Abstract: Abstract In the late stages of terrestrial planet formation, pairwise collisions between planetary-sized bodies act as the fundamental agent of planet growth. These collisions can lead to either growth or disruption of the bodies involved and are largely responsible for shaping the final characteristics of the planets. Despite their critical role in planet formation, an accurate treatment of collisions has yet to be realized. While semi-analytic methods have been proposed, they remain limited to a narrow set of post-impact properties and have only achieved relatively low accuracies. However, the rise of machine learning and access to increased computing power have enabled novel data-driven approaches. In this work, we show that data-driven emulation techniques are capable of classifying and predicting the outcome of collisions with high accuracy and are generalizable to any quantifiable post-impact quantity. In particular, we focus on the dataset requirements, training pipeline, and classification and regression performance for four distinct data-driven techniques from machine learning (ensemble methods and neural networks) and uncertainty quantification (Gaussian processes and polynomial chaos expansion). We compare these methods to existing analytic and semi-analytic methods. Such data-driven emulators are poised to replace the methods currently used in N-body simulations, while avoiding the cost of direct simulation. This work is based on a new set of 14,856 SPH simulations of pairwise collisions between rotating, differentiated bodies at all possible mutual orientations. PubDate: 2020-12-02

Abstract: Abstract Many important problems in astrophysics, space physics, and geophysics involve flows of (possibly ionized) gases in the vicinity of a spherical object, such as a star or planet. The geometry of such a system naturally favors numerical schemes based on a spherical mesh. Despite its orthogonality property, the polar (latitude-longitude) mesh is ill suited for computation because of the singularity on the polar axis, leading to a highly non-uniform distribution of zone sizes. The consequences are (a) loss of accuracy due to large variations in zone aspect ratios, and (b) poor computational efficiency from a severe limitations on the time stepping. Geodesic meshes, based on a central projection using a Platonic solid as a template, solve the anisotropy problem, but increase the complexity of the resulting computer code. We describe a new finite volume implementation of Euler and MHD systems of equations on a triangular geodesic mesh (TGM) that is accurate up to fourth order in space and time and conserves the divergence of magnetic field to machine precision. The paper discusses in detail the generation of a TGM, the domain decomposition techniques, three-dimensional conservative reconstruction, and time stepping. PubDate: 2020-03-27

Abstract: Abstract Deep generative models, such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) or Variational Autoencoders (VAs) have been demonstrated to produce images of high visual quality. However, the existing hardware on which these models are trained severely limits the size of the images that can be generated. The rapid growth of high dimensional data in many fields of science therefore poses a significant challenge for generative models. In cosmology, the large-scale, three-dimensional matter distribution, modeled with N-body simulations, plays a crucial role in understanding the evolution of structures in the universe. As these simulations are computationally very expensive, GANs have recently generated interest as a possible method to emulate these datasets, but they have been, so far, mostly limited to two dimensional data. In this work, we introduce a new benchmark for the generation of three dimensional N-body simulations, in order to stimulate new ideas in the machine learning community and move closer to the practical use of generative models in cosmology. As a first benchmark result, we propose a scalable GAN approach for training a generator of N-body three-dimensional cubes. Our technique relies on two key building blocks, (i) splitting the generation of the high-dimensional data into smaller parts, and (ii) using a multi-scale approach that efficiently captures global image features that might otherwise be lost in the splitting process. We evaluate the performance of our model for the generation of N-body samples using various statistical measures commonly used in cosmology. Our results show that the proposed model produces samples of high visual quality, although the statistical analysis reveals that capturing rare features in the data poses significant problems for the generative models. We make the data, quality evaluation routines, and the proposed GAN architecture publicly available at https://github.com/nperraud/3DcosmoGAN. PubDate: 2019-12-19

Abstract: Abstract We present the construction of a novel time-domain signature extraction methodology and the development of a supporting supervised pattern detection algorithm. We focus on the targeted identification of eclipsing binaries that demonstrate a feature known as the O’Connell effect. Our proposed methodology maps stellar variable observations to a new representation known as distribution fields (DFs). Given this novel representation, we develop a metric learning technique directly on the DF space that is capable of specifically identifying our stars of interest. The metric is tuned on a set of labeled eclipsing binary data from the Kepler survey, targeting particular systems exhibiting the O’Connell effect. The result is a conservative selection of 124 potential targets of interest out of the Villanova Eclipsing Binary Catalog. Our framework demonstrates favorable performance on Kepler eclipsing binary data, taking a crucial step in preparing the way for large-scale data volumes from next-generation telescopes such as LSST and SKA. PubDate: 2019-11-08

Abstract: Abstract Most stars form as part of a stellar group. These young stars are mostly surrounded by a disk from which potentially a planetary system might form. Both, the disk and later on the planetary system, may be affected by the cluster environment due to close fly-bys. The here presented database can be used to determine the gravitational effect of such fly-bys on non-viscous disks and planetary systems. The database contains data for fly-by scenarios spanning mass ratios between the perturber and host star from 0.3 to 50.0, periastron distances from 30 au to 1000 au, orbital inclination from 0∘ to 180∘ and angle of periastron of 0∘, 45∘ and 90∘. Thus covering a wide parameter space relevant for fly-bys in stellar clusters. The data can either be downloaded to perform one’s own diagnostics like for e.g. determining disk size, disk mass, etc. after specific encounters, obtain parameter dependencies or the different particle properties can be visualized interactively. Currently the database is restricted to fly-bys on parabolic orbits, but it will be extended to hyperbolic orbits in the future. All of the data from this extensive parameter study is now publicly available as DESTINY. PubDate: 2019-09-09

Abstract: Abstract We present the full public release of all data from the TNG100 and TNG300 simulations of the IllustrisTNG project. IllustrisTNG is a suite of large volume, cosmological, gravo-magnetohydrodynamical simulations run with the moving-mesh code Arepo. TNG includes a comprehensive model for galaxy formation physics, and each TNG simulation self-consistently solves for the coupled evolution of dark matter, cosmic gas, luminous stars, and supermassive black holes from early time to the present day, \(z=0\) . Each of the flagship runs—TNG50, TNG100, and TNG300—are accompanied by halo/subhalo catalogs, merger trees, lower-resolution and dark-matter only counterparts, all available with 100 snapshots. We discuss scientific and numerical cautions and caveats relevant when using TNG. The data volume now directly accessible online is ∼750 TB, including 1200 full volume snapshots and ∼80,000 high time-resolution subbox snapshots. This will increase to ∼1.1 PB with the future release of TNG50. Data access and analysis examples are available in IDL, Python, and Matlab. We describe improvements and new functionality in the web-based API, including on-demand visualization and analysis of galaxies and halos, exploratory plotting of scaling relations and other relationships between galactic and halo properties, and a new JupyterLab interface. This provides an online, browser-based, near-native data analysis platform enabling user computation with local access to TNG data, alleviating the need to download large datasets. PubDate: 2019-05-14

Abstract: Abstract Inferring model parameters from experimental data is a grand challenge in many sciences, including cosmology. This often relies critically on high fidelity numerical simulations, which are prohibitively computationally expensive. The application of deep learning techniques to generative modeling is renewing interest in using high dimensional density estimators as computationally inexpensive emulators of fully-fledged simulations. These generative models have the potential to make a dramatic shift in the field of scientific simulations, but for that shift to happen we need to study the performance of such generators in the precision regime needed for science applications. To this end, in this work we apply Generative Adversarial Networks to the problem of generating weak lensing convergence maps. We show that our generator network produces maps that are described by, with high statistical confidence, the same summary statistics as the fully simulated maps. PubDate: 2019-05-06