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  Subjects -> DISABILITY (Total: 103 journals)
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Journal of Disability Policy Studies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.65
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 29  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1044-2073 - ISSN (Online) 1538-4802
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • The Need for Technology-Aided Instruction and Intervention Policy for
           Autistic Youth

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      Authors: Kari L. Sherwood, Matthew J. Smith, Mary A. Eldredge
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines current technology-aided instruction and intervention (TAII) available for autistic transition-age youth (TAY) and existing policies that may support or hinder the delivery of these interventions. Specifically, we focus on policies that might influence the delivery of TAII to autistic TAY. After a careful review of the literature, we observed that postsecondary policy guiding the delivery of TAII designed to support autistic TAY is lacking. TAII has demonstrated effectiveness, usability, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness, particularly with this population. We suggest possibilities for future policies to support the development, implementation, and evaluation of TAII for autistic TAY.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2023-01-25T07:19:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221150603
       
  • Opioid Use Among Social Security Disability Insurance Applicants,
           2013–2018

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      Authors: Nicole Maestas, Tisamarie B. Sherry, Alexander Strand
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Opioid use is common among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries who account for a disproportionate share of opioid-related hospitalizations and mortality. However, little is known about the prevalence of opioid use prior to SSDI enrollment. Understanding when opioid use is established and how it correlates with individual characteristics and community prescribing practices would inform policy approaches to reducing opioid-related harms among SSDI beneficiaries. We estimated the prevalence of opioid use among SSDI applicants by applying a natural language processing algorithm to SSDI application data. We find the prevalence of opioid use among SSDI applicants declined from 33% in 2013 to 24% in 2018. In contrast, the share of applicants with musculoskeletal impairments, which are commonly associated with pain, was unchanged. The share of applications reporting opioid use declined across both sexes, all age groups and education levels, and all regions. There was substantial variation, however, in the magnitude of decline by geography, with the smallest declines in parts of the Midwest and Southeastern United States. SSDI application rates and applications reporting opioid use were more likely to come from communities with higher opioid prescribing rates. Our estimates suggest most SSDI beneficiaries began opioid use prior to entering the SSDI program.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2023-01-21T09:48:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221150613
       
  • Systematic Review of Enrollment of Students With Disabilities in Charters
           Compared to Traditional Public Schools

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      Authors: Brenda K. Smith, Keith Christensen
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      There is a perception that charter schools enroll students with disabilities at a lower rate than traditional public schools, despite federal laws that require charter schools to provide the same services as traditional public schools. This systematic review answers the question: What research exists that explores the representation of students with disabilities in charter schools and the proportionality of that representation in comparison to traditional public schools' The methodology for this review was based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analyses) statement for reporting systematic reviews. Conclusions from this review include the limited amount of research on the topic, the difficulty of comparing enrollment percentages between state systems, and the difficulty in determining factors affecting the enrollment of students with disabilities in charter schools.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T05:13:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221146567
       
  • Examining Differences in Self-Reported Health and Access to Health Care
           Among People With Early- and Late-Onset Disability

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      Authors: Kelsey S. Goddard, Jean P. Hall, Noelle K. Kurth
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the study is to compare self-reported health and access to health care among people with early- and late-onset disability. Adults with disabilities 18 to 62 years of age participated in the 2018 National Survey on Health and Disability (NSHD), which is a nationally representative, internet-based survey that provides data related to health insurance and access to health care. A subsample of participants who reported age at disability onset (n = 1,188) completed measures related to demographics, health status, health insurance, and access to health care services. Results show that people with early-onset disability were significantly more likely to receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI; p < .001), less likely to receive Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI; p < .001), more likely to have Medicaid (p < .001), and less likely to have Medicare (p < .01). People with late-onset disability were more likely to report service limitations and were more likely to report fair/poor health (p < .001). Overall, study findings suggest that people with late-onset disability report higher out-of-pocket health care expenditures, greater access limitations, and poorer health. Medical professionals and disability service providers should be mindful about assisting this population in locating appropriate health insurance coverage, health services, and financial assistance.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-12-09T06:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221142253
       
  • The Impact of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act on Agency-Level
           Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for Adults and Youth With Blindness and
           Low Vision

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      Authors: Michele C. McDonnall, Jennifer L. Cmar, Zhen S. McKnight
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) on outcomes (competitive employment rates and median earnings) for adult and youth vocational rehabilitation consumers with blindness or low vision (B/LV) and to determine whether impacts differed by agency type. We utilized RSA-911 data to create two agency-level longitudinal datasets, one for youth and one for adults, with 6-year pre-WIOA and 3-year post-WIOA periods. Data were analyzed using discontinuous growth modeling to assess longitudinal changes in agency-level outcomes through the inclusion of variables representing WIOA and subsequent change in response to WIOA. After WIOA, both youth and adult agency-level competitive employment rates decreased significantly for consumers with B/LV, with a larger impact on youth, and median earnings increased. Results document that the impact of WIOA on agencies varied widely. Separate agencies had a significant decrease in adult competitive employment rates for consumers with B/LV and a significant increase in median earnings compared with combined agencies. Overall, the influence of WIOA on B/LV consumer outcomes appears to be mixed at best, and the effect is surprisingly similar for youth and adults.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T06:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221135811
       
  • Policy and Practice Considerations to Support College and Career Readiness
           for Youth With Disabilities: A Systematic Mixed Studies Review

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      Authors: Valerie L. Mazzotti, Mary E. Morningstar, Allison Lombardi, Stephen Kwiatek, Ashley Taconet, Kathryn Buddeke, Jessica Monahan, Ryan Harris
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Youth with disabilities must be college and career ready to be prepared for adult life. Policy efforts confirm this prioritization (Every Student Succeeds Act [ESSA], 2015; Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act [IDEIA], 2004). Parallel to the emergence of college and career readiness (CCR), transition planning and service requirements have promoted successful transitions to postschool education, employment, and community living (IDEIA, 2004). However, not all high schools provide a range of CCR supports for these students. We conducted a systematic mixed studies review to investigate the prevalence of five domains of CCR identified in the literature. Findings revealed the five domains had a range of coverage across the literature with academic engagement and process-oriented skills comprising more citations and transition competencies least likely to be included. In addition, across the CCR literature, data for students with disabilities were rarely disaggregated, which confirms that we know even less about the effectiveness of the five domains for these students. Clear gaps were identified and suggests research often does not inform CCR policy and/or practice decisions.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T12:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221130528
       
  • Exploring Special Education and Center for Independent Living Professional
           Beliefs on Collaboration and the Value-Based Principles That Drive
           Secondary Transition Service Delivery

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      Authors: Anthony J. Plotner, Charles B. Walters, Shelby Gonzalez
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The importance of interagency collaboration to support the postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities is underscored in many ways. Perhaps one of the most important among them is the place of interagency collaboration as an evidenced-based predictor of postschool success. Although Centers for Independent Living (CILs) receive federal funding to serve people with disabilities across the lifespan, little research exists to map the nature of their collaboration with local education agencies (LEAs) to this end. The current survey-based study examined perceptions of professionals in both settings (i.e., LEAs and CILs) on their current level of collaboration with one another and the value-based principles they believe influence their work as they support transition-age youth with disabilities (n = 581). Findings indicate a widespread belief in the importance of CILs in youth transition service delivery, a stark contrast between CIL and school-based transition professional perceptions of current collaboration, and a dynamic landscape of shared and divergent ratings of importance across value-based principles of transition practice. Practical implications are outlined to inform CIL and LEA collaboration to support youth with disabilities alongside directions for future research.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T01:29:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221131284
       
  • Creeping Normality: Special Education’s Problem of a New Normal

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      Authors: James M. Kauffman, Daniel P. Hallahan, Paige C. Pullen
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Many alternative opinions about how best to respond educationally to the reality of human diversity in abilities are possible. Opinions and rhetoric now dominant seem to us inimical to a thriving, vibrant, effective special education. We see trends in concepts or ideas, policies, and publications that we believe could lead slowly but inevitably to special education’s diminishment and eventual demise. We describe what could become the “new normal” through the process of “creeping normalization” and suggest seven alternative propositions that we wish to see affirmed by professional associations and policy-making organizations.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T10:57:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221128910
       
  • The Relationships Among Parent Involvement, Student Self-Determination,
           and Postsecondary Education Enrollment for Students With Learning
           Disabilities

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      Authors: Wen Zeng, Song Ju, Dalun Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In light of the lower rates of postsecondary education enrollment by students with learning disabilities (LD), researchers have sought to identify predictors of enrollment so that improvement efforts can target specific predictors. Taking advantage of the rich data provided in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, we conducted a secondary data analysis to investigate how parent involvement and student self-determination predict postsecondary education enrollment for students with LD. Findings from structural equation modeling analyses showed that parent involvement and student self-determination predict postsecondary education enrollment, and the influence of parent involvement is mediated by student self-determination. These results suggest that parents play an essential role in the secondary transition process, and schools need to make concerted efforts to work with parents to foster student self-determination, which ultimately promotes students’ participation in postsecondary education.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-10-27T10:42:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221130748
       
  • Intermediary Services to Assist People With Disabilities to Implement
           Individualized Funding Plans: A Rapid Systematic Review

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      Authors: Lisa O’Brien, Ivana Randjelovic
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A systematic review was conducted to describe, and evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of, intermediary services to support people with a disability to implement individualized funding plans. We included six records, including one subanalysis of randomized trial data, three qualitative studies, and two systematic reviews (reporting on 73 and 18 studies, respectively). No studies directly compared “consumer-directed plan plus intermediary services” to “consumer-directed plan with no/alternative intermediary,” so effectiveness of these interventions is uncertain. There is qualitative evidence from the perspective of disability planners and workers that intermediary interventions are important enablers of successful plan implementation. There is also qualitative evidence from consumer and family perspectives that external support is required to successfully navigate self-directed systems and that strong, trusting, and collaborative relationships with both paid and unpaid individuals in the person’s support network were facilitators of successful plan implementation. There was evidence of disabling practices and attitudes among some support agencies, resulting in coordinators being very risk averse in order to safeguard their clients. Suggestions for future research include carefully planned and ethically robust comparative trial designs, clear description and consistent delivery of interventions, and long-term evaluation of impact. The protocol was published on PROSPERO (CRD42020177607).
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-10-27T10:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221130529
       
  • Perceptions of Federal Workplace Attributes: Interactions Among
           Disability, Sex, and Military Experience

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      Authors: Sarah von Schrader, Leslie Shaw, Adrienne Colella
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The U.S. federal government strives to be a model employer of people with disabilities. Although it has been successful in recent years in increasing disability hiring, retention of this workforce remains a concern. The researchers of this mixed-methods study sought to understand the perceptions of workplace attributes by employees with disabilities in federal agencies through analysis of the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS) and focus groups. The study results indicate that people with disabilities, in general, have lower perceptions of workplace attributes than their peers without disabilities; however, looking at groups differentiated by disability, military experience, and sex tells a richer story. This article incorporates the voices of agency representatives and employees with disabilities to provide additional context to the survey findings. Based on the results, the authors offer practice and policy recommendations to support improved workplace experiences and retention of employees with disabilities.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T06:30:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221128917
       
  • The 30th Anniversary of the Americans With Disabilities Act: An Interview
           With Dr. Jane West

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      Authors: Jane West, Mitchell Yell
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Dr. Jane West was involved in the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. This law, which has been called the emancipation proclamation for persons with disabilities, was signed into law by President George H.W. Bush over 30 years ago. Dr. West sat down for an interview in which she addressed the origins, importance, and future of this remarkable law.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T06:30:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221118863
       
  • The Effects of Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act on Health
           Insurance Coverage, Health Care Access, and Health Care Use for People
           With Disabilities: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Xiaobei Dong, Nancy A. Miller
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      More than 27% of individuals in the U.S. experience a disability. We conducted a scoping review of the literature to examine what is known about the impact of the 2010 Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on individuals with disabilities’ health care insurance coverage, health care access, and health care use. We followed the approach of Arskey and O’Malley in conducting our review. Electronic journal databases, hand searching of key health and disability journals, and reference checking were used to identify potential articles for the review. Individuals with disabilities or with conditions that could be disabling were included. The intervention used was the 2010 Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion. Study eligibility criteria were peer-reviewed studies published in 2014 or later that conducted multivariate analyses of the effect of the Medicaid expansion on people with disabilities’ health insurance coverage, health care access, and health care use. The most consistent finding across studies was that the Medicaid expansion had a positive effect on health insurance coverage. It was generally found to have increased Medicaid coverage and decreased the uninsured rate. Its effect on private or employer-sponsored insurance coverage was a mix of no and negative effects. Findings related to health care access and use of care were more mixed. On a scale of 0 to 8 (highest quality), the quality of individual studies ranged from 2 to 6, with an average across studies of 4.2, the low end of adequate quality. Future studies should develop a more consistent approach to measuring disability and develop a core set of health care access and use measures to facilitate comparisons across studies so as to systematically evaluate the evidence related to the Medicaid expansion.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T06:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221118124
       
  • Hard LRE Choices in the Era of Inclusion: Rights and Their Implications

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      Authors: James M. Kauffman, Mack D. Burke, Dimitris Anastasiou
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Rights of students are often misunderstood. Civil rights of minorities granted by the U.S. Supreme Court are confused with human rights of individuals with disabilities granted by the U.S. Congress. Federal law applying to education of individuals with disabilities requires that difficult decisions be made by families and schools regarding how to provide four different and interrelated provisions of Public Law 94-142 of 1975 (now the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 or IDEA): (a) a free appropriate public education (FAPE), (b) an Individualized Education Program (IEP), (c) placement in the least restrictive environment (LRE), and (d) a full continuum of alternative placements (CAP). Special attention is given to LRE because the full inclusion movement and other influences related to a portion of disability studies have made it the central issue in special education. Under the law, three hard-to-answer questions must be asked in all cases involving special education: (a) What is an appropriate special education for a particular student with a disability' (b) What is the LRE in which that most appropriate education can occur for that individual student' (c) What is the CAP related to that individualized appropriate education'
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T05:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221113074
       
  • The Americans With Disabilities Act and the Individuals With Disabilities
           Education Act: Intersection, Divergence, and the Path Forward

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      Authors: Jane E. West, Virginia L. McLaughlin, Katharine G. Shepherd, Rebecca Cokley
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The 30th anniversary of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) offered an opportunity for reflection on ways that ADA has influenced—and might further shape—the provision of special education under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), now in its 47th year of implementation. After reviewing the purposes, provisions, and contexts of the two laws, the authors discuss the interplay between IDEA and ADA within several important areas, including the delivery of student services, creation of system-wide frameworks, focus on postsecondary outcomes, and programs in higher education. The authors then consider three factors that create tensions for the ways in which IDEA currently defines disability and addresses student needs: changing demographics in public schools, standards-based reform in education, and the growth of disability rights and activism. The article concludes with recommendations for moving ahead by deepening and expanding the dialogue between special education and the disability rights communities; amplifying the voices of graduates of IDEA; engaging leadership of independent federal advisory agencies to infuse ADA principles into IDEA; and exploring international thinking, scholarship, and practice related to serving all students effectively and inclusively.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-06T04:58:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221114113
       
  • Enduring Equity Questions: A Sequence Analysis of Citations in Response to
           Racial Inequity via the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act

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      Authors: Catherine Kramarczuk Voulgarides, Alexandra Aylward
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we document patterns of local education agency (LEA) disproportionality citations within one state spanning an 8-year time period immediately following the 2004 reauthorization of Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to understand the following: (a) how patterns of disproportionality citations manifest over time in suburban locales, and (b) how often LEAs experience and subsequently are able to successfully address a citation for racial inequity in special education outcomes. We descriptively investigated sequence patterns across suburban locales within one state—New York State (NYS), which serves as a representative case for our analysis. We focus on suburban locales because prior research has documented that a school district’s location (e.g., suburban) relates to the time frame within which a school district was able to address a disproportionality citation. In addition, locale-specific characteristics such as segregation in schools and communities and sociodemographic conditions influence the occurrence of racial disproportionality. Our primary questions driving the descriptive inquiry were as follows: How does variation in sequence patterns for IDEA disproportionality citations manifest within and between suburban locales in NYS' And, what are the policy implications of these patterns' We conclude with specific recommendations for improving IDEA racial equity policy.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T07:10:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221114102
       
  • Americans Aging With Disabilities Are More Likely to Have Multiple Chronic
           Conditions

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      Authors: Debra L. Brucker, Eric Lauer, Sarah Boege
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from the 2010 to 2017 National Health Interview survey, bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were utilized to estimate the percentage and odds of having multiple chronic conditions (two or more, three or more) among U.S. adults ages 65 and over with and without disabilities, controlling for sociodemographic factors and presence of psychological distress. Older adults with and without disabilities in the United States most frequently reported having hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes. Regression results indicate that older adults with disabilities are significantly more likely to experience two or more and three or more chronic conditions than older adults without disabilities, controlling for sociodemographic factors and health behaviors. These findings highlight a need for improvement in coordinated care that considers both disability and multiple chronic conditions in the management of patient health to support well-being in aging.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T09:23:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221107079
       
  • Exploring the Truth of Michael Yudin’s Claim: The More Time Students
           With Disabilities Spend in General Classrooms, the Better They Do
           Academically

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      Authors: Douglas Fuchs, Hilary C. Mirowitz, Jennifer K. Gilbert
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Many K-12 students with disabilities (SWDs) spend a large portion of their school day in general classrooms because of a prevailing view that they are more appropriately challenging and beneficial than other educational placements. We questioned this belief by exploring a “dosage” hypothesis: The more time SWD are in general classrooms the better they do academically. We assembled a database spanning 1998 to 2015, inclusive. For nine of these years, we found both Office of Special Education Program’s placement data and National Center for Education Statistics’ reading data. We ran multilevel growth models to describe trends across time for the placement and reading data. Findings indicated a steadily increasing trend for general class placement and a positive but decelerating trend for reading performance, which together produced a widening placement–performance gap after 2007. Among 10 states/jurisdictions with the strongest positive trends for general class placement, there was no uniform pattern of reading performance across years. In short, we found little corroboration of a dosage hypothesis.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T10:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221097713
       
  • Developing Implementation Capacity of a State Education Agency to Improve
           Outcomes for Students With Disabilities

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      Authors: Eric Kloos, Ellen Nacik, Caryn Ward
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The federal Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs has adopted a Results Driven Accountability (RDA) framework to support State Education Agencies (SEAs) in improving results for students with disabilities. RDA directed SEAs to focus on measurable outcomes. A leadership team in a large mid-western state in the United States partnered with an Institute of Higher Education implementation science purveyor team to systematically apply a particular approach, the Active Implementation Frameworks (AIFs), to build capacity, effectively implement, and scale an evidence-based program, Check & Connect, to improve statewide graduation rates for Black and American Indian students with disabilities. The presented case example illustrates how the SEA partners with local education agencies’ district teams to continuously measure and manage changes in (a) system capacity and (b) practice fidelity to improve graduation rate outcomes. Application of the AIFs in education, measured implementation progress and preliminary outcome data, and implications for policy for individuals with disabilities are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T06:10:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221096393
       
  • Self-Report and Administrative Data on Disability and IEP Status:
           Examining Differences and Impacts on Intervention Outcomes

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      Authors: Karrie A. Shogren, Jesse R. Pace, David C. Wittenburg, Sheida K. Raley, Tyler A. Hicks, Graham G. Rifenbark, Kathleen Lynne Lane, Mark H. Anderson
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Differences in perceptions of disability between students and administrators can play a role in youth’s educational experience. This study used data from a cluster randomized controlled trial (C-RCT) of the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) to first compare student self-report of disability status to matched administrative data and second to examine the impact of the data source utilized on trial outcomes. The findings demonstrate substantive gaps between self-reports and administrative reports of disability. While some differences might be expected, the size of the differences is notable, especially given that many students identified as having an Individualized Education Program in administrative data did not self-identify as receiving services or having a disability. The findings advance understanding of discrepancies in self-reported disability and administrative data in secondary intervention research. We also found the interpretation of group differences (students with vs. without disabilities) on trial outcomes was sensitive to the source of the data (self vs. administrative) used to establish disability status. This finding can inform future research and policy, as the data source selected to define disability populations across research studies likely has substantive impacts on conclusions drawn about the impact of interventions on students with disabilities. We cannot identify all the factors driving these differences. Nonetheless, the findings underscore the importance of providing clarity about decisions made in defining disability populations in intervention research.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T10:06:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094811
       
  • School Shootings: Learning to Look for the Right Signals

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      Authors: Hill M. Walker, Gary Brown
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This commentary addresses the justification provided by the Michigan school superintendent for returning Ethan Crumbley, of Oxford High School, to his classroom following some red flag warnings about him from two of his teachers prior to the school shootings. It suggests warning signs and prevention strategies that could be used to reduce school violence in the future. The commentary argues that extreme behavioral events rather than the frequency of disciplinary problems are more likely harbingers of school violence tragedies.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T10:02:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094796
       
  • Effective Implementation Capacity to Impact Change Within State Education
           Systems to Support Students With Disabilities

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      Authors: Caryn Ward, Tanya Ihlo, Kathleen Ryan Jackson, Sophia Farmer
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      There is a continued call for the use of practices supported by evidence to improve the quality and effectiveness of services provided for students with disabilities. Despite best intentions, our education systems continue to struggle to adopt these practices and transfer them into consistent, sustained use by practitioners. Implementation science, the multi-disciplinary study of methods and strategies to promote use of research findings in practice, seeks to address this by providing frameworks to guide creation of conditions that facilitate use of evidence-based practices. The present article describes how an implementation science approach, Active Implementation Frameworks, was used by a national technical assistance center to cultivate systemic change and create improved outcomes for students with disabilities within several state, regional, and local education agencies. A summary of the lessons learned thus far and resulting considerations for practice and policy are presented. A key lesson was that state education agencies (SEAs) supporting districts and schools in implementation of a specific, educator-student-level practice realized improved outcomes for their students with disabilities. SEAs implementing frameworks or processes without an operationalized and measurable educator-student level practice had limited or no evidence of improved student outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T09:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221096392
       
  • The Evolution of Access to Education Through Landmark Legislation, Court
           Cases, and Policy Initiatives Setting Precedent for The Gary B. Court
           Decision

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      Authors: Sarah A. Nagro, Andrew Markelz, Richelle Davis, Anna Macedonia, Kevin Monnin
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Access to education for all students has been long sought. Once defined as physical access a school building, the concept of access has evolved since Brown v. Board of Education. The purpose of this policy review, conducted through archival research, is to examine the evolution of access to K–12 education for all students, with an emphasis on students with disabilities who are general education students first, to understand the implications of the 2020 U.S. 6th Circuit Court of Appeals Gary B. vs. Whitmer decision. For the first time, a federal court ruled that the constitution affords all students “a fundamental right to a basic minimum education.” Specifically, the evolving concept of access to education for all students including students with disabilities across (a) the school building, (b) curricular opportunities, (c) education outcomes, and (d) a college- and career-ready curriculum is outlined using landmark K–12 federal education legislation, court cases, and policy initiatives. Taken together, a basic minimum education includes access to challenging academic learning objectives, an emphasis on literacy, provision of educational materials of sufficient quantity and quality, and an adequate teacher workforce. Meeting these expectations assures genuine access to a public education for all students.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T09:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094806
       
  • Impacts of the 2010 VA PTSD Rule Change on Participation in SSA Disability
           Programs

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      Authors: Kara Contreary, Jennifer Tennant, Yonatan Ben-Shalom
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Veterans who could qualify for disability benefits from both the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Social Security Administration (SSA) might view them as complementary or as substitutes for each other. For example, people who earn above a certain income lose their Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits, whereas VA Disability Compensation (DC) benefits do not change based on income. Veterans with disabilities who wish to work may therefore prefer to receive DC over SSDI, in effect treating the two programs as substitutes. We examined how an eligibility rule change in DC affected participation in DC, SSDI, and Supplemental Security Income to understand whether veterans with disabilities increase or reduce their take-up of SSA disability benefits when access to DC increases. Using Current Population Survey data from 2009 to 2016, we studied a 2010 DC rule change that made it easier for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder to demonstrate eligibility. After the rule change, veterans with self-reported cognitive difficulties reported increased receipt of DC, reduced receipt of SSDI, and reduced rates of work-limiting disability, seeming to treat the two benefit programs as substitutes.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T12:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094812
       
  • Law Enforcement Officers: A Call for Training and Awareness of
           Disabilities

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      Authors: Lindsay L. Diamond, Lindsey B. Hogue
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Law enforcement officers (LEOs) are likely to encounter people with disabilities (PWD) during calls for service. These interactions sometimes escalate situations involving PWD and may result in arrest or death due to a lack of disability awareness among LEOs. The purpose of this study was to explore the current perspectives of LEOs regarding PWD and to identify the current training needs of LEOs regarding disability awareness and interactions with PWD. This study utilized two focus groups, consisting of participants representing seven law enforcement agencies across a large, Western state. Results indicate that the perceptions and needs of the LEOs regarding PWD are shaped by four themes: (a) personal connections, (b) job experience, (c) training opportunities, and (d) training needs. Implications for policy and practice to enhance the rigor of disability awareness training for LEOs are described.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T09:50:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094803
       
  • Boards of Disability Service Provider Organizations for Adults With
           

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      Authors: Robyn Anne Wallace, Julie Rimes, Vicki Bitsika
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Provision of quality service by disability service providers for adults with intellectual disability is a core responsibility. It is central to access and participation in social, community goods, and services so that individuals are effectively supported in achieving their goals and aspirations and live a long life. Dimensions of quality service encompass how well the individual receives what they want, disability-related regulatory and legislative standards, kindness and professionalism, quality-of-life, and the extent of any breaches. Boards of disability service providers have ultimate responsibility for their organization’s service to ensure quality. They must appreciate and understand quality service dimensions in the context of the disability sector, collect and measure quality service data, hone their skills in weighing up and processing data, respond to user views, and enact improvement measures by way of directions to management. This article reviews board roles, membership, quality service dimensions, and mechanisms by which to obtain input data, process, and deliver outcomes contextualized to the requirements of boards of disability service providers for adults with intellectual disability. Furthermore, this article discusses a novel six-step implementation guide referred to as the SQUARE. That guide describes the functionary and cognitive elements required by boards to conduct effective quality service reviews.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094809
       
  • Using Implementation Science Active Implementation Frameworks to Implement
           an Instructional Framework to Increase Teacher Capacity for Instructional
           Access for Students With Disabilities

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      Authors: Hardy Murphy, Sandi Cole, Lucy Fischman
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article discusses the use of the Active Implementation Frameworks (AIF; Fixsen et al., 2005; Fixsen & Blasé, 2011) in a grant-funded project to implement the use of Universal Design for Learning as an instructional intervention to improve the access to quality instruction for students with disabilities. The discussion is based upon data specific to the AIF Implementation Drivers that facilitate and ensure the success of initiatives. The data illustrate the extent that characteristics of the respective schools and districts participating in the project impacted the fidelity of implementation processes and their associated outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T05:51:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073211066785
       
  • Mapping of Financial Support Programs for Children With Neurodisabilities
           Across Canada: Barriers and Discrepancies Within a Patchwork System

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      Authors: Caitlin Salvino, Connor Spencer, Angela M. Filipe, Lucyna M. Lach
      First page: 168
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A cross-jurisdictional pan-Canadian environmental scan was conducted to identify provincial, territorial, and federal financial supports available to families with children living with neurodisabilities. In partnership with the organization Childhood Disability LINK, flowchart-styled pathway documents were developed for each financial support identified, mapping out the processes required to access each support. A critical analysis was completed as it relates to structural barriers, accessibility of program information and geographic discrepancies. The results revealed that, despite almost universal availability of programs to support families of children living with neurodisabilities, significant barriers and inequity remain. This included considerable variation in access to financial support based on geographic and jurisdictional discrepancies, absence of adequate and accurate information about programs, and minimal support provided to families in the application process. We argue that the barriers and discrepancies identified were an inherent result of the Canadian federalist fragmentation of the delivery of social care and financial support programs for children living with neurodisabilities. A more unified response by Canadian provincial, territorial, and federal governments is clearly needed to take positive steps to address the consequences of federalist fragmentation and respond to the structural barriers and geographic discrepancies identified by this study.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T05:44:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073211066776
       
  • United Kingdom’s Income Support Program for People With Disabilities:
           Redesign, Reform, and Policy Lessons for the United States

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      Authors: Hande Inanc, David R. Mann
      First page: 188
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      We reviewed the operational aspects of Employment and Support Allowance (ESA)—the income support program for people with disabilities in the United Kingdom—and its potential policy lessons for the United States’ Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program. ESA has a five-step eligibility determination process, and eligible beneficiaries receive either an unconditional cash benefit or payments conditional on participating in return-to-work activities. The United Kingdom has reformed ESA to better meet policy objectives. Both ESA and SSDI collect medical documentation, but ESA also requires face-to-face eligibility assessments for almost all claimants. ESA eligibility is based on functional limitations exclusively, whereas SSDI assesses the ability to perform substantial work. With its focus on helping some beneficiaries return to work, ESA differs from SSDI, which requires no return-to-work efforts to receive benefits. ESA might offer policy lessons for SSDI with regard to pilot testing, program reform, and accurate decision making.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T08:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094804
       
  • Effects of Medicaid Expansions 2001–2015 on Supplemental Security Income
           Program Participation Among Childless Adults

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      Authors: Marguerite Burns, Laura Dague, Elizabeth Wood, Jae Kennedy
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Growing research indicates that Medicaid expansions reduce Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation, although the magnitude of effects may vary with the presence of other health policy reforms. We examine how a series of Medicaid expansions for childless adults before and after implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) impact SSI participation among childless adults. We use the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to compare the change in SSI participation in states that expanded Medicaid coverage relative to those that did not during two time periods: 2001–2013 and 2001–2015. On average, SSI participation declined by a nonstatistically significant 0.10 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = [−0.54, 0.32]) from a baseline SSI participation rate of 2.2% following Medicaid expansions implemented between 2001 and 2015. When restricted to the pre-ACA era, SSI participation declined by a nonstatistically significant 0.30 percentage points (95% CI = [−0.77, 0.16]). Although the direction of the point estimates suggests that Medicaid expansions before and after implementation of the ACA may be associated with reduced SSI participation, the imprecision of the estimates due in part to the sample size precludes this conclusion. To guide states in decision-making, it is essential to understand how increased Medicaid availability impacts SSI participation under different policy environments.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T03:04:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094807
       
  • Issues of Confidentiality and Potential Disability Discrimination in
           Behavior Intervention Team Responses to College Student Suicidality

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      Authors: Emily M. Lund
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In response to concerns about liability and safety, many colleges and universities have instituted Behavior Intervention Teams (BITs) to help assess and intervene with students who may pose a risk of harm to self or others. Students, lawyers, and advocates have raised concerns about some aspects of the implementation of BITs and related institutional policies, particularly with regard to students who are suicidal and those who engage in self-injurious behavior. Specifically, BITs are on complicated legal ground regarding confidentiality, disability civil rights law, and potential discriminatory or disparate treatment of students with psychiatric disabilities. In addition to reviewing the nature and background of BITs, this article reviews the professional, ethical, and legal issues surrounding confidentiality in the context of university intervention with students who are at risk for harm to self and the potentially applicable of disability civil rights law to BIT intervention with students who are suicidal. Suggestions for alternative and supplemental interventions, especially widespread use of suicide gatekeeping, are provided. Finally, the need for advocates who are knowledgeable in disability civil rights law is highlighted.
      Citation: Journal of Disability Policy Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T10:08:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10442073221094808
       
 
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