Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1556 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (728 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 300)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 5)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access  
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Das österreichische Gesundheitswesen ÖKZ     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
F&S Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Neuroergonomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Frontiers in Neuroergonomics
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-6195
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Inattention and Uncertainty in the Predictive Brain

    • Authors: Tuomo Kujala, Otto Lappi
      Abstract: Negative effects of inattention on task performance can be seen in many contexts of society and human behavior, such as traffic, work, and sports. In traffic, inattention is one of the most frequently cited causal factors in accidents. In order to identify inattention and mitigate its negative effects, there is a need for quantifying attentional demands of dynamic tasks, with a credible basis in cognitive modeling and neuroscience. Recent developments in cognitive science have led to theories of cognition suggesting that brains are an advanced prediction engine. The function of this prediction engine is to support perception and action by continuously matching incoming sensory input with top-down predictions of the input, generated by hierarchical models of the statistical regularities and causal relationships in the world. Based on the capacity of this predictive processing framework to explain various mental phenomena and neural data, we suggest it also provides a plausible theoretical and neural basis for modeling attentional demand and attentional capacity “in the wild” in terms of uncertainty and prediction error. We outline a predictive processing approach to the study of attentional demand and inattention in driving, based on neurologically-inspired theories of uncertainty processing and experimental research combining brain imaging, visual occlusion and computational modeling. A proper understanding of uncertainty processing would enable comparison of driver's uncertainty to a normative level of appropriate uncertainty, and thereby improve definition and detection of inattentive driving. This is the necessary first step toward applications such as attention monitoring systems for conventional and semi-automated driving.
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Measuring Correlates of Mental Workload During Simulated Driving Using
           cEEGrid Electrodes: A Test–Retest Reliability Analysis

    • Authors: Stephan Getzmann, Julian E. Reiser, Melanie Karthaus, Georg Rudinger, Edmund Wascher
      Abstract: The EEG reflects mental processes, especially modulations in the alpha and theta frequency bands are associated with attention and the allocation of mental resources. EEG has also been used to study mental processes while driving, both in real environments and in virtual reality. However, conventional EEG methods are of limited use outside of controlled laboratory settings. While modern EEG technologies offer hardly any restrictions for the user, they often still have limitations in measurement reliability. We recently showed that low-density EEG methods using film-based round the ear electrodes (cEEGrids) are well-suited to map mental processes while driving a car in a driving simulator. In the present follow-up study, we explored aspects of ecological and internal validity of the cEEGrid measurements. We analyzed longitudinal data of 127 adults, who drove the same driving course in a virtual environment twice at intervals of 12–15 months while the EEG was recorded. Modulations in the alpha and theta frequency bands as well as within behavioral parameters (driving speed and steering wheel angular velocity) which were highly consistent over the two measurement time points were found to reflect the complexity of the driving task. At the intraindividual level, small to moderate (albeit significant) correlations were observed in about 2/3 of the participants, while other participants showed significant deviations between the two measurements. Thus, the test-retest reliability at the intra-individual level was rather low and challenges the value of the application for diagnostic purposes. However, across all participants the reliability and ecological validity of cEEGrid electrodes were satisfactory in the context of driving-related parameters.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Neural Correlates of Trust in Automation: Considerations and
           Generalizability Between Technology Domains

    • Authors: Sarah K. Hopko, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Abstract: Investigations into physiological or neurological correlates of trust has increased in popularity due to the need for a continuous measure of trust, including for trust-sensitive or adaptive systems, measurements of trustworthiness or pain points of technology, or for human-in-the-loop cyber intrusion detection. Understanding the limitations and generalizability of the physiological responses between technology domains is important as the usefulness and relevance of results is impacted by fundamental characteristics of the technology domains, corresponding use cases, and socially acceptable behaviors of the technologies. While investigations into the neural correlates of trust in automation has grown in popularity, there is limited understanding of the neural correlates of trust, where the vast majority of current investigations are in cyber or decision aid technologies. Thus, the relevance of these correlates as a deployable measure for other domains and the robustness of the measures to varying use cases is unknown. As such, this manuscript discusses the current-state-of-knowledge in trust perceptions, factors that influence trust, and corresponding neural correlates of trust as generalizable between domains.
      PubDate: 2021-09-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Differences in Mechanical Parameters of Keyboard Switches Modulate Motor
           Preparation: A Wearable EEG Study

    • Authors: Hiroki Watanabe, Kae Nakajima, Shunsuke Takagi, Ryo Mizuyama, Mayumi Saito, Koichi Furusawa, Kunio Nakatani, Yusuke Yokota, Hirotaka Kataoka, Hiroshi Nakajima, Yasushi Naruse
      Abstract: The mechanical parameters of keyboard switches affect the psychological sense of pressing. The effects of different mechanical parameters on psychological sense have been quantified using questionnaires, but these subjective evaluations are unable to fully clarify the modulation of information processing in the brain due to these differences. This study aimed to elucidate the ability of electroencephalography (EEG) measurements to detect the modulation of subconscious information processing according to mechanical parameter values. To this end, we prepared five mechanical switches with linearly increasing values of pretravel (PT: the distance from the free position until the operating position). We hypothesized that the differences in PTs would subconsciously affect the motor preparation prior to pressing switches because switches with PTs that deviated from those commonly used were predicted to increase the users' attention level when pressing. Differences in motor preparation were quantified using the mean amplitudes of the late contingent negative variation (CNV). We recorded EEGs of 25 gamers during a reaction task for fast switch pressing after a response cue preceded by a pre-cue for response preparation; we also measured the reaction time feedback on each switch pressing trial. Participants performed five sessions (60 trials per session) in total. For the analysis, trials were divided into first (session 1, 2, and 3) and second half sessions (session 4 and 5). In the latter session, CNV amplitudes were significantly higher for the switch with the highest PT than for that with a medium PT, which is closest to that commonly used in commercial mechanical switches. On the other hand, the questionnaire did not detect any significant differences between PTs in their subjective rankings of the psychological effects of switch pressing. These results suggest that differences in PTs modulate motor preparation to press switches, and that EEG measurements may provide a novel objective evaluation of the mechanical parameters of keyboard switches.
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Revealing Sex Differences During Upper and Lower Extremity Neuromuscular
           Fatigue in Older Adults Through a Neuroergonomics Approach

    • Authors: Ranjana K. Mehta, Joohyun Rhee
      Abstract: Background: Sex differences in neuromuscular fatigue is well-documented, however the underlying mechanisms remain understudied, particularly for the aging population.Objective: This study investigated sex differences in fatigability of the upper and lower extremity of older adults using a neuroergonomics approach.Methods: Thirty community-dwelling older adults (65 years or older; 15 M, 15 F) performed intermittent submaximal fatiguing handgrip and knee extension exercises until voluntary exhaustion on separate days. Muscle activity from prime muscles of the hand/arm and knee extensors were monitored using electromyography, neural activity from the frontal, motor, and sensory areas were monitored using functional near infrared spectroscopy, and force output were obtained.Results: While older males were stronger than females across both muscle groups, they exhibited longer endurance times and greater strength loss during knee extension exercises. These lower extremity findings were associated with greater force complexity over time and concomitant increase in left motor and right sensory motor regions. While fatigability during handgrip exercises was comparable across sexes, older females exhibited concurrent increases in the activation of the ipsilateral motor regions over time.Discussion: We identified differences in the underlying central neural strategies adopted by males and females in maintaining downstream motor outputs during handgrip fatigue that were not evident with traditional ergonomics measures. Additionally, enhanced neural activation in males during knee exercises that accompanied longer time to exhaustion point to potential rehabilitation/exercise strategies to improve neuromotor outcomes in more fatigable older adults.
      PubDate: 2021-08-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Neuroplastic Reorganization Induced by Sensory Augmentation for
           Self-Localization During Locomotion

    • Authors: Hiroyuki Sakai, Sayako Ueda, Kenichi Ueno, Takatsune Kumada
      Abstract: Sensory skills can be augmented through training and technological support. This process is underpinned by neural plasticity in the brain. We previously demonstrated that auditory-based sensory augmentation can be used to assist self-localization during locomotion. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to identify the neuroplastic reorganization induced by sensory augmentation training for self-localization during locomotion. We compared activation in response to auditory cues for self-localization before, the day after, and 1 month after 8 days of sensory augmentation training in a simulated driving environment. Self-localization accuracy improved after sensory augmentation training, compared with the control (normal driving) condition; importantly, sensory augmentation training resulted in auditory responses not only in temporal auditory areas but also in higher-order somatosensory areas extending to the supramarginal gyrus and the parietal operculum. This sensory reorganization had disappeared by 1 month after the end of the training. These results suggest that the use of auditory cues for self-localization during locomotion relies on multimodality in higher-order somatosensory areas, despite substantial evidence that information for self-localization during driving is estimated from visual cues on the proximal part of the road. Our findings imply that the involvement of higher-order somatosensory, rather than visual, areas is crucial for acquiring augmented sensory skills for self-localization during locomotion.
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Hybrid Harmony: A Multi-Person Neurofeedback Application for Interpersonal
           Synchrony

    • Authors: Phoebe Chen, Sophie Hendrikse, Kaia Sargent, Michele Romani, Matthias Oostrik, Tom F. Wilderjans, Sander Koole, Guillaume Dumas, David Medine, Suzanne Dikker
      Abstract: Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in studies measuring brain activity, physiological responses, and/or movement data from multiple individuals during social interaction. For example, so-called “hyperscanning” research has demonstrated that brain activity may become synchronized across people as a function of a range of factors. Such findings not only underscore the potential of hyperscanning techniques to capture meaningful aspects of naturalistic interactions, but also raise the possibility that hyperscanning can be leveraged as a tool to help improve such naturalistic interactions. Building on our previous work showing that exposing dyads to real-time inter-brain synchrony neurofeedback may help boost their interpersonal connectedness, we describe the biofeedback application Hybrid Harmony, a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) that supports the simultaneous recording of multiple neurophysiological datastreams and the real-time visualization and sonification of inter-subject synchrony. We report results from 236 dyads experiencing synchrony neurofeedback during naturalistic face-to-face interactions, and show that pairs' social closeness and affective personality traits can be reliably captured with the inter-brain synchrony neurofeedback protocol, which incorporates several different online inter-subject connectivity analyses that can be applied interchangeably. Hybrid Harmony can be used by researchers who wish to study the effects of synchrony biofeedback, and by biofeedback artists and serious game developers who wish to incorporate multiplayer situations into their practice.
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Functional Connectivity Within the Fronto-Parietal Network Predicts
           Complex Task Performance: A fNIRS Study

    • Authors: Quentin Chenot, Evelyne Lepron, Xavier De Boissezon, Sébastien Scannella
      Abstract: Performance in complex tasks is essential for many high risk operators. The achievement of such tasks is supported by high-level cognitive functions arguably involving functional activity and connectivity in a large ensemble of brain areas that form the fronto-parietal network. Here we aimed at determining whether the functional connectivity at rest within this network could predict performance in a complex task: the Space Fortress video game. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data from 32 participants were recorded during a Resting-State period, the completion of a simple version of Space Fortress (monotask) and the original version (multitask). The intrinsic functional connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (i.e., during the Resting-State) was a significant predictor of performance at Space Fortress multitask but not at its monotask version. The same pattern was observed for the functional connectivity during the task. Our overall results suggest that Resting-State functional connectivity within the fronto-parietal network could be used as an intrinsic brain marker for performance prediction of a complex task achievement, but not for simple task performance.
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Visualizing Neuropharmacological Effects of Guanfacine Extended Release in
           Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using Functional Near-Infrared
           Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Takahiro Ikeda, Akari Inoue, Daisuke Tanaka, Tamao Hashimoto, Stephanie Sutoko, Tatsuya Tokuda, Yasushi Kyutoku, Atsushi Maki, Takanori Yamagata, Ippeita Dan, Yukifumi Monden
      Abstract: Objective: In the current study, we explored the neural substrate for acute effects of guanfacine extended release (GXR) on inhibitory control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).Methods: Following a GXR washout period, 12 AD HD children (6–10 years old) performed a go/no-go task before and 3 h after GXR or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. In the primary analysis, fNIRS was used to monitor the right prefrontal cortical hemodynamics of the participants, where our former studies showed consistent dysfunction and osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) and atomoxetine hydrochloride (ATX) elicited recovery. We examined the inter-medication contrast, comparing the effect of GXR against the placebo. In the exploratory analysis, we explored neural responses in regions other than the right prefrontal cortex (PFC).Results: In the primary analysis, we observed no significant main effects or interactions of medication type and age in month (two-way mixed ANCOVA, Fs < 0.20, all ps> .05). However, in the post-hoc analysis, we observed significant change in the oxy-Hb signal in the right angular gyrus (AG) for inter-medication (one sample t-test, p < 0.05, uncorrected, Cohen's d = 0.71).Conclusions: These results are different from the neuropharmacological effects of OROS-MPH and ATX, which, in an upregulated manner, reduced right PFC function in ADHD children during inhibitory tasks. This analysis, while limited by its secondary nature, suggested that the improved cognitive performance was associated with activation in the right AG, which might serve as a biological marker to monitor the effect of GXR in the ADHD children.
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Prefrontal Inter-brain Synchronization Reflects Convergence and Divergence
           of Flow Dynamics in Collaborative Learning: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Takayuki Nozawa, Mutsumi Kondo, Reiko Yamamoto, Hyeonjeong Jeong, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Kohei Sakaki, Yoshihiro Miyake, Yasushige Ishikawa, Ryuta Kawashima
      Abstract: Flow is a highly motivated and affectively positive state in which a person is deeply engaged in an activity and feeling enjoyment from it. In collaborative activities, it would be optimal if all participants were in a state of flow. However, flow states fluctuate amongst individuals due to differences in the dynamics of motivation and cognition. To explore the possibility that inter-brain synchronization can provide a quantitative measure of the convergence and divergence of collective motivational dynamics, we conducted a pilot study to investigate the relationship between inter-brain synchronization and the interpersonal similarity of flow state dynamics during the collaborative learning process. In two English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes, students were divided into groups of three-four and seated at desks facing each other while conducting a 60-min group work. In both classes, two groups with four members were randomly selected, and their medial prefrontal neural activities were measured simultaneously using wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) devices. Later the participants observed their own activities on recorded videos and retrospectively rated their subjective degree of flow state on a seven-point scale for each 2-min period. For the pairs of students whose neural activities were measured, the similarity of their flow experience dynamics was evaluated by the temporal correlation between their flow ratings. Prefrontal inter-brain synchronization of the same student pairs during group work was evaluated using wavelet transform coherence. Statistical analyses revealed that: (1) flow dynamics were significantly more similar for the student pairs within the same group compared to the pairs of students assigned across different groups; (2) prefrontal inter-brain synchronization in the relatively short time scale (9.3–13.9 s) was significantly higher for the within-group pairs than for the cross-group pairs; and (3) the prefrontal inter-brain synchronization at the same short time scale was significantly and positively correlated with the similarity of flow dynamics, even after controlling for the effects of within- vs. cross-group pair types from the two variables. These suggest that inter-brain synchronization can indeed provide a quantitative measure for converging and diverging collective motivational dynamics during collaborative learning, with higher inter-brain synchronization corresponding to a more convergent flow experience.
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Assess Exercise-Induced
           Neuroplasticity

    • Authors: Claudia V. Turco, Aimee J. Nelson
      Abstract: Aerobic exercise facilitates neuroplasticity and has been linked to improvements in cognitive and motor function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to quantify changes in neurophysiology induced by exercise. The present review summarizes the single- and paired-pulse TMS paradigms that can be used to probe exercise-induced neuroplasticity, the optimal stimulation parameters and the current understanding of the neurophysiology underlying each paradigm. Further, this review amalgamates previous research exploring the modulation of these paradigms with exercise-induced neuroplasticity in healthy and clinical populations and highlights important considerations for future TMS-exercise research.
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • Single Case Experimental Design: A New Approach for Non-invasive Brain
           Stimulation Research'

    • Authors: Joshua W. Pate, Alana B. McCambridge
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • Current Methodological Pitfalls and Caveats in the Assessment of
           Exercise-Induced Changes in Peripheral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor:
           How Result Reproducibility Can Be Improved

    • Authors: Chiara Nicolini, Aimee J. Nelson
      Abstract: Neural mechanisms, such as enhanced neuroplasticity within the motor system, underpin exercise-induced motor improvements. Being a key mediator of motor plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is likely to play an important role in mediating exercise positive effects on motor function. Difficulties in assessing brain BDNF levels in humans have drawn attention to quantification of blood BDNF and raise the question of whether peripheral BDNF contributes to exercise-related motor improvements. Methodological and non-methodological factors influence measurements of blood BDNF introducing a substantial variability that complicates result interpretation and leads to inconsistencies among studies. Here, we discuss methodology-related issues and approaches emerging from current findings to reduce variability and increase result reproducibility.
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Affective Neurofeedback Under Naturalistic Conditions: A Mini-Review of
           Current Achievements and Open Challenges

    • Authors: Lucas R. Trambaiolli, Abhishek Tiwari, Tiago H. Falk
      Abstract: Affective neurofeedback training allows for the self-regulation of the putative circuits of emotion regulation. This approach has recently been studied as a possible additional treatment for psychiatric disorders, presenting positive effects in symptoms and behaviors. After neurofeedback training, a critical aspect is the transference of the learned self-regulation strategies to outside the laboratory and how to continue reinforcing these strategies in non-controlled environments. In this mini-review, we discuss the current achievements of affective neurofeedback under naturalistic setups. For this, we first provide a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for affective neurofeedback protocols. We then discuss virtual reality as a transitional step toward the final goal of “in-the-wild” protocols and current advances using mobile neurotechnology. Finally, we provide a discussion of open challenges for affective neurofeedback protocols in-the-wild, including topics such as convenience and reliability, environmental effects in attention and workload, among others.
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Augments the Effects of
           Gamified, Mobile Attention Bias Modification

    • Authors: Sarah Myruski, Hyein Cho, Marom Bikson, Tracy A. Dennis-Tiwary
      Abstract: Anxiety-related attention bias (AB) is the preferential processing of threat observed in clinical and sub-clinical anxiety. Attention bias modification training (ABMT) is a computerized cognitive training technique designed to systematically direct attention away from threat and ameliorate AB, but mixed and null findings have highlighted gaps in our understanding of mechanisms underlying ABMT and how to design the most effective delivery systems. One neuromodulation technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) across the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) may augment the effects of ABMT by strengthening top-down cognitive control processes, but the evidence base is limited and has not been generalized to current approaches in digital therapeutics, such as mobile applications. The present study was a single-blind randomized sham-controlled design. We tested whether tDCS across the PFC, vs. sham stimulation, effectively augments the beneficial effects of a gamified ABMT mobile app. Thirty-eight adults (Mage = 23.92, SD = 4.75; 18 females) evidencing low-to-moderate anxiety symptoms were randomly assigned to active or sham tDCS for 30-min while receiving ABMT via a mobile app. Participants reported on potential moderators of ABMT, including life stress and trait anxiety. ECG was recorded during a subsequent stressor to generate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) suppression as a metric of stress resilience. ABMT delivered via the app combined with tDCS (compared to sham) reduced AB and boosted stress resilience measured via RSA suppression, particularly for those reporting low life stress. Our results integrating tDCS with ABMT provide insight into the mechanisms of AB modulation and support ongoing evaluations of enhanced ABMT reliability and effectiveness via tDCS.
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T00:00:00Z
       
  • Human Premotor Corticospinal Projections Are Engaged in Motor Preparation
           at Discrete Time Intervals: A TMS-Induced Virtual Lesion Study

    • Authors: Robert Fleischmann, Paul Triller, Stephan A. Brandt, Sein H. Schmidt
      Abstract: Objectives: The significance of pre-motor (PMC) corticospinal projections in a frontoparietal motor network remains elusive. Temporal activation patterns can provide valuable information about a region's engagement in a hierarchical network. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)-induced virtual lesions provide an excellent method to study cortical physiology by disrupting ongoing activity at high temporal resolution and anatomical precision. We use nTMS-induced virtual lesions applied during an established behavioral task demanding pre-motor activation to clarify the temporal activation pattern of pre-motor corticospinal projections.Materials and Methods: Ten healthy volunteers participated in the experiment (4 female, mean age 24 ± 2 years, 1 left-handed). NTMS was used to map Brodmann areae 4 and 6 for primary motor (M1) and PMC corticospinal projections. We then determined the stimulator output intensity required to elicit a 1 mV motor evoked potential (1 mV-MT) through M1 nTMS. TMS pulse were randomly delivered at distinct time intervals (40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 ms) at 1 mV-MT intensity to M1, PMC and the DLPFC (dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex; control condition) before participants had to perform major changes of their trajectory of movement during a tracing task. Each participant performed six trials (20 runs per trial). Task performance and contribution of regions under investigation was quantified through calculating the tracing error induced by the stimulation.Results: A pre-motor stimulation hotspot could be identified in all participants (16.3 ± 1.7 mm medial, 18.6 ± 1.4 mm anterior to the M1 hotspot). NTMS over studied regions significantly affected task performance at discrete time intervals (F(10, 80) = 3.25, p = 0.001). NTMS applied over PMC 120 and 140 ms before changes in movement trajectory impaired task performance significantly more than when applied over M1 (p = 0.021 and p = 0.003) or DLPFC (p = 0.017 and p < 0.001). Stimulation intensity did not account for error size (β = −0.0074, p = 1).Conclusions: We provide novel evidence that the role of pre-motor corticospinal projections extends beyond that of simple corticospinal motor output. Their activation is crucial for task performance early in the stage of motor preparation suggesting a significant role in shaping voluntary movement. Temporal patterns of human pre-motor activation are similar to that observed in intracortical electrophysiological studies in primates.
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T00:00:00Z
       
  • Unlocking the Subconscious Consumer Bias: A Survey on the Past, Present,
           and Future of Hybrid EEG Schemes in Neuromarketing

    • Authors: Fotis P. Kalaganis, Kostas Georgiadis, Vangelis P. Oikonomou, Nikos A. Laskaris, Spiros Nikolopoulos, Ioannis Kompatsiaris
      Abstract: Fueled by early success stories, the neuromarketing domain advanced rapidly during the last 10 years. As exciting new techniques were being adapted from medical research to the commercial domain, many neuroscientists and marketing practitioners have taken the chance to exploit them so as to uncover the answers of the most important marketing questions. Among the available neuroimaging technologies, electroencephalography (EEG) stands out as the less invasive and most affordable method. While not equally precise as other neuroimaging technologies in terms of spatial resolution, it can capture brain activity almost at the speed of cognition. Hence, EEG constitutes a favorable candidate for recording and subsequently decoding the consumers' brain activity. However, despite its wide use in neuromarketing, it cannot provide the complete picture alone. In order to overcome the limitations imposed by a single monitoring method, researchers focus on more holistic approaches. The exploitation of hybrid EEG schemes (e.g., combining EEG with eye-tracking, electrodermal activity, heart rate, and/or other) is ever growing and will hopefully allow neuromarketing to uncover consumers' behavior. Our survey revolves around last-decade hybrid neuromarketing schemes that involve EEG as the dominant modality. Beyond covering the relevant literature and state-of-the-art findings, we also provide future directions on the field, present the limitations that accompany each of the commonly employed monitoring methods and briefly discuss the omni-present ethical scepticizm related to neuromarketing.
      PubDate: 2021-05-17T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effect of Branding and Familiarity of Soy Sauces on Valence and Arousal as
           Determined by Facial Expressions, Physiological Measures, Emojis, and
           Ratings

    • Authors: Rene A. de Wijk, Shota Ushiama, Meeke J. Ummels, Patrick H. Zimmerman, Daisuke Kaneko, Monique H. Vingerhoeds
      Abstract: Food experiences can be summarized along two main dimensions: valence and arousal, which can be measured explicitly with subjective ratings or implicitly with physiological and behavioral measures. Food experiences are not only driven by the food's intrinsic properties, such as its taste, texture, and aroma, but also by extrinsic properties such as brand information and the consumers' previous experiences with the foods. In this study, valence and arousal to intrinsic and extrinsic properties of soy sauce were measured in consumers that varied in their previous experience with soy sauce, using a combination of explicit (scores and emojis), implicit (heart rate and skin conductance), and behavioral measures (facial expressions). Forty participants, high- and low-frequency users, were presented with samples of rice and three commercial soy sauces without and with brand information that either matched or non-matched the taste of the soy sauce. In general, skin conductance and facial expressions showed relatively low arousal during exposure to the brand name and again lowest arousal during tasting. Heart rate was lowest during exposure to the brand name and increased during tasting probably resulting from the motor activity during chewing. Furthermore, the results showed that explicit liking and arousal scores were primarily affected by the taste of the specific soy sauce and by the participants' previous experience with soy sauces. These scores were not affected by branding information. In contrast, facial expressions, skin conductance, and heart rate were primarily affected by (1) the participants' level of experience with soy sauce, (2) whether or not branding information was provided, and (3) whether or not the branding information matched with the taste. In conclusion, this study suggests that liking scores may be most sensitive to the food's intrinsic taste properties, whereas implicit measures and facial expressions may be most sensitive to extrinsic properties such as brand information. All measures were affected by the consumers' previous food experiences.
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Brain Oscillation Entrainment by Perceptible and Non-perceptible Rhythmic
           Light Stimulation

    • Authors: Katharina Lingelbach, Alexander M. Dreyer, Isabel Schöllhorn, Michael Bui, Michael Weng, Frederik Diederichs, Jochem W. Rieger, Ina Petermann-Stock, Mathias Vukelić
      Abstract: Objective and Background: Decades of research in the field of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) have revealed great potential of rhythmic light stimulation for brain–computer interfaces. Additionally, rhythmic light stimulation provides a non-invasive method for entrainment of oscillatory activity in the brain. Especially effective protocols enabling non-perceptible rhythmic stimulation and, thereby, reducing eye fatigue and user discomfort are favorable. Here, we investigate effects of (1) perceptible and (2) non-perceptible rhythmic light stimulation as well as attention-based effects of the stimulation by asking participants to focus (a) on the stimulation source directly in an overt attention condition or (b) on a cross-hair below the stimulation source in a covert attention condition.Method: SSVEPs at 10 Hz were evoked with a light-emitting diode (LED) driven by frequency-modulated signals and amplitudes of the current intensity either below or above a previously estimated individual threshold. Furthermore, we explored the effect of attention by asking participants to fixate on the LED directly in the overt attention condition and indirectly attend it in the covert attention condition. By measuring electroencephalography, we analyzed differences between conditions regarding the detection of reliable SSVEPs via the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and functional connectivity in occipito-frontal(-central) regions.Results: We could observe SSVEPs at 10 Hz for the perceptible and non-perceptible rhythmic light stimulation not only in the overt but also in the covert attention condition. The SNR and SSVEP amplitudes did not differ between the conditions and SNR values were in all except one participant above significance thresholds suggested by previous literature indicating reliable SSVEP responses. No difference between the conditions could be observed in the functional connectivity in occipito-frontal(-central) regions.Conclusion: The finding of robust SSVEPs even for non-intrusive rhythmic stimulation protocols below an individual perceptibility threshold and without direct fixation on the stimulation source reveals strong potential as a safe stimulation method for oscillatory entrainment in naturalistic applications.
      PubDate: 2021-04-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Specialty Grand Challenge Article- Social Neuroergonomics

    • Authors: Frank Krueger, Eva Wiese
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T00:00:00Z
       
 
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