Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)

Showing 1 - 85 of 85 Journals sorted alphabetically
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Addiction Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Addiction Research & Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Adicciones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psycho Physiology     Open Access  
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Child Abuse Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Contemporary Drug Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Critical Gambling Studies     Open Access  
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Drug and Alcohol Dependence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Drug and Alcohol Dependence Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Drug and Alcohol Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Drug Intoxication & Detoxification : Novel Approaches     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 144)
Drugs and Alcohol Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
Drugs: education, prevention and policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Addiction Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284)
Health Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Addiction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Addictions Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addictive Behaviors, Therapy & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Addictive Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Drug Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Drug Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Emotional Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Work Practice: Psychotherapeutic Approaches in Health, Welfare and the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Teaching in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Land Use Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Nanotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nicotine & Tobacco Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
OA Alcohol     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Salud y Drogas     Open Access  
SMAD, Revista Electronica en Salud Mental, Alcohol y Drogas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Substance Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Substance Use & Misuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
SUCHT - Zeitschrift f├╝r Wissenschaft und Praxis / Journal of Addiction Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Brown University Digest of Addiction Theory and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicodepend├¬ncias     Open Access  
Similar Journals
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OA Alcohol
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2053-0285
Published by OA Publishing London Homepage  [37 journals]
  • Use of dexmedetomidine for treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome:
           Review of the current literature.

    • Abstract: The article has been forwarded to the production team. The processing may take few weeks. Then the proof will be forwarded to the corresponding author. The final PDF and HTML files will be uploaded when the corrections to the proof are returned by the corresponding author.
      PubDate: 04/09/2017 10:29:01 pm
       
  • Effects of ethanol on the heart and blood vessels.

    • Abstract: Alcohol consumption and its influences over human health have been at the centre of medical discussions for centuries. An important part of the daily menu, ethanol has had in the not so remote past a variety of uses in the medicine and pharmacology, although very few of them resisted the proof of the time. Its gastronomical consumption should be moderate, and moderate drinking is presumed to have a protective role against hypertension and coronary heart disease. We have revised several papers that raise doubts, with all pros and cons of its consumption, starting from the historical sources to the most updated opinions. The classification of abstainers, light, moderate and heavy drinkers should as well be kept in mind when dealing with patients that pretend consuming alcohol in ‘social dosis’, since restriction seems by far a better option rather than uncontrolled use. Physiological influences of ethanol over the heart, vessels, central nervous system and autonomous nervous system are mentioned as well in the present paper.
      PubDate: 09/30/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Measuring the volume of youth exposure to alcohol marketing: A systematic
           review of measurement instruments in peer-reviewed articles.

    • Abstract: Aims: The following paper aims to review instruments that measure alcohol advertising exposure that were used in peer-reviewed studies. Method: A systematic literature search of several databases resulted in 47 relevant articles of which measurement instruments were examined and compared. Results: A total of 90 measurement instruments were identified in the reviewed articles. These instruments can be categorized as memory-based or opportunity-based measures with several subcategories. Although most studies used a combination of different methods to measure alcohol advertising exposure, researchers chose either memory-based or opportunity-based measures. Measurement of exposure to alcohol advertising, via non-traditional marketing channels was not examined in most articles. Conclusions: A large variety of measurement instruments were found. Because of limitations and strengths of each measurement instrument, a triangulation of measurement methods is recommended. Keywords: alcohol advertising; marketing; exposure; measurement; review
      PubDate: 09/30/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: can alcohol-related oxidative stress
           concur to the prenatal damage'

    • Abstract: Introduction Alcohol consumed during pregnancy freely crosses the placental barrier and constitutes a significant risk for many adverse outcomes globally defined Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) up to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).  Many teratogenic mechanisms have been proposed but, to date, one of the most studied and understoodis the alcohol-related Oxidative Stress (OS). Alcohol-related OS can affect lipids and proteins and can produce DNA alteration and epigenetic modifications since DNA is very sensitive to the  OS effect. Recent animal studies show that alcohol- related OS can affect mainly the brain that is physiologically more vulnerable than other organs as liver or kidney. Experimental evidence show that alcohol-related OS significantly concur to produce the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Animal experimentation show that OS is involved in developing FASD and that the individual vulnerability observed in different rat strain may reside, at least in part, in the regulation of REDOX equilibrium. The association between FASD and oxidative stress is confirmed by the evidence that alcohol effects are mitigated when antioxidants are administered. Clinical studies performed by OS biomarkers asplasmatic Malondialdehyde (MDA), Free Oxygen Radicals Testing (FORT) and Free Oxygen Radicals Defense (FORD) in the blood of heavy drinking subjects evidence their OS status. Gender difference are significant since OS level in drinking women is higher than that in drinking men.  Conclusion Animal studies show that OS condition have a significant role in impairing pregnancy and in developing the neuro-behavioral symptoms of FASD. Evidence from clinical studies suggest that to include the  study of OS biomarkers in obstetric and neonatal routine diagnostic procedures could be a good strategy to early detect at-risk situation and to improve treatment. The high reliability and practicability of current available tests for determination of OS biomarkers make easier to reach this goal.
      PubDate: 09/30/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Alcohol metabolism and generation of free radicals: A deep insight.

    • Abstract: Alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the aqueous blood stream after consumption as it is miscible in water. This paper critically evaluates and highlights the various aspects of alcohol metabolism and elucidates the role of Reactive oxygen species (ROS). Alcohol is rapidly absorbed in the bloodstream and metabolized primarily in the liver by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH plays a crucial role in the conversion of alcohol to acetaldehyde, which is then converted to acetate by the actions of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The impact of alcohol metabolism on generation of ROS in the cell is linked to its metabolism via oxidative processes. It has also been observed that alcohol deplete GSH levels, particularly in the mitochondria, which normally are characterized by high levels of GSH needed to eliminate the reactive oxygen species generated during the various activities of the respiratory chain. This paper reports the mechanism of alcohol metabolism, the role of reactive oxygen species from some of our studies and highlights the exact role of alcohol metabolism and its byproducts in the generation of ROS.
      PubDate: 09/30/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Intravenous ethanol for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in intensive care
           units.

    • Abstract: The article has been forwarded to the production team. The processing may take few weeks. Then the proof will be forwarded to the corresponding author. The final PDF HTML file will be uploaded when the corrections to the proof are returned by the corresponding author.
      PubDate: 07/28/2014 01:31:40 am
       
  • Alcohol and coronary artery disease.

    • Abstract: Multiple diverse epidemiological studies have demonstrated a protective effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Moderate alcohol consumption favorably affects lipid profile, platelet aggregation, coagulation and endothelial function, all of which mediate its protective effect on CHD. Alcohol in moderate doses also causes reduction in infarct size similar to that seen with ischemic preconditioning. The benefits of red wine over other forms of alcohol have not been proven clinically. This review discusses current evidence and mechanisms related to the effects of alcohol on coronary artery disease.
      PubDate: 06/09/2014 07:20:43 am
       
  • Alcohol withdrawal syndromes in the critically ill.

    • Abstract: Alcohol abuse continues as a global problem.  The four stages and pathogenesis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome are reviewed.  The pharmacotherapy of the patient includes benzodiazepines, propofol, barbituates, dexmedetomidine, beta-blockers, and phenothiazines.  The author's pharmacological protocol for alcohol withdrawal syndrome is included.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Novel anticonvulsants for reducing alcohol consumption: A review of
           evidence from preclinical rodent drinking models.

    • Abstract: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a major public health issue and have an enormous social and economic burden in developed, developing, and third-world countries.  Current pharmacotherapies for treating AUDs suffer from deleterious side effects and are only effective in preventing relapse in a subset of individuals.  This signifies an essential need for improved medications to reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems.  Growing literature has provided support for the use of anticonvulsants in suppressing symptoms induced by alcohol withdrawal.  Emerging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that a number of well-tolerated anticonvulsants may also decrease alcohol drinking.  This review will focus on recent evidence supporting the efficacy of novel anticonvulsants in reducing voluntary alcohol consumption in rodent models.  The data demonstrate that anticonvulsants reduce drinking in standard home cage two-bottle choice paradigms, self-administration of alcohol in operant chambers, and cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking behaviors in rats and mice.  This review also highlights evidence that some anticonvulsants were only moderately effective in reducing drinking in select strains of rodents or models.  This suggests that genetics, possible neuroadaptations, or the pharmacological target affect the ability of anticonvulsants to attenuate alcohol consumption.  Nonetheless, anticonvulsants are relatively safe, have little abuse potential, and can work in combination with other drugs.  The results from these preclinical and clinical studies provide compelling evidence that anticonvulsants are a promising class of medication for the treatment of AUDs.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Bacterial group III alcohol dehydrogenases - function, evolution and
           biotechnological applications.

    • Abstract: Living organisms have developed strategies to cope with alcoholic substrates. Due to the manifold appearance of alcoholic compounds, enzymes that are able to decompose or process suchlike molecules emerged several times during evolution. These proteins are the so-called alcohol dehydrogenases, a group of ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. Beside several other co-factors that are used by alcohol dehydrogenases, three non-homologues protein families exclusively use NAD(P)/NAD(P)H. With two of the three protein families have been predominantly and extensively studied in animals, this short review focuses on bacterial group III alcohol dehydrogenases and sheds some light on their functionality, distribution and potential biotechnological applications.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Relationship of alcohol intake and thiamine deficiency in heart failure.

    • Abstract: Introduction The purpose of this review is to summarize the relationship of alcohol intake with thiamine deficiency and with heart failure and the way they interact with each other. Conclusion Moderate alcohol consumption has shown to decrease cardiovascular mortality. However, heavy alcohol consumption is associated with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Excessive alcohol intake is associated with thiamine deficiency. Moreover, heart failure is also related to thiamine deficiency and thiamine supplementation has shown to increase left ventricular ejection fraction. Therefore thiamine deficiency should be further studied in heart failure, and more research is needed to show the effect of thiamine supplementation in heart failure.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Alcohol-attributable deaths among indigenous and non-indigenous
           Australians.

    • Abstract: Introduction Alcohol abuse in Indigenous communities in Australia has been a devastating problem. The association between alcohol use and ill-health is well established but complex. The aim of this study was to assess and compare alcohol-attributable deaths and years of life lost among Indigenous Australians to the Australian population as a whole. Methods Standard burden of disease and injury methodology and population attributable fractions were applied to analyse death registration data from 2003 to 2006. Alcohol use prevalence was retrieved from the 2004/5 Australian National Health Surveys and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey. The relative risk estimates were compiled from epidemiological reviews. Results The study found Indigenous Australians experienced 7% to 7.5% mortality burden resulting from alcohol use, and were over-represented in comparison with their population share (2.5%). At ages 15 to 74 years, the alcohol-attributable deaths and years of life lost rates among Indigenous Australians were over 2-3 times higher than in the average across all Australians.  At ages 25 to 54, the alcohol-attributable mortality rates among Indigenous Australians were 4-6 times higher than the national average. Alcohol-attributable mortality risk was substantially (2-3 times) higher among males than females, regardless of ethnicity and age group. Discussion This study provides new and more reliable national data on alcohol-attributable deaths and alcohol-attributable years of life lost, comparing Indigenous Australians with the general population. Significant mortality and morbidity among Indigenous Australians is associated with excess alcohol use, which generally occurs within a historical context and socioeconomic disadvantage. The failure to address poverty in Indigenous communities is likely to undermine gains that might otherwise occur through traditional prevention activities, such as alcohol restrictions. Conclusion It was evident that the harmful use of alcohol contributed to the disproportionate mortality burden experienced by Indigenous Australians.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Potential therapeutic role of glutamate transporter 1 for the treatment of
           alcohol dependence.

    • Abstract: Evidence demonstrated that deficits in glutamate transmission impair neurocircuits involved in drug abuse/seeking behavior, and affect many aspects of neuroplasticity associated with alcohol and drug addiction.  Alcohol-seeking behavior is promoted by increased glutamate transmission in key regions of the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.  Glutamate transmission or glutamate uptake is regulated by a number of glutamate transporters in brain regions.  Among these glutamate transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1, its human homolog is excitatory amino acid transporter 2, EAAT2) regulates the removal of majority of extracellular glutamate.  The role of GLT1 has been tested in alcohol and other drugs of abuse models with dysfunction in glutamate transmission.  We recently reported that treatment of alcohol-preferring rats with compounds, ceftriaxone and GPI-1046 known to upregulate GLT1 levels, showed reduction in alcohol intake and attenuation of relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior.  Furthermore, we demonstrated that upregulation of GLT1 was associated with attenuation of cue-induced cocaine relapse.  Together, we suggest that GLT1 is considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of drugs dependence, including alcohol.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • A review of decisional balance research and directions for brief alcohol
           intervention among college students.

    • Abstract: This paper provides a review of decisional balance (DB) and proposes strategies for improving DB measurement with respect to alcohol interventions for college students. Although existing alcohol interventions for college drinking are widely available, many undergraduates do not perceive any need to change their drinking. Intervention strategies that encourage students to consciously consider reasons for changing problem behaviors and resolve ambivalence may provide unique benefit. The DB and alcohol literature suggest; 1) a relationship exists between DB and motivation to change (MTC); 2) the decisional balance proportion (DBP) represents a promising new way to conceptualize MTC; and 3) while the DBP is a step forward in DB measurement, it can be improved. Alternative strategies proposed for improving the DBP include; 1) a weighted DBP, which may increase predictive ability and provide a closer approximation of an individual’s MTC compared to the original DBP; 2) a coded DBP, which may allow for identification of common reasons why college students choose to drink or not drink; and 3) personalized DBP feedback, which may increase intervention efficacy by further highlighting the discrepancy between behaviors and goals.  These strategies can be applied separately or in conjunction, and represent a potentially promising new avenue for DB research.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Gender differences in alcohol-related impairment: a critical review.

    • Abstract: The paper is  a critical review about emerging problems in the field of alcohol research. In particular the gender peculiarities of alcohol effects are highlighted. Up to today gender studies are not so many but results are consistent with the hypothesis that the severity of alcohol-related damage is greater in females than that in males. Differences are due to physiological differences that make woman more vulnerable than man to alcohol effects. The current trend to start alcohol use at increasingly early age and the evidence of more and more female people who consume alcohol, enhance the alcohol related risk in public health, justify the request for gender targeted studies, and rise the question: how the alcohol drinking today will affect the public health of tomorrow' The issue is crucial because alcohol drinking not only affect the health and the behavior of the persons but also represents a risk for the children whose mothers were drinking during pregnancy. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects embryo development and can cause severe neurotoxicity and permanent birth defects globally defined Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The paper reports the results of some recent studies about gender differences and underlines the need to improve experimental research to support by evidence-based data the alcohol policies of today and tomorrow.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Peer social network and adolescent alcohol use.

    • Abstract: Introduction:This review examines the limited, albeit growing research literature related to peer social networks and adolescent alcohol use. Specifically, the literature review examines what types of alcohol use has been examined in relation to social network structures, how social network structures are related to adolescent alcohol use, and the implications for public health. Results:The review shows that while studies have generally examined moderate alcohol use, initiation and heavy use have been less studied. In terms of social network structures, researchers have mainly focused on influence/selection, network relation type and sociometric positions. While the literature is often ambiguous in terms of the association between network structures and adolescent alcohol use, there are some instances where the literature paints a coherent picture. The literature tends to agree that both selection and influence is important when explaining peer similarity in alcohol use and popular adolescents tend to be at risk for alcohol use. Discussion: Based on the literature reviewed, the paper offers four recommendations for future social network research that may help fill current gaps in the literature; (1) research should focus more on harmful use of alcohol and alcohol initiation, (2) research should determine whether resistance skills work differently based on network relation type, (3) research should focus more on how adolescent social networks are formed and how these formation processes influence adolescent alcohol use and (4) research should examine whether use of network data can support peer led alcohol use interventions and identification of peer leaders.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Alcohol and injuries: Causes and consequences.

    • Abstract: The consumption of alcohol can cause serious injuries that often lead to disability and death of the population. The estimation of the effects of systematic effects of alcohol on muscle and bone tissue. The analysis of industrial and non-injury after drinking alcoholic beverages. Marked clinical aspects of treatment of injuries sustained influence of alcohol. Modern scientific research in the field of injury prevention related to alcohol intoxication, are directed from one side to the study of pathological mechanisms occurring at the ultra structural cellular level in muscle and bone tissue. Their clinical interpretation is developing towards clarifying diagnosis of major groups injuries received in alcohol intoxication: multiple injuries of the musculoskeletal system, traumatic brain injury, frostbite, burns. On the other hand, the social and medical research aimed at identifying the high risk of injury in alcoholic intoxication, the development of effective measures to combat domestic, street, transport and road trauma, which can significantly reduce or even eliminate accidents at the influence of alcohol, to reduce all types of non-production of alcoholic injury of different groups.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Alcoholism - a deep insight to its role in various diseases: A critical
           review.

    • Abstract: The paper critically reviews about some emerging problems due to alcoholism. In the present decade various diseases caused by chronic alcoholism is immensely important. Alcohol is a water-soluble molecule that is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach, small intestine, and colon and metabolized primarily in the liver by the actions of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and mixed function enzymes. ADH converts alcohol to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently converted to acetate by the actions of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Four percent of the global burden of disease can be attributed to alcohol, which is linked to more than 60 different specific diseases which has fatal outcome in human society. The most common are Cancer, Neuropsychiatric disorders, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases etc. The paper reports the results of some of our studies about the role of alcoholism in various diseases and the need to improve experimental research to minimize such outcomes support by evidence-based scientific research regarding harnessing the alcohol policies of today and tomorrow globally for the betterment of mankind.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Traumatism of floating crew of the river fleet.

    • Abstract: The analysis of accidents offloating crew of river fleet of the northern river basin, which covers of 377 work-related injuries in river vessels with a temporary disability, as well as 462 medical histories of this contingent admitted to a surgical hospital with various injuries. River transport in many countries and regions is the only mode of transport on the transport of bulk goods. Their diversity, especially their loading, transportation and unloading by the floating crew lead to increased psychological stress among members of the deck crew and captains of river vessels. The high intensity of navigation on the rivers, they often create a narrow fairway on river vessels threatening injuries from the onset of the situation. The frequency of accidents on the river vessels is high (132.9 per 1,000 workers). High risk of accidents in the older age groups is associated with a decrease in demands and controls the observance of safety on the part of the administration for river vessels and ports complacency, loss of vigilance in carrying out works on the vessel victims. Works of high danger on river vessel are: mooring, maintenance of deck machinery, moving the ladders and decks. The main types of damage to the river fleet are fractures of various bones, bruises, wounds, burns, traumatic amputation. Use of alcoholic beverages of floating crew of the river fleet is set to 8.9 % of the injuries. Deaths resulted on river vessel 18.5 % of injuries and accidents. Two-thirds of all hospitalized injuries based on surgical hospital received by floating crews of the river fleet out of production, including in the home, with pedestrian traffic, transport and road accidents, sports, suicide attempts. Themajorityofpatientswereusedsurgicalmethodsoftreatment(86.1 %); postoperativecomplicationsarerare, theyreturnedtoworkwithoutadefinitionofdisability99.1 % of floating crew of rivervessels.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Features of alcoholism in women.

    • Abstract: Inhealth and social positions considered especially the drinking women. In today's society, social alcoholism is a growth of the female population. It was grouped causes, symptoms and effects to the female body's consumption of alcoholic beverages. Marked a decisive influence on the model of female behavior habits of close relatives, especially husbands, friends, close associates. Highlighted malignancy and severity of alcoholism in women compared with men. The features of everyday behavior of women, who use alcohol as potential markers of alcoholism.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Nicotine–alcohol induced differential feeding behaviour.

    • Abstract: Co-addiction of nicotine and alcohol is a worldwide problem. However, impact of nicotine-alcohol co-addiction on the feeding behavior has not yet been characterized. Analysis of feeding behavior using Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model, showed that alcohol exposed Zebra fish exhibits intense and aggressive feeding while nicotine exposed Zebrafish have the opposite effect when subjected to conditions where food was easily visible as well as hidden which required food searching activity. Co-exposure of nicotine and alcohol to adult Zebrafish produced feeding behavior completely different from that when exposed to either nicotine or alcohol alone. Feeding was more aggressive soon after the exposure when the food was easily accessible. But feeding was greatly reduced if the co-exposed fish was either subjected to food searching activity or allowed to recover (10-30 minutes) from drug insults. Therefore, suggestion of using nicotine as a means of treating alcohol dependent weight gain will be counterproductive if the food is easily accessible.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Direct monitoring of ethanol in the brain.

    • Abstract: In the past few decades, ethanol has assumed the role of the most widespread psychotropic agent in Western society because of its availability to the youth and adults and also because it is generally considered legal in many societies. It is known that the alcohol can have significant relapses on the central nervous system (CNS): hence the need for monitoring the toxicokinetics and the effects of ethanol on the brain with the most appropriate techniques. Among the techniques that aim to measure ethanol concentration in the brain, microdialysis has been the most widely used, but because of its invasiveness, associated with low temporal resolution, and the necessity of using connecting tubes to carry out the experiments do not make it particularly suitable for clinical trials.Recently, electrochemical biosensors, also minimally invasive, have been developed, which offer the possibility to monitor the real-time variations of ethanol concentrations in the brain of animal models, also due to the very small dimensions of the transducer electrode.Recently, noninvasive methods have been used for the direct monitoring of alcohol in the brain, which use spectroscopic techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET), which are principally used to monitor ethanol metabolites. The aim of this review is to discuss all the techniques used to monitor brain ethanol and highlight their strengths and weaknesses.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Bone changes in alcoholics: A review.

    • Abstract: Background Alcoholism may damage the skeleton.  In addition to a direct effect of ethanol, many other mechanisms are involved, which should be considered in the clinical evaluation   of these patients. Objective To review the mechanism and clinical consequences of the bone alterations observed  in alcoholics. Method Published data in peer-review reports, including those derived from studies performed by our group. Results and Conclusions.  Osteoporosis is the main metabolic disease observed in the alcoholic patient. Main factors involved in its pathogenesis are a direct effect of ethanol, associated malnutrition, liver disease, altered hormone profile and cytokine pattern, and alcoholic myopathy. It may lead to bone fracture. It improves with ethanol withdrawal.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Pulmonary consequences of alcoholism: A critical review.

    • Abstract: Alcohol use and abuse are prevailing practices in people throughout the world.  Unfortunately, alcohol use disorders pose tremendous costs to both society and the individual.  While alcoholism has many well-known medical consequences such as liver injury and pancreatitis, the effects of chronic alcohol exposure on the respiratory system are often overlooked.  Specifically, studies have shown that alcohol abuse causes significant derangements in the lung and predisposes individuals to the development of pneumonia and acute lung injury.  Several important processes are responsible for this increased susceptibility to pulmonary pathology, including alterations in nonimmunological defense systems, impairment of lung immunity, and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction.  These crucial defects comprise what has been referred to as the “alcohol lung phenotype”.  Importantly, these abnormalities not only increase the risk of lung infections and injury, they cause worse morbidity and mortality in alcoholics compared to non-alcoholics.  While there are no current therapies to combat these alcohol-induced pulmonary abnormalities, current research has revealed several important mechanisms that may be exploited to develop new treatment options for this vulnerable population.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Genetic pre-determinants of concurrent alcohol and opioid dependence: A
           critical review.

    • Abstract: Concurrent alcohol dependence poses a significant burden to health and wellbeing of people with established opioid dependence. Although previous research indicates that both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of drug or alcohol dependence, the role of genetic determinants in development of concurrent alcohol and opioid dependence has not been scrutinised. To search for genetic pre-determinants of concurrent alcohol and opioid dependence, electronic literature searches were completed using MEDLINE (PubMed) and EBSCO (Academic Search Complete) databases. Reference lists of included studies were also searched. In this discussion paper, we provide an overview of the genes (n=33) which are associated with the opioid, serotonergic, dopaminergic, GABA-ergic, cannabinoid, and metabolic systems for each dependency (i.e., alcohol or opioid) separately. The current evidence base is inconclusive regarding an exclusively genetic pre-determinant of concurrent alcohol and opioid dependence. Further search strategies and original research are needed to determine the genetic basis for concurrent alcohol and opioid dependency.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Establishing causality in epigenetic studies of prenatal alcohol exposure,
           alcohol use, and alcohol use disorders.

    • Abstract: Introduction: The nascent field of epigenetics has attracted growing attention in research on prenatal alcohol exposure, alcohol use, and alcohol use disorders. Animal models and studies in community and clinical human samples have provided tantalising clues that epigenetic patterns may be associated with alcohol use and alcohol-related outcomes. However, the reversible and plastic nature of epigenetic patterns means that questions about causality and direction of effect remain unresolved. Discussion: This review highlights two particularly refractory challenges to establishing causality in epigenetic studies that use living human subjects: confounding variables and reverse causation. Experimental studies (e.g., using alcohol self-administration tasks) and quasi-experimental designs (e.g., longitudinal studies, sibling comparison designs, and instrumental variable approaches) may be used to control for potential confounds and explore the causal impact of epigenetic processes (e.g., DNA methylation) on alcohol-related outcomes. No single design is a ‘magic bullet’, but when used in combination, it is possible that these designs will help to strengthen causal inferences in epigenetic research in clinical and community samples.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Recent progress in alcohol biosensors.

    • Abstract: Introduction A biosensor is an analytical tool that comprises two essential components, an immobilized bio-component, in intimate contact with a transducer that converts a biological signal into a measurable electrical signal. Both electrochemical and optical transducers are mainly transduction methods that employed in biosensor developments. This review summarises the studies carried on ethanol determination based on enzyme biosensors, using alcohol dehydogenase (ADH), alcohol oxidase (AOX) or bi-enzyme system, the various techniques of immobilisation, the transducers used and analytical characteristics for biosensor development are described. Almost all enzyme based ethanol biosensors developed are based on the monitoring of NADH in the case of ADH based biosensor, O2 consumption or H2O2 production in the case of AOX biosensor and H2O2 production in the case of bi-enzyme system. Underlying the importance of this study is the fact that alcohol is toxic above certain concentrations and its continuous real time monitoring in clinical, environmental and food related environments is of utmost interest. Conclusion Ethanol can be efficiently determined using enzyme based biosensors, which are simple to assemble and operate. Both electrochemical and optical methods can be exploited, using either modified electrodes or modified optode. The most promising ethanol biosensors developed up to now are the bi-enzymatic system based on immobilisation of AOX coupled with HRP. Other applications that require fast and reliable methods for alcohol determination will certainly benefit with the commercial development of more enzyme based biosensors.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Alcohol and arrhythmias.

    • Abstract: Epidemiological, animal and human intervention studies suggest alcohol consumption has both beneficial and detrimental effects on cardiovascular health.  While light to moderate alcohol consumption can produce cardioprotective effects, bingeing and abuse can lead to cardiomyopathy, heart failure, strokes, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. In this report, we review historical and recent studies investigating the association between alcohol and arrhythmias. We also discuss proposed mechanisms of alcohol-induced arrhythmogenesis.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Alcohol and lipids.

    • Abstract: The effects of moderate alcohol consumption on the lipid profile are well-documented, showing an association between alcohol-induced increases in HDL-C levels and cardioprotection (though there remains some debate). Whereas prior research was focused on alcohol-induced changes in lipoprotein levels, the paradigm has shifted to the composition of lipoproteins, with emphasis on smaller lipid molecules such as sphingolipids. The benefits of red wine over other forms of alcohol have not been proven clinically, especially in terms of effects on the lipid profile. This review discusses the effects of alcohol on lipoprotein levels and function as related to atherosclerosis and CVD risk.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
  • Alcohol-containing mouthwash and oral cancer risk: A review of current
           evidence.

    • Abstract: The existence or lack of an association between the use of alcohol-containing mouthwashes and the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a significantly contentious issue within the scientific community. The published literature on the topic includes both epidemiological studies assessing associations on a population level and mechanistic studies investigating the local effects of alcohol-containing mouthwashes in both in-vitro and in-vivo environments, as well as reviews evaluating, comparing and synthesising these results. Despite a broad base of evidence, there remains no clear academic consensus with regards to the relationship between alcohol-containing mouthwashes and OSCC. This review aims to present and evaluate the evidence for and against any association.
      PubDate: 04/13/2014 10:15:02 pm
       
 
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