Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)

Showing 1 - 85 of 85 Journals sorted alphabetically
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Addiction Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Addiction Research & Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Adicciones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psycho Physiology     Open Access  
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Child Abuse Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Contemporary Drug Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Critical Gambling Studies     Open Access  
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Drug and Alcohol Dependence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Drug and Alcohol Dependence Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Drug and Alcohol Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Drug Intoxication & Detoxification : Novel Approaches     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 144)
Drugs and Alcohol Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
Drugs: education, prevention and policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Addiction Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284)
Health Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Addiction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Addictions Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addictive Behaviors, Therapy & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Addictive Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Drug Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Drug Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Emotional Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Work Practice: Psychotherapeutic Approaches in Health, Welfare and the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Teaching in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Land Use Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Nanotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nicotine & Tobacco Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
OA Alcohol     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Salud y Drogas     Open Access  
SMAD, Revista Electronica en Salud Mental, Alcohol y Drogas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Substance Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Substance Use & Misuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
SUCHT - Zeitschrift f├╝r Wissenschaft und Praxis / Journal of Addiction Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Brown University Digest of Addiction Theory and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicodepend├¬ncias     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Addiction Reports
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2196-2952
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Pornography Use, Problematic Pornography Use, and Potential Impacts on
           Partners and Relationships

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The present review focuses on relationships between pornography use, problematic pornography use, and their possible effects on partners and relationships. Recent Findings Pornography use has been examined in the setting of marriages and other partnered relationships. Aspects considered include pornography-use patterns, perceptions of a partner’s pornography use, relationship satisfaction and happiness, relationship quality, partner’s problematic pornography use, infidelity/extramarital sex, and relationship stability (breakup/divorce). Summary Studying potential effects of pornography use in the context of dyadic relationships appears important with respect to understanding both marriage and divorce and the quality of couples’ relationships. More research is needed, particularly in the context of problematic pornography use.
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
       
  • Omissions, Ambiguities, and Underuse of Causal Assessment Tools: a
           Systematic Review of Case Reports on Patients Who Use Kratom

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      Abstract: Purpose of review In this systematic review, we examined case reports of patients who use kratom and evaluated their rigor based on reporting of clinically relevant information. Recent findings Millions of people use kratom in the USA each year. Despite its prevalence, there is little peer-reviewed clinical literature available on kratom, and clinicians must predominantly rely on case reports for guidance in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients who use kratom. Summary We found considerable variation in reported information and in the thoroughness of the case reports. Reports tended to be inadequate in full assessment of the patient’s kratom use. As kratom use continues to increase in the USA, consistent and detailed reporting, usage of biospecimen testing and kratom product assays, consultation of experts to aid with patient workup, usage of causality assessment tools, and acknowledgement of limitations will improve the quality of case reports.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
       
  • Comparing the Approaches and Validity of ICD-11 Criteria for Gaming
           Disorder and DSM-5 Criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review explores the differences in approach and diagnostic validity between the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision criteria for gaming disorder (ICD-11-GD), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria for internet gaming disorder (DSM-5-IGD). Recent Findings A few studies have demonstrated diagnostic validity and consistency between the DSM-5-IGD and ICD-11-GD criteria. The ICD-11-GD involves a higher threshold for GD diagnosis than the DSM-5-IGD. On the other hand, future studies should evaluate whether the ICD-11-GD criteria could differentiate GD from highly engaged gamers. Hazardous gaming criteria may help identify gamers with risky gaming behavior and compensate for the possible type II errors associated with the ICD-11-GD criteria. Summary Both DSM-5-IGD and ICD-11-GD criteria exhibit adequate diagnostic validity and consistency in general. The criteria for hazardous gaming have clinical utility for implementing the preventive intervention for GD. Additional studies based on the ICD-11-GD criteria, including additional clinical features and boundaries with other disorders, should be conducted to evaluate their validity and utility in determining the GD diagnosis, course, prognosis, and treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Cyberchondria: a Growing Concern During the COVID-19 Pandemic and a
           Possible Addictive Disorder'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The main purpose of this narrative review is to provide a brief overview of the current empirical evidence regarding the conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of cyberchondria, with a focus on the potential classification of cyberchondria as a behavioral addiction. Although cyberchondria has been widely associated with anxiety, it has also been suggested that it may be linked to obsessive–compulsive features. A less explored proposal is the categorization of cyberchondria as a behavioral addiction. The present review explores the existing literature with respect to the possible classification of cyberchondria as a behavioral addiction by considering cyberchondria with respect to components of the interaction of person, affect, cognition and execution model. Recent Findings There is a lack of consensus regarding the definition and conceptualization of cyberchondria. The empirical evidence available to date suggests that cyberchondria is a multifactorial construct that operates transdiagnostically, particularly with respect to obsessive–compulsive-related disorders and health-related anxiety. The extent to which the condition may reflect a behavioral addiction as a form of problematic use of the internet also warrants consideration. Cyberchondria may have become more prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular populations prone to health-related anxiety likely having greater vulnerability. Existing data in part support the potential classification of cyberchondria as a behavioral addiction, although many gaps in understanding currently exist. Summary Cyberchondria appears to be a growing concern. However, there is not yet enough empirical evidence to determine whether this clinical condition has enough similarities with behavioral addictions to be considered as one. Likewise, psychometric instruments that exist to date have not been designed from the theoretical framework of behavioral addictions, so most of the factors that they evaluate may be preferentially related to anxiety. Finally, there is still no consensus on whether cyberchondria should be addressed in the context of health anxiety interventions, OCRD, or behavioral addictions; thus, more empirical evidence is needed.
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
       
  • A Cautionary Tale of Herbal Supplements: What We Have Learned from Kratom

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review enumerates seven outbreaks of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) product adulteration and contamination in the context of the United States Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). Recent Findings At least seven distinct episodes of kratom product contamination or adulteration are known: (1) krypton, a kratom product adulterated with O-desmethyltramadol that resulted in at least nine fatal poisonings; (2) a suspected case of kratom contamination with hydrocodone and morphine; (3) a case of kratom adulteration with phenylethylamine; (4) contamination of multiple kratom products with heavy metals; (5) contamination of kratom products by multiple Salmonella enterica serotypes; (6) exposure of federal agents raiding a synthetic cannabinoid laboratory to kratom alkaloids; (7) suspected kratom product adulteration with exogenous 7-hydroxymitragynine. Summary Inadequate supplement regulation contributed to multiple examples of kratom contamination and adulteration, illustrating the potential for future such episodes involving kratom and other herbal supplements.
      PubDate: 2023-02-04
       
  • What Is the Kratom Overdose Risk' A Systematic Literature Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The rising public interest in kratom is paralleled by concerns of adverse outcomes, particularly overdose. Such claims span a multitude of reporting modalities, including case reports, analyses of data from poison control and coroners’ reports, and warnings from government agencies. Here we evaluate the literature in efforts to assess kratom’s potential overdose risk. A keyword search of online literature databases identified 12 preclinical studies, 23 case reports, and 15 observational studies/reports meeting our pre-selected criteria. Recent Findings Case reports describe outcomes where kratom products are coingested with illicit substances and pharmaceuticals. Opioids are common coingestants, and presentations describe pulmonary edema and findings resembling opioid overdoses. However, seizures and hyperadrenergic features are also common. Where reported, post-mortem mitragynine (MG) concentrations are inconclusive of attributed toxicities. Animal studies found oral LD50s in the range of 200–960 mg/kg for MG, and 200–591 mg/kg for Malaysian total alkaloid extract. Deaths were preceded by restlessness, tremors, and convulsions. Analyses of a variety of reported toxicities yield signs and symptoms that resemble hyperadrenergic components, with autopsies finding coingestants in addition to alkaloids. Summary As with any compound ingested in large quantities, it is possible to develop lethal toxicities with kratom in a dose-dependent fashion. Use via the traditional mode of consumption, such as chewing or brewing the leaves as a tea, would require a tremendous amount of kratom to be ingested. The currently available kratom products, and pure alkaloid isolates, greatly increase this risk, in addition to combining kratom with illicit substances, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interactions.
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
       
  • E-Cigarette Marketing on Social Media: A Scoping Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Given the rapidly evolving nature of e-cigarette marketing on social media, an up-to-date review of e-cigarette marketing on social media is needed. This study aims to identify recent (published between 2017 and 2021) e-cigarette promotional strategies and promotional themes on social media to inform tobacco regulatory policies on e-cigarette marketing. Recent Findings Out of the 29 studies that had examined e-cigarette marketing on social media, the common promotional strategies were price promotion (N = 13; 44.8%), featuring flavors (N = 13; 44.8%), featuring product characteristics (N = 10; 34.5%), using youth-appealing themes (N = 8; 27.6%), celebrity/influencer marketing (N = 5; 17.2%), building pro-vape communities and identities (N = 5; 17.2%), and incentivizing friend tagging (N = 3; 10.3%). Promotional themes included positive themes such as “safe,” “healthy,” “young,” “independence,” “natural,” and “cool.” Summary This study provides the most recent scoping review on e-cigarette marketing practices on social media. Our study findings suggest that novel methods are used in e-cigarette marketing on social media.
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
       
  • Cannabis Legalization and the Decline of Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD)
           Treatment Utilization in the US

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      Abstract: Purposeof Review Cannabis legalization and greater social acceptance of cannabis, as well as increasing adult cannabis use, put growing numbers of people at risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD). This paper reviews recent evidence on trends in CUD prevalence and treatment utilization in the US in the context of recent changes in cannabis legalization and attitudes towards cannabis. Recent Findings Evidence from national survey and administrative data indicate that CUD treatment utilization among the general population has declined markedly across all age groups since the middle 2000s. Expanding cannabis legalization and more tolerant attitudes towards cannabis may act to reduce the perception of frequent cannabis use as problematic, while also suppressing treatment utilization among those with CUD, thus producing the potentially counterintuitive observed decline in CUD treatment utilization during a period of increasing cannabis use. Cannabis legalization and greater social acceptance of cannabis use may also engender changes in the population groups that use cannabis, as well as the number of criminal justice referrals to CUD treatment, which may in turn also affect CUD treatment utilization trends. Summary Understanding how changes in cannabis legalization and attitudes towards cannabis may influence and alter associations among cannabis use, CUD, and CUD treatment utilization is a key to developing appropriate public health policies and responses. Intervention in the early or “preaddiction” stages of CUD using mHealth strategies represents a promising approach for addressing potential growth in unmet CUD treatment need, particularly for adolescents and young adults, age groups particularly vulnerable to CUD.
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00461-4
       
  • Pharmacological Treatments for Compulsive Sexual Behaviors Among Offending
           Individuals

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Even if the prevalence of hypersexuality in paraphiliacs or paraphilic disorders is close to the prevalence reported in the general population, it remains a risk factor for sexual offense for many authors. We will review common risk factors between hypersexuality and paraphilic disorders as well as the comorbidity between both disorders, especially in sexual offenders. Then, we will report pharmacological treatment studies conducted in paraphilic disorders with hypersexuality and make some treatment recommendations. Recent Findings Although the neurobiology and neuropharmacology of sexual behavior remain unclear, there has been significant research that aims to highlight the neuronal circuits and neurotransmitters involved in sexual disorders such as paraphilic disorders and hypersexuality. Summary Pharmacological treatment of sex offenders with paraphilic disorders should follow the principles of the risk-needs responsivity model, meaning that the higher the risk, the more intensive the proposed therapeutic approach. The criminogenic needs addressed by pharmacological treatments are paraphilias/paraphilic disorders (mostly pedophilic and sadistic disorders) and hypersexuality. Pharmacological treatment of sex offenders with paraphilic disorders should be part of a more comprehensive treatment plan including psychotherapy (mostly behavior therapy). In this review, we will propose treatment guidelines for patients with comorbid paraphilic disorders and hypersexuality. The challenge for future research is to improve our understanding of these disorders and their complex relationships in order to propose new pharmacological targets or new techniques such as non-invasive brain stimulation. The ultimate goal of clinicians is to prevent sexual offenses in these patients.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00460-5
       
  • Public Health Approach to Problems Related to Excessive and Addictive Use
           of the Internet and Digital Media

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Advances in digital technology and media have provided convenience and advantages in all areas of our daily lives. However, there is a risk of excessive and addictive use, which increases the risk of addiction as a disease and other related mental and physical problems. This article reviews the public health approach to problems related to excessive and addictive use of the Internet and digital media. Recent Findings The public health model views addiction as the result of interactions among individuals, digital media, and the environment; therefore, interventions should aim to reduce risk factors and increase protective factors in these three areas. This includes developing and providing evidence-based services according to each individual’s problem type and severity. Regarding interventions for digital media and the environment, restricting accessibility and regulating content may be necessary. This calls for an integrative, comprehensive, and continuous intervention strategy, and to achieve such a framework, we need to establish an information system to monitor the magnitude and patterns of related problems. Summary This review suggests a surveillance system that provides a list of evidence-based policies from the public health perspective. Suggestions for an advanced international information, policy, and monitoring system are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00458-z
       
  • A Commentary on the Progress Towards Recognizing Food Addiction as a
           Psychological Diagnosis

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      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00436-5
       
  • Persistent and Unsuccessful Attempts to Cut Down on Ultra-Processed Foods
           and the Associated Challenges for Dietary Adherence

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) contain little whole foods, and are associated with increased risk for several, adverse cardio-metabolic health outcomes; yet, UPFs are ubiquitous in the food environment and comprise a significant percentage of calories consumed. Cutting down on UPFs may be challenging, with increasing evidence to support that UPFs may exhibit an addictive potential not observed with minimally processed foods. This narrative review aimed to discuss challenges UPFs pose for dietary adherence and examine evidence pertaining to attempts to cut down on UPFs. Recent Findings Findings support an overall high prevalence of unsuccessful attempts to cut down; however, challenges exist with quantifying attempts specifically attributable to UPFs. Emerging research supports that for some individuals, UPFs, compared to minimally processed foods generate greater addictive-like responses. Summary UPF consumption facilitates addictive-like eating behaviors in some individuals and evidence supports a greater abuse liability than minimally processed foods, which may pose a unique challenge for diet adherence.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00418-7
       
  • Gambling Disorder and Stigma: Opportunities for Treatment and Prevention

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Gambling disorder is among the most stigmatized mental health problems. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms that underlie this stigma and the effects of stigma-reduction interventions. This paper reviews extant literature on the stigma of gambling disorder and highlights evidence from this research and the broader mental illness stigma literature to help advance research on the prevention and reduction of gambling-related stigma. Recent Finding The public stigma of gambling disorder includes stereotypes of affected individuals as “greedy” and “irresponsible,” beliefs that affected individuals are to blame for their problems, and desire to avoid social contact with affected individuals. Stigmatizing attitudes held by the public are often internalized by individuals with gambling disorder, which leads to problem concealment, reduced treatment-seeking, and decreased self-esteem. Women with gambling disorder, as well as those with more severe gambling problems and who perceive greater stigma by the public, are most vulnerable to self-stigma. There is evidence that certain beliefs may underlie the stigmatization of gambling disorder, including beliefs about its causes. Contact- and education-based interventions show efficacy for the reduction of mental illness-related stigma more broadly; additional research is needed to determine the efficacy of various stigma reduction strategies for gambling disorder specifically. Summary Gambling disorder is highly stigmatized relative to other mental health problems, in part because it is viewed as more likely to be caused by controllable factors. Interventions that emphasize the biopsychosocial etiology of gambling disorder may help to prevent and reduce the blame and stigmatization of affected individuals. Structural stigma within domains such as legislation, healthcare, and the gambling industry, interventions to reduce self-stigma, stigma among mental health professionals, and the influence of culture on stigma and its reduction are critical issues for future research.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00437-4
       
  • Defining Risky Use in the Context of Food Addiction

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This narrative review examined literature on the risky use diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders as applied to ultra-processed food addiction. Empirical research on the rates of risky use in humans and evidence from animal models are reviewed. Theoretical considerations for conceptualizing the risky use criteria in food addiction and areas for future research are also discussed. Recent Findings Rates of risky use, based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale, are heterogenous across studies, though elevated in clinical samples with disordered eating. Issues regarding operational definitions of risky use may lead to elevated rates, and variability in interpretation of the hazardous use criteria. Animal models suggest that under highly controlled conditions, behaviors indicative of risky use can be observed, yet may lack generalizability to humans. Summary Future work, which examines the clinical utility and diagnostic value of the risky use criterion for ultra-processed food addiction, is warranted.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00420-z
       
  • Clinical Considerations of Ultra-processed Food Addiction Across Weight
           Classes: an Eating Disorder Treatment and Care Perspective

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review To examine the prevalence rates of ultra-processed food addiction across different weight classes and offer guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians are provided with practical considerations in the assessment of ultra-processed food addiction beyond the use of validated instruments. Recent Findings The weighted mean prevalence of ultra-processed food addiction is approximately 20% worldwide and varies widely based on the sample. At first glance, there appears a linear relationship between ultra-processed food addiction and BMI class. Further investigation indicates a J-shaped curve with heightened prevalence among the underweight. These findings highlight the need to assess for additional factors that may increase objective or subjective food addiction symptoms including eating disorders, dietary restraint, and other mental health diagnoses. Summary While clinical considerations across different weight classes vary, overemphasis on weight status may detract from the clinical utility of the ultra-processed food addiction construct. Considering weight status in conjunction with other psychiatric symptoms helps to better understand the various biopsychosocial mechanisms that influence eating behavior and can inform individualized treatment strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00411-0
       
  • Preliminary Evidence that Tolerance and Withdrawal Occur in Response to
           Ultra-processed Foods

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Food addiction posits that the nature of ultra-processed food (UPF) contributes to addiction. Tolerance and withdrawal are core addiction symptoms that have received little attention in the food addiction literature. This review aimed to summarize evidence for tolerance and withdrawal in the UPF context. Recent Findings Following repeated UPF consumption, animals show mesolimbic dopamine receptor downregulation and behavioral changes consistent with tolerance. Humans show weaker neural reward responses to UPF following frequent consumption. Following abstinence from UPF after heavy consumption, animals exhibit behavioral and neural indicators consistent with withdrawal. Humans report withdrawal symptoms when reducing UPF consumption, with the exception of a recent study that demonstrated symptom improvement during early abstinence. Summary Preliminary evidence suggests that tolerance and withdrawal may occur in response to UPF. However, human research has been mostly limited to self-report and retrospective recall. Future experimental research is needed to further evaluate these constructs’ validity.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00425-8
       
  • The Rise and Risk of Delta-8 THC (Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol)

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to differentiate delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9) as they relate to human health and disease. Recent Findings Delta-8 is a novel cannabinoid becoming increasingly used following the passage of the US Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018 and the deregulation of hemp. Cannabis spp. naturally produces little delta-8. Retail delta-8 products consist of synthetic delta-8 chemically converted from cannabidiol (CBD). Delta-8 marketing claims a “softer, gentler high” compared to delta-9, but limited data exist to support this claim. A recent screen of delta-8 products found that the majority contained heavy metal contamination and that the reported vs. actual compositions of commercial products did not agree. Summary The effects of delta-8 on the human body remain largely unexplored, as do the pharmacokinetic differences between delta-8 and delta-9. Because the dietary supplement market is largely unregulated, these products are not tested for contaminants that may also have harmful effects.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00456-1
       
  • Gambling in Sub-Saharan Africa: Traditional Forms and Emerging
           Technologies

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The gambling industry in Africa has seen substantial growth and evolution over recent years with a growing body of literature describing these shifts. Here, we provide a narrative synthesis of the extant literature on the origins, trends and consequences of the expansion and intensification of the commercial gambling industry in sub-Saharan Africa with a reference for future research on gambling as a growing public health concern. Recent Findings The historical shift and permeation of gambling in sub-Saharan Africa is diverse with evidence of certain countries following a neo-colonial logic. Advances in technology have made gambling more accessible and created new markets in Africa. A key motive driving gambling on the continent is a lack of stable employment. While the intensification and growth of Africa’s gambling industry has brought economic benefits to some African investors and individuals, this has been accompanied by a range of gambling harms. Legislation and policies designed to better regulate the gambling industry and redress these harms are needed. In this context, a small number of services and campaigns designed to mitigate gambling harms demonstrate promise, but more research is needed in this area. Summary The gambling industry in sub-Saharan Africa has undergone a dramatic transformation. While it is true that the growth of the African gambling industry has provided an additional revenue stream to governments, it is also necessary to acknowledge the concurrent rise in gambling addiction and the health-related and social harms that it elicits. As such, designing effective regulatory measures and policy interventions that can reduce the public health burden of gambling harms is vital. However, these interventions need to take in to account the significance of cultural differences that exist among countries on the continent.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00449-0
       
  • Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Model Based on
           ICD-11 Criteria of Gaming Disorder and Hazardous Gaming During the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This commentary aimed to propose the screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) model for gaming disorder (GD) and hazardous gaming (HG) on the basis of the International Classification of Disease, 11th version (ICD-11) classification. Recent Findings COVID-19 and its preventive measures increase the risk of GD and the treatment needs could exceed the capacities of mental health systems. Brief intervention could be provided for adolescents with HG after screening. Psychiatrists make diagnoses of GD or HG and then refer them to school counselors, specialized psychologists, or integrated teams based on the severity, comorbidity, and complication of GD. Summary The classification of GD and HG was suitable to develop a SBIRT model intervention. The SBIRT should work through the shortage of resources and provide a brief intervention guild to make it practical.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00444-5
       
  • Examining Associations Between Negative Affect and Substance Use in
           Treatment-Seeking Samples: a Review of Studies Using Intensive
           Longitudinal Methods

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Understanding dynamic relationships between negative affect and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes, including craving, may help inform adaptive and personalized interventions. Recent studies using intensive longitudinal methods were reviewed to examine relationships between negative affect and the outcomes of either craving or substance use during and following SUD treatment. Recent Findings Results on associations between negative affect and craving/substance use were mixed and difficult to synthesize, given methodological differences across studies. The strength and direction of these relationships varied across outcomes, subgroups, contexts, and time course. Summary The current literature is mixed concerning negative affect and craving/substance use associations during and following SUD treatment. Researchers should increasingly recruit diverse individuals, for example, samples of varying racial and ethnic backgrounds and those reporting co-occurring disorders and polysubstance use. Experimental, qualitative, and person-specific methods will improve our understanding of relationships between negative affect and substance-related outcomes during SUD treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40429-022-00441-8
       
 
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