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British Journal of Visual Impairment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.337
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0264-6196 - ISSN (Online) 1744-5809
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Impact of neighbourhood walkability on weekly walking minutes among adults
           with visual impairments: A preliminary study

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      Authors: M Ally Keene, Justin A Haegele, Xihe Zhu
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Weekly and consistent physical activity can help minimize the risk of preventable disease and improve mental health and cognitive function among adults. Despite these benefits, adults with visual impairments tend to not meet physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine how neighbourhood walk score (walkability) is associated with weekly walking minutes in adults with visual impairments. Participants were recruited from two visual impairment–related listservs in the United States. A total of 88 participants (aged 22–85 years; 78% female) were included. Participants completed an online survey including demographic, walking duration, and zip code questions. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine whether there were significant associations between walkability and weekly walking minutes. Walkability scores were not significantly related to walking minutes per week (p = .84), but age was negatively associated with walking minutes per week (β = −.16), holding other factors constant. Neighbourhood walkability was not significantly associated with walking minutes per week among adults with visual impairments in this study. As these adults age, the amount of walking decreased. Future research in this line of inquiry should expand to include other variables that may influence the relationship between walkability and walking minutes per week and examine the barriers to physical activity among individuals with visual impairments.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T12:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221127121
       
  • Parents of children who are deafblind face challenges in fostering
           collaboration within individualized education program teams

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      Authors: Lanya Lynn McKittrick
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Although active parent involvement is mandated as part of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), parents continue to report dissatisfaction with Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings. Despite increases in parent participation policy since the adoption of IDEA, the parent–professional partnership originally envisioned by lawmakers is arguably not consistent with practice. This is evident for all families with children who represent the 13 disability categories covered under the auspice of IDEA; however, because deafblindness is a low-incidence disability with a heterogeneous population, this study focuses on families with children who are deafblind. Parents of children who are deafblind have unique challenges before, during, and after IEP meetings. Professional knowledge about deafblindness is often lacking, thereby requiring families to gain and share knowledge on their own. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what leads parents to develop advocacy strategies, and how parents view collaboration. Fourteen mothers of children who are deafblind were interviewed about the unique and essential perspectives that they have concerning IEP team meetings and collaboration. The following questions were posed:RQ: What experiences lead parents of children who are deafblind to develop and use collaborative skills with their child’s IEP team'The challenges parents experience falls into two distinct themes: (a) challenges associated with the deafblind population in schools and (b) challenges with the IEP process. Parent views on collaboration are also discussed. Educators who read this study will better understand the unique experiences of parents of children who are deafblind in IEP meetings.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T12:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221127103
       
  • Availability, awareness, and utilization of assistive technologies among
           students with visual impairment: The case of Haramaya University, Ethiopia
           

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      Authors: Gezie Ketema Dabi, Dawit Negassa Golga
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to explore the availability, awareness, and utilization of assistive technologies among students with visual impairment (SVIs) in higher education institutions in Ethiopia by taking one of the oldest universities in the country as a case. To this end, the study employed instrumental case study design. Five undergraduate SVIs, two special needs educators, an AT service-delivery facilitator, and the resource center coordinator were purposively selected from Haramaya University. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and an observation checklist. The collected data were analyzed by using thematic analysis method and three overarching themes were generated inductively: knowledge and understanding about assistive technologies, availability and access to assistive technology devices and services, and utilization and management of assistive technologies. The study findings show that a lack of awareness among SVIs, instructors, and practitioners in the field; an improper organizational arrangement that dichotomize and diverge student disability services provision from trained professionals in the area; and the absence of policies and guidelines for managing assistive technologies had a negative impact on the availability and utilization of assistive technologies in the University. Thus, it is recommend that the University management, special needs educators, and other concerned stakeholders devise a means to equitably avail assistive technology devices and services for SVIs in the University accompanied by a planned training on its utilization and a coordinated management for sustainability of service delivery.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T10:13:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221124420
       
  • Visual spatial learning disabilities and braille instruction

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      Authors: Debbie Mendoza
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Braille reading consists of three basic components: tactile sensitivity, memorization of dot placement, and positional perception or detection of the location of the dots within the braille cell. Difficulty in any of those three areas leads to trouble decoding words. The presence of a visual spatial learning disability greatly decreases a student’s ability to determine positional perception. Multi-sensory reading strategies have proven effective for sighted readers who have learning disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of multi-sensory strategies when used with a braille reader with a visual spatial learning disability. In this study, they were proven effective. Strategies used with this student will be shared.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T12:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221124422
       
  • The psychosocial experiences of girls with visual impairment about the
           ideal spouse and marriage

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      Authors: Anahita Khodabakhshi-Koolaee, Zahra Amoogholi
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Mate choice is one of the biggest psychological, social, and emotional changes in the life of every human being. This issue is associated with challenges and problems for people especially blind and visual impairment (VI) people. Although marriage leads to many changes and transformations in the life of blind and VI people, it is essential for meeting psychological, social, emotional, and sexual needs. Accordingly, this study aimed to analyze the psychosocial experiences of VI girls about the ideal husband and marriage. This qualitative study was conducted with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The data were collected through targeted interviews with 20 single girls with VI who were members of the White Cane Society of Tehran in 2021. The collected data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven-step method. Four main themes were extracted from the participants’ experiences, including “experience of love and freedom,” “criteria for selecting an ideal spouse,” “fear and worry about the marriage,” and “stigma and strict public judgments.” Following the findings of the study, it can be argued that paying attention to the experience of girls with VI can shed light on their criteria for mate choice and marriage and clarify their needs and demands. This perspective helps mental health professionals and rehabilitation counseling experts to meet their needs through social welfare planning and family awareness programs.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T12:58:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221124427
       
  • Impact of Charles Bonnet Syndrome on visually impaired older adults’
           ability to engage in physical activity: A scoping review

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      Authors: Katharine Fisher, Caroline Sanders, Emma Stanmore
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a condition associated with sight loss, characterised by vivid, spontaneous visual hallucinations. Currently, it is unclear whether CBS presents challenges to participation in physical activities, in addition to barriers attributed to sight loss alone. The purpose of this scoping review was to establish the extent of the literature, and gaps in the knowledge base, concerning the impact of CBS on older adults’ engagement in physical activities. Review conduct was informed by Arksey and O’Malley and Levac et al.’s scoping review methodologies. Six academic databases were searched during May 2021, yielding 2709 results: eight articles met eligibility criteria. Two additional sources were located via a reference check of included papers and stakeholder consultation. Quantitative cross-sectional studies (n = 3) indicate that CBS may interfere with the ability to move around, while qualitative sources (case report/series n = 6; autobiography n = 1) show that sudden presentation of hallucinations in a person’s pathway, or threatening content, may jeopardise safety while walking. Moving to avoid a hallucination could present a fall risk if attention is diverted from environmental hazards. One case report stated that CBS did not affect personal care activities. Due to a limited evidence base, further empirical research is needed to achieve a comprehensive understanding about how CBS affects older adults’ participation in physical activities.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T07:23:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221112800
       
  • Increased quantity and diversity of patient referrals following the
           introduction of a novel vision rehabilitation model

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      Authors: Aidan Pucchio, Karen Eden, Julia Foster, Wilma Hopman, Mark Bona
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Despite effective vision rehabilitation (VR) interventions, no gold standard model of care delivery has been established. The institution of the South East Ontario Vision Rehabilitation Service (SOVRS) introduced a centralized intake, an occupational therapist as a systems navigator, and improved communication pathways between low vision services in order to optimize regional VR care. The aim of this study is to compare the SOVRS model of VR to a traditional, hospital-based pre-SOVRS-implementation model using referral data.A single-site (Vision Rehabilitation Clinic at Kingston Health Sciences Center), retrospective medical chart review was performed. Data were gathered from the electronic medical records of patients who received a low vision assessment at the pre-SOVRS-implementation clinic (2017) and the SOVRS clinics (2019).A total of 245 charts were reviewed over the two study periods. There were no significant differences in the age, gender, or diagnoses causing vision loss between 2017 and 2019. One hundred nine incoming referrals were received in 2017, with 136 in 2019, representing a 25% increase in incoming referrals (p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T11:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221117646
       
  • Facebook usage and quality of life of individuals with visual impairments

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      Authors: Gkatzola Aikaterini, Konstantinos Papadopoulos
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of Facebook usage on the quality of life of individuals with visual impairment while also investigating the impact of Facebook communication in comparison with face-to-face communication on quality of life. Ninety-two adult users of Facebook with visual impairment, of whom 46 lived in Greece and 46 lived abroad, participated in this study. Regarding Facebook usage, a questionnaire which investigated the frequency of various aspects of Facebook activity and Facebook communication as well as face-to-face communication was used in this study. Regarding quality of life, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, a single-item happiness scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory were employed to evaluate three different indicators of quality of life. Participants’ quality of life was relatively high. Findings showed that face-to-face communication with friends was a significant predictor of quality of life, while neither Facebook communication nor Facebook usage correlated with any of the indicators of quality of life investigated.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T05:25:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221117644
       
  • Echovis – A collection of human echolocation tests performed by blind
           and sighted individuals: A pilot study

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      Authors: Michał Bujacz, Aleksandra Królak, Grzegorz Górski, Krzysztof Matysik, Piotr Witek
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The article presents research on the echolocation skills of blind and sighted individuals gathered for the purpose of development of an echolocation training app. The goal of the research was to determine the influence of the environment type, reverberation, clicking patterns, and the average differences between the two tested groups. Ten blind and 10 sighted subjects were tested in various echolocation tasks – stationary, moving, indoor and outdoor, using mechanical clickers, and artificially generated clicks. Ten blind children also took part in the static indoor tests. The tests were repeated using binaural recordings and spatially rendered virtual audio. The following parameters and dependencies between them were analyzed: correctness of the obstacle localization, certainty of answer, type of environment and clicker sound, and frequency and number of clicks. It was found that the number of clicks influenced the correctness and certainty of the answer in case of obstacle direction determination, but not the distance. Better results were obtained in outdoor environments and in an empty room, what implies that reverberation has a positive influence on echolocation. The expected success rates in tested echolocation tasks provided a comparison of the echolocation abilities of blind and sighted subjects and set a benchmark for future tests.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T09:01:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221116728
       
  • Orientation and mobility for children with visual impairments during
           COVID-19: Creative and collaborative curriculum and instruction

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      Authors: Justin T Kaiser, Danene Fast, Jasamyn Nichols DeGrant
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This research explored the instructional practices and strategies used by orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists in March and April 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Access and Engagement survey from the American Foundation for the Blind included open-ended responses from 318 O&M specialists. The authors used thematic analysis to examine the main themes regarding instructional practices consistent throughout the responses. This article focused on the themes of collaboration between families and professionals and the creative instructional strategies used for adaptive O&M lessons. Parents took on a more active role and professionals found creative ways to make instruction useful in most cases. There were fundamental changes to the content and structure of O&M lessons when they were moved from in-person to online instruction. Creative and collaborative practices were used to adapt for the absence of the travel environment. Virtual instruction in O&M will continue to be used in certain circumstances when in-person services are not possible, but we need to better explore how to ensure it is safe and effective.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-08-06T09:46:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221112796
       
  • Safe access to road crossings and the issue of quiet vehicles in relation
           to pedestrians with a vision impairment: A literature review

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      Authors: Letitia Peat, Nancy Higgins
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This New Zealand study explored the research literature about quiet motor vehicles, like electric and hybrid cars, and the safety of pedestrians with vision impairment when making road-crossing decisions through an integrative literature review. A search of four research databases, two public library databases, and the New Zealand and the United States’ Departments of Transport online resources, as well as three relevant journals was conducted using key words. A rapid critical appraisal tool was used to assess whether the 38 found articles were valid and important, provided any answers to the research questions, and met the study’s inclusion criteria. A thematic analysis of 25 studies, which were included in this study, was completed to answer the following research questions: (1) What does the current literature say, as a whole, about the potential effects of ‘quiet vehicles’ on road-crossing procedures for pedestrians with a vision impairment' and (2) what remedies may exist to alleviate these effects, including possible changes to orientation and mobility (O&M) practice' Five emerging themes were found in the research: (1) crossing the road as a pedestrian with a vision impairment with quiet cars; (2) O&M instruction needs to change; (3) environmental access to road crossings; (4) developing and adapting technology and car sounds; and (5) rights of people with a vision impairment, policy, and legislation. The literature also confirmed that road crossings, when quiet vehicles are present, are dangerous for pedestrians with a vision impairment because such pedestrians rely on vehicular sounds for safe crossings. However, the review concluded that further research is needed in order to answer the research questions in this study. There were no studies about road-crossing procedures and quiet cars, and little research about possible remedies and O&M practice.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T05:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221111282
       
  • The changing role of teachers of students with visual impairments in North
           America during the initial response to the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Tiffany Wild, Tina S Herzberg, Michelle Hicks
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Schools abruptly closed throughout in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although legal requirements remained unchanged, service delivery models and how teachers of students with visual impairments supported their students changed. Teachers of students with visual impairments answered a series of questions about how district policies impacted their work, what materials they could not access and the subsequent impact on their students, and changes in their caseloads during the initial shutdown of schools. Four overall themes emerged from the data: (1) district policies often impeded the work of teachers of students with visual impairments; (2) teachers did not have the materials needed to ensure that their students could access instruction; (3) teachers were concerned that they could not locate some of their students; and (4) teachers experienced changes in their direct and consultative caseloads due to a variety of factors. The work of teachers of students with visual impairments was dramatically impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. As the shutdown continued, district policies changed and often impeded their efforts to support students on their caseload. In addition, many teachers struggled to locate all of their students and lacked the basic supplies to ensure instruction was accessible. However, teachers of students with visual impairments were creative and provided instruction that incorporated online resources and readily available home materials, collaborated with colleagues, and engaged the community in order to support their students. The experiences of teachers and lessons learned during the pandemic can be used to advocate for policy that protects the rights of students with visual impairments to an education during future unanticipated events such as a pandemic or inclement weather.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T12:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221109079
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 on services for students with visual impairment:
           Experiences and lessons from the field

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      Authors: Silvia M Correa-Torres, Anitha Muthukumaran
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      With schools under intense pressure to deliver high-quality instruction during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, education in the 2020–2021 school year was different than typical, especially for students with disabilities including those who are visually impaired (VI). Schools all over the world struggled to figure out the best ways to provide services for students and meet their needs, from fully online learning to hybrid education and in-person school. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of professionals who work with students with VI during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. Fifteen educators of students with VI participated in this study. Participants were asked to share their experiences when providing services to students who are VI during the first 9 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings for this study identified four major themes as follows: (1) changes in delivery of services; (2) challenges in teaching and learning; (3) opportunities for teaching and learning; and (4) learnings to apply in the future. Recommendations for professionals working with students who are VI highlighting the importance of professional development training on technologies and maintaining strong connection with families will be discussed. Suggestions for personnel preparation programs and school districts on how to support pre-service and in-service educators of students with VI will also be addressed.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T10:46:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221109082
       
  • Creating tactile graphics in school settings: A survey of training
           experience, competence, challenges, and future support needs

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      Authors: Jinseok Park, Sunggye Hong
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated training experience, self-reported competence, challenges, and future support needs of Teachers of Students With Visual Impairments (TVIs) in creating tactile graphics. The researchers developed an online survey to gain information about what training the teachers previously experienced, how competent they perceived in tactile graphic creation skills, and their challenges and support needs. Almost half of the participants had no training experience in creating tactile graphics. Participants with training responded that attending conference or workshop sessions and searching online resources were relatively more helpful. The participants with more than 3 days of training experiences self-rated their competencies than those with less training. As a lack of time and resources was identified as challenges, we suggest using online tactile graphics supporting TVIs to save time and efforts for creation work across various subject areas. Supporting the needs in three-dimensional printing requires more training experiences in hardware/software skills and collaborations with experts to create realistic hands-on materials for learning of students with visual impairments.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T10:21:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221109080
       
  • Comparison of social intelligence among adolescents with visual impairment
           regarding varying demographic factors

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      Authors: Shaista Majid, Hina Noor, Shamaila Mahmud, Saima Shaheen
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Social intelligence (SI) helps the visually impaired adolescents (VIAs) to adjust in social environment by maintaining healthy interpersonal relationship. The purpose of the study was to explore differences in SI of VIAs and varying demographic factors. For this purpose, sample of 385 VIAs (204 males, 181 females) of age range 11 to 19 years, was taken from two divisions of Punjab, that is, Rawalpindi and Lahore, Pakistan. Translated Urdu version of Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS) containing 21 items was used to get responses on Likert-type scale from 1 (describes me extremely poorly) to 7 (describes me extremely well). The tool was found to be reliable for the given population as alpha reliability of Urdu-translated TSIS was 0.91 and test–retest reliability was 0.748. Mean, frequencies, and percentages were used to summarize the results. Multiple comparison analysis was computed to assess significant differences regarding gender, socioeconomic status (SES), education, and SI of VIAs. Results revealed that there was no significant difference in SI among VIAs across gender. In addition, significant difference was indicated in SI among VIAs belonging to different SES. VIAs belonging to high SES revealed to have high level of SI. Furthermore, there was significant difference in parents’ education and SI of VIAs. It was recommended that social intervention training programs might help to create awareness and development of skills and capabilities related to SI.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-07-13T10:05:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221109084
       
  • External factors and their effect on the learning of English as a foreign
           language among students with visual impairments

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      Authors: Revital Nagar, Miri Krisi
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This qualitative study addressed the external factors that influence the experience of learning English as a foreign language among students who are visually impaired (VI). Overall, 28 university students with VI were interviewed about their experience of learning a foreign language (English) both in high school and in university. Three themes, representing external factors, emerged from the interviews: parents, peers, and English teachers. Findings showed that behavioural, academic, and parental expectations, and a stable and caring home setting, fostered participants’ success in learning a foreign language. Furthermore, the study illustrated the importance of friends in aiding the success of individuals with VI, both socially and academically. Differences in the school atmosphere and culture regarding the inclusion of students with VI acted as either a promoting or impeding factor in motivating students with VI to succeed in their foreign language learning.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T12:19:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221104899
       
  • Intersectionality and access to visual rehabilitation services:
           Experiences of people with low vision, a qualitative study

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      Authors: María del Pilar Oviedo-Cáceres, Samuel Arias-Valencia, Andrea Hernández-Quirama, Myriam Ruiz-Rodríguez, Laura Guisasola-Valencia
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Low vision is a condition of visual impairment, generated by an underlying pathology that affects visual functioning and the development of daily activities. In the field of visual impairment, the developments in the analysis of access to rehabilitation services are scarce and incipient. The study approaches the understanding of the experiences of people with low vision in Medellín, Colombia, in their search for visual rehabilitation services. Ethnographic collective case study was conducted. Intersectionality was adopted to explore people’s experiences with low vision management health services. Five women and four men with low vision who attended the healthcare center participated in the study. Twenty-nine interviews and 16 participant observation exercises were carried out. Three categories emerged in the study: (1) I had never heard of low vision services; (2) Interaction with the health system: A path of struggles; and (3) Barriers that are exacerbated by the intersection of multiple identities and systems of oppression. The Colombian health system acts as an axis of structural oppression that interacts with the economic condition, educational level, and geographical location to generate greater difficulties for the identification of low vision management options, which also interact with the multiple and dynamic identities of each subject.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T07:04:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221104902
       
  • Orientation and mobility for children with visual impairments during
           COVID-19: Responses from O&M professionals to a disruption of traditional
           services

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      Authors: Danene Fast, Justin T Kaiser
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      After lockdowns and school closings associated with COVID-19 began throughout the United States and Canada in March 2020, this research was completed to explore how the pandemic affected access to orientation and mobility (O&M) services. Using qualititave responses from a mixed methodology study, this article reports the findings from 318 individuals, including both O&M specialists and dually certified teachers of students with visual impairments (TVIs) and O&M specialists. Four major themes emerged through data analysis, including (1) prioritization of O&M goals for students with visual impairments, (2) personal factors affecting access to O&M training, (3) access to O&M services through virtual learning, and (4) creative approaches to O&M instruction during the pandemic. Within these themes, professionals, students, and families alike were asked to assume roles that went beyond traditional expectations. Questions and concerns that professionals in the field need to consider when looking at the future of O&M services were raised as part of this research, including a number of ideas for future studies.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T07:02:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221104898
       
  • Vision impairment: To register or not to register' That is the
           question

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      Authors: Cirta Tooth, Peter Cackett
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      For patients to enjoy the benefits of vision impairment registration, they need to be certified by an ophthalmologist. There have been concerns about barriers and a lack of awareness of benefits and certification criteria among ophthalmologists leading to under-registration. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the certification process in terms of potential barriers, clinical decision-making, and understanding of current guidelines and registration benefits.Ophthalmologists completed a survey on understanding registration benefits and barriers for certification (n = 22) and a survey on clinical decision-making in certification (n = 21). Furthermore, visual function and registration data were collected at a hospital Low Vision Clinic in Edinburgh from all new referrals (n = 89) over a 4-month period from August to November 2020. Our study showed that the main barriers for vision impairment certification were insufficient awareness of registration benefits, uncertainty of when to certify, and a lack of time in clinic. Ophthalmologists were more confident about certification of ocular versus neurological visual impairment. In terms of clinical decision-making, the ophthalmologists’ survey placed most importance on visual-field assessments, followed by visual acuity. Very little importance was placed on contrast sensitivity. Our findings suggest that ophthalmologists would benefit from more education into the benefits of registration and more guidance when registering patients with neurological conditions affecting functional vision in particular. It may be beneficial to highlight the role of contrast sensitivity during the certification process to ophthalmologists.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T10:35:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221102833
       
  • Evaluating the usability of 3D thematic maps: A survey with visually
           impaired students

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      Authors: Alkistis Zacharigiorga-Sourdi, Margarita Kokla, Eleni Tomai
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The pilot survey presented herein explores the possibilities given by three-dimensional (3D)-printed maps to students with visual impairment (VI) for learning the spatial distribution of geographic phenomena. The main research questions are: (a) whether students with VI can perceive two phenomena depicted on the same 3D-printed map and (b) whether they perform better when interacting with individual tactile maps for each spatial phenomenon than when interacting with a single 3D-printed map displaying the two spatial phenomena simultaneously. Our analysis indicates that 3D-printed maps can be a valuable alternative for the education of students with VI even when they represent two spatial phenomena simultaneously.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T12:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221099157
       
  • Assessing the impact of auditory media on Braille reading and writing
           skills: The case of elementary school students who are blind in Sudan

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      Authors: Hisham E Bilal Salih, Toshibumi Kakizawa
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores the impact of using auditory media in school curricula on the braille-related skills of students who are blind at a Sudanese school. Three sets of braille-related skills (6-dot braille writing, Arabic alphabet writing, and Arabic text reading) were used to evaluate and compare the students’ ability to read braille versus listening to text via audio media. The purpose of testing full cells of braille writing was to determine writing speed while that of testing braille writing of the Arabic alphabet was to examine students’ accuracy and proficiency in writing. Arabic text reading was tested to determine braille-reading speed. The three braille-related skills were evaluated for a total of 34 students in two groups (Group 1: grades 3 and 4; Group 2: grades 5–8), but the listening speed test was only administered to the second group. T-tests were used to compare the results for the braille-related tests with those for the listening speed test to determine whether braille-related skills were affected by the use of auditory media when accessing school curricula in the early grades of elementary school. The statistical results indicated there were significant differences between the two groups in 6-dot writing and Arabic text reading, whereas there was no significant difference in Arabic alphabet writing. As mastery of braille is an integrated process that requires instruction towards the parallel development of all braille-related skills, the ratio of instructional time devoted to listening compared to that devoted to braille may require adjustment.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T12:26:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221099156
       
  • Identifying psychosocial challenges and introducing coping strategies for
           people with albinism

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      Authors: Mahya Zamani Varkaneh, Anahita Khodabakhshi-Koolaee, Mohammad Reza Sheikhi
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Albinism refers to a group of genetic disorders that, following genetic mutations, lead to impaired melanin production, resulting in skin allergies and visual impairment in affected people. Visual impairment brings not only physical limitations and challenges but also many social problems, including psychosocial challenges, leading to different experiences in the lives of these people. To this end, using a qualitative content analysis approach, the present study aimed to identify psychosocial challenges and introduce coping strategies for people with albinism living in Tehran in 2021. The participants were people with albinism aged 20 to 40 years in Tehran. The participants were selected from among members of the Iranian Albinism Association (AMAL) using purposive sampling. The data were saturated through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants in the research sample. The collected data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Analysis of the participants’ experiences revealed three main themes: (1) The challenges and difficulties of living with albinism, (2) welfare, specialized facilities, and support seeking, and (3) strategies for coping with psychosocial challenges. According to the findings, albinism, due to its limitations, brings many bitter and painful experiences in education, job finding, and marriage for affected patients. The condition is also associated with some limitations such as visual impairment affecting various aspects of the patient’s life and different developmental periods. Each person may have different interpretations of their challenges and thus seek unique strategies for coping with the challenges. The findings of this study can have some implications for mental health professionals and managers of relevant institutions and to become aware of the nature and complications of albinism, the challenges faced by people with albinism, and the special needs of these people. Findings from this study can be used to identify the relationship between albinism, the challenges of living with albinism, and the special needs of these individuals, by mental health professionals, related institutions, and psychosocial environments.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T12:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221099155
       
  • Smart traffic lights for people with visual impairments: A literature
           overview and a proposed implementation

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      Authors: Paraskevi Theodorou, Apostolos Meliones, Costas Filios
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Attempting to establish aids for individuals who are visually impaired has urged many cities to seek solutions for improving their quality of life. Namely, cities have installed sound-emitting devices into traffic lights as well as sidewalks that assist their navigation. Moreover, as cities are always striving to move forward and achieve innovations concerning navigation for disabled individuals, smart traffic lights, capable of synchronizing in real-time according to traffic and individual mobility conditions, are already being installed around the world. This is in line with the adoption of the smart city concept, which involves a set of methodologies and indicators that regulate how cities perform regarding the promotion of citizens’ quality of life. Another important principle is the techno-economic aspect indicating the need for low-cost careful planning to produce cost-efficient solutions, while additional important issues are maintenance, power efficiency, and the means to coordinate numerous devices to facilitate operation in a timely and reliable manner. In this article, we present an overview of the existing solutions for the navigation of people who are blind and visually impaired along with a requirement analysis performed on the feedback received from interviews with members of the Lighthouse for the Blind of Greece both of which lead to the proposal of a new implementation that pushes the state of the art.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T12:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221099154
       
  • Oral health and knowledge of sighted children and children with visual
           impairment and their parents’ role in it: A comparative study

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      Authors: Soraia Ramos Cunha, Maria de Fátima Bizarra
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Aim:The present study aims to evaluate oral health knowledge and habits of children with visual impairment by comparison with their sighted counterparts and also evaluates parental knowledge and involvement in children’s oral hygiene routines.Methods:This observational and transversal study included the participation of 68 children (34 were visually impaired and 34 were sighted), from seven schools from Lisbon. The participants with visual impairment were age and gender-matched with their sighted counterparts to minimize variations in the analysis. In all, 52.9% of children were male, with average age of 11.15 (±3.413) years [6; 18]. The children and parents completed one survey each. Children were submitted to an oral examination to evaluate oral health.Results:Participants with visual impairment showed a non-significant increase in the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (dmft), gingival, and oral hygiene indexes. Both groups’ gingival state was mostly classified as excellent, and oral hygiene was mainly classified as excellent/good. More children with visual impairment (85.7%) needed help with teeth brushing (p = .046) and were more likely to miss dentist check-ups more often (p = .025). Also, sighted children and their parents demonstrated more knowledge about oral health.Conclusion:Children with visual impairment and their parents showed less favorable results, justifying the need to promote oral health education to this demographic.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T12:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221099152
       
  • Physical activity and functional body image in youth with and without
           visual impairments

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      Authors: Katriana Belknap, Melanie Perreault, Lauren Lieberman, Pamela Beach
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research has found a positive relationship between functional body image and physical activity in typically developing youth; however, functional body image has not been studied in youth with visual impairments. Youth with visual impairments tend to have a lower body image and engage in less physical activity than their sighted peers. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in functional body image between youth with and without visual impairments and the relationship between functional body image and physical activity in youth with visual impairments. Twenty youth with visual impairments and 20 youth without disabilities completed the embodied image scale and the organized sport (OS) and active physical recreation (AR) activity categories of the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, which measures five dimensions of activity participation. Mann–Whitney U tests revealed that participants with visual impairments had lower functional satisfaction (p = .006) and marginally lower functional investment (p = .059) than participants without disabilities. The correlation analysis revealed several significant positive relationships: functional values with AR where (r = .472), functional satisfaction with AR intensity (r = .459) and AR enjoyment (r = .501), and functional investment with AR (r = .554) and OS enjoyment (r = .655). There were significant negative relationships between functional investment and AR diversity (r = −.475) and intensity (r = −.501). This suggests that youth with visual impairments have lower satisfaction and investment in their functional body image; however, those who enjoyed OS and AR activities tended to be more satisfied and invest more in their functional body image.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T04:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221099151
       
  • Prevalence, causes, and impact of self-reported vision impairment among
           older people in China: Findings from the China health and retirement
           longitudinal study

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      Authors: Ali Sohail, Jinfeng Du, Babar Nawaz Abbasi, Adebukola Kabir Taiwo
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigated the prevalence, causes, and impact of self-reported vision impairment among older people in China. A total of 12,910 participants aged ⩾50 years were included in this study from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) over the periods of 2011, 2013, and 2015. All data were reported by participants via a self-reported questionnaire. Distance vision was assessed by asking if they could see the face of a person on the other side of the street. Near vision was assessed by asking if they could read ordinary newspaper. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The analysis method included the χ2 – square distribution test and multiple regression analysis. This article first found that prevalence of self-reported vision impairment was much higher in rural than in urban areas; in urban areas, females had a greater chance of being affected than males, and for both sexes, it increases with increasing age. Second, some factors found are significantly associated with increased vision impairment rates, include increasing age, female gender, rural residents, elementary-level education, unmarried individuals, and non-agricultural occupations. Third, the leading cause of vision impairment was a refractive error and the most common causes of vision impairment include cataracts and glaucoma. Fourth, vision impairment was significantly associated with falls and depressive symptoms and has a negative effect on the quality of life of older Chinese. The article concluded that older people with self-reported vision impairment were relatively low and it is majorly caused by refractive error. Older people with distance vision impairment and near vision impairment were more likely to report falls and depressive symptoms in the future. In line with these findings, a couple of policy recommendations for further research were made.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T09:09:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221099160
       
  • Long-term trends in incidence and prevalence of severe sight impairment
           due to diabetes in South East Scotland before and after implementation of
           diabetic retinopathy screening

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      Authors: Martin J Anderson, David J Chinn, Caroline J Styles
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The study set out to examine the impact of the introduction of a national diabetic retinopathy screening programme in Scotland in 2006 on incidence and trends in severe sight impairment (SSI) certification due to diabetes over three decades.We analysed SSI certification due to diabetic eye disease in Fife, Scotland, between 2010 and 2019 and compared it to previously published estimates from 1990 onwards. Population estimates of the general population and those with diabetes were obtained from the National Records of Scotland and the National Diabetes Register, NHS SCI Diabetes, respectively. Mean annual incidence of SSI in the population with diabetes, 1990–2019, before and after the introduction of diabetic retinopathy screening was compared using a Mann–Whitney U Test.Mean incidence in 2007–2019 was 19.8/100,000 and was significantly less than the period before the systematic screening, 1990–2006 (57.5/100,000, p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T01:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221099147
       
  • Determining the genital hygiene behaviours of visually impaired women

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      Authors: Havva Özdemir, Ayşe Kılıç Uçar
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Genital hygiene is one of the most important factors in the protection of women’s reproductive health. Thus, detailed knowledge of the genital hygiene behaviours of visually impaired women is crucial for preventive and curative health services. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the genital hygiene behaviours of visually impaired women. The study was conducted with 90 visually impaired women who were members of the ‘Altı Nokta Körler’ association. A data collection form was developed within the scope of the study. The data were collected through the face-to-face interview method between October 2018 and June 2019. The results show that the ratios of women who think that self-care and genital hygiene behaviours are affected by their visual impairment are 18.9% and 21.1%, respectively. Of those who think that visual impairment affects their self-care, 76.5% need someone else to notice their lack of self-care, and the remaining women notice this lack through their bodily reactions, such as bad odours and dirt. It was found that more than half of the women (58.9%) had a vaginal shower only after sexual intercourse. Among women, 35.6% of them thought that visual impairment was an obstacle to gynaecological examination. The regular gynaecological examination rates of these women were only 8.9%. It was found that the majority of women (78.9%) experienced abnormal vaginal discharge, but only 23.9% applied to a health institution. Visually impaired women have similar deficient genital hygiene behaviours to non-disabled women. In addition, visually impaired women face difficulties in maintaining personal and genital hygiene and in receiving health services.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T05:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221091302
       
  • Individual differences in spontaneous facial expressions in people with
           visual impairment and blindness

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      Authors: Hyung Nam Kim, Sam Jotham Sutharson
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      People can visualize their spontaneous and voluntary emotions via facial expressions, which play a critical role in social interactions. However, less is known about mechanisms of spontaneous emotion expressions, especially in adults with visual impairment and blindness. Nineteen adults with visual impairment and blindness participated in interviews where the spontaneous facial expressions were observed and analyzed via the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We found a set of Action Units, primarily engaged in expressing the spontaneous emotions, which were likely to be affected by participants’ different characteristics. The results of this study could serve as evidence to suggest that adults with visual impairment and blindness show individual differences in spontaneous facial expressions of emotions.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T10:56:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211070927
       
  • New Zealand O&M instructors’ perspectives about, and experience in, the
           use of tactile maps with people with vision impairment

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      Authors: Jill Baldwin, Nancy Higgins
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This qualitative study explored the perspectives and experience of New Zealand O&M instructors in the use of tactile maps with people with vision impairment. In-depth, open-ended, and semi-structured interviews were used to gather information from four participants, who were qualified O&M instructors. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Three inter-related themes emerged from the data that effected the O&M’s tactile map usage: (1) the tactile map and the O&M instructor, (2) student needs and experiences, and (3) time and resources. Microcapsule and thermoform maps were the least used map medium, with collage map techniques used frequently by half of the participants. The most preferred tactile maps were ready-made tactile map kits, and instructors drawing directly on the students’ hand or back. Tactile maps were used mostly by the participants to meet the orientation needs of motivated students, who were blind, had no visual memory, or did not use their vision for orientation purposes. Tactile maps were considered a vital orientation tool when the participants were teaching such students, and the participants did not believe Global Positioning System (GPS) applications would fully replace tactile maps. However, in general, the participants revealed that tactile maps were used infrequently as an orientation tool in New Zealand because of caseload makeup, limited time, and limited resources. In order to increase the use of tactile maps, tactile map resources may need to be more readily available. In addition, further research is needed about the characteristics of people with a vision impairment, who benefit from tactile maps, along with the effect of tactile maps usage on an O&M instructor’s caseload and time, so that O&M instructors can plan accordingly and people with a vision impairment can continue to benefit from this important orientation tool.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T09:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221088019
       
  • Characteristics of individual low-vision rehabilitation counseling among
           older adults: A qualitative 2-year follow-up study

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      Authors: Heidi Johanna Siira, Helvi Aulikki Kyngäs, Aura Aino Kaarina Falck
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Visual impairments (VI) burden particularly the aging population globally. To ensure healthy aging despite disability, the health care systems must provide effective low-vision rehabilitation services (LVR) for those in need. Low-vision rehabilitation counseling (LVRC) requires specialized multidisciplinary teamwork and has not been studied in detail among the elderly. This study aims to provide a comprehensive picture of individual LVRC actions and introduce a LVRC classification to use for attempts to improve the LVRC processes. This study employed a qualitative follow-up design. Data describing the individual LVRC processes in a prospective cohort of elderly patients with VI (n = 39) were collected individually over 2 years during the years 2016–2019. The data were analyzed through deductive content analysis. The analyzed LVRC provided assistive devices, services, and home modifications, but problems related to independent movement in the living environment, psychosocial burdens, adaptation to disability, and learning new compensatory skills received less attention. To ensure effective LVRC, the multiprofessional team providing the rehabilitation should emphasize goal-setting and continuous assessment. LVRC should be seen as a process of adaptation, adherence, and learning. LVRC should support and promote older adults to participate and function to their full potential in the modern society, which includes utilizing digital technologies.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T09:26:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221085852
       
  • Female gender: A significant barrier to access cataract surgery in rural
           Gurugram, Haryana, India

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      Authors: Neeraj Sharma, Chetna Sharma
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this study is to determine whether the female gender is a barrier for the access to cataract surgery in the rural population of Gurugram district, Haryana, India.The data of consecutive 100 male and 100 female patients operated for cataract surgery at Department of Ophthalmology, University-affiliated hospital were studied. Data pertaining to age of the patients, visual acuity of the operated and better eye, maturity of the cataract at time of surgery, type of cataract surgery opted were analysed. Visual impairment was considered when visual acuity of the better eye was less than 6/18 (0.32).Two types of cataract surgery were offered to the patients: manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) and phacoemulsification. Independent t-tailed test was used to analyse data to ascertain female gender as a barrier to access cataract surgery.The findings indicate that the difference in age at the time of surgery between men and women was not statistically significant (p = .327). The analysis of visual impairment in the operated eye of men and women was also not statistically significant (p = .173). However, the analysis of visual impairment in the better eye was strongly suggestive of gender bias with statistically significant results (p = .001). In total, 71% male and 56% female patients opted for phacoemulsification surgery, whereas 44% women and 29% men chose less-expensive manual SICS surgery.The study indicates that females had severe visual impairment in the better eye at the time of surgery and also opted for a less-expensive option indicating less financial freedom and decision-making power.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T09:23:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221085848
       
  • Regular classroom teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs about inclusion of
           students with visual impairment in government secondary schools of Wolaita
           Zone

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      Authors: Paulos Dea, Sohayl Mohajer, Dawit Negassa
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      General education teachers’ self-efficacy is often identified as the main factor for the successful implementation of inclusion for students with visual impairment (SVI), yet limited research has been conducted in this area. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the general education teachers’ self-efficacy toward including SVI in the government secondary schools of Wolaita Zone. In this study, a mixed-methods approach with convergent design was employed. The target population included teachers, SVI, and principals. The sample consisting of 440 participants was selected using purposive and multistage sampling techniques. Data were collected using questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and focus group discussion (FGD). One-sample t-test and thematic analysis were used for analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. The findings revealed that, in general, teachers showed positive self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management of inclusion for SVI.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T06:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221086201
       
  • The effects of balance and core stability training on postural control in
           people with visual impairment: A systematic review

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      Authors: Sarvin Salar, Mohammad Karimizadeh Ardakani, Lauren J Lieberman, Pamela S Beach, Melanie Perreault
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Visual impairment is one of the most common functional impairments that considerably affects the postural control process and the ability to maintain balance. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review concerning the effects of balance and core stability training on postural control in individuals who are visually impaired. This article comprehensively reviewed studies on balance in individuals who are blind from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus from 2007 to 2021. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were people who were blind or visually impaired (acquired and congenital), men and women, all ages, and at least 6 weeks balance or core stability training program. Twelve articles were included in this review. Individuals with visual impairment and blindness from all ages were included in this study. According to this review, all balance and core stability protocols in this article have positive effects on balance and postural control for individuals with visual impairments. Therefore, balance and core stability intervention for at least 6 weeks is one of the more well-established protocols for improving balance and postural control in people with visual impairment and can have a positive impact in risk of falling regardless of age, gender, or severity of visual impairment.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T12:33:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221077215
       
  • Instructional strategies to support shared reading with learners who are
           deafblind

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      Authors: Christopher Brum, Susan M Bruce
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The field of deafblindness has developed evidence-based practices in communication development and intervention, but very little research has been published on literacy. This study examined the survey responses of 84 participants from 25 states, and 10 follow-up interviews to learn more about emerging instructional ideas specific to shared story reading, also known as interactive reading. The thematic analysis resulted in eight themes and associated instructional strategies. Attentional and engagement strategies included unique considerations due to the impact of deafblindness on accessibility and meaning-making. Teachers, interveners, and parents used practices grounded in both the child-guided approach and systematic instructional approach. They shared vocabulary acquisition strategies, pointing to the link between vocabulary and comprehension. Drawing and writing strategies were used to create text and in extension activities. Touch and tactile strategies were used in preparing materials and during shared reading sessions. Participants applied a variety of comprehension strategies including repetition, prediction, and questioning. Across the survey and interview responses, it was evident that participants understood the role of integrating individually appropriate receptive and expressive communication modes/forms in shared reading activities.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T07:24:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196221077219
       
  • English language learners with visual impairments: An exploratory
           literature review

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      Authors: Jessica E Schultz, Mackenzie E Savaiano
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      English language learners with visual impairments (ELLVIs) are a low incidence population with unique learning needs. The purpose of this review was to identify the existing literature specifically examining ELLVIs. As no literature review examining ELLVIs could be located, this review synthesizes what we know about the population and provides a starting point for future research. The authors reviewed all titles found across four databases (n = 658 articles) and included only articles addressing English language learners with visual impairments in educational contexts. A total of 24 articles were included in the review. The following four themes emerged: assessment, family perceptions, teacher perceptions, and instructional strategies. Findings are discussed generally and by theme. Assessment reports revealed common accommodations for English language proficiency tests, but decision-making criteria for whether ELLVIs participated in assessments were unclear. Parent/guardian perceptions largely revealed dissatisfaction with school communication. Teacher perception studies revealed a need for more training and support. Common instructional strategies were identified by researchers and teachers in the field, but only one article examined instructional strategies experimentally. Therefore, there is limited evidence of the efficacy of any particular instructional strategy. Analyzing the research, the results show the majority has been conducted by the same research teams. More research needs to be conducted across all themes. Commonly accepted/validated assessment accommodations are discussed, allowing practitioners to identify which accommodations they might be able to implement. In addition, this review alerts practitioners to common parental concerns. This review also uncovers commonly used instructional strategies although these are not necessarily research based within the population. Commonly used instructional strategies are discussed, which, although not evidence-based, identifies potential areas for future research.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T04:37:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211070928
       
  • A scoping review of longitudinal studies of children with vision
           impairment

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      Authors: Carlijn Veldhorst, Mathijs Vervloed, Sabina Kef, Bert Steenbergen
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      In past comparative studies, children with vision impairment were often shown a developmental delay compared to sighted children in several developmental domains. Medical treatments of vision impairments and societal attitudes toward disabilities changed considerably. Besides, within the rehabilitation practices, a stronger integration of multiple perspectives and increased focus on social inclusion and participation in society is present. The main goal of this scoping review was to investigate what is known about the development in cognition, language and communication, motor, social–emotional, and adaptive skills development of children with vision impairment by longitudinal studies. Besides, the results of the past studies were related to a contemporary view on disability, the participation concept. This was done by applying the family of participation-related constructs (fPRC) framework to examine which factors were covered and which not. A systematic literature search was performed in Web of Science, PsycInfo, ERIC, and Medline. Studies were included if they have been published in peer-reviewed journals between 1994 and 2020 had a longitudinal design and examined the development of children with vision impairment with no additional impairments up to 18 years of age. From the 2698 identified studies, 32 studies were included. The most commonly assessed variables concerned cognition and language and communication development. To a lesser extent, studies examined adaptive skills, motor, and social–emotional development. The majority used vision status as a predictor variable for developmental outcomes. In terms of the fPRC framework, most studies included variables related to the factor activity competences. The factors preferences, sense of self, environment, and involvement were studied far less often. The review suggested a positive impact on developmental outcomes for including variables that can mediate the relation between vision status and developmental outcomes and variables that are related to the fPRC factors environment, sense of self, and preferences.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T12:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211072432
       
  • Accessible and engaging voices: Teaching English to adult second-language
           learners with visual impairment using WhatsApp voice notes in India

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      Authors: Karthika J, Veena Selvam
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This case study explored the possibility of using WhatsApp voice notes to teach English to adult learners with visual impairment. The study has documented in detail the challenges and advantages of learning and teaching English through WhatsApp.In this case study, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and integrated and analysed to understand feasibility of using WhatsApp to teach English to learners with visual impairment. Even though the case study was primarily qualitative, some quantitative data were also collected and analysed numerically. The numerical data were analysed using descriptive statistics and reported using numbers and in the form of tables and figures. Furthermore, non-numerical data were examined inductively and reported thematically.The advantage of using WhatsApp voice notes was that it provided a platform for the learners to converse in English and an opportunity to reflect on their own learning process and progress critically. It provided a collaborative learning experience independent of the conventional learning experience of a classroom. The study revealed that the learners with visual impairment were more engaged in the learning process and in improving their speaking skill when WhatsApp voice notes were used. The coding of messages and detailed analysis of message categories clearly revealed the social-emotional skills of each participant in the study. The message categories were adapted from Community of Inquiry Framework and message categories suggested by Naaman et al.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T12:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211070929
       
  • Relationship between the Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire and
           psychophysical measures of visual acuity and chromaticity discrimination
           in older visually impaired children

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      Authors: Marcia Caires Bestilleiro Lopes, Marcelo Fernandes Costa, Célia Regina Nakanami
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire (CVFQ) is an instrument to measure the impact of visual impairment in children and their families. It can be used as a research tool to verify the effectiveness of treatment, therapy, and different methods for visual stimulation and rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between General Health, General Vision Health, Personality, Family Impact, and Treatment – subscales of the CVFQ and psychophysical measures of visual acuity (VA) and chromaticity discrimination (CV). This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sensory Psychophysiology Laboratory – University of São Paulo in partnership with the Ambulatory of Visual Stimulation in the Sector of Low Vision and Visual Rehabilitation – Federal University of São Paulo. The children who participated in this study were divided into two groups: study group (SG), composed of 11 children with a diagnosis of visual impairment and mean age of 55.36 months (SD = 16.88), and control group (CG), composed of 8 children with normal vision and mean age of 64.87 months (SD = 13.22). Both groups underwent the application of CVFQ, were tested for VA using the Teller Acuity Cards (TAC) test, and CV using the Cambridge Colour Test program for children (CCT Kids). The result of applying the CVFQ to groups of children over 3 years, comparing SG and CG, differences were observed in the following subscales: General Vision Health (F = 10.00, p < .001); Competence (F = 7.03, p = .030); Personality (F = 6.48, p = .010); Total Quality of Life (F = 11.39, p = .010). These differences show a worse score for the SG. In the VA test using TAC, the data collected in groups of children over 3 years, comparing SG and CG, differences were observed in VA RE (F = 19.25, p < .001); VA LE (F = 25.99, p < .001); VA BE (F = 15.45, p < .001). These differences show worse scores for the SG. In the CV using the CCT Kids, the data collected in groups of children over 3 years, comparing SG and CG, no statistically significant differences for protan, tritan, and deutan groups were observed. For the SG, while for children over 3 years, correlations were found for General Vision Health, Competence, Family Impact, and General Quality of Life. We conclude that there are statistically significant differences when comparing the SG with the CG for the visual function of visual acuity and chromaticity discrimination, and we also demonstrated the sensitivity in the use of CVFQ in reflect VA and CV impairments.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T10:26:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211068708
       
  • Experiences of stressful situations and mindfulness training for persons
           with visual impairment

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      Authors: May Britt Frøysa Lyngroth, Frøydis Gammelsæter
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to explore what persons with visual impairment (VI) experienced as stressful in their daily lives and their experiences with using mindfulness training (MT) to cope with stressful situations. In order to explore this we conducted semi-structured interviews with six persons with VI after finishing an 8-week MT course. Systematic text condensation was used to analyze the interviews. This qualitative study found that the participants described three main areas of stress: (1) lack of access to information, (2) social expectations, and (3) navigating the body through one’s surroundings. The participants’ experiences with using MT to cope with stressful situations resulted in emotion-based and problem-based strategies: (1) breathing anchor, (2) awareness of and reflection upon thoughts and feelings, (3) most things are doable, (4) tackling the situation in a new way, and (5) haste makes waste. Our respondents described using MT for coping with stressful situations in all the three main areas of stress. Based upon this study we propose that there is good reason to offer MT as stress management for persons with VI, but further study is required to confirm the health-promoting benefits of MT for this group.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T04:14:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211067361
       
  • Experiences of families involving a parent with progressive deafblindness

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      Authors: Saskia Damen, Ilse van Zadelhoff, Corrie Tijsseling
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Usher syndrome is a progressive form of deafblindness, which can have significant psychological consequences. This study aimed to get insight in the perceived impact of Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) on families with a parent affected by this syndrome, and in the experiences of these families with social, professional, and peer support. Participants were 10 parents with USH2 living in the Netherlands, 10 of their co-parents, and 10 of their children. The parents filled in questionnaires and participated in a semi-structured interview. A photo-elicitation interview and a semi-structured interview were administered to the children. Interviews were transcribed and systematically coded, using thematic and open coding. Parents rated the family’s quality of life in general as satisfactory. Both negative and positive consequences were described of USH2 for the family. Parents without USH2 and their children stated to provide support to the parent with USH2, which was often described as self-evident. Some parents without USH2, however, described their family tasks as a burden. Some parents also reported that psychological problems of the parent with USH2 affected the well-being of other family members. Several parents and some children expressed that the syndrome was hardly discussed within the family. Unfulfilled family support needs were mentioned, a lack of involvement of family members in the professional support, as well as a lack of professional and peer support for children and partners. This study revealed that USH2 in a parent has impact on the entire family. Family-centred approaches are recommended for professionals who support parents with Usher syndrome.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T11:05:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211059751
       
  • A survey of mobile app use among university students with visual
           impairment in India

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      Authors: Yogendra Pandey, Jaehoon Lee, Devender R Banda, Nora Griffin-Shirley, The Nguyen, Vitalis Othuon
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Mobile phones/devices are an important part of our daily lives for sighted people and those with visual impairment (VI) in India. This study explores how Indian university students use and perceive mobile apps and identify the challenges in their usage. A paper-based survey was administered for 124 college students who were legally blind. The survey had items relating to sociodemographic information, use of mobile devices and apps, and the use of apps specifically designed for persons with VI. Results show that, on average, the participants with VI have been using a mobile device for more than 5 years. Many participants used Android devices and free apps. In addition, they found that the mobile apps were user-friendly and accessible. Results also found that Facebook and WhatsApp are more frequently used. Participants had a high level of self-efficacy and positive attitudes toward special apps for VI. Android devices are popular in India because of lower cost compared to iOS devices. Results are discussed, and implications for practice are provided.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T09:01:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211067358
       
  • Access to exercise for people with visual impairments during the
           Coronavirus-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Mike Richardson, Karin Petrini, Michael J Proulx
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      People with blindness and visual impairments have reduced access to exercise compared to the general population during typical societal functioning. The Coronavirus-19 pandemic completely disrupted daily life for most individuals worldwide, and in the United Kingdom, a stay-at-home order was enforced. One of the sole reasons an individual could leave their home was for the purpose of daily exercise. Here, we examined how the UK national lockdown impacted access to exercise for people with blindness and visual impairment. We used a mixed methods design, collecting quantitative data from two established measures (the Exercise Barriers and Benefits Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and qualitative data from open-ended questions. We found that, during the initial stages of the lockdown, perceived barriers to exercise increased compared to pre-pandemic levels, driven by factors, such as the closure of exercise facilities and additional difficulties posed by social distancing. Interestingly, during the later stages of the UK Coronavirus-19 response, perceived barriers decreased to lower than pre-pandemic levels. Thematic analysis indicated that this may have been due to participants finding new online methods to exercise at home, in combination with the tentative reopening of facilities.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T09:53:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211067356
       
  • Postural control and risk of falling in people who are blind: The effect
           and durability of perturbation and vestibular exercises

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      Authors: Yousof Moghadas Tabrizi, Mohammad Hani Mansori, Mohammad Karimizadeh Ardakani
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to compare the effect and durability of perturbation and vestibular exercises on balance and the risk of falling in people with visual impairment (VI). Thirty-six men with VI were divided into three groups, including a control and two experimental (perturbation and vestibular) groups. The experimental groups performed perturbation and vestibular exercises for 4 weeks and three sessions per week. Biodex balance system was used to assess balance and falling risk before and after training interventions. To evaluate the effects within and between groups at three levels of measurement: pre-test, post-test, and durability effect between three groups, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way ANOVA were used. Repeated measures ANOVA test showed that both experimental groups showed significant improvements in static balance, dynamic balance, and falling risk. In comparison between the groups, the results showed that in the post-test and durability stages, there was a significant difference between the groups and the perturbation exercise group had a greater effect on the dependent variables. Due to the effectiveness of exercises, it is recommended that people with VI pay attention to balance-based perturbation exercises to strengthen the somatosensory system and vestibular exercises to strengthen the vestibular system.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T09:51:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211067355
       
 
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