Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1478 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (700 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (700 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 203 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
Health Policy OPEN     Open Access  
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access  
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Health Systems & Reform     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
Histoire, médecine et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Horizonte Medico     Open Access  
Horizonte Sanitario     Open Access  
Hua Hin Sook Jai Klai Kangwon Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
IJS Global Health     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Implementation Science Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research KLEU     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Youth and Adolescent Health     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Health Trends and Perspectives     Open Access  
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Growth and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Health Economics and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Healthcare     Open Access  
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Healthcare Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Healthcare Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Indigenous Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of MCH and AIDS     Open Access  
International Journal of Medicine and Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Mens Social and Community Health     Open Access  
International Journal of Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Practice-based Learning in Health and Social Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Prevention and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Public Health Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Public Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sexual Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Telerehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Research in Children's Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InterScientia     Open Access  
Investigaciones Andina     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Israel Journal of Health Policy Research     Open Access  
İzmir Katip Çelebi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
JAMA Health Forum     Open Access  
JBI Evidence Implementation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
JBI Evidence Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Jeugd en Co     Hybrid Journal  
JGZ Tijdschrift voor jeugdgezondheidszorg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
JMIR Human Factors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance     Open Access  
JMIR Serious Games     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Jornal Brasileiro de TeleSSaúde     Open Access  
Jornal de Ciências da Saúde do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Piauí     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal Health NPEPS     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal Of Allied Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Behavior, Health & Social Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Behavioral Addictions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital     Open Access  
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Communication in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Creativity in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Developing Areas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ergonomics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Evolution and Health : An Ancestral Health Society Publication     Open Access  
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Family Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Family Strengths     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fasting and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health and Social Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Health Science and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Science and Community Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Prevention     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Service Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Services and Education     Open Access  
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Healthcare Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Trafficking     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Industrial Safety Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Infection and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrated Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Law and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical and Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mental Health Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muslim Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access  
Journal of Nursing & Interprofessional Leadership in Quality & Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Occupational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Prevention and Health Promotion     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Psychosexual Health     Open Access  
Journal of Public Child Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Journal Cover
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2783-2074
Published by Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]
  • The effect of high-intensity interval swimming training on ULK and TSC1/2
           proteins of hippocampus tissue in elderly rats

    • Abstract: Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate aging reduces the possibility of dependence on age-related diseases. Exercise treatment strategies reduce the burden of aging-related illness, disability, and premature death in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval swimming training on ULK and TSC1/2 proteins of hippocampus tissue in elderly rats. In this experimental study, 16 elderly male Sprague Dawley rats (20 months old and mean weight 300-450 g) were divided into two groups of control and high-intensity interval swimming training. High-intensity interval swimming training consisted of 14 bouts 20-second swimming sessions with 10 seconds of rest between each session for six weeks (three days a week). The content of ULK and TSC1/2 proteins in hippocampal tissue was measured by Western blotting. Data were analyzed using independent t-test at the P<0.05. The results showed that high-intensity interval swimming training caused significant increase in content of ULK protein of hippocampus tissue in elderly rats (P=0.010). Also, high-intensity interval swimming training caused significant decrease in content of TSC1/2 protein of hippocampus tissue in elderly rats (P=0.010). According to the results, it seems that high-intensity interval swimming training can help improve the homeostasis regulatory pathways in hippocampal neurons in the elderly animal model.
       
  • Stair walking is obesity-associated: Rate of ascending and descending the
           stairs at an underground train station in Munich, Germany

    • Abstract: Daily stair walking is a time-efficient everyday activity that improves cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. However, more than one in three adult Europeans is physically inactive in their everyday life and the exemplary current rate of stair walking in Germany is not known. Therefore, 2,521 people were monitored climbing the stairs or using a parallel escalator over a period of one week in an underground train station in Munich, Germany (January 3rd to 9th, 2022). 53.4% were women and 46.6% men, 30.7% (N = 774) were classified as obviously overweight-obese. 9.1% (N = 229) of all people counted used the ascending stairs - these were slightly more male than female and a total of 19 persons who were obviously overweight-obese. On two observation days, the pedestrians' mode of descent (stairs/escalator) was also recorded on 457 people, of whom 28% (N = 128) were categorized as obviously overweight-obese. With an equal gender distribution, 27.8% (N = 127) of the people counted used the descending stairs, including 22 obviously overweight-obese people. A very small proportion of adults used the stairs in our exemplary sample (every eleventh chose the stairs for ascent and every fourth chose the stairs for descent), which confirms the high development potential for promoting short repetitive bouts of non-exercise physical activity in everyday life - also for overweight-obese people. Internalize the mantra: Stairs are good friends and not enemies!
       
  • The effect of aerobic training with saffron extract on plasma levels of
           apo E4 and presenilin gene in Alzheimer's rats by trimethyltin chloride

    • Abstract: There is no treatment for Alzheimer's disease. However, some treatments can have a slowing and controlling effect on the disease process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training with saffron extract on plasma levels of apo E4 and presenilin gene in Alzheimer's rats by trimethyltin chloride. In this experimental study, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats with the weight of 180±20 g were selected and after Alzheimer's induction (by intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg trimethyltin chloride) were randomly divided into 4 groups; control, aerobic training, saffron extract, saffron extract- aerobic training. Saffron extract was injected intraperitoneally at the dose of 25 mg/kg daily for eight weeks. The aerobic training program consisted of incremental running on the treadmill at a speed of 15 to 20 m/min and 15 to 30 min per session and 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA at the P<0.05. The results showed that aerobic training (P=0.13), saffron extract (P=0.14) and the interaction of aerobic training and saffron extract (P=0.13) had no significant effect on apo E4in rats. Also, aerobic training (P=0.68), saffron consumption (P=0.67) and interaction of aerobic training and saffron extract (P=0.32) had no significant effect on persniline gene in rats. According to the results, it seems that aerobic training and saffron extract do not significantly alter the levels of apo E4 and the presenilin of Alzheimer's rats.
       
  • Exercise training improves metabolic crosstalk in lymphocytes: Does
           frequency or intensity matter'

    • Abstract: Dear Editor-in-ChiefActive lymphocytes under a burst during proliferation, biosynthesis, and secretory activity increase their metabolism. In order to achieve this dramatic increase in metabolism, they must obtain a metabolic substrate. Their insignificant nutrient stores force lymphocytes to have a significant increase in the consumption of the metabolic substrate around them. Although lymphocytes are able to utilize glucose, glutamine, ketones, and fatty acids, it has been confirmed that glucose and glutamine are the most important quantitative fuels for activated lymphocytes (Curi et al., 1999). The function of T cells is closely related to the metabolic program, meaning that a T cell fights antigens, invasive agents, and inhibits infection until the main fuels of this cell, glucose and glutamine, are consumed and metabolized in sufficient quantities. There are significant and growing techniques that target the metabolism of T cells for immunotherapy.Degradation of lymphocyte metabolism and function has been observed in various inflammatory, metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Maximum activity and levels of HK, G6PDH, CS, GLUTase enzymes of lymphocytes are always reduced for patients with Graves (Werner et al., 1996). In vitro, it has been shown that thyroid hormone increases glucose and glutamine lymphocyte metabolism in these patients. Also, it has been reported to coexist with acute and chronic infection in several diseases such as cancer or asthma, and gradation of T1 and T2 metabolism (Zhao et al., 2012).It has been suggested that a part of the safety effects of exercise is due to the ability of exercise to modulate lymphocyte cell metabolism, especially glucose and glutamine. It has also been observed that changes in lymphocyte function are associated with different effects of moderate exercise on T and B lymphocyte metabolism. In addition, T lymphocytes increase glutamine intake by altering the metabolism of this amino acid to the aerobic pathway. At the same time, these cells reduce glucose intake and lactate production levels. In contrast, B lymphocytes were shown to increase intake of both glucose and glutamine, while aerobic metabolism of glutamine increased (Navarro et al., 2013). All of these changes in lymphocytes are possible because key enzymes in glucose and glutamine metabolism are affected by chronic exercise. Thus, as the aerobic metabolism of glutamine increases, the maximum activity of GLUTase and CS in T lymphocytes increases in response to exercise. In addition to these two enzymes, maximal activity of HK and G6PDH increased in B lymphocytes in response to chronic exercise (Navarro et al., 2013). Most of these studies have examined the immune system and T lymphocyte response to exercise with moderate intensity. High intensity interval training (HIIT) usually consists of intermittent sets of exercise (Vo2max usually equal to or greater than 90%) accompanied by few minutes of active rest. Little is known about inflammatory and metabolic immune responses after HIIT.Moderate-intensity exercise stimulates the immune system and increases resistance to infectious diseases. However, during prolonged and intense exercise or strenuous exercise and competition, an immune suppression often occurs during the recovery period. Immune responses after exercise are almost similar to those seen in infection and inflammation (e.g., neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia) (Tauler et al., 2006). Researchers have suggested that intense exercise induces these changes with oxidative stress, changes in neuroendocrine factors such as catecholamines, growth hormone, and cortisol (Fisher et al., 2011). Therefore, it is suggested that low-intensity, high-frequency, long-term exercise be effective in improving the lymphocyte metabolic crossover.
       
  • Does the obesity-associated adipokine leucine-rich alpha2-glycoprotein 1
           (LRG1) have a regulatory role of the skeletal muscle adaptive response to
           exercise'

    • Abstract: Dear Editor-in-ChiefOverweight and obesity are considered as the most important lifestyle-related diseases today such that they are known as the fifth leading causes of death worldwide according to the published statistics. Moreover, as previous studies have shown, low-grade chronic inflammation is among the symptoms of these diseases and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of various physical problems and chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases (Safaei et al., 2021).Meanwhile, new evidence suggests that leucine-rich α 2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) proinflammatory factor, an important upstream signaling pathway of transforming growth factor⁃β (TGF⁃β), will cause several pathological processes (Zou et al., 2022). In other words, it can be stated that LRG1, alone or in combination with other known factors, is considered as a potential biomarker for inflammation and obesity. There is a positive relationship between high levels of LRG1 and obesity, while low levels of plasma LRG1 predict weight loss in surgery for obesity and metabolic diseases (Pek et al., 2018). Investigation of the importance and the relationship of this issue in a broad study on 2,058 patients with type 2 diabetes showed that higher plasma LRG1 levels in women than men have a significant relationship with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, namely arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, systolic blood pressure, obesity, kidney disease, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Pek et al., 2018; Zou et al., 2022). A recent 8-year longitudinal study also found that pigment epithelial-derived factor and plasma LRG1 mediated the inverse relationship between skeletal muscle mass and chronic kidney disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes (Low et al., 2021). In other words, there is a positive correlation between high LRG1 levels in blood serum and adipose stores and high levels of body-mass-index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue, and waist circumference of obese people. According to these results and laboratory observations, LRG1 has been assumed to increase fat accumulation via suppression of fatty acids catabolism and inducing lipid biosynthesis through sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 activation or may enable hyperglycemia by decreasing expression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2) (He et al., 2021).On the other hand, consistent with the findings of studies showing the high serum levels of LRG1, it is possible that LRG1 binds preferentially to liver cells. With this assumption, LRG1 is considered a new adipokine that can play a role in obesity conditions by regulating an almost unique cross-talk between adipose tissue and the liver. More broad research is required to know whether LRG1 also exerts metabolic functions in physiological circumstances or not. However, the results of a study on LRG1 knockout mice with a high-fat diet revealed weight loss, smaller fat cell size, and preservation of brown adipose tissue in this type of mice. In other words, an increase in LRG1 gene expression during the process of fat lipogenesis can play an important role in regulating energy homeostasis (He et al., 2021; MacCannell et al., 2021). However, changing lifestyle by performing regular physical activity and a balanced diet have been introduced as a useful solution to prevent obesity. In this regard, a recent study on the elderly with an average BMI of 34 ± 1 kg / m2 showed that exercise combined with diet resulted in an 8-10 % weight loss in these individuals, indicating the possibility that molecular changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway can help transport fat and oxidize it in the skeletal muscles of older and obese people and in some ways regulate insulin resistance (Mulya et al., 2017).Previous research studies have referred to the key role of PGC-1α in regulating mitochondrial function and helping regulate cellular energy status by enabling cellular energy in conditions when the body needs energy, such as fasting, performing exercise activities, or inhibiting it when the body has enough energy available. However, the evidence obtained regarding the role of PGC-1α and its relationship with LRG1 gene expression in obesity therapy showed that LRG1 expression in white adipose tissue reduced in mice model of insulin - resistant type II diabetes and obesity following treatment with PPARγ agonists (Muise et al., 2008). Moreover, evidence regarding the positive effects of exercise activity and the role of PGC-1α showed that probably five proteins, including interleukin 15 (IL-15), fibronectin type III domain- containing protein 5 (FNDC5), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B), LRG1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4 (TIMP4), secreted in skeletal muscles, increase following endurance exercise activity and contribute to longevity as well (Boström et al., 2012).Considering the evidence presented, LRG1 seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, more broad research is required to better understand its relationship with other transcription factors, vital signaling pathways in this process, as well as the important effect of type, intensity, and duration of exercise activity, and type of diet in regulating its expression and its regulatory role in cross-talk with other organs to prevent obesity (Yang et al., 2021). 
       
  • Toll-like receptor 4 activation in skeletal muscle of diet-induced obese
           rats

    • Abstract: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is found in the membrane of skeletal muscle cells. A variety of factors can activate TLR4. It has been shown that TLR4 expression reduce after aerobic training, but more studies considering the influences of different types of training on TLR4 expression are necessary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of 8 weeks of aerobic training on muscle TLR4 Expression in rats. Twenty Male Wistar rats (200±20 g) divided into four groups: control, training, high fat diet (HFD) and HFD+exerise. High fat diet was made by adding 10% animal oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.5% colic acid to standard rodent chow. Training group performed a swimming training protocol (1 h/day, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Forty eight hours after the final session of training, the rats were sacrificed and their gastrocnemius muscle was removed for determination of TLR4 expression. Training significantly decreased TLR4 messenger RNA and protein expression (p<0.05). Levels of TLR4 expression in the HFD group was significantly (p<0.05) higher tahn control ones. Our result displayed that training in rats induceed a critical suppression in the TLR4 signaling in muscle. These data give noticeable progress in our knowledge of the events that link physical training to an improvement in inflammation.
       
  • Exercise training and muscle-cartilage cross-talk: A potential therapeutic
           target for osteoarthritis

    • Abstract: Dear Editor-in-ChiefOsteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive disease and up to now, no effective cure has been found for these diseases. OA was characterized by destruction of articular cartilage (extracellular matrix). As we age, chondrocytes show less response to growth factors, also, there is an increase abnormal accumulation of advanced glycation products (AGEs), mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. As a result, cartilage homeostasis is impaired and ECM becomes more vulnerable to injury, leading to the onset of OA (Abramoff & Caldera, 2020). Chondrocytes are the only cell type present in articular cartilage that are solely responsible for circulating and maintaining the matrix. Exercise training with increased mechanical stress can affect the extracellular matrix in the joints. However, exercise apart from mechanical stress can also indirectly affect cartilage metabolism by increasing muscle contraction and the expansion of some myokines, which is a potential therapeutic target for osteoarthritis.A variety of growth factors and cytokines are actively secreted by muscle tissue. Thus, muscle can act as an endocrine and paracrine organ. Secretoms are secreted not only through muscle tissue but also from other tissues and affect other organs of the body. Adipokines include adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, IL-6, and TNF-α playing an important role not only during inflammation but also in the metabolic regulation of joint cells including cartilage, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and mesenchymal stem cells (Xie & Chen, 2019). Muscle tissue also affects cartilage metabolism with its myokines.    FNDC5 is an important exercise myokine for slowing down age-related diseases, such as sarcopenia, osteoporosis, obesity, and neurodegeneration. Loss of FDNC5 has been shown to be associated with chondrocyte aging in the development of OA in humans and mice. Myokine maintains chondrocyte activity by preserving the metabolism and biology of the mitochondrial TCA cycle to protect against inflammation-induced aging. Myokine maintains chondrocyte survival and ECM synthesis by suppressing the cartilaginous inhibitory factor Wnt3a to control autophagy programs and apoptosis (Chen et al., 2020). Recently, it has been discovered that Sox9 was expressed in MTJ, tendon, and bone progenitor cells at E13 and in bone at E16. The expression of Sox9 in muscle precursor cells is also being studied. It is hypothesized that an increase in this factor of muscle tissue after exercise can also affect cartilage metabolism because it is stated that decreased Sox9 expression in connective tissues, tendons and bones is associated with cartilage hypoplasia (Nagakura et al., 2020). These hypotheses elucidated that the role of Sox9 secreted by muscle tissue can also play an important role in the development and healing of joint and cartilage, requiring animal and human studies.
       
  • The long-term effect of moderate-intensity exercise on the expression of
           the genes irisin and sirtuin-1 in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats
           with streptozotocin

    • Abstract: Disorders of glucose metabolism in various tissues, including skeletal muscle tissue and adipose tissue are features of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effect of moderate-intensity continuous exercise on the expression of irisin and sirtuin-1 genes in the skeletal muscle of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-diabetic rats. Thirty-six 8-week-old males were randomly divided into three groups: healthy control (n = 12), diabetic (n = 12), and moderate-persistent diabetes (n = 12). Diabetic groups developed diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and STZ solution at a doses of 95 and 55 mg/kg. The diabetic-moderate-intensity continuous exercise group performed their training protocol by running on a treadmill for 12 weeks, 5 sessions per week. Forty-eight hours after the last training session, the subjects were anesthetized and their horseshoe muscle tissue was removed and the expression of the genes Irisin and Sirtuin-1 was measured. 12 weeks of moderate-intensity continuous exercise in diabetic mice resulted in a significant increase in the expression of the genes Irisin and Sirtuin-1 (p <0.05). Performing 12 weeks of continuous exercise with moderate intensity in diabetic rats increased the expression of Irisin and sirtuin-1. Thus, changes in the expression of irisin and serotonin-1 may improve the symptoms of metabolic syndrome and can be a compensatory mechanism for reducing oxidative stress in diabetics.
       
 
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