Subjects -> COMMUNICATIONS (Total: 518 journals)
    - COMMUNICATIONS (446 journals)
    - DIGITAL AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION (31 journals)
    - HUMAN COMMUNICATION (19 journals)
    - MEETINGS AND CONGRESSES (7 journals)
    - RADIO, TELEVISION AND CABLE (15 journals)

COMMUNICATIONS (446 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 480 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C TIC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Communicatio     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae Communicatio     Open Access  
Advances in Image and Video Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Journalism and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
African Journal of Information and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Yearbook of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ambitos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Semiotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anagrama     Open Access  
Anagramas : Rumbos y Sentidos de la Comunicación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anàlisi : Quaderns de Comunicació i Cultura     Open Access  
Âncora : Revista Latino-Americana de Jornalismo     Open Access  
Andharupa : Journal of Visual Communication Design & Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis / Studia de Cultura     Open Access  
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the International Communication Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anuario electrónico de estudios en Comunicación Social "Disertaciones"     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apparatus. Film, Media and Digital Cultures of Central and Eastern Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Área Abierta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Art Design & Communication in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
At-Tabsyir : Jurnal Komunikasi Penyiaran Islam     Open Access  
Atatürk İletişim Dergisi     Open Access  
Aturá : Revista Pan-Amazônica de Comunicação     Open Access  
Auditory Perception & Cognition     Hybrid Journal  
Augmentative and Alternative Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Avatares de la Comunicación y la Cultura     Open Access  
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Screen Media Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Black Camera     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Borderlands Journal : Culture, Politics, Law and Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
C&SC - Communication & Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Caderno de Letras     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Communication     Partially Free   (Followers: 24)
Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Celebrity Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chasqui. Revista Latinoamericana de Comunicación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Church, Communication and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CIC. Cuadernos de Informacion y Comunicacion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Comedy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Commons. Revista de Comunicación y Ciudadanía Digital     Open Access  
Communicatio : South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Communication & Language at Work     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Communication & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
communication +1     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication and Culture Online / Komunikacija i kultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communication and Media in Asia Pacific (CMAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Booknotes Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communication Cultures in Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Communication et organisation     Open Access  
Communication et Professionnalisation     Open Access  
Communication Papers : Media Literacy & Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Communication Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal  
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Communication, technologies et développement     Open Access  
Communications in Mobile Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Communications of the Association for Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Communiquer : Revue de communication sociale et publique     Open Access  
Computational Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunicação & Educação     Open Access  
Comunicação & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunicação e Sociedade     Open Access  
Comunicació. Revista de recerca i d'anàlisi     Open Access  
Comunicación     Open Access  
Comunicación y Ciudadanía     Open Access  
Comunicación y Género     Open Access  
Comunicación y Medios     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comunicar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conexión     Open Access  
Connections     Open Access  
Connections : A Journal of Language, Media and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contratexto     Open Access  
Convergence The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Creative Artist : A Journal of Theatre and Media Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cross-cultural Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cryptography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de H Ideas     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Informacion     Open Access  
Cuadernos.info     Open Access  
De Signos y Sentidos     Open Access  
Democratic Communiqué     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Design Ecologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discourse, Context & Media     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Distúrbios da Comunicação     Open Access  
Dixit     Open Access  
Documentación de las Ciencias de la Información     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Doxa Comunicación : Revista interdisciplinar de estudios de Comunicación y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
e-Journal of Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
e-learning and education (eleed)     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Empedocles : European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Entreculturas : Revista de Traducción y Comunicación Intercultural     Open Access  
ESSACHESS : Journal for Communication Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Etudes de communication     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 393)
Explorations in Media Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fibreculture Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
FLEKS : Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Toruniensia     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Framework : The Journal of Cinema and Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Fronteiras - estudos midiáticos     Open Access  
Frontiers in Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Human Dynamics     Open Access  
Genre en séries. Cinéma, télévision, médias     Open Access  
Gesture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global Advances in Business Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Media and China     Open Access  
Global Media and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Media Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Globe : A Journal of Language, Culture and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Green Letters : Studies in Ecocriticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GSI Journals Serie C : Advancements in Information Sciences and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal on Media & Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
H-ermes. Journal of Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
HERMES - Journal of Language and Communication in Business     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hipertext.net : Anuario Académico sobre Documentación Digital y Comunicación Interactiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Historia y Comunicación Social     Open Access  
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Ibérica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ícone     Open Access  
ICSES Transactions on Computer Networks and Communications     Full-text available via subscription  
IEEE Communications Standards Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society     Open Access  
IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IEICE - Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IET Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
İletişim Kuram ve Araştırma Dergisi     Open Access  
Imaging Decisions MRI     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Improntas     Open Access  
index.comunicación     Open Access  
Informacijos mokslai     Open Access  
Informal Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Informatio. Revista del Instituto de Información de la Facultad de Información y Comunicación     Open Access  
Information & Communications Technology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Information Design Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Information Technologies & International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
Information, Communication & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Inquiry : Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intelligent Information Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Interaction Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Interactions : Studies in Communication & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advanced Media and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Broadband Cellular Communication     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Business Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Community Development and Management Studies (IJCDMS)     Open Access  
International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Critical Media Literacy     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Entertainment Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Information Communication Technologies and Human Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Information Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Information Technology, Communications and Convergence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Intelligence Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Interdisciplinary Telecommunications and Networking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Knowledge and Systems Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Society, Culture & Language     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Telecommunications & Emerging Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Telework and Telecommuting Technologies     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Trust Management in Computing and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journals Digital Communication and Analog Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Communication and Marketing Mix : IROCAMM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Pragmatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Investigative Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IRIS - Revista de Informação, Memória e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Izvestia Ural Federal University Journal. Series 1. Issues in Education, Science and Culture     Open Access  
Javnost - The Public     Hybrid Journal  
Język. Komunikacja. Informacja     Open Access  
Journal for the History of Rhetoric     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Advertising Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of African Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Communications     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Journalism & Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Argumentation in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cryptography
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2410-387X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 14: Continuous Nonintrusive Mobile Device Soft
           Keyboard Biometric Authentication

    • Authors: Timothy Dee, Ian Richardson, Akhilesh Tyagi
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Mobile banking, shopping, and in-app purchases utilize persistent authentication states for access to sensitive data. One-shot authentication permits access for a fixed time period. For instance, a username/password-based authentication allows a user access to all the shopping and payments data in the Amazon shopping app. Traditional user passwords and lock screens are easily compromised. Snooping attacks—observing an unsuspecting user entering passwords—and smudge attacks—examining touchscreen finger oil residue—enable compromised user authentication. Mobile device interactions provide robust human and device identity data. Such biometrics enhance authentication. In this paper, behavioral attributes during user input constitute the password. Adversary password reproduction difficulty increases since pure observation is insufficient. Current mobile continuous authentication schemes use, among others, touchscreen–swipe interactions or keyboard input timing. Many of these methods require cumbersome training or intrusive authentication. Software keyboard interactions provide a consistent biometric data stream. We develop biometric profiles using touch pressure, location, and timing. New interactions authenticate against a profile using a divergence measure. In our limited user–device data sets, the classification achieves virtually perfect accuracy.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Tightly Secure PKE Combiner in the Quantum
           Random Oracle Model

    • Authors: Brian Goncalves, Atefeh Mashatan
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The development of increasingly sophisticated quantum computers poses a long-term threat to current cryptographic infrastructure. This has spurred research into both quantum-resistant algorithms and how to safely transition real-world implementations and protocols to quantum-resistant replacements. This transition is likely to be a gradual process due to both the complexity and cost associated with transitioning. One method to ease the transition is the use of classical–quantum hybrid schemes, which provide security against both classical and quantum adversaries. We present a new combiner for creating hybrid encryption schemes directly from traditional encryption schemes. Our construction is the only existing proposal in the literature with IND-CCA-security in the classical and quantum random oracle models, respectively.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 16: Benchmark Analysis of YOLO Performance on
           Edge Intelligence Devices

    • Authors: Haogang Feng, Gaoze Mu, Shida Zhong, Peichang Zhang, Tao Yuan
      First page: 16
      Abstract: In the 5G intelligent edge scenario, more and more accelerator-based single-board computers (SBCs) with low power consumption and high performance are being used as edge devices to run the inferencing part of the artificial intelligence (AI) model to deploy intelligent applications. In this paper, we investigate the inference workflow and performance of the You Only Look Once (YOLO) network, which is the most popular object detection model, in three different accelerator-based SBCs, which are NVIDIA Jetson Nano, NVIDIA Jetson Xavier NX and Raspberry Pi 4B (RPi) with Intel Neural Compute Stick2 (NCS2). Different video contents with different input resize windows are detected and benchmarked by using four different versions of the YOLO model across the above three SBCs. By comparing the inference performance of the three SBCs, the performance of RPi + NCS2 is more friendly to lightweight models. For example, the FPS of detected videos from RPi + NCS2 running YOLOv3-tiny is 7.6 times higher than that of YOLOv3. However, in terms of detection accuracy, we found that in the process of realizing edge intelligence, how to better adapt a AI model to run on RPi + NCS2 is much more complex than the process of Jetson devices. The analysis results indicate that Jetson Nano is a trade-off SBCs in terms of performance and cost; it achieves up to 15 FPSs of detected videos when running YOLOv4-tiny, and this result can be further increased by using TensorRT.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 17: Privacy Issues in Stylometric Methods

    • Authors: Antonios Patergianakis, Konstantinos Limniotis
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Stylometry is a well-known field, aiming to identify the author of a text, based only on the way she/he writes. Despite its obvious advantages in several areas, such as in historical research or for copyright purposes, it may also yield privacy and personal data protection issues if it is used in specific contexts, without the users being aware of it. It is, therefore, of importance to assess the potential use of stylometry methods, as well as the implications of their use for online privacy protection. This paper aims to present, through relevant experiments, the possibility of the automated identification of a person using stylometry. The ultimate goal is to analyse the risks regarding privacy and personal data protection stemming from the use of stylometric techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific stylometric identification system, as well as to examine whether proper anonymisation techniques can be applied so as to ensure that the identity of an author of a text (e.g., a user in an anonymous social network) remains hidden, even if stylometric methods are to be applied for possible re-identification.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 18: A Review of Blockchain in Fintech:
           Taxonomy, Challenges, and Future Directions

    • Authors: Keerthi Nelaturu, Han Du, Duc-Phong Le
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this paper is to bridge the technology gap between Blockchain and Fintech applications. Blockchain technology is already being explored in a wide number of Fintech sectors. After creating a unique taxonomy for Fintech ecosystems, this paper outlines a number of implementation scenarios. For each of the industries in which blockchain is already in use and has established itself as a complementary technology to traditional systems, we give a taxonomy of use cases. In this procedure, we cover both public and private blockchains. Because it is still believed to be in its infancy, especially when it comes to financial use cases, blockchain has both positive and negative aspects. As a result, it is critical to be aware of all of the open research issues in this field. Our goal is to compile a list of open research challenges related to various aspects of the blockchain’s protocol and application layers. Finally, we will provide a clear understanding of the applications for which blockchain can be valuable, as well as the risks associated with its use in parallel.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 19: A Memory Hierarchy Protected against
           Side-Channel Attacks

    • Authors: Ezinam Bertrand Talaki, Olivier Savry, Mathieu Bouvier Des Noes, David Hely
      First page: 19
      Abstract: In the vulnerability analysis of System on Chips, memory hierarchy is considered among the most valuable element to protect against information theft. Many first-order side-channel attacks have been reported on all its components from the main memory to the CPU registers. In this context, memory hierarchy encryption is widely used to ensure data confidentiality. Yet, this solution suffers from both memory and area overhead along with performance losses (timing delays), which is especially critical for cache memories that already occupy a large part of the spatial footprint of a processor. In this paper, we propose a secure and lightweight scheme to ensure the data confidentiality through the whole memory hierarchy. This is done by masking the data in cache memories with a lightweight mask generator that provides masks at each clock cycle without having to store them. Only 8-bit Initialization Vectors are stored for each mask value to enable further recomputation of the masks. The overall security of the masking scheme is assessed through a mutual information estimation that helped evaluate the minimum number of attack traces needed to succeed a profiling side-channel attack to 592 K traces in the attacking phase, which provides an acceptable security level in an analysis where an example of Signal to Noise Ratio of 0.02 is taken. The lightweight aspect of the generator has been confirmed by a hardware implementation that led to resource utilization of 400 LUTs.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 20: Certificate Management Scheme for VANETs
           Using Blockchain Structure

    • Authors: Maharage Nisansala Sevwandi Perera, Toru Nakamura, Masayuki Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Yokoyama, Chen-Mou Cheng, Kouichi Sakurai
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs), a special kind of Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs), play an important role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Via wireless technology, vehicles exchange information related to road conditions and their status, and, thereby, VANETs enhance transportation safety and efficiency. A critical aspect of VANETs is providing privacy for the vehicles. The employment of pseudonym certificates is a well-known solution to the privacy problems in VANETs. However, certificate management faces challenges in renewing certificates and revoking vehicles. The centralized certificate management, especially resulting in the delay of the revocation process, harms the nodes of VANETs. This paper proposes a blockchain structure-based certificate management for VANETs and voting-based revocation to halt misbehaving vehicles’ actions. Moreover, this paper presents extended privacy for the participants of the voting process using ring signatures.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 21: Computational Analysis of Interleaving
           PN-Sequences with Different Polynomials

    • Authors: Sara D. Cardell, Verónica Requena, Amparo Fúster-Sabater
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Binary PN-sequences generated by LFSRs exhibit good statistical properties; however, due to their intrinsic linearity, they are not suitable for cryptographic applications. In order to break such a linearity, several approaches can be implemented. For example, one can interleave several PN-sequences to increase the linear complexity. In this work, we present a deep randomness study of the resultant sequences of interleaving binary PN-sequences coming from different characteristic polynomials with the same degree. We analyze the period and the linear complexity, as well as many other important cryptographic properties of such sequences.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 22: A New Paradigm in Split Manufacturing:
           Lock the FEOL, Unlock at the BEOL

    • Authors: Abhrajit Sengupta, Mohammed Nabeel, Mohammed Ashraf, Johann Knechtel, Ozgur Sinanoglu
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Split manufacturing was introduced as a countermeasure against hardware-level security threats such as IP piracy, overbuilding, and insertion of hardware Trojans. However, the security promise of split manufacturing has been challenged by various attacks which exploit the well-known working principles of design tools to infer the missing back-end-of-line (BEOL) interconnects. In this work, we define the security of split manufacturing formally and provide the associated proof, and we advocate accordingly for a novel, formally secure paradigm. Inspired by the notion of logic locking, we protect the front-end-of-line (FEOL) layout by embedding secret keys which are implemented through the BEOL in such a way that they become indecipherable to foundry-based attacks. At the same time, our technique is competitive with prior art in terms of layout overhead, especially for large-scale designs (ITC’99 benchmarks). Furthermore, another concern for split manufacturing is its practicality (despite successful prototyping). Therefore, we promote an alternative implementation strategy, based on package-level routing, which enables formally secure IP protection without splitting at all, and thus, without the need for a dedicated BEOL facility. We refer to this as “poor man’s split manufacturing” and we study the practicality of this approach by means of physical-design exploration.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 23: Localized State-Change Consensus in
           Immense and Highly Dynamic Environments

    • Authors: Linir Zamir, Mehrdad Nojoumian
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Consensus algorithms are the building block of any decentralized network where the risk of malicious users is high. These algorithms are required to be robust, scalable, and secure in order to operate properly. Localized state-change consensus (LSC) is a consensus algorithm that is specifically designed to handle state-change consensus, where the state value of given data points can dynamically change and the new value needs to be reflected in the system. LSC utilizes a trust measurement mechanism to validate messages and also enforce cooperation among users. Consensus algorithms, and specifically LSC, can be a practical solution for the immutable and secured communication of autonomous systems with limited computational resources. Indeed, distributed autonomous systems are growing rapidly and the integrity of their communication protocols for coordination and planning is still vulnerable because several units are required to act independently and securely. Therefore, this paper proposes a new localized consensus algorithm for immense and highly dynamic environments with validations through reputation values. The proposed solution can be considered as an efficient and practical consensus solution for any paradigms with resource-constrained devices where a regular encrypted communication method can negatively affect the system performance.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Cyber-Phishing Website Detection Using
           Fuzzy Rule Interpolation

    • Authors: Mohammad Almseidin, Mouhammad Alkasassbeh, Maen Alzubi, Jamil Al-Sawwa
      First page: 24
      Abstract: This paper introduces a novel detection method for phishing website attacks while avoiding the issues associated with the deficiencies of the knowledge-based representation and the binary decision. The suggested detection method was performed using Fuzzy Rule Interpolation (FRI). The FRI reasoning methods added the benefit of enhancing the robustness of fuzzy systems and effectively reducing the system’s complexity. These benefits help the Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to generate more realistic and comprehensive alerts in case of phishing attacks. The proposed method was applied to an open-source benchmark phishing website dataset. The results show that the proposed detection method obtained a 97.58% detection rate and effectively reduced the false alerts. Moreover, it effectively smooths the boundary between normal and phishing attack traffic because of its fuzzy nature. It has the ability to generate the required security alert in case of deficiencies in the knowledge-based representation. In addition, the results obtained from the proposed detection method were compared with other literature results. The results showed that the accuracy rate of this work is competitive with other methods. In addition, the proposed detection method can generate the required anti-phishing alerts even if one of the anti-phishing sparse rules does not cover some input parameters (observations).
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 25: Low-Cost Area-Efficient FPGA-Based
           Multi-Functional ECDSA/EdDSA

    • Authors: Binh Kieu-Do-Nguyen, Cuong Pham-Quoc, Ngoc-Thinh Tran, Cong-Kha Pham, Trong-Thuc Hoang
      First page: 25
      Abstract: In cryptography, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is considered an efficient and secure method to implement digital signature algorithms (DSAs). ECC plays an essential role in many security applications, such as transport layer security (TLS), internet protocol security (IPsec), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The proposed designs of ECC hardware implementation only focus on a single ECC variant and use many resources. These proposals cannot be used for resource-constrained applications or for the devices that need to provide multiple levels of security. This work provides a multi-functional elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) and Edwards-curve digital signature algorithm (EdDSA) hardware implementation. The core can run multiple ECDSA/EdDSA algorithms in a single design. The design consumes fewer resources than the other single-functional design, and is not based on digital signal processors (DSP). The experiments show that the proposed core could run up to 112.2 megahertz with Virtex-7 devices while consuming only 10,259 slices in total.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 26: Locating Side Channel Leakage in Time
           through Matched Filters

    • Authors: Alessandro Barenghi, Gioele Falcetti, Gerardo Pelosi
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Side channel attacks provide an effective way to extract secret information from the execution of cryptographic algorithms run on a variety of computing devices. One of the crucial steps for a side channel attack to succeed is the capability to locate the time instant in which the cryptographic primitive being attacked is effectively leaking information on the side channel itself, and synchronize the data obtained from the measurements on that instant. In this work, we propose an efficient and effective solution relying on the digital signal processing technique known as matched filters. We derive our matched filter with a small amount of profiling information which can be obtained from a device matching the one under attack. Our technique reliably identifies the cryptographic operation being computed, even when system interrupts or software multithreading are enabled on our target platform. We validate our approach through a successful attack against an unprotected AES implementation running on a Cortex-M4-based microcontroller.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 27: Review of Chosen Isogeny-Based
           Cryptographic Schemes

    • Authors: Bartosz Drzazga, Łukasz Krzywiecki
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Public-key cryptography provides security for digital systems and communication. Traditional cryptographic solutions are constantly improved, e.g., to suppress brute-force attacks. However, Shor’s algorithm suited for quantum computers can break the bedrock of most currently used systems, i.e., the RSA problem and discrete logarithm problem. Post-quantum cryptography can withstand attacks carried out by quantum computers. Several families of post-quantum systems exist; one of them is isogeny-based cryptography. As a main contribution, in this paper, we provide a survey of chosen, fundamental isogeny-based schemes. The target audience of this review is researchers interested in practical aspects of this field of cryptography; therefore the survey contains exemplary implementations. Our goal was not to develop an efficient implementation, but to provide materials that make it easier to analyze isogeny-based cryptography.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 28: A New Chaotic-Based RGB Image Encryption
           Technique Using a Nonlinear Rotational 16 × 16 DNA Playfair Matrix

    • Authors: Dina Ibrahim, Kareem Ahmed, Mohamed Abdallah, AbdElmgeid A. Ali
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Due to great interest in the secure storage and transmission of color images, the necessity for an efficient and robust RGB image encryption technique has grown. RGB image encryption ensures the confidentiality of color images during storage and transmission. In the literature, a large number of chaotic-based image encryption techniques have been proposed, but there is still a need for a robust, efficient and secure technique against different kinds of attacks. In this paper, a novel RGB image encryption technique is proposed for encrypting individual pixels of RGB images using chaotic systems and 16 rounds of DNA encoding, transpositions and substitutions. First, round keys are generated randomly using a logistic chaotic function. Then, these keys are used across different rounds to alter individual pixels using a nonlinear randomly generated 16×16 DNA Playfair matrix. Experimental results show the robustness of the proposed technique against most attacks while reducing the consumed time for encryption and decryption. The quantitative metrics show the ability of the proposed technique to maintain reference evaluation values while resisting statistical and differential attacks. The obtained horizontal, vertical and diagonal correlation is less than 0.01, and the NPCR and UACI are larger than 0.99 and 0.33, respectively. Finally, NIST analysis is presented to evaluate the randomness of the proposed technique.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 29: Probabilistic Logic Models for the
           Lightning Network

    • Authors: Damiano Azzolini, Fabrizio Riguzzi
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The Lightning Network (LN) has emerged as one of the prominent solutions to overcome the biggest limit of blockchain based on PoW: scalability. LN allows for creating a layer on top of an existing blockchain where users can send payments and micro-payments without waiting long confirmation times. One of the key features of LN is that payments can also be sent towards nodes that are not directly connected. From the routing perspective, the balance of an edge that connects two nodes is known, but the distribution between the two involved ends is unknown. Thus, the process of sending payments is based on a trial and error approach, and the routing can be considered probabilistic. Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP) is a powerful formalism that allows the representation of complex relational domains characterized by uncertainty. In this paper, we study the problem of reasoning about the existence of a path between two nodes that can route a payment of a given size leveraging multiple models based on PLP. We adopt some recently proposed extensions of PLP and develop several models that can be adapted to represent multiple scenarios.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 30: ChaCha20–Poly1305 Authenticated
           Encryption with Additional Data for Transport Layer Security 1.3

    • Authors: Ronaldo Serrano, Ckristian Duran, Marco Sarmiento, Cong-Kha Pham, Trong-Thuc Hoang
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Transport Layer Security (TLS) provides a secure channel for end-to-end communications in computer networks. The ChaCha20–Poly1305 cipher suite is introduced in TLS 1.3, mitigating the sidechannel attacks in the cipher suites based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). However, the few implementations cannot provide sufficient speed compared to other encryption standards with Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD). This paper shows ChaCha20 and Poly1305 primitives. In addition, a compatible ChaCha20–Poly1305 AEAD with TLS 1.3 is implemented with a fault detector to reduce the problems in fragmented blocks. The AEAD implementation reaches 1.4-cycles-per-byte in a standalone core. Additionally, the system implementation presents 11.56-cycles-per-byte in an RISC-V environment using a TileLink bus. The implementation in Xilinx Virtex-7 XC7VX485T Field-Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA) denotes 10,808 Look-Up Tables (LUT) and 3731 Flip-Flops (FFs), represented in 23% and 48% of ChaCha20 and Poly1305, respectively. Finally, the hardware implementation of ChaCha20–Poly1305 AEAD demonstrates the viability of using a different option from the conventional cipher suite based on AES for TLS 1.3.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6020030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 2: A CCA-PKE Secure-Cryptosystem Resilient to
           Randomness Reset and Secret-Key Leakage

    • Authors: Alfonso Labao, Henry Adorna
      First page: 2
      Abstract: In recent years, several new notions of security have begun receiving consideration for public-key cryptosystems, beyond the standard of security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (CCA2). Among these are security against randomness reset attacks, in which the randomness used in encryption is forcibly set to some previous value, and against constant secret-key leakage attacks, wherein the constant factor of a secret key’s bits is leaked. In terms of formal security definitions, cast as attack games between a challenger and an adversary, a joint combination of these attacks means that the adversary has access to additional encryption queries under a randomness of his own choosing along with secret-key leakage queries. This implies that both the encryption and decryption processes of a cryptosystem are being tampered under this security notion. In this paper, we attempt to address this problem of a joint combination of randomness and secret-key leakage attacks through two cryptosystems that incorporate hash proof system and randomness extractor primitives. The first cryptosystem relies on the random oracle model and is secure against a class of adversaries, called non-reversing adversaries. We remove the random oracle oracle assumption and the non-reversing adversary requirement in our second cryptosystem, which is a standard model that relies on a proposed primitive called LM lossy functions. These functions allow up to M lossy branches in the collection to substantially lose information, allowing the cryptosystem to use this loss of information for several encryption and challenge queries. For each cryptosystem, we present detailed security proofs using the game-hopping procedure. In addition, we present a concrete instantation of LM lossy functions in the end of the paper—which relies on the DDH assumption.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 3: A Survey on Group Signatures and Ring
           Signatures: Traceability vs. Anonymity

    • Authors: Maharage Nisansala Sevwandi Perera, Toru Nakamura, Masayuki Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Yokoyama, Chen-Mou Cheng, Kouichi Sakurai
      First page: 3
      Abstract: This survey reviews the two most prominent group-oriented anonymous signature schemes and analyzes the existing approaches for their problem: balancing anonymity against traceability. Group signatures and ring signatures are the two leading competitive signature schemes with a rich body of research. Both group and ring signatures enable user anonymity with group settings. Any group user can produce a signature while hiding his identity in a group. Although group signatures have predefined group settings, ring signatures allow users to form ad-hoc groups. Preserving user identities provided an advantage for group and ring signatures. Thus, presently many applications utilize them. However, standard group signatures enable an authority to freely revoke signers’ anonymity. Thus, the authority might weaken the anonymity of innocent users. On the other hand, traditional ring signatures maintain permanent user anonymity, allowing space for malicious user activities; thus achieving the requirements of privacy-preserved traceability in group signatures and controlled anonymity in ring signatures has become desirable. This paper reviews group and ring signatures and explores the existing approaches that address the identification of malicious user activities. We selected many papers that discuss balancing user tracing and anonymity in group and ring signatures. Since this paper scrutinizes both signatures from their basic idea to obstacles including tracing users, it provides readers a broad synthesis of information about two signature schemes with the knowledge of current approaches to balance excessive traceability in group signatures and extreme anonymity in ring signatures. This paper will also shape the future research directions of two critical signature schemes that require more awareness.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Network-Compatible Unconditionally Secured
           Classical Key Distribution via Quantum Superposition-Induced Deterministic
           Randomness

    • Authors: Byoung S. Ham
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Based on the addressability of quantum superposition and its unitary transformation, a network-compatible, unconditionally secured key distribution protocol is presented for arbitrary networking in a classical regime with potential applications of one-time-pad cryptography. The network capability is due to the addressable unitary transformation between arbitrary point-to-point connections in a network through commonly shared double transmission channels. The unconditional security is due to address-sensitive eavesdropping randomness via network authentication. The proposed protocol may offer a solid platform of unconditionally secured classical cryptography for mass-data communications in a conventional network, which would be otherwise impossible.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Designing a Practical Code-Based Signature
           Scheme from Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Trusted Setup

    • Authors: Shay Gueron, Edoardo Persichetti, Paolo Santini
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This paper defines a new practical construction for a code-based signature scheme. We introduce a new protocol that is designed to follow the recent paradigm known as “Sigma protocol with helper”, and prove that the protocol’s security reduces directly to the Syndrome Decoding Problem. The protocol is then converted to a full-fledged signature scheme via a sequence of generic steps that include: removing the role of the helper; incorporating a variety of protocol optimizations (using e.g., Merkle trees); applying the Fiat–Shamir transformation. The resulting signature scheme is EUF-CMA secure in the QROM, with the following advantages: (a) Security relies on only minimal assumptions and is backed by a long-studied NP-complete problem; (b) the trusted setup structure allows for obtaining an arbitrarily small soundness error. This minimizes the required number of repetitions, thus alleviating a major bottleneck associated with Fiat–Shamir schemes. We outline an initial performance estimation to confirm that our scheme is competitive with respect to existing solutions of similar type.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 6: Post-Quantum Two-Party Adaptor Signature
           Based on Coding Theory

    • Authors: Jean Belo Klamti, M. Anwar Hasan
      First page: 6
      Abstract: An adaptor signature can be viewed as a signature concealed with a secret value and, by design, any two of the trio yield the other. In a multiparty setting, an initial adaptor signature allows each party to create additional adaptor signatures without the original secret. Adaptor signatures help address scalability and interoperability issues in blockchain. They can also bring some important advantages to cryptocurrencies, such as low on-chain cost, improved transaction fungibility, and fewer limitations of a blockchain’s scripting language. In this paper, we propose a new two-party adaptor signature scheme that relies on quantum-safe hard problems in coding theory. The proposed scheme uses a hash-and-sign code-based signature scheme introduced by Debris-Alazard et al. and a code-based hard relation defined from the well-known syndrome decoding problem. To achieve all the basic properties of adaptor signatures formalized by Aumayr et al., we introduce further modifications to the aforementioned signature scheme. We also give a security analysis of our scheme and its application to the atomic swap. After providing a set of parameters for our scheme, we show that it has the smallest pre-signature size compared to existing post-quantum adaptor signatures.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Cryptography
           in 2021

    • Authors: Cryptography Editorial Office Cryptography Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 8: A Searchable Encryption Scheme with
           Biometric Authentication and Authorization for Cloud Environments

    • Authors: Marius Iulian Mihailescu, Stefania Loredana Nita
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Cloud computing offers the possibility of providing suitable access within a network for a set of resources. Many users use different services for outsourcing their data within the cloud, saving and mitigating the local storage and other resources involved. One of the biggest concerns is represented by storing sensitive data on remote servers, which can be found to be extremely challenging within different situations related to privacy. Searchable Encryption (SE) represents a particular case of Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) and at the same time represents a method composed from a set of algorithms meant to offer protection for users’ sensitive data, while it preserves the searching functionality on the server-side. There are two main types of SE: Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE), where the ciphertexts and trapdoors for searching are performed using private key holders, and Public Key Searchable Encryption (PKSE), in which a specific number of users have the public key based on which are capable of outputting ciphertexts and giving the possibility of producing the trapdoors by using the private key from the holder. In this article, we propose a searchable encryption system that uses biometric authentication. Additionally, biometric data are used in the trapdoor generation process, such that an unauthorized user cannot submit search queries. The proposed system contains three components: classic user authentication (based on username, password, and a message with a code using short message service (SMS), biometric authentication, and the searchable encryption scheme. The first two components can be seen as two-factor authentication (2FA), and the second component represents the initialization step of the searchable encryption scheme. In the end, we show and demonstrate that the proposed scheme can be implemented with success for medium to complex network infrastructures. We have granted special attention to the trapdoor function, which generates a value that can be used to perform the search process and search function that is based on the trapdoor pair for searching within the index structure. We provide the correctness and security proof of the operations, which gives us the guarantee that the cloud servers return the correct documents. Additionally, we discuss measuring the performance of the authentication scheme in terms of performance indicators, introducing two indicators for measuring purposes—namely, cloud average number of non-legitim the user actions for cloud purposes (CANNL) and cloud average number of legitim user actionsCANLU.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Quantum Identity-Based Encryption from the
           Learning with Errors Problem

    • Authors: Wenhua Gao, Li Yang, Daode Zhang, Xia Liu
      First page: 9
      Abstract: To prevent eavesdropping and tampering, network security protocols take advantage of asymmetric ciphers to establish session-specific shared keys with which further communication is encrypted using symmetric ciphers. Commonly used asymmetric algorithms include public key encryption, key exchange, and identity-based encryption (IBE). However, network security protocols based on classic identity-based encryption schemes do not have perfect forward secrecy. To solve this problem, we construct the first quantum IBE (QIBE) scheme based on the learning with errors (LWE) problem, which is also the first cryptographic scheme that applies the LWE problem to quantum encryption. We prove that our scheme is fully secure under the random oracle model and highlight the following advantages: (1) Network security protocols with our QIBE scheme provide perfect forward secrecy. The ciphertext is transmitted in the form of a quantum state unknown to the adversary and cannot be copied and stored. Thus, in network security protocols based on QIBE construction, the adversary does not have any previous quantum ciphertext to decrypt for obtaining the previous session key, even if the private identity key is threatened. (2) Classic key generation centre (KGC) systems can still be used in the QIBE scheme to generate and distribute private identity keys, reducing the cost when implementing this scheme. The classic KGC systems can be used because the master public and secret keys of our scheme are both in the form of classic bits. Finally, we present quantum circuits to implement this QIBE scheme and analyse its required quantum resources for given numbers of qubits, Hadamard gates, phase gates, T gates, and CNOT (controlled-NOT) gates. One of our main findings is that the quantum resources required by our scheme increase linearly with the number of plaintext bits to be encrypted.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Trusted and Secure Blockchain-Based
           Durable Medium Electronic Service

    • Authors: Grzegorz Bazydło, Remigiusz Wiśniewski, Kamil Kozdrój
      First page: 10
      Abstract: A novel, trusted, and secure durable medium electronic service is proposed in the paper. The proposed idea joins cryptographic methods (such as signing with an electronic seal and data encryption) with blockchain techniques. The e-service and blockchain databases were implemented on the TTP side, which made the presented concept trusted and secure. The proposed electronic service was oriented towards practical implementations, and it has commonly been developed together with a company from the cybersecurity field (which is considered a TTP in the proposed approach). The concept has been designed to meet the requirements of Polish law (i.e., the conditions and regulations related to the implementation of the durable medium in Poland); nevertheless, it can easily be adapted for other regions. The functionality of the presented e-service is illustrated by the example case study.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 11: Preventing Differential Cryptanalysis
           Attacks Using a KDM Function and the 32-Bit Output S-Boxes on AES
           Algorithm Found on the Internet of Things Devices

    • Authors: Khumbelo Difference Muthavhine, Mbuyu Sumbwanyambe
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Many Internet of Things (IoT) devices use an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm to secure data stored and transmitted during the communication process. The AES algorithm often suffers DC (DC) attacks. Little has been done to prevent DC attacks, particularly on an AES algorithm. This study focuses on preventing Differential Cryptanalysis attacks. DC attacks are practiced on an AES algorithm that is found on IoT devices. The novel approach of using a Khumbelo Difference Muthavine (KDM) function and changing the 8 × 8 S-Boxes to be the 8 × 32 S-Boxes successfully prevents DC attacks on an AES algorithm. A KDM function is a newly mathematically developed function, coined and used purposely in this study. A KDM function was never produced, defined, or utilized before by any researcher except for in this study. A KDM function makes a new 32-Bit S-Box suitable for the new Modified AES algorithm and confuses the attacker since it comprises many mathematical modulo operators. Additionally, these mathematical modulo operators are irreversible. The study managed to prevent the DC attack of a minimum of 70% on AES and a maximum of 100% on a Simplified DES. The attack on the new Modified AES Algorithm is 0% since no S-Box is used as a building block.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Variations of QKD Protocols Based on
           Conventional System Measurements: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Abdulbast A. Abushgra
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Cryptography is an unexpected revolution in information security in the recent decades, where remarkable improvements have been created to provide confidentiality and integrity. Quantum cryptography is one such improvement that has grown rapidly since the first announced protocol. Quantum cryptography contains substantial elements that must be addressed to ensure secure communication between legitimate parties. Quantum key distribution (QKD), a technique for creating a secret key, is one of the most interesting areas in quantum cryptography. This paper reviews some well-known quantum key distribution techniques that have been demonstrated in the past three decades. Furthermore, this paper discusses the process of creating a secret key using quantum mechanics and cryptography methods. Moreover, it explains the relationships between many basic aspects of QKD protocols and suggests some improvements in the cryptosystem. An accurate quantitative comparison between the QKD protocols is presented, especially the runtime execution for each QKD protocol. In addition, the paper will demonstrate a general model of each considered QKD protocol based on security principles.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 6, Pages 13: On the IND-CCA1 Security of FHE Schemes

    • Authors: Prastudy Fauzi, Martha Norberg Hovd, Håvard Raddum
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) is a powerful tool in cryptography that allows one to perform arbitrary computations on encrypted material without having to decrypt it first. There are numerous FHE schemes, all of which are expanded from somewhat homomorphic encryption (SHE) schemes, and some of which are considered viable in practice. However, while these FHE schemes are semantically (IND-CPA) secure, the question of their IND-CCA1 security is much less studied, and we therefore provide an overview of the IND-CCA1 security of all acknowledged FHE schemes in this paper. To give this overview, we grouped the SHE schemes into broad categories based on their similarities and underlying hardness problems. For each category, we show that the SHE schemes are susceptible to either known adaptive key recovery attacks, a natural extension of known attacks, or our proposed attacks. Finally, we discuss the known techniques to achieve IND-CCA1-secure FHE and SHE schemes. We concluded that none of the proposed schemes were IND-CCA1-secure and that the known general constructions all had their shortcomings.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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