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  Subjects -> DISABILITY (Total: 114 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 310 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aequitas : Revue de Développement Humain, Handicap et Changement Social     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Disability     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
ALTER - European Journal of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Annals of the Deaf     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Aphasiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Assistive Technology: The Official Journal of RESNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Audiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Audiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Augmentative and Alternative Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Autism in Adulthood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
British Journal of Learning Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102)
British Journal of Special Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
British Journal of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Disability Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Deafness & Education International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Disability & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Disability & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Disability and Health Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Disability Compliance for Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Disability Studies Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Distúrbios da Comunicação     Open Access  
Early Popular Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health Expectations     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Hearing, Balance and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inclusion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Indian Journal of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Intellectual Disability Australasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Audiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal on Disability and Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal for Healthcare Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Aging and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Assistive Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Disability & Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Disability Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Enabling Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Gerontological Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Intellectual Disability - Diagnosis and Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Policy and Practice In Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 95)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Learning Disabilities : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Learning Disability Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Mental Health Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Music and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Physical Disabilities : Education and Related Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pró-Fono Revista de Atualização Científica     Open Access  
Public Policy and Aging Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Research and Practice in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal  
Revista Brasileira de Educação Especial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Espaço     Open Access  
Revista Española de Discapacidad     Open Access  
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue francophone de la déficience intellectuelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Siglo Cero. Revista Española sobre Discapacidad Intelectual     Open Access  
Sign Language Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Social Care and Neurodisability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Speech Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Stigma and Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Stress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Technical Aid to the Disabled Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Technology and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Tizard Learning Disability Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Topics in Language Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Visual Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Visual Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Visual Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Visual Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Working with Older People     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
British Journal of Visual Impairment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.337
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0264-6196 - ISSN (Online) 1744-5809
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1141 journals]
  • Research on visual impairment and blindness in German-speaking countries:
           A special path'
    • Authors: Martin Giese
      Pages: 3 - 5
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 3-5, January 2021.

      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-01-12T04:27:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620982391
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Touching and hearing the shapes: How auditory angular and curved sounds
           influence proficiency in recognising tactile angle and curve shapes when
           experienced and inexperienced in using haptic touch
    • Authors: Torø Graven, Clea Desebrock
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated whether adding auditory angular and curved sounds to tactile angle and curve shapes – one unspecified sound to one unspecified shape – positively influences the accuracy and exploration time in recognising tactile angles and curves when experienced and inexperienced in using haptic touch. A within-participant experiment was conducted, with two groups of participants: experienced and inexperienced in using haptic touch, and with two conditions: congruous (e.g., angle shape and angular sound) and incongruous (e.g., angle shape and curved sound) tactile and auditory shape information. Adding congruous auditory angular and curved sounds to tactile angle and curve shapes positively influences the accuracy in recognising tactile angles and curves both when experienced and inexperienced in using haptic touch, and the exploration time on correct recognitions when experienced. People integrate tactile and auditory (angle; curve) shape information and this improves their proficiency in recognising tactile angles and curves.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-04-30T09:10:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211003114
       
  • Grade 12 national examination assessment practices for learners with
           visual impairments in selected schools in Mwense and Lusaka districts,
           Zambia
    • Authors: Sarah Muyoma Ndume
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The study aimed at examining the practices at Grade 12 level with respect to learners with visual impairments. The sample was drawn from Mwense and Lusaka districts of Zambia. The study was guided by the following objective: to establish the current practices of the Grade 12 national examination assessment for learners with visual impairments in selected schools of Mwense and Lusaka districts, Zambia. The study was qualitative, and a case study design was used. The study comprised 22 respondents consisting of four pupils, six school leavers, and six school specialist teachers, two school headmasters, two Education Standard Office (ESO) in charge of special education, and two officials from the Examination Council of Zambia (ECZ). Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data based on the themes that emerged in the study. The study findings revealed that learners who were totally blind wrote their examinations using braille format, and enlarged print was used for those learners who were partially sighted. The findings of study also showed that the examination questions were modified into a descriptive form, and by doing so, learners were able to access the examinations. The study further revealed that learners were given extra time during the examinations, although this was not adequate. It was equally revealed that there were no special provisions that were considered when marking examination scripts for the learners with visual impairments, meaning their scripts were marked just like other scripts for learners without sight challenges. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the Examination Council of Zambia should come up with a marking centre where the scripts for the learners with visual impairments could be marked to solve the problem of missing results, among others.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T08:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621995853
       
  • The associations between vision level and early hand use in children aged
           6–36 months with visual impairment: A cross-sectional, historical case
           note review
    • Authors: Julia Smyth, Jim Richardson, Alison Salt
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Vision level varies within the population of children born with visual impairment (VI). Children with profound visual impairment (PVI – with light awareness at best) are more developmentally vulnerable than peers born with typical sight or those with severe visual impairment (SVI – basic form vision). Many children with VI are dependent on their hand skills to support their development. However, the impact of vision level on the development of hand use is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to describe the associations between vision level and early hand use in children between 6 and 36 months of age with SVI and PVI. A historical case note review, including video footage of 19 children with SVI ([math] = 19 months) and 12 children with PVI ([math] = 16 months), was completed. Hand use was observed while the children completed the Reynell-Zinkin Scales. Observations were recorded using a data collection tool designed for the study. The tool included a checklist of developmentally appropriate hand skills expected to emerge in the first 3 years of life. The observer marked each skill as present, absent or emerging in the video clips. Children with SVI used 80.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [75.0, 87.5]) of the hand skills under observation. Those with PVI used 57.1% (95% CI = [46.4, 67.9]) of these skills. Vision level and hand use were positively correlated: rs = .564 (95% CI = [.263, .765]), p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T12:08:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621994867
       
  • Readiness of individuals with visual impairments for participation in
           distance education
    • Authors: Eleni Koustriava
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals with visual impairments (VI) may face difficulties fitting in a distance education (DE) program mainly because of accessibility issues and a pervading lack of readiness. The main question was which difficulties and, specifically, which specific aspects of participants’ readiness could jeopardize their attendance in a DE program. The aims of this study were to examine the readiness of individuals with VI for participation in DE and the possible relationships between participants’ readiness for participation and their personal characteristics. A 42-item questionnaire has been developed to examine readiness for participation through five sub-scales referring to motivation, skills, self-management, interaction, and access to technological means (including means of assistive technology). The findings revealed a slightly positive degree of readiness as far as participants’ motivation, perception of their skills, and self-management are concerned and an approximate neutral degree of readiness regarding the aspects of interaction and access to technological means in the context of a DE program. The greater the educational level and the frequency of computer usage, the more positive the readiness for participation.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T11:27:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621994865
       
  • The impact of monocular and binocular visual impairment on the quality of
           life of Brazilian children
    • Authors: Tais Siqueira Venâncio, Bruna Michele Freire de Araújo, João Vitor Ramos de Toledo Negrão, Lívia de Andrade Freire, Niro Kasahara
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this case–control study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) in children with visual impairment from an urban area in Brazil. Participants included children with binocular and monocular visual impairment and normal controls aged between 4 and 15 years. All subjects underwent a basic ophthalmic exam and answered the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL). The score results were compared among the groups with analysis of variance (ANOVA). The sample included 45 children with visual disability (24 binocular and 21 monocular) and 30 age-matched controls. The groups did not differ in age and gender distribution. The child self-report score for the binocular visual impairment group was lower when compared to controls in all four core scales; as compared to monocular children, the binocular group scored lower in physical health and social functioning. The total score of binocular children (67.9 ± 25.2) was lower than that for monocular children (83.0 ± 13.3, p = .01) and controls (84.2 ± 13.6, p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T11:26:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621994882
       
  • Content/face validity of motor skill perception questionnaires for youth
           with visual impairments: A Delphi method
    • Authors: Alexandra Stribing, David F Stodden, Eva Monsma, Lauren J Lieberman, Ali S Brian
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Youth with visual impairments (VIs) tend to have lower levels of motor competence and physical activity with increased sedentary behavior and risk of obesity when compared to their peers without VIs. Knowing the influence that motor competence plays on physical activity behaviors in childhood, it is important to identify factors, such as self and others’ perceptions, that may be supporting/inhibiting motor competence levels for youth with VIs. To rigorously examine self-perceptions, parents’ perceptions, and metaperceptions, it is important to have instruments with appropriate content and face validity. Therefore, the purpose of this Delphi study was to determine the content/face validity of the self-perception, parents’ perception, and metaperception questionnaires for youth with VIs. Participants (N = 13, male = 2; female = 11) included experts from four categories: (1) teachers directly working with students with VIs in schools (teachers of the visually impaired [TVI], orientation and mobility specialists [O and M], adapted and general physical educators [n = 6]); (2) researchers who publish studies in the field of physical education, motor behavior, or VIs (n = 3); (3) parents of children with VIs (n = 2); and (4) individuals with documented VIs (n = 2). After two rounds of completing the Delphi procedure, results showed means above 4.0 out of 5.0 for all three questionnaires. The panel of experts deemed the content/face validity of the instruments acceptable.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T11:21:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621990687
       
  • An examination of Unified English Braille and its efficiency in
           representing print
    • Authors: Mackenzie Savaiano, Devin M Kearns
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study considers whether Unified English Braille provides an efficient representation of printed English. Two databases of English words were used to acquire and calculate information about English orthography that was then used to analyze Unified English Braille (UEB) using a computer program developed by the second author. In general, braille groupsigns and wordsigns represent many of the most frequently occurring letter combinations and words in English. However, there were some braille contractions that are so infrequent, they appear fewer than 100 times per million words or did not appear in the database at all. There was good braille representation within the 50 most frequent words, and our efficiency index showed that braille is already extremely efficient, although there is some mismatch between the order of introduction for braille and the frequency of certain words and letter combinations in English. There is a common understanding that we should teach all of the contractions by the end of third grade, but our results show that some contractions, many of which are shortform words, never appear in school texts. It may be possible to approach instruction of shortform words in a different way.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T09:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620973710
       
  • Experiences of individuals with blindness or visual impairment during the
           COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Hungary
    • Authors: Judit Gombas, Judit Csakvari
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the measures of social distancing and national lockdown had a significant impact on everyday life. Individuals with BVI (blindness and visual impairment) are assumed to face increased barriers in numerous domains of their lives. This online survey research investigates, among Hungarian adults with BVI (N = 132), the impact of the lockdown on their access to shopping, daily support needs, access to remote studies of higher education or work, and leisure habits. Respondents accounted for negative impacts of the lockdown on their participation and independence in all research topics. Issues of accessibility were common both concerning shopping for essential goods and access to remote study and work.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T06:38:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621990695
       
  • The functional ability of older adults with visual impairments: A 2-year
           follow-up study
    • Authors: Kaisa-Mari Mirjam Saarela, Ulla Jämsä, Aura Falck, Helvi Kyngäs, Heidi Johanna Siira
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study describes the self-estimated functional ability of older adults with visual impairments (VI) living at home prior to and after 24 months of individual low vision rehabilitation (LVR) according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. The LVR was carried out according to regular standard of care in Finland. The study provides knowledge that is relevant for improving both LVR as well as other services for older adults living with VI. Thirty-nine older adults with VI initially participated in the study with 28 remaining for the follow-up at 24 months of LVR. Data were collected by an orally administered questionnaire including items from the Oldwellactive Wellness Profile instrument. Data were analyzed using the marginal homogeneity test, and the outcomes were divided into four categories according to the ICF framework. Comparisons between the baseline and 2-year follow-up revealed statistically significant decreases in daily functions, including going outdoors (p = .011), washing oneself (p = .016), taking care for personal hygiene (p = .046), dressing (p = .034), preparing meals (p = .041), and doing heavy housework (p = .046), following 2 years of received LVR. A statistically significant increase in the need for help was also observed during the study period (p = .025). The independence of older adults with VI decreased, and the need for external services or help increased during 24 months after the onset of receiving LVR. Visual problems were shown to widely affect functional ability. Activities and participation dimension together with loneliness are most affected and need attention in individual LVR.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-12T05:53:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621991886
       
  • Setting research priorities in age-related vision loss: The first step in
           a critical participatory action research approach
    • Authors: Colleen McGrath
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      There are no known examples of studies utilizing a critical participatory action research (CPAR) approach with older adults aging with vision loss, to better understand how environmental factors impact activity engagement. As such, the aim of this article was to share the process of initiating a CPAR approach with older adults with age-related vision loss to identify a set of research and/or rehabilitation priorities related to the influence of physical, social, cultural, political, and institutional environmental factors on activity engagement. This study utilized a CPAR approach. Eight older adults (aged 65 years of age and older) with a diagnosis of age-related vision loss (including macular degeneration, glaucoma, and/or diabetic retinopathy) took part in three half-day meetings as well as a one-on-one interview over a period of 2 months. Through a series of facilitated group discussions, the older adults identified research and/or rehabilitation priorities related to how environmental influences support or limit the participation of older adults with age-related vision loss (ARVL) in everyday activities. Three research and/or rehabilitation priorities were identified including (1) community mobility; (2) assistive technology; and (3) community support and services. For each priority, the older adults, along with the researchers, answered four key questions including (1) What do we need to know more about' (i.e., research question); (2) How could we learn more about this' (i.e., proposed methods of data collection); (3) Who would we need to involve as key stakeholders' (i.e., participants); and (4) What would change look like' (i.e., action potential). This study shared the process of initiating a CPAR process with eight older adults with ARVL to identify research and/or rehabilitation priorities. By doing so, this study will help to provide direction for future ARVL research and rehabilitation that is grounded, methodologically, in a CPAR approach.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T10:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620984219
       
  • Exploring the influence of reading medium on braille learning outcomes: A
           case series of six working-age and older adults
    • Authors: Natalina Martiniello, Walter Wittich
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Tactile sensitivity is known to decline with age. Braille provides a vital method of reading and writing for working-age and older adults with acquired visual impairment. The proliferation of low-cost braille displays raises new possibilities for adult braille learners, with dots of greater height than standard paper braille, potentially benefitting older adults with reduced tactile sensitivity. This study explored the influence of reading medium (paper vs braille display) on the accuracy and speed of six working-age and older adult braille learners and examined differences when transitioning from one reading medium to another. Findings indicate that (1) learning letters on a braille display resulted in better speed and accuracy (time: M = 44.2, SD = 37.3, accuracy: M = 83%, SD = 24.8%) than on paper (time: M = 54.3, SD = 40.4, accuracy: M = 80.6%, SD = 28.1%); (2) transitioning from one medium to another generally resulted in the same or better performance (reading times decreased by 11.2% and accuracy improved by 2.4%); and (3) the advantage of the braille display appears to be greatest when reading letters in combination (reading times decreased by 26.8% and accuracy improved by 6.5% for letter-pairs vs a 1.9% reduction in speed and a 2% improvement in accuracy for single letters). The benefit of the braille display condition was most pronounced for participants with reduced tactile sensitivity. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that the use of braille displays in early braille instruction may decrease frustration for those with reduced tactile sensitivity and should not adversely affect the ability for learners to transition to standard paper braille, assuming that both formats are introduced and reinforced throughout training.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T08:33:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621990702
       
  • ‘We’re on their side, aren’t we'’ Exploring Qualified Teacher
           of Children and Young People with Vision Impairment (QTVI) views on the
           
    • Authors: Anna Pilson
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Mindful of the assertion that children with vision impairment (VI) are three times more likely than their peers to develop a mental health problem, this study aimed to identify practitioner-perceived priorities in supporting the emotional well-being of visually impaired children, via eliciting self-reported explorations of professional practice and experiences of Qualified Teacher of Children and Young People with Vision Impairment (QTVI). Using a focus group-based interviewing technique with QTVIs from a single peripatetic VI advisory service in England, the study found that despite evident good practice, the QTVIs could feel inhibited by a lack of confidence in their ability to deliver adequate and appropriate intervention. This stems from a perceived lack of knowledge of resources available, a feeling of ‘reinventing the wheel’ and ‘bolting on’ to existing generic materials to try to improve their relevance to VI, and also an uncertainty regarding ownership of delivery of such interventions. QTVIs demonstrated clear willingness to support the emotional well-being of pupils on their caseload, but expressed a desire for more professional training, a clearer understanding of the breadth of the QTVI role, and a centralisation of knowledge and resources pertaining to emotional well-being. Therefore, this article recommends the development of resources for sharing good practice, as well as encouraging the VI educational sector to provide additional continuing professional development opportunities, and also potentially a review of the course specification of the Mandatory Qualification for Vision Impairment Teaching in England.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T12:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620984218
       
  • Assessment of eye movements and selected vision function tests in three
           pupils with albinism: A case study in Tanzania
    • Authors: Gunvor B Wilhelmsen, Mads Gjerstad Eide, Marion Felder
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Albinism is a huge challenge both socially and educationally in Tanzania and many other countries. Pupils with albinism are normally encouraged to read with a fixed gaze due to their nystagmus, and there are doubts about whether refraction improves their reading.The aim is to get more knowledge about their functional vision as a fundament for educating pupils with albinism.The article presents a case study with three pupils from a primary school in Tanzania who went through a functional assessment of vision using standardized methods and a new eye-tracker software measuring smooth pursuits.The assessment reveals large individual differences not only in visual acuity but also in ocular motor functions.There is a need for better understanding of the vision challenges these pupils face so that professionals can develop more suitable methods in school for securing their education.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-01-18T01:09:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620986855
       
  • The Braille reading skills of German-speaking students and young adults
           with visual impairments
    • Authors: Markus Lang, Ursula Hofer, Fabian Winter
      Pages: 6 - 19
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 6-19, January 2021.
      This study aims to investigate the literacy skills of Braille readers in the areas of reading fluency, reading and listening comprehension, and spelling. A total of 119 German-speaking, Braille readers aged between 11.0 and 22.11 years were tested for this purpose. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, psychometric tests, and self-constructed assessments. Wherever possible, the results were compared with the standards of sighted peers. Regarding reading fluency, Braille readers performed significantly slower than print readers. In terms of spelling, the Braille users performed within an average range of sighted peers. Furthermore, a positive correlation was obtained between Braille reading fluency and spelling, whereas the use of auditory aids (e.g., speech output) showed a negative correlation with Braille reading fluency and spelling. In addition, a comparison between listening and reading within the study sample revealed that reading Braille proved to be better for comprehension, although listening was significantly faster. In conclusion, the findings provide evidence that Braille reading skills are important for the development of literacy skills in general. Nevertheless, listening skills are important and need to be systematically promoted.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T05:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620967689
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Fear or freedom' Visually impaired students’ ambivalent
           perspectives on physical education
    • Authors: Sebastian Ruin, Martin Giese, Justin A Haegele
      Pages: 20 - 30
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 20-30, January 2021.
      With a growing interest in sport, fitness, and a healthy lifestyle, bodily practices are increasing in importance in our society. In the school context, physical education (PE) is the subject where these practices play a central role. But, the German language discourse shows in an exemplary manner that inherent body-related social normality requirements are articulated in didactic traditions and curricular requirements, and that these normality requirements have exclusionary potential for those students who do not fit into the norms. Against this background, this article seeks to understand children with visual impairments’ (CWVI’s) individual constructions of PE in a school specialized for CWVI in Germany. This interview study with eight CWVI focused on individual opportunities and challenges concerning central aspects in PE. The findings show that the CWVI draw ambivalent perspectives on PE that range from existential fears (e.g., fears of heights) to feeling free in working off energy. These aspects especially gain importance in connection to the body, when the general wish to learn and experience with the body seems to be disturbed by normality requirements – like doing certain movements in a pre-defined way – which lead to existential challenges for the CWVI. Further, the relationship between blind and visually impaired students in PE seems ambivalent. Within this special school setting, the segregation according to the external differentiation in “handicapped” and “non-handicapped” somehow leads to a kind of subsegregation at the blind and visually impaired school.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T10:41:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620961813
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Associations of self-reported vision problems with health and psychosocial
           functioning: A 9-year longitudinal perspective
    • Authors: Markus Wettstein, Svenja M Spuling, Hans-Werner-Wahl, Vera Heyl
      Pages: 31 - 52
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 31-52, January 2021.
      Impaired vision often results in restrictions across diverse key indicators of successful aging. However, little is known about how impaired vision affects the long-term trajectories of these outcomes, whether effects are moderated by age, and whether psychosocial resources beyond well-being such as subjective age views are also affected by vision loss. We analyzed how self-reported vision problems as a time-varying predictor are related to long-term changes in health and cognitive ability (functional health, number of chronic diseases, self-rated health, information processing speed), well-being (life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, depressive symptoms, loneliness), and subjective age views (subjective age; aging-related cognitions: social loss, physical decline, continuous growth). Our sample was derived from the German Ageing Survey, comprising 6,378 individuals (40–89 years) who provided up to four observations over a 9-year period. Controlling for gender, age, education, and functional as well as self-rated health, we observed that both on a between- and a within-person level, indicators of successful aging were consistently less favorable among individuals with more vision problems. Associations between vision problems and functional health became stronger with advancing age. In contrast, with increasing age, vision problems were less closely associated with change in several indicators of psychosocial functioning. Our findings suggest that self-reported visual impairment is associated with restrictions across a broad range of developmental domains. Some detrimental effects of vision problems are augmented in later life, whereas several effects on well-being and subjective age views were attenuated with advancing age, which might indicate processes of late-life adaptation to vision loss.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T06:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620961803
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Practices and perceptions of German itinerant teachers in the field of
           visual impairment: Exploratory research focussing on three types of
           itinerant services
    • Authors: Hisae Miyauchi, Wiebke Gewinn
      Pages: 53 - 63
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 53-63, January 2021.
      This study aimed to clarify the practices and perceptions of itinerant teachers of students with visual impairments (TVIs) in inclusive education following three different types (i.e., school-based, school-based single role, and centre-based), identifying the salient factors that enable them to fulfil their roles. To date, the majority of the existing research has focussed on centre-based itinerant TVIs, with scant attention paid to the other itinerant types. This study mitigates this lack of research. Designed as an exploratory study to provide a useful reference for future research, the study employed a qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews with nine German TVIs. The results showed more similarities than differences among the three types of TVIs in their daily tasks, needed qualities and skills, and overall perceptions of the job. Two crucial elements enabled these TVIs to work effectively: the existence of a large community of TVIs and TVIs possessing good ‘collaborative skills’. The school-based dual role seemed to provide much-needed emotional and technical support. Further investigations are needed on the factors that contribute to a good ‘team’ or a ‘community’ of TVIs and on the effectiveness of the school-based dual role.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-12-04T10:48:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620972147
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Inclusive classroom interaction in lower secondary education
    • Authors: Jürgen Braun, Oliver Hollstein, Wolfgang Meseth
      Pages: 64 - 75
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 64-75, January 2021.
      Following the German parliament’s ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2008, inclusive pedagogy has become increasingly relevant for educational science and educational policy. Empirical studies of classes which combine students with and without visual impairment mainly focus on questions of performance and well-being, while not directly examining classroom interactions. Our research seeks to address this notable lack of in-situ studies, using a selected case as an example and illustrating the potential of such an approach through reconstructing the contradictory expectations of inclusive teaching as a specific conflict of norms. This approach ought to demonstrate the potential insights to be gained by reconstructing and interpreting relevant communicative processes of meaning-construction. Based on transcribed interactions in an inclusive fifth-grade class, we interpret the scene of classroom instruction with regard to the normative conflict between the egalitarian promise of participation and a non-egalitarian focus on performance. Adopting a methodology of second-order observation, as outlined in Systems Theory, allows us to conduct an analysis of normativity in order to understand which norms prevail in interactions with students with and without visual impairment. At the center of the analysis is not only the common discrepancy between an inclusive school’s policy and its interactive implementation. Rather, our interpretations also show how the ableist norm of performance is navigated and negotiated among all participants in classroom communication and how the multitude of norms and expectations surrounding inclusive teaching come into conflict, that is, in the paradoxical structural tension between the operational necessity of establishing a separation between students and the policy imperative of decategorization.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-11-26T08:33:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620975469
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • In the shadow of threatening norms: How students with visual impairment
           contest and reproduce institutional positions
    • Authors: Anne Bödicker, Yalız Akbaba
      Pages: 76 - 83
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 76-83, January 2021.
      This article focuses on semi-narrative guided interviews with students with visual impairment (VI) who attend a state-approved special school for students with VI at the time of the interview, although they had different previous experiences in both segregated and inclusive schools. We are conducting a qualitative analysis from the perspective of teenagers concerning how they negotiate institutional ascriptions of (dis)abilities. We have selected interview sequences of two young people: (a) Kai: self-confidence and internalized self-doubt and (b) Felix: between fighting and claiming ableist divides. Our analyses reveal the different ways of how Kai and Felix each contest the ableist divide they constantly have to cope with. Kai does so by sticking to her self-concept and ambitious life plans; Felix does so by ridiculing how the institution ascribes neediness to students.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T05:14:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620967682
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Dealing with Lewis structures in chemistry lessons
    • Authors: Tobias Mahnke
      Pages: 84 - 87
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 84-87, January 2021.
      Chemical formulas are represented with the help of Lewis structures. To illustrate reaction mechanisms, these structures are provided with arrows and the new structural formula is recorded. This procedure presents blind pupils with several hurdles:- How do these structures come about'- How can students spontaneously create tactile formulas in class'- How can the movements shown by arrows be traced'For the representation of atomic symbols, for which the element symbols from the periodic table are normally used, magnets were developed that differ in shape, color, and size. Since only a handful of symbols occur regularly and in large numbers in school, only a few symbols have been permanently assigned, some are variable and can be used appropriately defined for the respective teaching situation. With this symbol set, it is possible to quickly and individually manufacture almost all molecules relevant in school. These magnets allow the independent determination of reaction mechanisms in the further course of the lesson. Due to the mobility of the elements on the magnetic base, electrons and atoms can be moved and thus result in a new bonding situation that is reinterpreted by the students. The advantage of this procedure is that the pupils do not just paint arrows, but consciously think about all processes and can also make mistakes. When analyzing intermediate products, you can determine that your actions were either not compliant or compliant but not effective. This enables individual active learning in the classroom.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-12T04:10:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620961805
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Book Review: Fragrance and Color: Gardens become Oases
    • Authors: Michael Gebauer
      Pages: 88 - 90
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Volume 39, Issue 1, Page 88-90, January 2021.

      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-12T08:10:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620961804
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • The certification of vision impairment: A regional 21st century
           perspective
    • Authors: A J Jackson, L Cushley, R McCann, Máire Gallagher, J Witherow, T Moutray
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Certification and registration of those who are sight impaired (SI) provides commissioners, and the providers of health and social care support to those with vision loss, with quantifiable data on the extent of blindness and sight impairment within a community. In this article, we outline the results of a comprehensive review of certification/registration pathways and processes in Northern Ireland and highlight achievements to date. The Developing Eyecare Partnership (DEP) CVI Task Group established by the Health and Social Care Board (HSCB) reviewed all certification/registration processes, pathways and issues that may have contributed to regional under certification/registration. This was undertaken to ensure timely certification/registration of those who may benefit from being certified as either Severely Sight Impaired (SSI) or SI, and in so doing improving patient pathways and access to services. Activity included a review of all available epidemiological data collected in the 2-year periods before and after the introduction of the new pathway (January 1, 2018). This work has resulted in changes to the terminology used in relevant Northern Ireland legislation and other documentation concerning certification/registration. It has also resulted in the creation of more timely and efficient referral pathways and improvements in the quality of information available on certification and the process. Increased awareness of the certification process by health and social care professionals has resulted in a 22.5% increase in certifications over the 2-year period, before COVID-19. Certification rates are now comparable with those from other areas of the United Kingdom. The workings of the DEP CVI group, over a 5-year period, have increased awareness about SI and SSI Certification among patients and Health and Social Care Providers and have improved the quality of local epidemiological data on vision impairment. A patient-based evaluation of the new pathway is planned for 2020.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T06:03:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620972154
       
  • Quality of life: Investigating the impact of two major mental disorders,
           
    • Authors: Marios Papalamprou, Constantine D Georgakopoulos, Nikolaos Pharmakakis
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose:The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on the quality of life of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in relation to common mental disorders, namely anxiety and depression, and determine specific factors (e.g., thoughts/feelings, sociodemographic characteristics) that may be used to refer such patients to psychiatrists.Materials–Methods:To classify the patients into different categories, regarding the development of the mental disorders under consideration, the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale” (HADS) has been utilized. The main statistical methodologies applied are classification and regression trees (CART) techniques and logistic regression. For the purposes of the aforementioned statistical analysis, the R software package has been used.Results:Both depression and anxiety scores varied considerably across visual acuity (VA) severity. Patients with severe visual acuity problems tend to have also higher HADS scores. Women were more likely to be affected by depression; sociodemographic factors did not have any significant effect. According to the performed CART analysis, responses to two HADS items (namely, “I can enjoy a good book or radio or television program” and “I have lost interest in my appearance”) identified the vast majority of severely to moderately depressed patients. Furthermore, the level of VA severity was found as a main driver for diagnosing an AMD patient with depression.Conclusions:VA impairment (or decline) severity level was found to be the main factor associated with depression in patients with AMD. Moreover, specific thoughts/feelings present in patients with AMD have been found as significant regarding the level of their mental disorders under consideration and could be asked by the ophthalmologist to refer (or not) them to psychiatrists.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T05:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620973709
       
  • A preliminary investigation of the well-being of visually impaired
           ex-service personnel in the United Kingdom
    • Authors: Lauren R Godier-McBard, Claire L Castle, Nikki Heinze, Syeda F Hussain, Shelby Borowski, Dawne S Vogt, Renata SM Gomes, Matt Fossey
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Research has shown that visual impairment may impact daily functioning, health, and well-being negatively for adults of all ages. Ex-service personnel (‘veterans’) too may be at risk of poor health and well-being outcomes associated with post-military life, and this may be exacerbated by the presence of visual impairment. Despite this, research considering the experience of blind veterans has been limited and has not yet assessed well-being for these individuals across a broad spectrum of life domains. Rather, it has highlighted poor mental health and psychological well-being in working-age visually impaired veterans. However, the experiences of older visually impaired veterans (who make up the majority of visually impaired veterans in the United Kingdom) have been poorly represented in the literature. This pilot study aimed to provide a preliminary assessment of holistic well-being in an adult sample of 97 UK blind veterans, predominantly composed of older age veterans (majority over 80 years). Cross-sectional well-being data were collected using a validated measure of well-being (the Well-Being Inventory [WBI]). Results suggest that members of Blind Veterans UK are functioning well and are satisfied across four life domains (vocation, finances, health, and social relationships). Lower health satisfaction was identified, particularly in blind veterans with comorbid mental health conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the older age of the sample, the limitations of face-to-face survey administration, and the applicability of the WBI finance domain in this age cohort. Recommendations are made for future research in this population.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T05:09:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620973683
       
  • Examining peer support arrangements for students with visual impairment
    • Authors: Michael Tuttle, Erik W. Carter
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Students with visual impairment (VI) often have limited social interactions in inclusive classroom settings. This study used a multiple-probe-across-participants design to evaluate the impact of peer support arrangements on the social interactions of three students with VI in general education classes. Students experienced higher levels of peer interaction while participating in peer support arrangements while maintaining high levels of academic engagement during the intervention. Most students and teachers reported that peer support arrangements provided positive experiences, resulted in multiple benefits, and could be implemented feasibly and acceptably in inclusive classrooms. We offer recommendations for research and practice aimed at enhancing the quality of inclusive experiences for students with VI.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T04:59:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620972150
       
  • Visual function and visual ability in adolescents with oculocutaneous
           albinism
    • Authors: Shivani Naipal, Nishanee Rampersad
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals with ocular and oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) have significantly reduced visual acuity (VA) resulting in visual impairment (VI). The aim is to report on the visual function of adolescents with OCA and their quality of life (QoL) in terms of their visual ability. A total of 28 adolescents with OCA participated in this study. Tests of visual function included distance VA, refractive error, contrast sensitivity (CS), and colour vision. The Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC) was used to assess visual ability. All participants presented with cutaneous hypopigmentation and nystagmus, while only two had strabismus. A mean myopic refractive error was found, and with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism was most common. The mean best-corrected VA was 0.81 ± 0.17 logMAR and 0.81 ± 0.18 logMAR in the right and left eyes, respectively. The mean CS with the best refractive correction was 1.23 ± 0.33 log CS in the right eye and 1.29 ± 0.33 log CS in the left eye. The mean Cardiff visual ability score was −0.37 ± 0.79 log units. The variation of refractive errors and the magnitude thereof underscores the need for regular eye examinations in individuals with OCA. The majority of participants had moderate VI, and these participants had a better mean Cardiff visual ability score than those with severe VI. Similarly, participants with normal binocular CS had a better Cardiff visual ability score than those with a loss of CS.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-11-20T08:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620973693
       
  • The implementation of Holland Self-Directed Search to employed higher
           education graduates: A comparison between sighted adults and adults with
           visual impairments
    • Authors: Doxa Papakonstantinou, Konstantinos Papadopoulos
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      In general, the occupational choices of individuals with visual impairments do not appear to be significantly different from the ones of the sighted individuals, despite the narrowed occupational possibilities offered to them. This study aims to explore (a) the range of occupational possibilities that according to the Self-Directed Search (SDS) most closely resemble the personality types of adults with visual impairments and sighted adults, (b) the differences between the occupational possibilities suggested by the SDS among adults with visual impairments and sighted adults, and (c) the differences between the current occupational choices and the occupational possibilities according to the SDS of adults with visual impairments and sighted adults, and the comparison among them. The sample consisted of 44 adults with visual impairments and 44 sighted adults, aged 24 to 44 years. All participants were higher education graduates and occupationally active. The occupational possibilities suggested by the SDS show the clear inclination of people with visual impairment toward social occupations. On the contrary, the SDS shows the inclination of the sighted adults toward the enterprising and the investigative occupations. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there are no differences between the two groups (visually impaired and sighted) in terms of the Iachan index – an index that determines the congruence between two SDS codes, representing the current occupations and the occupations proposed by the SDS application. The results could be practically implemented for the expansion of individuals with visual impairment occupational choices based on their occupational possibilities.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-11-20T08:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620973687
       
  • Perspectives on social support among adults with acquired vision
           impairment
    • Authors: Emmanuel Bassey, Caroline Ellison
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the implications of acquiring vision impairment later in life on the effect of social support among adults with acquired vision impairment in Nigeria. It further explores the importance of maintaining social contact after vision loss which serves as the structural aspect of social support needed for adaptation to vision loss. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was undertaken. Eight adults (18- 59years) were recruited from disability service organizations in Nigeria. Telephone interviews were recorded and transcribed, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data gathered in this study. Three broad themes were developed from participants’ accounts of their experiences: (1) diminishment in social contact and social support from friends, romantic partners, and others; (2) negative changes in social support at workplace; and (3) increased social support from family members. The findings indicate that participants experienced diminished social contact and negative social support from friends, colleagues, and employers at the workplace. However, participants experienced increased social contact and positive social support from family members in the form of tangible and effective support. As social connectedness are highly valued in Nigeria’s diverse society, we suggest that adults with acquired vision impairment would significantly benefit from support services that would assist these individuals to build and maintain their social contact or networks providing a platform for positive social support.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-11-18T04:58:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620972144
       
  • The effectiveness of self-advocacy videos to inform enablers about the
           support needs of students with vision impairment
    • Authors: Gaby Swain, Jonathan Waddington
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this project was to understand how enablers (e.g., teaching assistants, paraprofessionals and support workers) access and use information about students with vision impairment (VI) to support them in specialist education. The one-page profile is used widely as a tool for learner-centred planning and information, and is generally seen to be effective and accessible. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that video is an extremely effective medium for training and support in a range of settings. We investigated whether student self-advocacy video clips would be an effective and accessible medium for presenting information about students’ support needs. This study took the form of a pre- and post-questionnaire. The aim of the pre-questionnaire was to gauge current levels of enabler confidence and assess the effectiveness of existing methods of accessing learner information. A total of 15 enablers were given this questionnaire to complete. Six students (aged 11–17 years) with VI and additional complex support needs were then each supported to develop a short video in which they expressed their support needs in an education setting. The enablers were asked to watch the video clips, and complete the post-questionnaire to assess the impact these videos had on their confidence and understanding. Twelve out of the 15 enablers returned the second questionnaire. The questionnaire results demonstrated that current methods for accessing learner information were not wholly effective. Enablers found video to be a desirable and accessible format for presenting learner information. Participants found the medium of video to significantly aid retention and recollection of student information. From the findings, it emerged that one-page profiles remained the preferred single method of accessing student information. However, overall, we found that enablers favoured a multi-method approach to presenting and accessing learner information that was dependent on time and context.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-11-13T08:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620972149
       
  • Rapid weight loss in visually impaired judo athletes: Prevalence,
           magnitude, and methods
    • Authors: Rafael L Kons, Rodrigo G Gheller, Filipe E Costa, Daniele Detanico
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) in visually impaired (VI) judo athletes, and compare these aspects between males and females. Thirty VI judo athletes (20 men and 10 women) completed a validated questionnaire to assess information about the magnitude and methods of RWL. Simple frequency was used to describe the influence and methods in all athletes and according to sex. Moreover, the t test was used to compare the variables between the sexes with the significance level set at p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-23T02:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620967697
       
  • Enhancing mathematical noticing of graphs through movement, voice, and
           metaphor: An intervention with two students with visual impairment
    • Authors: Susan Gerofsky, Kim T Zebehazy
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This qualitative study explores the potential for metaphor, movement, gesture, and vocalization in helping learners notice mathematically important features of graphs, and in making mathematics more accessible for learners with visual impairment. Two elementary school students with visual impairment were introduced to several multimodal activities related to the graphs of mathematical functions, using a pre-/post-assessment methodology. Video recordings of the session were coded for qualitative changes in engagement with graphs through multimodal representations. After the activity intervention, both students showed improvements in their ability to voice, gesture, and describe details of mathematical graphs with accuracy and understanding. The findings demonstrate the potential of multimodal methods for teaching mathematics and enhancing other skill areas through movement, metaphor, voice, and gesture. The findings suggest that full-bodied experience with graphs can provide foundational support for learners with visual impairment to work with print or tactile graphics. We propose that purposeful selection of materials and collaboration between teachers of students with visual impairment, mathematics educators, and teachers of dance and physical education can enhance the design and implementation of effective lessons using multimodal means.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T07:04:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620963516
       
  • Psychological factors involved in the acquisition of a foreign language
           among students with visual impairments
    • Authors: Miri Krisi, Revital Nagar, Nira Knoll
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents a qualitative analysis of the psychological factors affecting the academic success of students with visual impairments, focusing on the students’ perceptions of their own competence and abilities in learning a foreign language. Interviews were conducted with 28 first-year college students in Israel who met the standard definition of being legally blind. Data were analyzed using a content analysis technique. This was conducted in two stages: first a within-case analysis and then a cross-case analysis. Three distinct themes emerged from the data: (1) self-perceptions of efficacy and feelings of competency, (2) achievement motivation, and (3) locus of control. The analysis of the interviews revealed that each of these three factors influenced students’ experiences throughout their college years, both overall and in regard to their English studies in particular. The factors were interpreted using Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological model of human development. Findings suggest that providing emotional and psychological support to students with visual impairments early in their academic studies could prove beneficial by providing them with the necessary tools for coping with the demands and requirements of higher education.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-10-12T04:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620961806
       
  • Seeing films through sound: Sound design, spatial audio, and accessibility
           for visually impaired audiences
    • Authors: Mariana Lopez, Gavin Kearney, Krisztián Hofstädter
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Enhancing Audio Description is a research project that explores how sound design, first-person narration, and binaural audio could be utilised to provide accessible versions of films for visually impaired audiences, presenting an alternative to current audio description (AD) practices. This article explores such techniques in the context of the redesign of the short film ‘Pearl’, by discussing the creative process as well as evaluating the feedback supplied by visually impaired audiences. The research presented in this article demonstrates that the methods proposed were as successful as traditional AD in terms of providing information, enjoyment, and accessibility to audiences, demonstrating that both practices can coexist and, as a result, cater for the different stylistic preferences of end users.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T06:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620935935
       
  • Health-related physical fitness levels of youths with visual impairment in
           Jordan
    • Authors: Samir Qasim, Wasim YA Zeidan, Hasan A Joudallah
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      As fitness is an important component of quality of life, it is necessary to determine fitness levels among various population groups to be able to plan programs for their future fitness improvement. Previous research shows that individuals with visual impairments have lower levels of health-related physical fitness than people without visual impairment. In Jordan, research mainly focuses on youths without visual impairment, whereas no previous studies have been conducted on children with visual impairment and their physical fitness levels. This study aimed to explore health-related physical fitness levels of children with visual impairment in Jordan. A total of 107 children (65 boys and 42 girls) with visual impairment aged 11–15 years and 114 children without visual impairment were included in this study. All children were asked to perform the following assessment items: a one mile run/walk test to measure cardiovascular endurance, a handgrip strength to measure the maximum isometric strength of the hand and forearm muscles, push-up and curl-up tests to measure upper body and abdominal muscular endurance, respectively, sit-and-reach test to measure flexibility, and two-site skinfold measures to determine body composition. Children with visual impairment appeared to have low health-related physical fitness. For instance, the overall mean of push-ups was 4.06, while cardiovascular endurance was excluded from data analysis as only a few students (7) completed the test. No significant differences were found in any of the tested variables among the various age groups. Furthermore, boys showed statistically significant measurements in strength, curl-up, and push-up tests than girls. Children with visual impairment had significantly better score in only push-up test than children who were blind. In addition, except boys with visual impairment aged 15 years, all children with visual impairment failed FitnessGram, whereas sighted children passed all tests.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T11:44:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620950771
       
  • Basic survey on children and teachers in special classes for children with
           low vision in Japan
    • Authors: Takahiro Nishimura, Kouki Doi, Mayumi Sawada, Takeshi Kaneko
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Through a questionnaire survey of teachers of special classes for children with low vision in Japan’s primary and lower secondary schools, this study aims to clarify the basic data of children in these classes, the realities of their learning situations, and the realities of the instruction they receive from their teachers. A special class for children with low vision is a class specially organised in primary and lower secondary schools to deliver an education that is appropriate to children with low vision. Basic data items for children covered grade, sex, and visual acuity and also the written characters, low-vision devices, and textbooks that they use in their studies. The survey also elicited responses about the information and communication technology (ICT) devices that teachers use in their teaching, their number of years’ teaching experience, their number of years’ experience teaching children who are visually impaired, and the content or topic of training that they desire to improve their specialisation in the education of children who are visually impaired. In addition to obtaining statistics on basic items related to children’s sex and visual acuity, the results revealed change in children’s actual situations over the years through comparison with the results of previous studies. Specifically, the percentage of children with visual acuity under 20/66 increased, and the usage rate of braille decreased. We also learned that while usage rates of enlarged textbooks and ICT devices are increasing, the rate of using low-vision devices is decreasing. In addition, it was revealed that a majority of teachers had less than 3 years’ experience in education for children who are visually impaired, regardless of general teaching experience, and that there is a considerable need for training in basic knowledge.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T09:31:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620945351
       
  • Home-based balance pilot intervention for adults with visual impairments
    • Authors: Pamela Haibach-Beach, Scott McNamera, Lauren Lieberman
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Older adults with visual impairments face many barriers to being physically active in their communities, which include their risk of suffering serious falls due to poor balance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a home-based intervention upon gait, balance, and well-being with older adults with visual impairments. A total of 17 adults with visual impairments above the age of 55 participated and were placed into either the experimental or the control group. All participants were assessed on well-being, balance, and gait. Experimental group participants attended balance workshops and received exercise equipment and a balance intervention manual. Following eight weeks, both groups were tested, and the experimental group was reassessed five months following the intervention. Four separate 2 × 2 mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to test for significant main effects and interactions related to their baseline and posttest scores for the four tests completed. Both groups improved their gait (p = .006). Although not significant, the experimental group improved across the tests, and maintained their balance abilities scores 5 months after the intervention was delivered. A home-based exercise program can be an effective means for improving balance and gait in older adults with visual impairments.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-08-11T10:55:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620935937
       
  • Using a multisensory storytelling approach to improve language and
           comprehension: A pilot study
    • Authors: Cheryl Kamei-Hannan, Ya-Chih Chang, Mitch Fryling
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Tactile object boxes, object walks, and object experience books are common practices that are recommended for children with visual impairment to promote language development and early literacy skills. However, there is limited research on the effectiveness of these practices leading to variations of how these practices are implemented in the classrooms. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a multisensory storytelling approach on listening comprehension and language use in three bilingual children with visual impairment. The results suggest that the multisensory storytelling approach is a promising intervention for children with visual impairment in increasing their language skills but there were differential effects based on child characteristic differences. Implications for practice and directions for future research toward language assessments and implementation of the multisensory storytelling approached are discussed.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T02:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620945344
       
  • Independent walking and balance in children with CHARGE syndrome
    • Authors: Pamela Haibach-Beach, Melanie Perreault, Lauren Lieberman, Elizabeth Foster
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Children with CHARGE syndrome (CWCS) are born with multiple physical disabilities, several of which impair balance and the onset of motor milestones. Early motor development problems can include delayed independent walking, which has been found in CWCS. In addition, few studies have examined balance in CWCS and these studies have been limited in scope, necessitating a more comprehensive examination of balance in this population. Motor development occurs as a progression of stages as represented by Seefeldt’s conceptual model. As such, it is essential to examine the association of early development of foundational skills, such as balance, with the onset of motor milestones as they are building blocks to motor competence. The aims of this study are to (1) examine the differential effects of children with and without CHARGE syndrome on balance and (2) examine the association of age of walking to these balance measures. In this study, 27 CWCS and 22 children without CHARGE syndrome, aged 7 to 16 years, were assessed on four components of balance including anticipatory control, reactive postural control, sensory orientation, and dynamic gait using the shortened version of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (mini-BESTest) and parental reported age of independent walking. Their balance and age of walking were compared to 22 typically developing peers of similar age and gender distribution. Results revealed that CWCS walked three times later than their peers without CHARGE syndrome and had significant deficits on all balance systems assessed with the largest difference occurring in anticipatory control. Anticipatory control is critically important in maintaining static and dynamic postural control. These results indicate a critical need for early functional balance training and compensatory strategies in CWCS.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T08:50:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620946068
       
  • Perspectives of primary school staff who work with children with
           additional needs: Insights that may help to improve support for visually
           impaired children
    • Authors: Anna Pease, Trudy Goodenough, Joao Roe, Sue Rogers, Cathy Williams
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Educational support for children with visual impairments (VIs) at school relies on effective information-sharing between hospital eye services and schools. There may be delays in this process which impede school staff’s efforts to help affected children. As part of a programme of work aiming to improve outcomes for children with cerebral visual impairments (CVIs), this study carried out qualitative interviews to understand the views of primary school staff about receiving and using external specialist advice in general. These data can be used to inform and improve information-sharing aimed at supporting children in primary school who have VI.Views of primary school teachers and staff with responsibility for supporting children with additional needs were elicited in nine interviews, across three mainstream primary school settings in Gloucestershire, UK. Interviews were carried out in October 2017. Participants were asked about their experiences of working with children with additional needs and engaging with outside specialist providers. Thematic analysis was used to look for patterns in the data.Interviews revealed four major themes: understanding the condition (including training, individual differences, and understanding the aim of the strategy); translating reports into action (including adaptations to recommendations, team working, and communication formats); follow-up (including feedback and measuring progress); and barriers and opportunities for accessing support (including systematic barriers, going private, and ideal scenarios).This small study provides insights into how teachers and school staff perceive the relationship with external specialists. Services for children with VI in primary schools may be enhanced if they provide information about the impact of VI; about the underlying conditions if known, training and awareness activities for staff and offer a route for follow-up or enquiries. These insights can be used to inform service design and policy.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T08:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620935948
       
  • Improving interactions of transition-age peers with visual impairment and
           intellectual disability
    • Authors: Susan Bruce, Brent Stutzman, Allison Nannemann, Amanda Lewitus, Colleen McDonald, Talia Mango
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This collaborative action research study addressed the interaction skills of two young adults with visual impairments and intellectual disability in the context of a board game. The intervention involved the use of an adapted board game, four social stories, and rehearsal of game play skills in the context of individual and group therapy sessions. Instructional strategies included clear within and between activity routines, least to most prompting system, sufficient wait time, and modeling of game play behaviors. Both young men improved their initiation skills, terminated interactions appropriately with fewer prompts, and learned some of the elements of board game play. Self-stimulation and anxiety over changes in their daily lives impacted progress. More research is needed to investigate the potential benefit of social stories for students with visual impairments and additional disabilities.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T08:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620946070
       
  • Developing pre-service O&M specialists’ reflective practices to improve
           problem-solving opportunities during instruction
    • Authors: Kim T Zebehazy, Silvia M Correa-Torres, Kathryn D Botsford
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The ability of instructors to promote problem-solving abilities is an important pedagogical skill. Providing well-planned problem-solving opportunities is especially vital in orientation and mobility (O&M) lessons. During personnel preparation programs, pre-service O&M specialists would benefit from developing a keen awareness of how well they encourage problem-solving in their instruction. This mixed-methods study reports on a process in which nine pre-service O&M specialists engaged during their blindfold techniques course. Each participant taught two lessons to a peer in their course, engaging in a retroactive think-aloud after each lesson. The process focused participants on the types of questions they asked to promote thinking and engaged them in reflection on how well the lesson met their intended objectives. Results indicated qualitative benefits noted by the participants of engaging in the process and also highlighted a need for further work with pre-service O&M specialists on question asking and allowing problem-solving and thinking opportunities during basic lessons.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T11:52:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620946071
       
  • Psychological changes among working-age adults with acquired vision
           impairment: The need for psychological intervention'
    • Authors: Emmanuel Bassey, Caroline Ellison
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the psychological impacts of acquiring a vision impairment during working-age phase of adulthood and the potential negative effect on participation in community activities were highlighted. Adopting a qualitative and interpretive phenomenological approach, eight semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with eight adult users of vision rehabilitation services. Three broad themes were identified: (1) reduced participation in education, employment, and community activities, (2) feelings of hopelessness and depression from vision loss, and (3) psychological adjustment to vision loss over time. Findings are discussed in the context of the international literature, and recommendations that may enhance the vision rehabilitation services are made.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T11:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620941891
       
  • Lower extremity coordination during walking in persons who are blind and
           sighted controls: A preliminary report
    • Authors: Hunter J Bennett, Kevin A Valenzuela, Zachary A Sievert, Justin A Haegele
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Walking is the most common mode of physical activity for individuals who are blind. However, this population tends to be physically inactive, possibly due to alterations in coordination patterns during walking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine lower extremity coordination patterns during walking in persons who are blind, and age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched sighted controls. Five persons who are blind performed level walking independently (with a cane) and with a human guide. Sighted controls walked at matched speeds for both conditions. A 10-camera motion capture system was used to record segmental kinematics during both walking conditions. Angle–angle plots and modified vector coding was used to present inter-limb (left/right thigh) and intra-limb (ankle–hip, ankle–knee, and knee–hip) couplings across both walking conditions for each group. Frequency of coupling patterns was compared between groups using Mann–Whitney’s U tests. Inter- and intra-limb coordination patterns were similar between both groups during independent and guided walking conditions (all p > .05). Angle–angle plots depict reduced segmental and joint motion in persons who are blind compared with sighted controls. Although the visual feedback system is integral for coordination during complex tasks, persons who are blind perform level walking with similar lower extremity coordination patterns to sighted controls. Reductions in spatiotemporal and range of motion are likely linked to a more hesitant stepping pattern due to unfamiliarity with the environment.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T07:03:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620941892
       
  • Social support for students with visual impairments in educational
           institutions: An integrative literature review
    • Authors: Ifigeneia Manitsa, Maro Doikou
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Students with visual impairments often experience emotional problems and encounter difficulties in forming and maintaining social relationships. Research indicates that the social support provided to these students by staff members and their peers in educational institutions may have a positive impact on their academic learning and socioemotional development. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to synthesise the results from 17 academic articles published during 1998 and 2018, which examined the topic of social support for students with visual impairments in educational institutions. This review reveals that for students with visual impairments cooperation, empathetic behaviour, and practical assistance are the main components of social support. These students actively seek social support from staff members and peers, but they face many challenges, such as the lack of training and awareness. Support from staff members contributes to students’ academic learning and social inclusion, whereas peers’ social support enhances their self-esteem and social acceptance. The outlined positive effects of educational interventions on students’ social skills and social interaction support the need for implementing more interventions. The limitations of the studies reviewed and recommendations for future research are discussed.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T08:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620941885
       
  • The consequences of deafblindness rules the family: Parents’ lived
           experiences of family life when the other parent has deafblindness
    • Authors: Maria Björk, Moa Wahlqvist, Karina Huus, Agneta Anderzén-Carlsson
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Deafblindness is a combined vision and hearing disability that restricts communication, access to information, and mobility, thus limiting a person’s activities and full participation in society. Literature on how this might affect the lives of family members is sparse. The aim of this study is to describe the lived experience of family life from the perspective of one parent when the other has deafblindness. Six partners of deafblind parents, four men and two women, agreed to participate. Three were deaf and communicated in Swedish sign language. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Seven themes were identified during the analysis. When one parent has deafblindness, communication within the family and with people outside the family is affected. The non-deafblind partners tried to integrate deafblindness into everyday family life and constantly strove to compensate for the losses caused by deafblindness. They tried to enhance participation and engagement in everyday family life for the parent with deafblindness by facilitating communication and taking a greater part in some areas of their shared responsibilities at home. The results reveal that these partners often put themselves in second place. They and their families needed support to manage family life. Deafblindness affects the life of the entire family, and the non-deafblind partner has to take considerable responsibility for everyday life. Everyday life can be facilitated by an adapted environment and appropriate support, which should be offered to the entire family.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T10:10:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620941895
       
  • Factors that influence the participation of individuals with
           deafblindness: A qualitative study with rehabilitation service providers
           in India
    • Authors: Atul Jaiswal, Heather Aldersey, Walter Wittich, Mansha Mirza, Marcia Finlayson
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence to inform rehabilitation service delivery for individuals with deafblindness, especially in the Indian context, is inadequate. Rehabilitation professionals often find it challenging to design rehabilitation interventions that promote participation for those with deafblindness. Therefore, our purpose was to understand the contextual factors that influence the participation of individuals with deafblindness in India from the perspectives of those who are involved in providing rehabilitation services to them. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a framework, we conducted two focus group discussions with 16 rehabilitation service providers in India. We used a content analysis approach to examine the data. Rehabilitation service providers perceived participation barriers to be linked primarily to the social environment. Specifically, participants identified four major factors acting as barriers, including (a) lack of awareness about deafblindness; (b) negative attitudes and stigma associated with disability; (c) lack of access to resources such as assistive technology and interpreter support; and (d) communication challenges associated with severe impairments. Facilitators include accessibility of the built environment for multisensory impairments, affordable technology, provision of an interpreter and personal support worker, and training on deafblindness for professionals. The participation of individuals with deafblindness could be enhanced by identifying and removing environmental barriers and improving knowledge about deafblindness among rehabilitation professionals for proper identification, assessment, and access to rehabilitation services.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T10:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620941886
       
  • Evaluation of a community-based mentoring program on psychosocial
           functioning of adolescents with a visual impairment: A randomized
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Eline CM Heppe, Agnes M Willemen, Sabina Kef, Carlo Schuengel
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the efficacy of a mentoring program on improving psychosocial functioning of young people with a visual impairment (VI). Furthermore, the impact of experimentally matching mentees to mentors with or without VI on youth outcomes was examined. A total of 76 adolescents with VI (15–22 year; 46% boys) were randomized into a yearlong mentoring program (n = 51) or care-as-usual (n = 25). Mentoring involved one-on-one activities within community settings. Psychosocial functioning was improved in all participants during the study (d = 0.35–1.06); however, mentoring outperformed care-as-usual only for autonomy (95% CI: 0.003, 0.31; d = 0.44) and competence satisfaction (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34; d = 0.55), and not for the other six psychosocial outcomes (d 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-07-09T07:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620935944
       
  • Tactile perception by mouth: Perceiving properties of objects when vision
           is impaired
    • Authors: Andrea Urqueta Alfaro, Laura Walker, Chris Lee, Daisy Lei
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The lips and tongue demonstrate similar or greater spatial acuity than the fingertips. Indeed, infants use the mouth to perceive properties of objects such as hardness, texture, and shape. In normal development, it is assumed that mouthing decreases in favour of increasingly advanced hand exploration patterns. However, anecdotal reports suggest that mouthing continues to serve a perceptual function when a person’s vision is abnormal. This study explored blind or visually impaired (BVI) adults’ self-reported use of mouthing to perceive properties of objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 BVI adults with visual acuities ranging from no light perception to 20/40. Data were analysed using content analysis to identify specific properties perceived by the mouth. Despite social norms that discourage mouthing, some BVI adults use oral tactile perception of texture, shape, temperature, and taste to better characterize objects. These findings suggest that compensatory behaviours using the mouth can support the rehabilitation of individuals with abnormal vision.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T10:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620935938
       
  • School involvement experiences of fathers of children with deafblindness
    • Authors: Nadya Pancsofar, Jerry G Petroff, Marcia Schleppy
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This pilot study examines the school involvement experiences of fathers of children with deafblindness. Survey data were collected from 25 fathers of children with deafblindness in the United States. Data addressed fathers’ frequency of school involvement activities, roles in their family, satisfaction in their school involvement, resources and knowledge for school involvement, and emotional support. The findings of this study suggest that these fathers may be more likely to be present for formal discussion with their child’s teachers/therapists but less likely to engage in frequent ongoing informal communication with their child’s teacher/therapists. Findings regarding fathers’ satisfaction suggest that fathers may be looking for additional opportunities to volunteer in school settings or to further their knowledge through workshops or training opportunities. Fathers reported having relatively lower levels of time, energy, and resources to help out at their child’s school. Fathers reported that they may be more apt to experience informal supports through their co-parents, family, or friends, than more formal supports from schools or organizations. Exploratory analyses of the associations between these different facets of fathers’ school involvement suggest that greater resources and knowledge for fathers of children with deafblindness may be associated with more frequent school involvement and overall satisfaction regarding school involvement. Implications for future research and professional practice are discussed.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620921900
       
  • Educators of students who are deafblind in the United States: A snapshot
           of their perceived needs for teacher preparation programs
    • Authors: Silvia M Correa-Torres, Sandy K Bowen, Melody Furze
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The needs of students who are deafblind are unique in that it is not simply the addition of vision loss and hearing loss but the impact of both together. Often times, professionals who work with students who are deafblind face challenges for which they may not be prepared. The purpose of this study was to identify priorities for university programs preparing educators of students who are deafblind in the United States. A total of 205 educators participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an electronic survey to answer questions related to demographics, professional background, and to rank items related to educational practices and needs when teaching students who are deafblind, from highest to lowest priority. Participants were recruited through electronic announcements sent to major professional organizations in the fields of visual impairments, deafness, and deafblindness. The top three priorities identified by participants when working with students with deafblindness were the following: (a) understanding the unique needs of students, (b) teaching techniques effective with students who are deafblind, and (c) accessibility to resources. Recommendations for personnel preparation programs will be discussed.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620915271
       
  • Working remotely if you are visually impaired
    • Authors: Barry Ginley
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T06:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620925702
       
  • A critical literature analysis of the Orientation and Mobility paradigm
    • Authors: Katrina Blake
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Orientation and Mobility is a specialist field of knowledge, skills, and understandings specific to people with visual impairment. Blending traditional and developmental disability-specific eruditions, Orientation and Mobility focuses on the sensory, spatial, perceptual, and environmental concepts and skills for people with visual impairment. Linked to well-being, social participation, employment, and self-determination, Orientation and Mobility, therefore, is the cornerstone of equity and access for people with visual impairment. Despite this, there is little explicit discussion about the dominant discourses prevalent within the professional field of Orientation and Mobility. Drawing on theories of paradigms and grand narratives, a critical review of the dominant discourse on Orientation and Mobility learning and teaching was undertaken. The aim of this critical literature review was to identify ‘if and how’ the privileging of important intellectual traditions guides the professional field of Orientation and Mobility. Results confirmed that there is a consistent philosophical world view underlying much of the activity in Orientation and Mobility research. This paradigm of Orientation and Mobility professional attitudes, perspectives, and interests impedes a shared commitment to studying and improving the fundamentals of Orientation and Mobility learning and teaching. An important finding of this review was the effect that gaps in research and literature have on the future profession and perception of Orientation and Mobility. Alternative discourses to the traditional Orientation and Mobility learning and teaching are considered and discussed in terms of the longevity and growth of the Orientation and Mobility professional field.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T04:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620920901
       
  • The effect of age and vision on functional measures of medication
           management, across different prescription drug container shapes in persons
           with visual impairment
    • Authors: Elyse Connors, Amy Curtis, Dae Kim, Amy Freeland
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The relative effect of age and vision on medication management tasks (time and accuracy of entering the pharmacy phone number and interpreting dose) across four different prescription drug container shapes is examined. A mixed measures three-factor design was employed, with within-subject control. The repeated-measure independent variable of interest was container shape (four conditions), and the two between-subject independent variables were vision and age. Older age and decreased vision were found to be generally negatively associated with time and accuracy of entering the phone number and correct interpretation of dose. Container shape modified the effect of vision and age on the medication management tasks. Interactions between independent variables of age, vision, and container shape make it difficult to recommend one container shape for all participants. The results presented give credence for further examination of packing for label readability and other aspects of medication management, given the ease at which packaging can be modified.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-05-18T09:34:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620918893
       
  • Low vision evaluation training in Nigeria: Time to improve human resource
           in developing countries
    • Authors: Adedayo Adio, Charles Bekibele, David Lewerenz, Linda Lawrence
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Routine low vision care is a rarity in Nigeria and in most developing countries. The reason for the widespread apathy and lack of human resource development in this area is myriad. The Center for Vision, The Lens Rehabilitation Center for the Blind located in Portharcourt, Nigeria sought to correct this by working to revive interest and thus improve human resource available through provision of quality hands on training with world renowned scholars and faculty . Records of all who registered for two separate Low vision training courses at TLEC re(Hab) Nigeria between 2018 and 2019 were audited. Number of courses taught, participating faculty, gender and age distribution of trainees, previous training accessed by trainees, pretest scores and post test scores were compared. Numbers actually practicing low vision after 3 months of conclusion of the training and outcome of feedback questionnaires were also evaluated using a simple calculator. Fifty eyecare workers (42 in one day training and 8 over 2 weeks) with mean age of 33.6years and gender ratio of 1:2.3 were trained in two batches. There were 26 faculty available to teach both online and physically. Previous exposure to training was absent in the one day group while the two week group had just one. The courses taught were mainly on low vision evaluation(50% in the one day , 44.29% in the 2 week course) with additional courses on early intervention, rehabilitation of the blind and evaluation in special kids with additional problems. The hands on sessions were significantly better in the two week training with a third of the periods available dedicated to stepwise approach in low vision evaluation.A comparison of pretest and post test scores showed there was an exponential improvement in understanding between the one day and the two week training of up to 50 % increase which reflected in the numbers able to refer appropriately and evaluate low vision patients in the country when the one day and 2 week groups were compared. There was a general consensus that the two week training was more preferred. Empowerment with relevant low vision charts and device equipment significantly improved the numbers still practicing 3 months after training ended when compared with those who were not given any by as much as 400%. In conclusion, low vision needs dedicated and well trained staff who compulsorily need to be empowered to function with provision of required equipment especially in developing countries where the majority of the need for low vision aids and assistive devices appear to be.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-05-07T08:33:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620915263
       
  • Bibliometric mapping of psychological well-being among children with a
           visual impairment
    • Authors: Pála B Kúld, Sabina Kef, Paula S Sterkenburg
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Children with a visual impairment experience lower psychological well-being than normative populations. While research on this subject is abundant, an overview is lacking of the methods used and topics commonly studied, to guide future research. The aim was to provide a visual overview of common topics included in psychological well-being research from 2000 to 2018 among children with a visual impairment. We created a bibliometric map with the VOSviewer programme using the text mining functionality to construct and visualise co-occurrences of relevant terms from the titles and abstracts in the included literature. The results show that common subjective terms are behaviour, relationships, attachment and parenting, cerebral visual impairment, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. The common methodological terms include literature and randomized control trials, with the latter restricted to specific terms such as parenting. The conclusions and implications are that the results give insight into the subject terms studied in past years and provide a roadmap for future research in the fields of visual impairment and psychological well-being of children. The topics needing more research are rare disorders, siblings, assistive technology, romantic relationships, bullying, and the frequent cooccurrences of visual impairment with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T08:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620915245
       
  • The Table-top Visual Search Ability Test for children and young people:
           Normative response time data from typically developing children
    • Authors: Jonathan Waddington, Jade S Pickering, Timothy Hodgson
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Five table-top tasks were developed to test the visual search ability of children and young people in a real-world context, and to assess the transfer of training-related improvements in visual search on computerised tasks to real-world activities. Each task involved searching for a set of target objects among distracting objects on a table-top. Performance on the Table-top Visual Search Ability Test for Children (TVSAT-C) was measured as the time spent searching for targets divided by the number of targets found. A total of 108 typically developing children (3–11 years old) and eight children with vision impairment (7–12 years old) participated in the study. A significant correlation was found between log-transformed age and log-transformed performance (R2 = .65, p = 4 × 10−26) in our normative sample, indicating a monomial power law relationship between age and performance with an exponent of [math], [math] We calculated age-dependent percentiles and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated the third percentile as the optimal cut-off for detecting a visual search deficit, giving a specificity of [math], [math] and sensitivity of [math], [math] for the test. Further studies are required to calculate measures of reliability and external validity, to confirm sensitivity for visual search deficits, and to investigate the most appropriate response modes for participants with conditions that affect manual dexterity. In addition, more work is needed to assess construct validity where semantic knowledge is required that younger children may not have experience with. We have made the protocol and age-dependent normative data available for those interested in using the test in research or practice, and to illustrate the smooth developmental trajectory of visual search ability during childhood.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-04-30T11:39:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620915258
       
  • The relation between sensory loss and communicative and cognitive
           development in children with congenital deafblindness
    • Authors: Flemming Larsen, Jesper Dammeyer
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      People with congenital deafblindness (CDB) are a heterogenic group, and CDB is defined in a variety of ways in the scientific literature. In this study, we aim to examine whether some of the heterogeneity may be more easily resolved from the perspective of ability than from the perspective of impairment. In order to do this, we take as a starting point for our investigations the communication systems that are used and the different sense modalities they require. Information about almost the entire known population of children with CDB in Denmark (age = 3–18 years, N = 71) was collected using a questionnaire form, covering degree of visual and hearing impairments, intellectual disability, level of expressive communication and use of communication systems. No correlation was found between severity of CDB based on degree of sensory impairment and level of intellectual and communicative disability within the population. However, whether or not the child with CDB was able to make use of residual senses to access a linguistic culture (spoken or signed) correlated significantly with both cognitive and communicative ability. In addition, the two groups had inverse correlations between number of systems used for communication and communicative ability. The actual systems used for communication may be useful for categorizing people with CDB into severity subgroups for scientific study and for intervention planning. In addition, the acquisition of a tactile language for the subgroup of people with CDB who do not utilize a visual or auditory linguistic culture should be given special attention in research and practice.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-04-27T07:01:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620913901
       
  • ‘Orientation and Mobility . . . What is that again'’
    • Authors: Katrina Blake
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Orientation and Mobility (O&M) is historically understood as the technical skills required for a person with visual impairment to move independently and safely through their environment. O&M instruction was originally positioned as a way to progress the rehabilitation of US veterans blinded in World War II. Since then, the long white cane has been synonymous with visual impairment, blindness, and the discipline of O&M. To this day, the attainment of long-cane skills and route travel persists as a major component of O&M practice and research. This pervasive quantitative conception of O&M instruction promotes attitudes, perspectives, and interests that impede a shared commitment to studying and improving the fundamentals of O&M. Drawing on qualitative data from interviews with three Queensland primary school students with visual impairment, a parent, teacher, and a panel of Australian O&M specialists the sub-culture of O&M is illuminated. Results indicate a lack of general awareness of the impact of Visual Impairment and of O&M, and shed light on the authentic learning experiences of the three students with visual impairment. To better understand the influence of visual impairment on independent travel and subsequently the tenets of O&M learning and teaching, it is necessary to challenge the conventional way of telling the story of O&M. The importance of changing preconceived ideas and values of O&M is discussed.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-04-20T10:36:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620915260
       
  • Creative haptics: An evaluation of a haptic tool for non-sighted and
           visually impaired design students, studying at a distance
    • Authors: Lisa Bowers, Ryan Hayle
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Design students who are blind or sight-impaired face distinct challenges when studying a visually centric discipline such as design practice. Students who are sighted use computer-aided design (CAD) which is presented via high definition using a PC mouse. However, design students who are blind or sight-impaired are not able to use visual display technology; therefore, this creates a barrier to access for this community. The aim of this study is to present a haptic prototype trial (Haptic Application Prototype Test [HAPT]) designed to assist design students who are blind/sight-impaired to interact with prototype assembly at the Open University (OU). The study specifically assessed the user feedback and the efficacy of access to CAD interface through the affordances of the haptic interface. The experiment included two groups of participants: one group included students who were blind and sight-impaired and the second group students who were classed fully sighted. Both groups were tested in two conditions of haptic engagement – manual and virtual. The parameters examined were (a) time – set at an industry-recognized time taken to assemble a ‘sketch model’ or prototype, and (b) ncollision – the number of collisions created by a collision algorithm which calculated any random collisions with the virtual environment or objects therein. Quantitative results showed that there was little statistical difference between time and a between-group test. From this we can imply that the haptic interface had offered equal access to CAD for people in the trial who were sighted and blind/sight-impaired indiscriminate of their sight acuity. Further future work using HAPT could be developed to a wider audience and a larger more diverse range of sight-impaired users. Future work will focus on new explorations of teaching using of haptics for greater immersion for distance learners at the OU science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) labs.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-04-20T10:01:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620912771
       
  • An empirical evaluation of a graphics creation technique for blind and
           visually impaired individuals
    • Authors: Sandra Fernando, James Ohene-Djan
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The representation of pictorial data by people who are blind and sight impaired has gathered momentum with research and development; however, little research has focused on the use of a screen layout to provide people who are blind and sight impaired users with the spatial orientation to create and reuse graphics. This article contributes an approach to navigating on the screen, manipulating computer graphics, and user-defined images. The technique described in this article enables features such as zooming, grouping, and drawing by calling primitive and user-defined shapes. It enables blind people to engage in and experience drawing and art production on their own. The navigation technique gives an initiative sense of autonomy with compass directions, makes it easy to learn, efficient to manipulate shape with a the simple drawing language, and takes less time to complete with system support features. An empirical evaluation was conducted to validate the suitability of the SETUP09 technique and to evaluate the accuracy, and efficiency of the navigation and drawing techniques proposed. The drawing experiment results confirmed high accuracy (88%) and efficiency among blind and visually impaired (BVI) users.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2020-04-20T08:50:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620911422
       
 
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