loss was 11.6%, made up of 6.5% with FFHL, 7.6% with HFHL, and 8.2% with LFHL. This study showed that large numbers of children in the district had hearing problems. Adoption of hearing screening in primary schools is recommended as a routine procedure within preventive pediatric health care.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020025
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 284-290: Benefits of Cartilage
           

    • Authors: Sakie Akasaka, Tadashi Nishimura, Hiroshi Hosoi, Osamu Saito, Ryota Shimokura, Chihiro Morimoto, Tadashi Kitahara
      First page: 284
      Abstract: Severe conductive hearing loss due to unilateral aural atresia leads to auditory and developmental disorders, such as difficulty in hearing in challenging situations. Bone conduction devices compensate for the disability but unfortunately have several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of cartilage conduction (CC) hearing aids for speech perception in unilateral aural atresia. Eleven patients with unilateral aural atresia were included. Each participant used a CC hearing aid in the atretic ear. Speech recognition scores in the binaural hearing condition were obtained at low speech levels to evaluate the contribution of aided atretic ears to speech perception. Speech recognition scores were also obtained with and without presentation of noise. These assessments were compared between the unaided and aided atretic ear conditions. Speech recognition scores at low speech levels were significantly improved under the aided atretic ear condition (p < 0.05). A CC hearing aid in the unilateral atretic ear did not significantly improve the speech recognition score in a symmetrical noise presentation condition. The binaural hearing benefits of CC hearing aids in unilateral aural atresia were predominantly considered a diotic summation. Other benefits of binaural hearing remain to be investigated.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020026
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 291-300: Sport as a Factor in Improving
           Visual Spatial Cognitive Deficits in Patients with Hearing Loss and
           Chronic Vestibular Deficit

    • Authors: Giorgio Guidetti, Riccardo Guidetti, Silvia Quaglieri
      First page: 291
      Abstract: Hearing loss and chronic vestibular pathologies require brain adaptive mechanisms supported by a cross-modal cortical plasticity. They are often accompanied by cognitive deficits. Spatial memory is a cognitive process responsible for recording information about the spatial environment and spatial orientation. Visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) is a kind of short-term working memory that allows spatial information to be temporarily stored and manipulated. It can be conditioned by hearing loss and also well-compensated chronic vestibular deficit. Vestibular rehabilitation and hearing aid devices or training are able to improve the VSWM. We studied 119 subjects suffering from perinatal or congenital hearing loss, compared with 532 healthy subjects and 404 patients with well-compensated chronic vestibular deficit (CVF). VSWM was evaluated by the eCorsi test. The subjects suffering from chronic hearing loss and/or unilateral or bilateral vestibular deficit showed a VSWM less efficient than healthy people, but much better than those with CVF, suggesting a better multimodal adaptive strategy, probably favored by a cross-modal plasticity which also provides habitual use of lip reading. The sport activity cancels the difference with healthy subjects. It is therefore evident that patients with this type of deficit since childhood should be supported and advised on a sport activity or repeated vestibular stimulation.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11020027
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 1-9: Long-Term Results of Tinnitus
           Retraining Therapy in Patients Who Failed to Complete the Program

    • Authors: Ruggero Lapenna, Egisto Molini, Laura Cipriani, Maria Rita Del Zompo, Giorgia Giommetti, Mario Faralli, Giampietro Ricci
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the results of Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) in patients who did not complete the program. Methods: We divided 90 patients who failed to complete the TRT program were into 3 groups: 36 patients who only completed the first phase of the TRT program (Missing group; M), 34 patients who attended counselling for less than 6 months (Noncompliant group; NC) and 20 patients who attended counselling for more than 6 months but did not complete the TRT program (Compliant group; C). The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), tinnitus Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) and a questionnaire regarding the reasons for dropout were obtained through a telephone survey. Results: Telephonic THI and VAS scores were significantly lower than the initial scores in the M and C groups but not in the NC group. Patients who were unsure about the effectiveness of TRT were prevalent in the NC group, and the poorest long-term THI results were registered in those patients. Conclusions: A fundamental cause of very poor TRT results was when patients were unsure about TRT. On the other hand, a single counselling session could be effective in reducing tinnitus annoyance in patients who accepted the TRT approach and trusted its efficacy.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010001
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 10-21: Towards Auditory Profile-Based
           Hearing-Aid Fitting: Fitting Rationale and Pilot Evaluation

    • Authors: Raul Sanchez-Lopez, Michal Fereczkowski, Sébastien Santurette, Torsten Dau, Tobias Neher
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background—The clinical characterization of hearing deficits for hearing-aid fitting purposes is typically based on the pure-tone audiogram only. In a previous study, a group of hearing-impaired listeners completed a comprehensive test battery that was designed to tap into different dimensions of hearing abilities. A data-driven analysis of the data yielded four clinically relevant patient sub-populations or “auditory profiles”. The purpose of the current study was to propose and pilot-test profile-based hearing-aid settings in order to explore their potential for providing more targeted hearing-aid treatment. Methods—Four candidate hearing-aid settings were developed and evaluated by a subset of the participants tested previously. The evaluation consisted of multi-comparison preference ratings that were carried out in realistic sound scenarios. Results—Listeners belonging to the different auditory profiles showed different patterns of preference for the tested hearing-aid settings that were largely consistent with the expectations. Conclusions—The results of this pilot evaluation support further investigations into stratified, profile-based hearing-aid fitting with wearable hearing aids.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010002
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 22-30: The Role of Autosensitivity
           Control (ASC) in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    • Authors: Federica Di Berardino, Diego Zanetti, Daniela Soi, Lara Dalla Costa, Sandro Burdo
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the subjective and objective potential advantage for speech understanding in noise achieved by cochlear implant (CI) recipients when using the autosensitivity control (ASC) input signal processing in combination with the adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO). Eighteen subjects (8 females, 10 males, mean age 17.7 ± 6.7) were enrolled in a prospective open blinded comparative study between the ASC + ADRO condition vs. the ADRO alone; 16 were sequential binaural and 2 were monoaural CI recipients. All patients had been wearing their CI for at least 3 years, had no additional disabilities, had an age-appropriate receptive and expressive language. Word recognition performances in noise (at signal-to-noise ratio +5 dB HL) were significantly better in the ADRO-alone condition than in the ADRO + ASC condition. (p = 0.03) These objective outcomes were in agreement with the subjective reports. No significant difference was found in quiet. Our results, apparently in contrast with other reports in the literature, suggest that the decision of adding the slow-acting automatic reduction in microphone sensitivity provided by ASC should be limited to selected CI recipients.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010003
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 31-37: Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)
           Influence on Prognosis of Autoimmune Hearing Loss

    • Authors: George Psillas, Paris Binos, Grigorios G Dimas, Michalis Daniilidis, Jiannis Constantinidis
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Background: To evaluate the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on hearing outcome in patients suffering from autoimmune hearing loss (AIHL). Materials and Methods: The diagnosis of AIHL was essentially based on clinical symptoms, such as recurrent, sudden, fluctuating, or quickly progressing (<12 months) sensorineural hearing loss (uni-/bilateral). The molecular typing of HLA alleles was achieved by using polymerase chain reaction procedures. Patients underwent a tapering schema of steroid treatment and audiometric features were recorded. A logistic regression model was used to identify which HLA typing alleles were statistically significant in patients’ response to treatment. Results: Forty patients with AIHL were found to be carriers of HLA B27, B35, B51, C4, C7, and DRB1*04 alleles. No statistically significant influence of HLA B27, B35, B51, C4, C7, DRB1*04 HLA alleles typing was detected for the prognosis of AIHL. In these patients, the onset of AIHL was mainly progressive (53.8%), 29.2% of them had moderate hearing loss, and most of the cases had both bilateral hearing loss (62.5%) and downsloping audiogram (40%). Conclusion: The presence of HLA B27, B35, B51, C4, C7, and DRB1*04 alleles had no significant effect on a favorable outcome of AIHL. However, larger samples of patients are necessary in order to improve the knowledge about the HLA influence on the clinical course of AIHL.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010004
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 38-46: Auditory Brainstem Responses to
           Successive Sounds: Effects of Gap Duration and Depth

    • Authors: Fan-Yin Cheng, Craig A. Champlin
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Temporal acuity is the ability to differentiate between sounds based on fluctuations in the waveform envelope. The proximity of successive sounds and background noise diminishes the ability to track rapid changes between consecutive sounds. We determined whether a physiological correlate of temporal acuity is also affected by these factors. We recorded the auditory brainstem response (ABR) from human listeners using a harmonic complex (S1) followed by a brief tone burst (S2) with the latter serving as the evoking signal. The duration and depth of the silent gap between S1 and S2 were manipulated, and the peak latency and amplitude of wave V were measured. The latency of the responses decreased significantly as the duration or depth of the gap increased. The amplitude of the responses was not affected by the duration or depth of the gap. These findings suggest that changing the physical parameters of the gap affects the auditory system’s ability to encode successive sounds.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010005
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 47-54: Benign Positional Paroxysmal
           Vertigo in Children

    • Authors: Cristiano Balzanelli, Daniele Spataro, Luca Oscar Redaelli de Zinis
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and analyze clinical parameters of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV) in a pediatric age. A cohort of 423 children under the age of 15 (median age 11. interquartile range 9–13) was submitted to vestibular assessment for balance disorders. Dix-Hallpike and Roll-Supine tests were performed to look for positioning nystagmus using video-infrared goggles. BPPV was found in 43 of 423 children evaluated for balance disorders (10.2%). There were 28 females (65.1%) and 15 (34.9%) males. The posterior canal was involved in 79% of cases and the horizontal canal in 21% of cases. No apogeotropic bilateral or anterior canal form were seen. Thus, BPPV is not an infrequent type of vertigo in children and must be evaluated as soon as possible in order to plan the most appropriate maneuver and restore daily activities as soon as possible, avoiding anxiety and fear.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010006
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 55-62: Positional Nystagmus after Acute
           Vertiginous Attack in Meniere’s Disease

    • Authors: Haemin Noh, Dong-Han Lee, Jung Eun Shin, Chang-Hee Kim
      First page: 55
      Abstract: There have been no reports regarding nystagmus observed immediately after the end of an acute vertiginous attack in patients with Meniere’s disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate positional direction-changing nystagmus in patients with Meniere’s disease, and to discuss the mechanism that underlies this nystagmus. Video-nystagmography was recorded in two patients with definite Meniere’s disease, who showed positional direction-changing nystagmus during the period immediately after a vertigo attack. In one patient, video-nystagmographic recording was conducted 5 h after an episode of vertigo attack, and it showed very weak, persistent positional geotropic direction-changing nystagmus. In the other patient, video-nystagmographic recording was conducted 23 h after an episode of vertigo attack, and it showed very weak, persistent positional apogeotropic direction-changing nystagmus. Our patients exhibited very weak, persistent positional direction-changing nystagmus, which was geotropic in one and apogeotropic in the other. This type of positional nystagmus has been reported in other inner ear disorders and it cannot be clearly explained by typical benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The change in chemical composition and/or electrolyte concentration of the inner ear fluid, although still unclear, may underlie the production of this characteristic nystagmus in these patients.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010007
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 63-72: Alexithymia in Patients with
           Ménière Disease: A Possible Role on Anxiety and Depression

    • Authors: Roberto Teggi, Claudia Yvonne Finocchiaro, Claudio Ruggieri, Omar Gatti, Federica Rosolen, Mario Bussi, Lucio Sarno
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of the psychological variable of alexithymia both as a risk factor for the development of Ménière’s disease (MD) and as a component that influences the personal experience of MD and the individual quality of life. We collected data from 179 Italian patients who fulfilled criteria for definite MD. Patients filled out validated self-rating questionnaires to assess alexithymia (TAS-20), quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), anxiety and depression (HADS), perception of stress (PSS) and coping strategies (COPE). Socio-demographic data and MD clinical features were collected using a specific rating form. Subjects affected by MD showed higher levels of alexithymia compared to general population. Among MD patients, those characterized by high levels of alexithymia revealed a significant increase in anxiety and depression, greater perceived stress, a lower quality of life in psychological health and social relationships domains and the use of less mature coping strategies in comparison with MD patients with low or absent alexithymia. Our preliminary data could help in hypothesizing a role of psychological functioning in MD development and in the adaptation to the disease. The presence of alexithymia in patients suffering from MD may constitute a risk factor for the development of anxiety and depression symptoms; greater perceived stress and for poorer psychological and relational quality of life. Therefore, our study design did not allow causal inferences and further studies are needed.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010008
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 73-88: Evaluation of Italian Simplified
           Matrix Test for Speech-Recognition Measurements in Noise

    • Authors: Giuseppina Emma Puglisi, Federica di Berardino, Carla Montuschi, Fatma Sellami, Andrea Albera, Diego Zanetti, Roberto Albera, Arianna Astolfi, Birger Kollmeier, Anna Warzybok
      First page: 73
      Abstract: This study aimed at the evaluation of a simplified Italian matrix test (SiIMax) for speech-recognition measurements in noise for adults and children. Speech-recognition measurements with adults and children were conducted to examine the training effect and to establish reference speech-recognition thresholds of 50% (SRT50) and 80% (SRT80) correct responses. Test-list equivalency was evaluated only with adults. Twenty adults and 96 children—aged between 5 and 10 years—participated. Evaluation measurements with the adults confirmed the equivalence of the test lists, with a mean SRT50 of −8.0 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2 dB across the test lists. The test-specific slope (the average of the list-specific slopes) was 11.3%/dB, with a standard deviation of 0.6%/dB. For both adults and children, only one test list of 14 phrases needs to be presented to account for the training effect. For the adults, adaptive measurements of the SRT50 and SRT80 showed mean values of −7.0 ± 0.6 and −4.5 ± 1.1 dB, respectively. For children, a slight influence of age on the SRT was observed. The mean SRT50s were −5.6 ± 1.2, −5.8 ± 1.2 and −6.6 ± 1.3 dB for the children aged 5–6, 7–8 and 9–10 years, respectively. The corresponding SRT80s were −1.5 ± 2.7, −3.0 ± 1.7 and −3.7 ± 1.4 dB. High test–retest reliabilities of 1.0 and 1.1 dB for the SRT80 were obtained for the adults and children, respectively. This makes the test suitable for accurate and reliable speech-recognition measurements.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010009
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 89-99: Use of an Extra-Tympanic
           Membrane Electrode to Record Cochlear Microphonics with Click, Tone Burst
           and Chirp Stimuli

    • Authors: Laura M. Coraci, Andy J. Beynon
      First page: 89
      Abstract: This study determined electrocochleography (ECochG) parameter settings to obtain cochlear microphonics (CM) with less invasive flexible extra-tympanic membrane electrodes. In 24 adult normal-hearing subjects, CMs were elicited by presenting click stimuli at 100 dBnHL, tone bursts (2 kHz) and broadband (BB) CE-chirps® LS (Interacoustics, Middelfart, Denmark), both at 80 dBnHL. Different high-pass filters (HPFs) (3.3 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively) were used to investigate response quality of the CM. CMs were successfully obtained in 92–100% with click-, 75–83% with 2 kHz tone burst- and 58–63% with CE-chirp®-LS stimuli. Click stimuli elicited significantly larger CM amplitudes compared to 2 kHz tone bursts and BB CE-chirp® LS (Interacoustics, Middelfart, Denmark). No significant differences were found between the two different high-pass filter (HPF) settings. The present study shows that it is possible to obtain clear CMs with the flexible extra-tympanic membrane electrodes using click stimuli. In contrast to 2 kHz tone bursts and CE-chirp® (Interacoustics, Middelfart, Denmark) LS, clicks show a significantly higher success rate and are the preferred stimuli to confirm the presence or absence of CMs.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010010
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 100-111: Health Status of Adults with
           Hearing Loss in the United States

    • Authors: Jennifer Glassman, Timothy Jordan, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Lori Pakulski, Amy Thompson
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the current health status of adults in the United States with self-reported hearing loss and compare it with US adults with a self-reported excellent or good hearing in three areas: (1) chronic disease states and general health status, (2) medical screening behaviors, and (3) lifestyle behaviors. Methods: A secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2014 data set from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), specifically the Sample Adult Public Use File (samadult). For this questionnaire set, one adult per family was randomly selected. This individual self-reported their response to the questionnaire items. Binary regressions were used to analyze the odds ratio to find differences for selected disease states, screenings, and lifestyle behaviors. Respondents were grouped into one of four categories: excellent/good hearing, a little trouble hearing, moderate/a lot of trouble hearing, and deaf. Results: The excellent/good hearing group was used as the comparison group for the other three levels of hearing. There are many differences in likelihood to self-report disease states; the greatest increased likelihoods include tinnitus and heart disease, with tinnitus being 8.6 times more likely for those who identified as having moderate/a lot of hearing loss. Those with any level of hearing loss were 3 to 5 times more likely to self-report heart disease. Regarding lifestyle factors, individuals with any level of hearing loss were less likely to consume alcohol and 2.5 to 9 times more likely to be unable to engage in moderate or vigorous activity on a weekly basis, respectively. Conclusions: There is a difference in the health status of individuals with hearing loss across all three areas examined (chronic disease states and general health status, medical screening behaviors, and lifestyle behaviors), and those differences vary based on level of hearing loss, the most notable being the self-reported inability to engage in moderate and vigorous physical activity. Disproportionate rates of tinnitus and heart disease were evident in all levels of hearing loss but most notable in those identifying as having moderate/a lot of trouble hearing. Further interdisciplinary research is necessary to improve the health of individuals with all levels of hearing loss, increase awareness of the hearing/health connection, and decrease hearing loss in general.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010011
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Audiology Research, Vol. 11, Pages 112-128: Defining the Role of Attention
           in Hierarchical Auditory Processing

    • Authors: Caitlin N. Price, Deborah Moncrieff
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Communication in noise is a complex process requiring efficient neural encoding throughout the entire auditory pathway as well as contributions from higher-order cognitive processes (i.e., attention) to extract speech cues for perception. Thus, identifying effective clinical interventions for individuals with speech-in-noise deficits relies on the disentanglement of bottom-up (sensory) and top-down (cognitive) factors to appropriately determine the area of deficit; yet, how attention may interact with early encoding of sensory inputs remains unclear. For decades, attentional theorists have attempted to address this question with cleverly designed behavioral studies, but the neural processes and interactions underlying attention’s role in speech perception remain unresolved. While anatomical and electrophysiological studies have investigated the neurological structures contributing to attentional processes and revealed relevant brain–behavior relationships, recent electrophysiological techniques (i.e., simultaneous recording of brainstem and cortical responses) may provide novel insight regarding the relationship between early sensory processing and top-down attentional influences. In this article, we review relevant theories that guide our present understanding of attentional processes, discuss current electrophysiological evidence of attentional involvement in auditory processing across subcortical and cortical levels, and propose areas for future study that will inform the development of more targeted and effective clinical interventions for individuals with speech-in-noise deficits.
      Citation: Audiology Research
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/audiolres11010012
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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