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  Subjects -> COMPUTER SCIENCE (Total: 1985 journals)
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COMPUTER SCIENCE (1153 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 872 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
ACM Computing Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACM Transactions on Economics and Computation     Hybrid Journal  
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TiiS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems (TRETS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing (TSLP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ACM Transactions on Storage     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Computer Science : an International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Technology Innovation     Open Access  
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Information and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Computational Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Animation Practice, Process & Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Reviews in Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Applied Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Computer Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Informatics     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Artifact     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Information Technology and Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access  
Automatic Control and Computer Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Automatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Automation in Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
c't Magazin fuer Computertechnik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CALCOLO     Hybrid Journal  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Computer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CERN IdeaSquare Journal of Experimental Innovation     Open Access  
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CIN Computers Informatics Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CLEI Electronic Journal     Open Access  
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cluster Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communication Methods and Measures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Algebra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications of the ACM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Communications of the Association for Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex & Intelligent Systems     Open Access  
Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling     Open Access  
Complex Analysis and Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access  
Computation     Open Access  
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Cognitive Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access  
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Computational Management Science     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational Science and Techniques     Open Access  
Computational Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Statistics & Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Computer Aided Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Engineering and Applications Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Methods in the Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computer Music Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computer Physics Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science - Research and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computer Science and Information Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computer Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computer Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 20)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Basin Research
  [SJR: 1.54]   [H-I: 60]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0950-091X - ISSN (Online) 1365-2117
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1576 journals]
  • The role of pre-existing structures during rifting, continental breakup
           and transform system development, offshore West Greenland
    • Authors: Alexander Peace; Ken McCaffrey, Jonathan Imber, Jeroen Hunen, Richard Hobbs, Robert Wilson
      Abstract: Continental breakup between Greenland and North America produced the small oceanic basins of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, which are connected via the Davis Strait, a region mostly comprised of continental crust. This paper contributes to the debate regarding the role of pre-existing structures on rift development in this region using seismic reflection data from the Davis Strait data to produce a series of seismic surfaces, isochrons and a new offshore fault map from which three normal fault sets were identified as 1) NE-SW, 2) NNW-SSE and 3) NW-SE. These results were then integrated with plate reconstructions and onshore structural data allowing us to build a two stage conceptual model for the offshore fault evolution in which basin formation was primarily controlled by rejuvenation of various types of pre-existing structures. During the first phase of rifting between at least Chron 27 (ca. 62 Ma; Paleocene), but potentially earlier, and Chron 24 (ca. 54 Ma; Eocene) faulting was primarily controlled by pre-existing structures with oblique-normal reactivation of both the NE-SW and NW-SE structural sets in addition to normal reactivation of the NNW-SSE structural set. In the second rifting stage between Chron 24 (ca. 54 Ma; Eocene) and Chron 13 (ca. 35 Ma; Oligocene), the sinistral Ungava transform fault system developed due to the lateral offset between the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. This lateral offset was established in the first rift stage possibly due to the presence of the Nagssugtoqidian and Torngat terranes being less susceptible to rift propagation. Without the influence of pre-existing structures the manifestation of deformation cannot be easily explained during either of the rifting phases. While basement control diminished into the post-rift, the syn-rift basins from both rift stages continued to influence the location of sedimentation possibly due to differential compaction effects. Variable lithospheric strength through the rifting cycle may provide an explanation for the observed diminishing role of basement structures through time.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T02:55:33.69103-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12257
       
  • Exogenic forcing and autogenic processes on continental divide location
           and mobility
    • Authors: Andrew J. Moodie; Frank J. Pazzaglia, Claudio Berti
      Abstract: The position and mobility of drainage divides is an expression of exogenic landscape forcing and autogenic channel network processes integrated across a range of scales. At the large scale, represented by major rivers and continental drainage divides, the organization of drainage patterns and divide migration reflects the long-wavelength gradients of the topography, which are exogenically influenced by tectonics, isostasy, and/or dynamic topography. This analysis utilizes long-wavelength topography synthesized by a low-pass filter, which provides a novel framework for predicting the direction of divide movement as well as an estimate of the ultimate divide location, that is complementary to recent studies that have focused on the χ channel metric. The Gibraltar Arc active plate boundary and Appalachian stable plate interior, two tectonically diverse settings with ongoing drainage system reorganization, are chosen to explore the length scales of exogenic forcings that influence continental drainage divide location and migration. The major watersheds draining both the active and decay-phase orogens studied here are organized by topographic gradients that are expressed in long-wavelength low-pass filtered topography (λ ≥ 100 km). In contrast, the river network and divide location is insensitive to topographic gradients measured over filtered wavelengths < 100 km that are set by local crustal structures and rock type. The lag time between exogenic forcing and geomorphic response and feedbacks cause divide migration to be unsteady, and occur through pulses of drainage capture and drainage network reorganization that are recorded in sedimentological, geomorphic, or denudation data.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T10:10:26.223328-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12256
       
  • Response of unconfined turbidity current to relay-ramp topography:
           insights from process-based numerical modelling
    • Authors: Zhiyuan Ge; Wojciech Nemec, Rob L. Gawthorpe, Atle Rotevatn, Ernst W.M. Hansen
      Abstract: This natural-scale experimental study combines structural modelling of soft-linked normal-fault relays with a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) numerical simulation of a range of unconfined turbidity currents overrunning the relay-system topography. The flow, released from an upslope inlet gate 2000 m wide and 50 m to 100 m high, rapidly expands and adjusts its thickness, velocity and sediment load to the substrate slope of 1.5°. A lower initial sediment concentration or smaller thickness renders the quasi-steady flow slower and its sediment transport capacity lower. A 3D pattern of large interfering Kelvin-Helmholtz waves causes fluctuations of the local flow velocity magnitude and sediment concentration. Four zones of preferential sediment deposition are recognized: a near-gate zone of abrupt flow expansion and self-regulation; a flow-transverse zone on the counter-slope of fault footwall edges; a flow-transverse zone at the fault-scarp toes; and a similar transverse zone near the crest of the hanging wall counter-slopes. The sand deposited on the counter-slope tends to be re-entrained and fed back to the current by a secondary reverse underflow. The spatial extent and sediment accumulation capacity of depozones depend upon the released current volume. The impact of relay system on an overrunning current depends upon the fault separation distance and stage of tectonic evolution. An early-stage relay system, with small vertical displacement and little overlap of faults, is bypassed by the current with minimum flow disturbance and no pronounced deposition. An advanced-stage system, with greater fault displacement and overlap, gives a similar hydraulic effect as a single fault segment if the fault separation is small. If the separation is relatively large, the flow tends to be internally redirected sideways from the ramp into the hanging wall synclinal depressions. Since normal-fault relays are common features in extensional basins, the study bears important implications for turbiditic slope-fan models and for the spatial sand prediction in subsurface exploration of faulted submarine slopes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T02:56:11.519681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12255
       
  • Holocene Brahmaputra River path selection and variable sediment bypass as
           indicators of fluctuating hydrologic and climate conditions in Sylhet
           Basin, Bangladesh
    • Authors: Ryan Sincavage; Steven Goodbred, Jennifer Pickering
      Abstract: The Holocene stratigraphy of Sylhet basin, a tectonically influenced sub-basin within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GMBD), provides evidence for autogenic and allogenic controls on fluvial system behavior. Using Holocene lithology and stratigraphic architecture from a dense borehole network, patterns of bypass-dominated and extraction-enhanced modes of sediment transport and deposition have been reconstructed. During a ~3-kyr mid-Holocene occupation of Sylhet basin by the Brahmaputra River, water and sediment were initially (~7.5-6.0 ka) routed along the basin's western margin, where limited downstream facies changes reflect minimal mass extraction and bypass-dominated transport to the basin outlet. Sediment-dispersal patterns became increasingly depositional ~6.0-5.5 ka with the activation of a large (~2250 km2) splay that prograded toward the basin center while maintaining continued bypass along the western pathway. Beginning ~5.0 ka, a second splay system constructed an even larger (~3800 km2) lobe into the most distal portions of the basin along the Shillong foredeep. This evolution from a bypass-dominated system to one of enhanced mass extraction is well reflected in (1) the rapid downstream fining of deposited sand, and (2) a change in facies from amalgamated channel deposits to mixed sands and muds within discrete depositional lobes. The persistence of sediment bypass suggests that seasonal flooding of the basin by local runoff exerts a hydrologic barrier to overbank flow and is thus a principal control on river path selection. This control is evidenced by (1) repeated, long-term preference for occupying a course along the basin margin rather than a steeper path to the basin center; and (2) the persistence of an under-filled, topographically low basin despite sediment load sufficient to fill the basin within a few hundred years. The progradation of two 10-20 m thick, sandy mega-splays into the basin interior reflects an alternative mode of sediment dispersal that appears to have operated only in the mid Holocene (~6.0-4.0 ka) during a regional weakening of the summer monsoon. The reduced water budget at that time would have lowered seasonal water levels in the basin, temporarily lessening the hydrologic barrier effect and facilitating splay development into the basin interior. Overall, these results place basin hydrology as a first-order control on fluvial system behavior, strongly modifying the perceived dominance of tectonic subsidence. Such coupling of subsidence, fluvial dynamics, and local hydrology have been explored through tank experiments and modeling; this field study demonstrates that complex, emergent behaviors can also scale to the world's largest fluvial system.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T02:55:27.529399-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12254
       
  • Structural evolution of sheared margin basins: the role of strain
           partitioning. Sørvestsnaget Basin, Norwegian Barents Sea
    • Authors: Thomas B. Kristensen; Atle Rotevatn, Maria Marvik, Gijs A. Henstra, Rob L. Gawthorpe, Rodmar Ravnås
      Abstract: Spatio-temporal analysis of basins formed along sheared margins has received much less attention than those formed along orthogonally extended margins. Knowledge about the structural evolution of such basins is important for petroleum exploration but there has been a lack of studies that document these based on 3D seismic reflection data. In this study we demonstrate how partitioning of strain during deformation of the central and southern part of the Sørvestsnaget Basin along the Senja Shear Margin, Norwegian Barents Sea, facilitated coeval shortening and extension. This is achieved through quantitative analysis of syn-kinematic growth strata using 3-D seismic data. Our results show that during Cenozoic extensional faulting, folds and thrusts developed coevally and orthogonal to sub-orthogonal to normal faults. We attribute this strain partitioning to be a result of the right-lateral oblique plate motions along the margin. Rotation of fold hinge-lines and indications of hinge-parallel extension indicate that the dominating deformation mechanism in the central and southern Sørvestsnaget Basin during opening along the Senja Shear Margin was transtensional. We also argue that interpretation of shortening structures attributed to inversion along the margin should consider that partitioning of strain may result in shortening structures that are coeval with extensional faults and not a result of a separate compressional phase.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T02:51:31.235136-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12253
       
  • Basin-axial progradation of a sediment supply-driven distributive fluvial
           system in the Late Cretaceous southern Utah foreland
    • Authors: Jonathan W. Primm; Cari L. Johnson, Michael Stearns
      Abstract: The Turonian-Coniacian Smoky Hollow Member of the Straight Cliffs Formation in the Kaiparowits basin of southern Utah records a stratigraphic transition from isolated fluvial channel bodies to increasingly amalgamated channel belts capped by the Calico bed, a sheet-like sand-gravel unit. Characteristics of the Smoky Hollow Member are consistent with a prograding distributive fluvial system including: up-section increases in average grain size, bed thickness, and channel-body amalgamation, a fan-shaped planform morphology, and a downstream increase in channel sinuosity. The system prograded to the northeast based on thickness and facies patterns, and paleocurrent indicators. This basin-axial sediment-dispersal trend, which was approximately parallel to the fold-thrust belt at this latitude, is supported by provenance data including detrital zircons and modal sandstone compositions indicating sediment derivation mainly from the Mogollon Highlands and Cordilleran magmatic arc to the southwest, with episodic input from the more proximal Sevier fold-thrust belt to the west. Progradation occurred during a eustatic still-stand, relatively stable climatic conditions, and continuous tectonic subsidence, thus suggesting increased extrabasinal sediment supply as a primary control on basin-fill. Progradation of the Smoky Hollow Member fluvial system culminated in a ~2–3 My hiatus at the top of the lower Calico bed. Correlation with the Notom delta of the Ferron Sandstone, 80 km northeast in the Henry basin, is proposed on the basis of facies relationships and geochronology. The Calico bed unconformity is linked to regional tectonically-driven tilting and erosion observed in both basins.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:40:23.683666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12252
       
  • Link between growth faulting and initiation of a mass transport deposit in
           the northern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand
    • Authors: N Panpichityota; C.K Morley, J. Ghosh
      Abstract: The Neogene section in the northern Taranaki Basin, offshore New Zealand, displays an interaction between prograding clinoforms, listric growth faults formed at the base of slope, and mass transport deposits that fill the growth fault depocentres. This study focuses on one of these systems, the Karewa Fault and mass transport deposit (MTD), in order to understand the genetic relationship between the fault and the MTD in its hangingwall depocentre, i.e. did the MTD fill existing accommodation space' Did the MTD trigger growth fault displacement' Or is there some other relationship' Most mass transport deposits are elongate in the transport direction and exhibit a length:width aspect ratio of more than 1. However, the 90 km2 Karewa Fault MTD is at least three times wider than it is long, which is atypical for MTDs reported in the literature, where ~80% have a length:width ratio> 1. The transport direction of the MTD is to the WNW, as indicated by the location and internal structure of the compressional toe and the headwall scarp region of the Karewa Fault. The structural and sequence geometries on seismic reflection data indicate the MTD formed during the late stage of growth fault activity, and locally truncates the upper part of the Karewa Fault. The MTD is inferred to have originated by local destabilization of the sediment package overlying the Karewa Fault related to the escape of overpressured fluids along the fault. The resulting MTD was translated locally by only a few kilometres. This unusual cause for an MTD also resulted in its atypical length-width-thickness aspect ratios.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T03:42:03.555462-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12251
       
  • The genesis of mud volcano conduits through thick evaporite sequences
    • Authors: C. Kirkham; J. Cartwright, C. Hermanrud, C. Jebsen
      Abstract: This paper documents the seismic expression of the conduits underlying over 350 mud volcanoes that were erupted in an area of the western Nile Cone in the past 5.3 Myrs. The study is based on a c. 4300 km2 3D seismic survey. The conduits are interpreted to transect the> 1000 m thick Messinian Evaporite succession, demonstrating that the eruptive process is sufficiently dynamic to breach the formidable seal represented by the evaporites. The mud volcano conduits are remarkably similar in geometry and seismic characteristics to many previously described examples of fluid escape pipes. They are vertical to sub-vertical structures with a crudely cylindrical geometry, but that can either widen or narrow upwards towards their upper terminations in the mud volcano edifices. Imaging at depth within the Messinian Evaporites and pre-evaporite successions is more uncertain, but direct sampling of mud from surface volcanoes suggests a pre-Messinian source, confirming the seismic interpretation that they root within pre-salt stratigraphy. A conceptual model for the genesis of these mud volcano conduits through salt is proposed, for which hydraulic fracturing is driven by high overpressures that developed in the pre-salt source stratigraphy as a response to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Dissolution and removal of evaporites resulting in fracturing and collapse via a stoping mechanism which is a slow process by comparison to hydraulic fracturing but is argued to potentially contribute to conduit formation. The analysis presented here demonstrates the potential for bypassing a> 1 km thick unit of sealing evaporites via focused fluid and sediment mobilisation from deeper overpressured cells in other salt basins worldwide, and has significant implications for hydrocarbon exploration, CO2 sequestration and nuclear waste disposal.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T02:56:22.490438-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12250
       
  • Cenozoic sediment budget of West Africa and the Niger delta
    • Authors: Jean-Louis Grimaud; Delphine Rouby, Dominique Chardon, Anicet Beauvais
      Abstract: Long-term (106-7 yr) clastic sedimentary fluxes to the ocean provide first-order constraints on the response of continental surfaces to both tectonic and climatic forcing as well as the supply that builds the stratigraphic record. Here we use the dated and regionally correlated relict lateritic landforms preserved over Sub-Saharan West Africa to map and quantify regional denudation as well as the export of main catchments for 3 time intervals (45-24, 24-11 and 11-0 Ma). At the scale of West Africa, denudation rates are low (~7 m Myr−1) and total clastic export rate represents 18.5 x 103 km3 Myr−1. Export rate variations among the different drainage groups depend on the drainage area and, more importantly, rock uplift. Denuded volumes and offshore accumulations are of the same magnitude, with a noticeably balanced budget between the Niger River delta and its catchment. This supports the establishment of the modern Niger catchment before 29 Ma, which then provided sufficient clastic material to the Niger delta by mainly collecting the erosion products of the Hoggar hotspot swell. Accumulations on the remaining Equatorial Atlantic margin of Africa suggest an apparent export deficit but the sediment budget is complicated by the low resolution of the offshore data and potential lateral sediment supply from the Niger delta. Further distortion of the depositional record by intracontinental transient storage and lateral input or destabilization of sediments along the margin have been identified in several locations, prompting caution when deducing continental denudation rates from accumulation only.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:35:27.069598-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12248
       
  • Syn-orogenic fluid flow in the Jaca basin (South Pyrenean Fold and Thrust
           Belt) from fracture and vein analyses
    • Authors: N. Crognier; G. Hoareau, C. Aubourg, M. Dubois, B. Lacroix, M. Branellec, J.P. Callot, T. Vennemann
      Abstract: This study aims at understanding the origin and nature of syn-orogenic fluid flow in the Jaca basin from the South Pyrenean fold and thrust-belt, as recorded in calcite and quartz veins of the Sierras Interiores (Spain) and the turbiditic basin, which cover upper Cretaceous t Late Eocene syntectonic deposits. The fracture network consists of a classical pattern of transverse and longitudinal fractures related to Layer Parallel Shortening (LPS) and folding respectively. Veins filled equally about the third of fractures in the carbonate shelf and turbidites. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite veins mostly indicate precipitation from isotopically buffered water, consistent with high water-rock interaction. In the Sierras Interiores, petrographical observations and fluid inclusion microthermometry are consistent with two distinct stages of precipitation. The first stage is characterized by relatively low Th and low salinities (155-205° C and 0.5-3.2 wt% eq. NaCl). The second stage, which was characterized both by the formation of mode-I joints and by mode-I reactivation of preexisting veins, shows higher Th and salinities (215-270°C and 2.2-5.7 wt% eq. NaCl). Waters recorded in the second stage are interpreted to have interacted with underlying Triassic evaporites and flowed along major thrusts before vein precipitation, which are locally in thermal disequilibrium with host-rocks. We suggest the transition from a rather closed hydrological system during the first stage of vein formation, interpreted to have occurred during Eaux-chaudes thrusting (upper Lutetian-Bartonian), to a more open hydrological system during the second stage, which likely occurred during Gavarnie thrusting (Priabonian-early Rupelian). Finally, we also document the migration in space and time of hydrothermal pulses along the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin, related to the westward propagation of major thrusts during the Pyrenean orogeny.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:35:25.479907-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12249
       
  • Fluvial architecture in actively deforming salt basins: Chinle Formation,
           Paradox Basin, Utah
    • Authors: Adrian Hartley; Laura Evenstar
      Abstract: Determining the response of fluvial systems to syn-sedimentary halokinesis is important for reconstructing the palaeogeography of salt basins, determining the history of salt movement and predicting development and architecture of sandstone bodies for subsurface fluid extraction. To assess both the influence of salt movement on fluvial system development and the use of lithostratigraphic correlation schemes in salt basins we have analysed the Triassic Chinle Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah.Results indicate that sandstone body development proximal to salt bodies should be considered at two scales: intra- (local) and inter- (regional) mini-basin scale. At the intra-mini basin or local scale, conformable packages up to 12 m of deep meandering fluvial channel deposits and associated overbank deposits are developed, which may thin, pinch-out or become truncated towards salt highs. When traced down the axis of a mini-basin, individual stories extend for a few hundred metres, and form part of amalgamated channel-belt packages up to 60 m thick that can be traced for at least 25 km parallel to palaeoflow. Where salt movement outpaces sediment accumulation, progressive low angle unconformities are developed along the flanks of salt highs. Significantly, in mini-basins with high sand supply, sandstone bodies are present across salt highs where they show increased amalgamation, decrease in thickness due to truncation and no change in internal sandstone body character.At inter mini-basin or regional scale, spatial and temporal variations in accommodation space generated by differential salt movement strongly influence facies distributions and facies correlation lengths. Broad lithostratigraphic packages (5 to 50 m thick) can be correlated within mini-basins, but correlation of these units between adjacent mini-basins is problematic. Knowledge of fluvial system development at a regional scale is critical as, fluvial sediment distribution is focussed by topography generated by growing salt bodies, such that adjacent mini-basins can have significant differences in sandstone body thickness, distribution and lateral extent.The observations from the Chinle Formation indicate that lithostratigraphic-based correlation schemes can only be applied within mini-basins and cannot be used to correlate between adjacent mini-basins or across a salt mini-basin province. The key to predicting sandstone body development is an understanding of the timing of salt movement and reconstructing fluvial drainage system development.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:45:26.854057-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12247
       
  • Fracturing and fluid flow during post-rift subsidence in carbonate of the
           Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, NE Brazil
    • Authors: Giovanni Bertotti; Stefan de Graaf, Kevin Bisdom, Brigit Oskam, Hubert Vonhof, Francisco Hilario Bezerra, John Reijmer, Caroline Cazarin
      Abstract: Pervasive fracture networks are common in many reservoir-scale carbonate bodies even in the absence of large deformation and exert a major impact on their mechanical and flow behavior. The Upper Cretaceous Jandaíra Formation is a few hundred meters thick succession of shallow water carbonates deposited during the early post-rift stage of the Potiguar rift (NE Brazil). The Jandaíra Formation in the present onshore domain experienced 1000 km2. The carbonates have a gentle, 400-500 m. Deformation was accommodated by a dense network of sub-vertical mode I and hybrid fractures associated with sub-vertical stylolites developed in a stress field characterized by a sub-horizontal σ1 and sub-vertical σ2. The development of a network of hybrid fractures, rarely reported in the literature, activated the circulation of waters charged in the mountainous region, flowing along the porous Açu sandstone underlying the Jandaíra carbonates and rising to the surface through the fractured carbonates. With persisting subsidence, carbonates reached depths of 800-900 m entering a depth interval characterized by a sub-vertical σ1. At this stage, sub-horizontal stylolites developed liberating calcite which sealed the sub-vertical open fractures transforming them in veins and preventing further flow. During Tertiary exhumation, pre-existing veins and stylolites were opened and became longer, and new fractures were created typically with the same directions of the older features. The simplicity of our model and findings suggest that most rocks in passive margin settings might have followed a similar evolution and thus display similar structures.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T09:15:30.126827-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12246
       
  • Visualizing, interpreting and comparing detrital zircon age and Hf isotope
           data in basin analysis - a graphical approach
    • Authors: Tom Andersen; Magnus Kristoffersen, Marlina A. Elburg
      Abstract: The development of fast and reliable instrumental methods for U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon has caused detrital zircon to become a popular provenance indicator for clastic sediments and an important tool in basin analysis. In parallel with the increasing ease of access to data, advanced methods of data interpretation have been developed. The downside of some techniques for visualization and comparison of detrital zircon distribution patterns is that the results are difficult to relate to what the zircon grains really record: The age and nature of geological processes in a protosource terrane. Some simple methods of data presentation and inter-sample comparison that preserve a direct and intuitively understandable relationship between the data and the age of zircon-forming processes in the protosource are proposed here: Comparison of confidence intervals around empirical, cumulative distribution curves combined with the use of a plot of upper vs. lower quartile values of cumulative zircon U-Pb age or Lu-Hf model age distributions. This approach allows a robust and transparent separation to be made between samples whose detrital zircon distributions are indistinguishable from each other, and those that are more or less similar. Furthermore, it allows simple comparison between detrital zircon distributions and the geological age record of potential protosource terranes, or the detrital zircon distributions of possible sedimentary precursors.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T03:01:31.377965-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12245
       
  • Changes in Cenozoic depositional environment and sediment provenance in
           the Danube Basin
    • Authors: Michal Kováč; Samuel Rybár, Eva Halásová, Natália Hudáčková, Katarína Šarinová, Michal Šujan, Victoria Baranyi, Marianna Kováčová, Andrej Ruman, Tomáš Klučiar, Adriena Zlinská
      Abstract: The Danube Basin is situated between the Eastern Alps, Western Carpathians and Transdanubian mountain ranges and represents a classic petroleum prospection site. The basin fill is known from many 2D reflection seismic lines and deep wells with measured e-logs which provided a good opportunity for theories about its evolution. New analyses of deep wells situated in the Danube Basin northeastern margin allowed us to refine stratigraphy and to interpret various depositional systems. This also allowed us to outline changes in provenance of sediment during the Cenozoic. The performed interpretation of the Paleogene and Neogene depositional systems also confirmed the Oligocene-NDASH-Early Miocene exhumation of the basin pre-Neogene basement. Opening and development of the Middle to Late Miocene basin depocentres above the boundary between the Western Carpathians and Northern Pannonian domain was recognized. Our analysis contributed to a better understanding of the Hurbanovo-NDASH-Diösjenő fault which acts as an inherited weakness zone along the boundary of two crustal fragments with different provenance. We document various basin types stacked one on another (retro-arc, back-arc, and extensional hinterland basin). The analysis of sediment sources reveals intricate geodynamic processes during the Eastern Alpine-NDASH-Western Carpathian orogenic system collision with European platform (formation of ALCAPA microplate) and its successive tectonics escape during the Pannonian Basin System origination.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T15:52:08.276083-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12244
       
  • Tectonic uplift of the Xichang Basin (SE Tibetan Plateau) revealed by
           structural geology and thermochronology data
    • Authors: Bin Deng; Shugen Liu, Lei Jiang, Gaoping Zhao, Rui Huang, Zhiwu Li, Jinxi Li, Luba Jansa
      Abstract: The Xichang Basin in southeastern Tibet provides crucial information about formation and tectonic processes affecting the eastern Tibetan Plateau. To determine when and how the uplift developed, we conducted detailed studies of structures and obtained thermochronology data from the Xichang Basin and its periphery. The Xichang Basin is characterized by gentle deformation of the strata, segmented by an E-vergent boundary thrust fault. Two stages of deformation, strike-slip followed by an E-W oriented shortening resulted in oblique shortening between the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. New apatite fission track data interpreted together with (U-Th)/He data confirm a simple burial/heating and exhumation/cooling history across the Xichang Basin and its periphery. Subsidence and burial of the Xichang Basin peaked between 80~30 Ma, followed by mountain building with a protracted cooling starting at around 40-20 Ma, with rates of ~2.0-8.0 °C/Myr (i.e., 0.1-0.3 mm/yr). Our data indicate that the Xichang Basin has experienced ~2.5-5 km of exhumation, much more intensive than the ~1-2 km of exhumation inferred for the southwestern Sichuan Basin. Restored balanced cross-sections of post-Late-Triassic strata along a ~250 km traverse indicate ~10-20% east-west shortening strain (i.e., ~20-30 km) at the southeastern Tibetan Plateau during Cenozoic time. Study of crustal thickening and erosion supports a tectonic shortening mechanism to account for the uplift of the Xichang Basin on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T19:10:22.208406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12243
       
  • Weathering regime in the Eastern Himalaya since the mid-Miocene:
           Indications from detrital geochemistry and clay mineralogy of the Kameng
           River Section, Arunachal Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Natalie Vögeli; Pascale Huyghe, Peter van der Beek, Yani Najman, Eduardo Garzanti, Catherine Chauvel
      Abstract: It is crucial to understand lateral differences in paleo-climate and weathering in order to fully understand the evolution of the Himalayan mountain belt. While many studies have focused on the western and central Himalaya, the eastern Himalaya remains poorly studied with regard to paleoclimate and past weathering history. Here we present a multi-proxy study on the Mio-Pliocene sedimentary foreland-basin section along the Kameng River in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India, in order to obtain better insight in the weathering history of the eastern Himalaya. We analyzed a continuous sedimentary record over the last 13 Ma. Heavy-mineral and petrography data give insight into diagenesis and provenance, showing that the older part of the section is influenced by diagenesis and that sediments were not only deposited by a large Trans-Himalayan river and the palaeo-Kameng river, but also by smaller local tributaries. By taking into account changes in diagenesis and provenance, results of clay mineralogy and major element analysis show an overall increase in weathering intensity over time, with a remarkable change between ~10 and ~8 Ma.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:05:39.145566-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12242
       
  • Cenozoic evolution of the Altyn Tagh and East Kunlun fault zones inferred
           from detrital garnet, tourmaline and rutile in southwestern Qaidam Basin
           (Northern Tibetan Plateau)
    • Authors: Li Linlin; Wu Chaodong, Yu Xiangjiang
      Abstract: This study focuses on the Cenozoic provenance and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Qaidam Basin through geochemical analysis of detrital garnet, tourmaline and rutile. The variation of detrital mineral compositions indicates that the Cenozoic evolution can be divided into 3 stages: 1) before the deposition of the upper Xiaganchaigou Formation (before 37.8 Ma); 2) between the deposition of the upper Xiaganchaigou Formation and the Shangganchaigou Formation (from 37.8 Ma to 22 Ma); 3) since the deposition of the Xiayoushashan Formation (since 22 Ma). In the first stage, abundant garnets from high-grade meta-basic and ultramafic rocks in the sediments from the Ganchaigou area support a provenance from the South Altyn Tagh HP/UHP metamorphic zone. The low percentage of tourmalines from granitoid rocks in the sediments in the Kunbei-Lücaotan area suggests a provenance from the East Kunlun fault zone, indicating that the Qimen Tagh Shan was not high enough to prevent the transport of sediments from the southern Qaidam Basin. The sediments in the Qigequan area were derived from both the Altyn Tagh fault zone and the East Kunlun fault zone. In the second stage, the tectonic activity consisted in the rapid uplift of the Altyn Shan. Changes in garnet composition indicate a lower detrital contribution from high-grade metamorphic rocks. In the third stage, the disappearance of garnets from high-grade metamorphic rocks and scattered temperatures of rutiles in the Ganchaigou area suggest that the source area shifted from the South Altyn Tagh HP/UHP metamorphic rocks to weakly metamorphosed Meso-Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks. The increase in granitoid-derived tourmalines in the Kunbei-Lücaotan area is indicative of the rapid uplift of the Qimen Tagh Shan. The provenance evolution in the southwestern Qaidam Basin indicates that the tectonic activity along the Altyn Tagh fault zone can be divided into an early stage of Altyn Shan uplift and a later stage of left-lateral slip. At the same time, tectonic movement along the East Kunlun fault zone initiated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T07:21:13.351634-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12241
       
  • The role of fault length, overlap and spacing in controlling extensional
           relay ramp fluvial system geometry
    • Authors: Michael C. Hopkins; Nancye H. Dawers
      Abstract: Relay ramps are integral components of normal fault systems that control sediment transport pathways in evolving rifts. We attribute differences in the geometry of fluvial systems that drain relay ramps to the scale of the ramp bounding fault segments, the spacing between segments and the amount of overlap between segments. Previous conceptual models for relay ramp geomorphological evolution have assumed that ramp fluvial catchments develop on the ramp surfaces and flow parallel to fault strike into the adjacent basin. Numerous examples exist in nature, however, that show that this is not ubiquitous. The fundamental question of what drives differences in fluvial geometry in these settings has, to date, not been fully addressed. We selected 27 relay ramps across the Basin and Range, western North America, and mapped, via GPS and remote sensing, the faults and ramp fluvial systems associated with each site. The sites represent a range of fault scales, which we define by the total outboard fault length, and a range of spacing and overlap values in order to better understand the structural controls on differences among ramp fluvial systems. Results show that the majority of a relay ramp surface drains parallel to fault strike when the outboard fault is less than about 15 km long. High overlap/spacing ratios are associated with relays along shorter (< 15 km long) outboard faults, whereas lower overlap/spacing ratios are associated with relays along longer faults. Relays with lower overlap/spacing values may be more common along longer outboard faults because they survive for longer periods of time in the landscape. Our geomorphological observations can be used to predict synrift depocenter locations along segmented faults, but these observations only apply if the faults are short (
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T06:15:33.726704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12240
       
  • New insights in the development of syn-depositional fractures in rimmed
           flat-topped carbonate platforms, Neogene carbonate complexes, Sorbas
           Basin, SE Spain
    • Authors: Casimir W. Nooitgedacht; Lucas M. Kleipool, Bernd Andeweg, Jesús Reolid, Christian Betzler, Sebastian Lindhorst, John J.G. Reijmer
      Abstract: The formation of syn-depositional fractures in carbonate platforms is considered an important feature in the understanding of platform evolution. This study investigates the mechanisms of fracture formation in rimmed flat-topped carbonate platforms in the very well exposed Cariatiz Miocene Fringing Reef Unit, SE Spain. Fracture data were obtained using a combination of LIDAR and field mapping techniques, which proved useful in understanding general fracture trends. The morphological expression of fracture sets, preferred fracture localisation, crosscutting relationships and fracture fill are characteristics that provide constraints on the timing of fracture formation and opening. Three dominant fracture populations were identified, amongst which a margin parallel and a margin perpendicular fracture set. Margin parallel fractures localise around the platform margin and form vertically extensive dikes that crosscut facies boundaries. The sedimentary fill of such fractures suggests syn-depositional fracture formation under marine conditions. Together, fracture characteristics suggest a gravitational driver for the formation of tensile stress and the development of margin parallel fractures along the platform edge. Margin perpendicular structures form sub-vertical dikes and fracture corridors. Margin perpendicular fractures localise on the platform slope and show two types of fracture fill, indicating marine and continental origins. Based on variations of fracture morphology along the carbonate platform, fracture localisation, petrographic analysis of sedimentary fill and stable isotope analysis on sparite cements, we suggest a gravitational control on the formation of these fractures. Two mechanisms for the formation of subvertical margin perpendicular fractures are proposed: (1) principal stress rotation as a result of downslope loading. (2) Differential compaction over buried gulley systems on antecedent clinoform slopes. We suggest that the formation of sub-vertical margin perpendicular fractures might be a systematic feature in slopes of flat-topped carbonate platforms.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T10:35:43.927426-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12239
       
  • Paleo-fluid expulsion and contouritic drift formation on the Chatham Rise,
           New Zealand
    • Authors: Kate Alyse Waghorn; Ingo Pecher, Lorna J. Strachan, Gareth Crutchley, Jörg Bialas, Richard Coffin, Bryan Davy, Stephanie Koch, Karsten F. Kroeger, Cord Papenberg, Sudipta Sarkar,
      Abstract: The Chatham Rise is located offshore of New Zealand's South Island. Vast areas of the Chatham Rise are covered in circular to elliptical seafloor depressions that appear to be forming through a bathymetrically controlled mechanism, as seafloor depressions 2–5 km in diameter are found in water depths of 800–1100 m. High-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic data were acquired in 2013 across one of these depressions. The seafloor depression is interpreted as a mounded contourite. Our data reveal several smaller buried depressions (
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:36:56.017197-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12237
       
  • Burial and exhumation of the western border of the Ukrainian Shield
           (Podolia): a multi-disciplinary approach
    • Authors: Andrea Schito; Benedetta Andreucci, Luca Aldega, Sveva Corrado, Lea Di Paolo, Massimiliano Zattin, Rafal Szaniawski, Leszek Jankowski, Stefano Mazzoli
      Abstract: The Podolia region is located along the western border of the Eastern European Craton, which is also known as Ukrainian Shield. From the Ordovician to the Miocene, this area formed part of an epicontinental basin system. In order to investigate the effects of orogenic cycles occurring along the plate margin, a multi-disciplinary approach was used in this study. Paleotemperature analysis and low-temperature thermochronometry were combined with stratigraphic data to obtain a burial model for the Paleozoic succession exposed in the study area. Maximum burial for Silurian and Devonian rocks occurred during the Devonian and Early Carboniferous at depths of 4–5 km, as constrained by vitrinite reflectance and illite content in mixed illite-smectite layers. Thermochronometric data indicate that exhumation through the 45–120 °C temperature range took place between the Late Triassic and the Early Jurassic, and that no significant burial occurred afterwards (temperatures characterising the stratigraphically lowermost units remaining below ca. 60 °C). These results point to a major exhumation event coeval with the Cimmerian orogenesis, which took place a few hundreds of kilometres away from the study area. On the other hand, no significant effect of the Alpine orogenesis was recorded, although the collisional front was located
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T23:05:43.052729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12235
       
  • The drowning of a siliciclastic shelf: insights into oceanographic
           reconstructions of the northern Arabian Platform during the Early
           Cretaceous
    • Authors: Or M. Bialik; Nicolas Waldmann
      Abstract: Barremian-Aptian sedimentary successions along the northern Arabian margin have been described as a transition from a siliciclastic to a carbonate-dominated marine environment, deposited upon a low-relief shelf or platform formed as a consequence of continuous regional subsidence. A long (360 m) core from northern Israel offers a unique look at this transition, providing valuable insights for the palaeoceanography, geometry and ventilation conditions that lead to Oceanic Anoxic Event 1 (OAE1) in this region. Results from high-resolution elemental, mineralogical, sedimentological and petrophysical analyses carried out revealed the emplacement of abundant mass-transport deposits (MTDs) during the Late Barremian and the Aptian. The transplanted units are characterized by fine grained calcareous shales with elevated organic matter, sulphur and iron contents. The scarcity or absence of bioturbation in the disturbed sequences provides a hint to the sediment/water interface conditions. However, a decrease in sulphur and iron occurring at the contact between the shales and the MTDs is explained as increased oxic conditions at the sediment-water interface as a result of turbulence and mixing associated with the descending sediment masses. Such recurrent events ventilation of the low-energy basinal environment during the Late Barremian and Aptian, predate the wide-scale establishment of OAE1 in the northern Arabian margin. Moreover, the identification of coarse-grained MTDs within deep-water calcareous sediments indicates a much steeper gradient of the northern Arabian margin, challenging previous studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T23:20:45.144681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12234
       
  • Sequence Architecture and Depositional Evolution of the Northern
           Continental Slope of the South China Sea: Responses to Tectonic Processes
           and Changes in Sea Level
    • Authors: Changsong Lin; Jing Jiang, Hesheng Shi, Zhongtao Zhang, Jingyan Liu, Qin Chenggang, Hao Li, Huaijiang Ran, An Wei, Hongxun Tian, Zuochang Xing, Qingyu Yao
      Abstract: The continental slopes of the South China Sea (SCS), the largest marginal sea on the continental shelf of Southeast Asia, are among the most significant shelf-margin basins in the world because of their abundant petroleum resources and a developmental history related to sea floor spreading since Late Oligocene time. Based on integrated analyses of seismic, well-logging and core data, we systematically document the sequence architecture and depositional evolution of the northern continental slope of the SCS and reveal its responses to tectonism, sea-level change and sediment supply. The infill of this shelf-margin basin can be divided into seven composite sequences (CS1‒CS7) that are bounded by regional unconformities. Composite sequences CS3 to CS7 have formed since Late Oligocene time, and each of them generally reflects a regional transgressive–regressive cycle. These large cycles can be further divided into 20 sequences that are defined by local unconformities or transgressive–regressive boundaries. Depositional–geomorphologic systems represented on the continental slope mainly include shelf-edge deltas, prodelta-slope fans, clinoforms of the shelf-margin slope, unidirectionally migrating slope channels, incised slope valleys, muddy slope fans, slope slump-debris-flow complexes, and large-scale soft-sediment deformation of bedding. Changing sea levels, reflected by evidence from sequence architecture in the study area, are generally comparable with those of the Haq (1987) global sea level curve, whereas the regional transgressions and regressions were apparently controlled by tectonic uplift and subsidence. Composite sequences CS3 and CS4 formed from Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene time and represent continental-slope deposition during a time of northwest-northeast seafloor spreading and subsequent development of sub-basins in the southwest-central SCS. The development of composite sequences CS5 to CS7 after Middle Miocene time was obviously influenced by the Dongsha Movement during convergence between the SCS and Philippine Sea plates. Climatic variations and monsoon intensification may have enhanced sediment supply during Late Oligocene‒Early Miocene (25-21 Ma) and Late Pliocene‒Pleistocene (3-0.8 Ma) times. This study indicates that shelf-edge delta and associated slope fan systems are the most important oil/gas-bearing reservoirs in the SCS continental-slope area.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:55:54.439773-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12238
       
  • Terrace formation in the upper Bengal basin since the middle pleistocene:
           Brahmaputra fan delta construction during multiple highstands
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Pickering; Steven L. Goodbred, Jeremiah C. Beam, John C. Ayers, Aaron K. Covey, Haresh M. Rajapara, Ashok K. Singhvi
      Abstract: Floodplains, paleosols, and antecedent landforms near the apex of the Brahmaputra fan delta in north-central Bangladesh preserve cycles of fluvial sediment deposition, erosion, and weathering. Together these landforms and their associated deposits comprise morphostratigraphic units that define the river's history and have influenced its channel position and avulsion behavior through the Late Quaternary. Previously, temporal differentiation within these units has not been sufficient to decipher their sequence of deposition, an important step in understanding the spatial pattern of migration of the Brahmaputra River. Holocene units in this region are fairly well established by radiocarbon dating of in situ organic material, but pre-Holocene units are considered Pleistocene-aged if organic material is dated> 48000 yr BP (the limit of radiocarbon dating) or the sediments are positioned beneath a prominent paleosol, interpreted as a buried soil horizon that developed during a previous sea level lowstand. In such cases, these morphostratigraphic units have been broadly interpreted as Pleistocene without knowing their absolute depositional ages or relative evolutionary chronology. Here we use detailed sediment analysis to better differentiate morphostratigraphic units at the Brahmaputra's avulsion node, establishing the sequence of deposition and subsequent weathering of these bodies. We then test this relative chronology by luminescence dating of the sands beneath these landform surfaces. This work provides the first absolute depositional age constraints of terrace sediments for the Middle to Late Pleistocene Brahmaputra River and upper Bengal basin. The luminescence ages are complemented by detailed compositional trends in the terraces deposits, including clay mineralogy and the degree of weathering. Together, these newly dated and carefully described morphostratigraphic units reflect eustasy-driven cycles of terrace development by way of highstand floodplain deposition and subsequent lowstand exposure and weathering, along with active tectonic deformation. Defining this Late Quaternary history of terrace development and position of the Brahmaputra River is a first step toward an integrated understanding of basin and delta evolution over multiple glacioeustatic cycles and tectonically relevant timescales.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T07:05:28.747195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12236
       
  • Tectonic compaction shortening in toe region of isolated listric normal
           fault, North Taranaki Basin, New Zealand
    • Authors: Chris K. Morley; Diako Hariri Naghadeh
      Abstract: Industry 2D and 3D seismic data across the North Taranaki Basin displays two listric normal faults that formed during Pliocene shelf edge clinoform progradation. The faults die out in the down-transport direction with no evidence for contractional structures, except for two small thrust faults in one narrow zone. When active, the detachments lay at depths of about 1000 m below the seafloor. The overlying section had high initial porosities (30–60%). It is estimated that loss of about 17–20% pore volume by lateral compaction, and fluid expulsion over a distance of about 4–6 km in the transport direction occurred in place of folding and thrusting. Seismic and well evidence for abnormally highly compacted shales suggests there is about 6% less porosity than expected for in the prekinematic section, which possibly represents a residual of the porosity anomaly caused by lateral compaction. The observations indicate significant shortening (~20%) by lateral compaction and probably some layer parallel thickening are important deformation mechanisms in near-surface deepwater sediments that needs to be incorporated into shortening estimates and ‘balanced’ cross-sections. A key factor in listric fault initiation near the base of slope is inferred to be transient, increased pore fluid pressure due to lateral expulsion of fluids from beneath the prograding Giant Foresets Formation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T06:51:14.607729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12227
       
  • Application of multi-kinetic apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He
           thermochronology to source rock thermal history: A case study from the
           Mackenzie Plain, NWT, Canada
    • Authors: Jeremy Powell; David Schneider, Dale Issler
      Abstract: Shale of the Upper Cretaceous Slater River Formation extends across the Mackenzie Plain of the Canadian Northwest Territories and has potential as a regional source rock due to the high organic content and presence of both oil- and gas-prone kerogen. An understanding of the thermal history experienced by the shale is required to predict any potential petroleum systems. Our study integrates multi-kinetic apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronometers from a basal bentonite unit to understand the timing and magnitude of Late Cretaceous burial experienced by the Slater River Formation along the Imperial River. We use LA-ICP-MS and EPMA methods to assess the chemistry of apatite, and use these values to derive the AFT kinetic parameter rmr0. Our AFT dates and track lengths, respectively, range from 201.5 ± 36.9 Ma to 47.1 ± 12.3 Ma, and 16.8 to 10.2 μm, and single crystal AHe dates are between 57.9 ± 3.5 and 42.0 ± 2.5 Ma with effective uranium concentrations from 17.3 ppm to 35.6 ppm. The fission track data show no relationship with the kinetic parameter Dpar and fail the χ2 test indicating that the data do not comprise a single statistically significant population. However, when plotted against their rmr0 value, the data are separated into two statistically significant kinetic populations with distinct track length distributions. Inverse thermal history modeling of both the multi-kinetic AFT and AHe datasets, reveal that the Slater River Formation reached maximum burial temperatures of ~65-90°C between the Turonian and Paleocene, indicating that the source rock matured to the early stages of hydrocarbon generation, at best. Ultimately, our data highlight the importance of kinetic parameter choice for AFT and AHe thermochronology, as slight variations in apatite chemistry may have significant implications on fission track and radiation damage annealing in apatite with protracted thermal histories through the uppermost crust.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T01:51:07.516727-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12233
       
  • Sedimentary environment evolution in a marine hangingwall dipslope
           setting. El Qaa Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt
    • Authors: Martin Muravchik; Rob L. Gawthorpe, Ian R. Sharp, Franklin Rarity, David Hodgetts
      Abstract: Sedimentation in hangingwall dipslope settings is still a relatively underexplored topic in rift basin studies. A better understanding of the evolution of marine sedimentary environments in this kind of settings has to address the variations occurring both along the strike and down the dipslope. Previous work was mainly built on the analysis of subsurface data, relying on the visualization of coarse resolution (10s of m) seismic sections and sparsely located borehole logs (km apart). This study focuses on the sedimentology and stratal arrangement of excellent quality Miocene marine early syn-rift and rift climax successions continuously exposed for more than 20 km along the strike of the hangingwall dipslope in the El Qaa Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt. The integration of traditional sedimentary field techniques and terrestrial LIDAR scanning allowed for a detailed analysis of dip and dip direction for the different depositional units. Three different phases of tilting were identified for the hangingwall dipslope, which controlled the overall evolution of the marine sedimentary environment in the area. The tilt of the hangingwall not only determined variations in facies, thickness and grain-size of the deposits down the dipslope but also along its strike. The studied exposures of the El Qaa Fault Block dipslope constitute a unique outcrop analogue for marine sedimentation in hangingwall dipslopes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T00:21:36.304821-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12231
       
  • An integrated model of clastic injectites and basin floor lobe complexes:
           implications for stratigraphic trap plays
    • Authors: Sarah Louise Cobain; David Mark Hodgson, Jeff Peakall, Michelle Nicole Shiers
      Abstract: Injectites sourced from base-of-slope and basin-floor parent sandbodies are rarely reported in comparison to submarine slope channel systems. This study utilizes the well-constrained palaeogeographic and stratigraphic context of three outcrop examples exposed in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, to examine the relationship between abrupt stratigraphic pinchouts in basin-floor lobe complexes, and the presence, controls, and character of injectite architecture. Injectites in this palaeogeographic setting occur where there is: (i) sealing mudstone both above and below the parent sand to create initial overpressure; (ii) an abrupt pinchout of a basin-floor lobe complex through steep confinement to promote compaction drive; (iii) clean, proximal sand beds aiding fluidization; and (iv) a sharp contact between parent sand and host lithology generating a source point for hydraulic fracture and resultant injection of sand. In all outcrop cases, dykes are orientated perpendicular to palaeoslope, and the injected sand propagated laterally beneath the parent sand, paralleling the base to extend beyond its pinchout. Understanding the mechanisms that determine and drive injection is important in improving the prediction of the location and character of clastic injectites in the subsurface. Here, we highlight the close association of basin-floor stratigraphic traps and sub-seismic clastic injectites, and present a model to explain the presence and morphology of injectites in these locations.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T00:27:34.857947-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12229
       
  • Geological controls on the present temperature field of the western
           Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Archipelago
    • Authors: Zhuoheng Chen; Stephen E. Grasby, Keith Dewing, Kirk G. Osadetz, Tom Brent
      Abstract: Analysis of current temperature data in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago results in the recognition of two major thermal regimes. High temperature regions are observed where salt diapirs and salt cored anticlines are present. Low temperature fields are observed along the western and southern basin margins and around Cornwall-Amund Ringnes islands, where regional Mesozoic aquifers are exposed to surface, connected to basin boundary faults, or regional unconformities. Meteoric and Holocene sub-glacial water recharge are inferred to be responsible for the low geothermal regime and low formation water salinity. Neither exhumation associated with the Eocene “Eurekan” orogeny nor volcanic intrusion associated with opening of Amerasia Basin in late Jurassic-early Cretaceous have been interpreted to be a significant influence on the present day temperature field, although thermal indicators show evidence of elevated thermal alteration of organic matter pointing to earlier, but now dissipated, thermal anomalies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T00:27:18.049369-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12232
       
  • The architecture of submarine monogenetic volcanoes – insights from
           3D seismic data
    • Authors: Peter Reynolds; Nick Schofield, Richard J. Brown, Simon Paul Holford
      Abstract: Many prospective sedimentary basins contain a variety of extrusive volcanic products that are ultimately sourced from volcanoes. However, seismic reflection-based studies of magmatic rift basins have tended to focus on the underlying magma plumbing system, meaning that the seismic characteristics of volcanoes are not well understood. Additionally, volcanoes have similar morphologies to hydrothermal vents, which are also linked to underlying magmatic intrusions. In this study, we use high resolution 3D seismic and well data from the Bass Basin, offshore southern Australia, to document 34 cone- and crater-type vents of Miocene age. The vents overlie magmatic intrusions and have seismic properties indicative of a volcanic origin: their moderate–high amplitude upper reflections and zones of “wash-out” and velocity pull-up beneath. The internal reflections of the vents are similar to those found in lava deltas, suggesting they are composed of volcaniclastic material. This interpretation is corroborated by data from exploration wells which penetrated the flanks of several vents. We infer that the vents we describe are composed of hyaloclastite and pyroclasts produced during submarine volcanic eruptions. The morphology of the vents is typical of monogenetic volcanoes, consistent with the onshore record of volcanism on the southern Australian margin. Based on temporal, spatial and volumetric relationships, we propose that submarine volcanoes can evolve from maars to tuff cones as a result of varying magma-water interaction efficiency. The morphologies of the volcanoes and their links to the underlying feeder systems are superficially similar to hydrothermal vents. This highlights the need for careful seismic interpretation and characterization of vent structures linked to magmatic intrusions within sedimentary basins.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T00:27:05.023437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12230
       
 
 
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