Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1527 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (721 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aging and Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Akademika     Open Access  
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 182)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access  
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 5)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biograph-I : Journal of Biostatistics and Demographic Dynamic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access  
Biosalud     Open Access  
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access  
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access  
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access  
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access  
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Journal of Physiology     Open Access  
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access  
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cleaner and Responsible Consumption     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal  
D Y Patil Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Das österreichische Gesundheitswesen ÖKZ     Hybrid Journal  
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access  
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access  
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
F&S Reports     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access  
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Neuroergonomics     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access  
Global Transitions     Open Access  
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access  
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Health Behavior Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2396-9415 - ISSN (Online) 2396-9415
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1169 journals]
  • “It just fits my needs better”: Autistic students and parents’
           experiences of learning from home during the early phase of the COVID-19
           pandemic

    • Authors: Melanie Heyworth, Simon Brett, Jacquiline den Houting, Iliana Magiati, Robyn Steward, Anna Urbanowicz, Marc Stears, Elizabeth Pellicano
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsThe COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to people's lives, especially for families, whose children have been taken out of schools during lockdown restrictions and required to learn from home. Little is known, however, about the perceived impact of the lockdown restrictions on the educational experiences of autistic children and young people – a group whose conventional schooling experiences are already often challenging. In this study, we sought to (1) understand these experiences from the perspectives of autistic young people and their parents, and (2) identify the underlying sources of positive experiences at this challenging time, in order to inform the ways in which autistic children might flourish at school in more normal times.MethodsNinety-one Australian participants, including 16 autistic young people aged 12–18 years, 32 autistic parents and 43 non-autistic parents of autistic young people aged 3–18 years, took part in semi-structured interviews about their experiences of life during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The interviews were subjected to reflexive, thematic analysis to identify themes and subthemes for each research question.ResultsOverall, our participants initially found the transition to learning from home extremely challenging, with parents reporting that the support received from schools was far from adequate. After that initial period of transition, however, many autistic children reported flourishing at home both educationally and personally. For these children and families, we identified three key ingredients essential to this flourishing, including: (i) the importance of connected, trusting relationships (‘people’); (ii) the sensory and social safety of home (‘place’); and (iii) the flexibility to pace and structure learning to suit the individual child (‘time’).ConclusionsWhile the initial COVID-19 lockdown presented many challenges to children learning at home, there were aspects of this otherwise-unsettling situation that enabled children to thrive and from which we can learn for the future.ImplicationsThese findings have important implications for understanding how and when autistic children might thrive in institutional educational settings once the pandemic subsides, focusing on the relationships between teachers and students, the nature of the physical learning environment and the need for greater flexibility in planning the school day.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-12-15T04:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211057681
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • A home-based longitudinal study of vocalization behaviors across infants
           at low and elevated risk of autism

    • Authors: Shari L. DeVeney, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Paris Mather
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and Aims:The purpose of this exploratory study was to expand existing literature on prelinguistic vocalizations by reporting results of the first home-based longitudinal study examining a wide variety of behaviors and characteristics, including early vocalizations, across infants at low and elevated risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study of vocalizations and vocalization changes across early developmental periods shows promise in reflecting early clinically significant differences across infants at low and elevated risk of ASD. Observations of early vocalizations and their differences during infancy could provide a reliable and essential component of an early developmental profile that would lower the average diagnostic age for ASD. However, studies employing observation of vocalization behaviors have been limited and often conducted in laboratory settings, reducing the external generalization of the findings.Methods:The present study was conducted to determine the consistency of previous findings with longitudinal data collected in home environments. Infants in the present study represented elevated risk from two etiological backgrounds, (a) infants born prematurely and with low birth weight and (b) infants who had an older sibling diagnosed with ASD. All data were collected in the infants’ homes and compared with data collected from infants with low likelihood of ASD. The study included 44 participants (31 in the low-risk sample, 13 in the high-risk sample) with vocalization behaviors observed at 6- and 12-months through 20-min semi-structured play interactions with caregivers. Observations were video-recorded and later coded for speech and non-speech vocalizations.Results:Differences in the 6-month vocalization behaviors were not statistically significant across risk levels of ASD. By 12 months; however, risk group differences were evident in the total number of vocalizations overall with specific differences across groups representing moderate to large, clinically relevant effects. Infants at low risk of ASD demonstrated significantly greater developmental change between 6- and 12-months than did the infants at high risk. Data were also reviewed for differences across high-risk group etiologies.Conclusions:The present study was unique and innovative in a number of ways as the first home-based longitudinal study examining infant vocal behaviors across low and high risk of ASD. Many of the present study findings were consistent with previous cross-sectional investigations of infants at elevated risk for ASD, indicating support for further home-based longitudinal study in this area. Findings also indicated some preliminary subgroup differences between high-risk etiologies of ASD. Vocalization differences across high risk groups had not been previously addressed in the literature.Implications:Vocalization differences are notable by 12-months of age between infants at low and elevated risk of ASD and infants at high risk demonstrated reduced developmental changes between 6- and 12-months compared to the infants at low risk. Observation of early infant vocalization behaviors may reasonably occur in the home, providing early childhood professionals and researchers with empirical support for data collection of child-caregiver interactions in this setting. Potential differences across high-risk etiologies warrant further investigation.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-11-24T01:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211057658
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Relations between language, non-verbal cognition, and conceptualization in
           non- or minimally verbal individuals with ASD across the lifespan

    • Authors: Dominika Slušná, Andrea Rodríguez, Berta Salvadó, Agustín Vicente, Wolfram Hinzen
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background & aimsIndividuals with non- or minimally verbal autism (nvASD) are primarily characterized by a severe speech production deficit, with speech limited to no or only a few words by school age. Significant unclarity remains over variability in language profiles across the lifespan, the nature of the language impairment seen, and (dis-) associations between linguistic and nonverbal cognitive measures.MethodsTo address these questions, we recruited both a school-age and an adult group with nvASD (total N = 49) and investigated relations between expressive and receptive language, and between these and nonverbal intelligence quotient (NVIQ) and sense-making capacities (the ComFor test).ResultsResults revealed limited variation across this sample in receptive language, which in turn predicted expressive language levels. Importantly, an upward trend in verbal mental age (VMA) across increasing chronological age was seen in the youngsters (only). A radical dissociation between NVIQ and both expressive and receptive language transpired as well, and a subset of individuals with normal NVIQ were comparable in terms of any other cognitive aspect. Sense-making reached symbolic levels in 62.2% of the sample and loaded on both verbal and nonverbal factors.ConclusionsThese patterns inform theories of nvASD by revealing an impairment that is not conceptualizable as one of expressive language only, sharply limits learning opportunities across the lifespan, and cannot be compensated for by nonverbal cognition.ImplicationsThese findings stress the need to seize developmental opportunities that may disappear when youngsters turn into adults, via therapies that specifically target language as a central cognitive system comprising both production and comprehension.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-11-03T02:59:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211053264
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Looking back and moving forward: A scoping review of research on preschool
           autism interventions in the field of speech-language pathology

    • Authors: Amanda V Binns, Rachael Smyth, Allison Andres, Joyce Lam, Janis Oram Cardy
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background & AimsSpeech-language pathology services are frequently accessed by families of children who have suspected or diagnosed autism. This is expected given that social communication differences are a core feature of autism. This review looked broadly at the state of research in the field of speech-language pathology and preschool autism interventions in order to identify the types of studies that could be used to inform the practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and to identify gaps in the field so they can be addressed in future research. Specifically, we examined the extent of research conducted on interventions delivered (at least in part) by SLPs to preschool children with suspected or diagnosed autism, identified the range of skill development areas targeted within the studies, and explored the characteristics of the interventions (i.e., theoretical models underlying the programs, service delivery models, treatment dosage).MethodsA scoping review of articles published between 1980 and 2019 was conducted using the five phases outlined by the Arksey and O’Malley framework: (a) articulating the research question; (b) identifying relevant studies; (c) selecting studies; (d) charting the data; and (e) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results.Main Contribution/ResultsA total of 114 studies met inclusion criteria with most published since 2010 and conducted within North America. Case study or single-subject study designs were the most frequently used. Interventions delivered solely by SLPs and by multiprofessional teams that included SLPs were relatively equally represented. Across the included studies, nine skill development areas were targeted, but interventions targeting social communication, language, and augmentative communication skills made up the vast majority of studies. There was relatively even distribution of interventions informed by child-centered, clinician-directed, and hybrid models. Explicit information detailing intervention characteristics (e.g., treatment dosage, professional training of clinicians delivering the intervention) was poorly reported in many studies. For those studies providing details, there was a great deal of variability in the nature of interventions (e.g., service delivery models, SLPs’ role, dosage).ConclusionsThis review revealed that research in the area of autism interventions delivered, at least in part, by SLPs has markedly increased over the past 10 years. Still, there remains a need for more research, and greater transparency detailing the nature of the interventions being investigated. The research conducted to date captures the versatility of the SLP's role within preschool autism intervention. Improved reporting and studies with strong methodological rigor focused on capturing the complex and individualized nature of interventions are needed, as are intervention studies aligned with real-world community practice.ImplicationsThis review provides a comprehensive examination of the status of research on preschool interventions delivered to children with suspected or diagnosed autism within the field of speech-language pathology. Several directions for future research are provided, as are suggestions for improving the clinical applicability of results to further the development of effective, evidence-informed policy and practice in speech-language pathology.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T12:36:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211033171
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Teaching addition strategies to students with learning difficulties

    • Authors: Irene Polo-Blanco, Eva M González López
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background & aimsIn recent years, there has been an increased interest in analyzing the mathematical performance of students with learning difficulties in order to provide them with teaching methods adapted to their needs. In particular, the importance of studying the type of informal strategy that students use when solving problems has been highlighted. Observing how these strategies emerge and develop in children with learning difficulties is crucial, as it allows us to understand how they develop a subsequent understanding of arithmetic operations. In this paper we study the effect of explicit instruction in addition strategies, focusing on the minimum addend strategy, and analyze the difficulties that arise during this process.MethodsAn adapted multiple-probe design across students with a microgenetic approach was employed to assess the effectiveness of the teaching instruction and the acquisition of the minimum addend strategy while solving addition word problems. The participants were three primary-school children (two boys and one girl) with learning difficulties, one of them diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The instruction on the minimum addend strategy was sequenced into levels of abstraction based on the addends represented with and without manipulatives.ResultsThe results show that the three participants were able to acquire the minimum addend strategy and transfer it to two-step problems. They all showed difficulties during the instructional process, with quantity comparison difficulties predominating. The instruction provided to address these and other difficulties is detailed for each participant.ConclusionsThe teaching of the minimum addend strategy has proven effective, and all three students acquired it throughout the instruction. The results concerning the student diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder are especially interesting given the lack of studies that focus on the strategies employed by students with this disorder to solve arithmetic problems. In this sense, the use of the microgenetic approach was especially useful to observe the type of spontaneous strategies used by this participant, and how they varied in response to the instruction.ImplicationsEach study participant faced different difficulties and needed different periods of time to assimilate the new strategy. Conclusions are drawn for educators to help children with learning difficulties advance to more sophisticated strategies, so they can acquire these and subsequent mathematical concepts.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T09:46:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211045324
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Inferential narrative comprehension ability of young school-age children
           on the autism spectrum

    • Authors: Marleen F Westerveld, Pamela Filiatrault-Veilleux, Jessica Paynter
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsThe purpose of the current exploratory study was to describe the inferential narrative comprehension skills of young school-age children on the autism spectrum who, as a group, are at high risk of significant and persistent reading comprehension difficulties. Our aim was to investigate whether the anticipated difficulties in inferential narrative comprehension in the group of children with autism could be explained by the children’s structural language ability as measured using a broad-spectrum standardized language test.MethodsThe participants were 35 children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged between 5;7 and 6;11, who attended their first year of formal schooling, and 32 typically developing (TD) children, matched to the ASD group for age and year of schooling. Children on the autism spectrum were divided into below normal limits (ASD_BNL, standard score ≤80; n = 21) or within normal limits (ASD_WNL, standard score >80; n = 14) on a standardized language test. All children participated in a narrative comprehension task, which involved listening to a novel story, while looking at pictures, and answering eight comprehension questions immediately afterwards. Comprehension questions were categorized into factual and inferential questions, with further categorization of the inferential questions into those tapping into the story characters’ internal responses (mental states) or not. Children’s responses were scored on a quality continuum (from 0: inadequate/off topic to 3: expected/correct).ResultsOur results showed significantly lower scores across factual and inferential narrative comprehension in the ASD_BNL group, compared to the ASD_WNL and TD groups, supporting the importance of structural language skills for narrative comprehension. Furthermore, the TD group significantly outperformed the children in the ASD_WNL group on inferential comprehension. Finally, the children in the ASD_WNL group showed specific difficulties in answering the internal response inferential questions compared to their TD peers.ConclusionsResults from this exploratory study highlight the difficulties children on the autism spectrum may have in inferential narrative comprehension skills, regardless of sufficient structural language skills at word and sentence level. These findings support the importance of routinely assessing these narrative comprehension skills in children on the spectrum, who as a group are at high risk of persistent reading comprehension difficulties.ImplicationsIn this study, we demonstrate how narrative comprehension can be assessed in young school-age children on the autism spectrum. The scoring system used to categorize children’s responses may further assist in understanding children’s performance, across a quality continuum, which can guide detailed goal setting and assist in early targeted intervention planning.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T08:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211035666
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Sleep problem screening of young children by speech-language pathologists:
           A mixed-methods feasibility study

    • Authors: Karen Bonuck, Risa Battino, Ida Barresi, Kathleen McGrath
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background & AimsPoor sleep in young children imperils language learning and use. Both sleep and language problems are prevalent in early childhood. Speech-language pathologists are in a unique position to expand surveillance of sleep problems, which in turn may contribute to communication difficulties. We conducted a feasibility study of speech-language pathologist screening for behavioral sleep problems and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms at a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment center.MethodsSpeech-language pathologists administered screeners to parents of 2–6-year-olds: the Short Form-Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (for behavioral sleep problems) which includes an item asking if the child has a sleep problem (yes/no), and the pediatric sleep questionnaire (for sleep-disordered breathing). Speech-language pathologists participated in pre- and post-screening focus groups. Pre-screening topics included professional preparation and clinical experience regarding pediatric sleep issues. Post-screening, speech-language pathologists provided feedback about the screening experience and feasibility of incorporating such screening into practice.ResultsAmong 51 children, 31% (16/51) screened positive for sleep-disordered breathing, 78% for behavioral sleep problems (40/51), and 43% (12/28) per parent report. Parent-reported problems were associated with sleep-disordered breathing (p = 0.00) but not behavioral sleep problems (p = 0.24). During focus groups, speech-language pathologists reported no formal pediatric sleep training, high parent concern about sleep, and agreed that screening fit their professional mandate. Speech-language pathologists affirmed that the ≤15 min screenings integrated seamlessly into practice but that additional training, particularly for sleep-disordered breathing, was needed.ConclusionsThe prevalence of sleep problems in 2–6-year-olds presenting to speech-language pathologists was higher than in community samples, but consistent with data from young children with developmental disabilities. Speech-language pathologists endorsed the utility and feasibility of sleep problem screening and education in their clinical practice.ImplicationsIntegrating sleep problem screening and education into speech-language pathologist practice is feasible and could widen surveillance of both sleep problems and risk factors for developmental language disorders. Further research should include larger samples and other settings, e.g. home or school.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-08-04T01:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211035066
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • How do minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum
           disorder use communicative gestures to complement their spoken language
           abilities'

    • Authors: Chelsea La Valle, Karen Chenausky, Helen Tager-Flusberg
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsPrior work has examined how children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder who are minimally verbal use their spoken language abilities during interactions with others. However, social communication includes other aspects beyond speech. To our knowledge, no studies have examined how minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder are using their gestural communication during social interactions. Such work can provide important insights into how gestures may complement their spoken language abilities.MethodsFifty minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder participated (Mage = 12.41 years; 38 males). Gestural communication was coded from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Children (n = 25) and adolescents (n = 25) were compared on their production of gestures, gesture–speech combinations, and communicative functions. Communicative functions were also assessed by the type of communication modality: gesture, speech, and gesture–speech to examine the range of communicative functions across different modalities of communication. To explore the role gestures may play the relation between speech utterances and gestural production was investigated.ResultsAnalyses revealed that (1) minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder did not differ in their total number of gestures. The most frequently produced gesture across children and adolescents was a reach gesture, followed by a point gesture (deictic gesture), and then conventional gestures. However, adolescents produced more gesture–speech combinations (reinforcing gesture-speech combinations) and displayed a wider range of communicative functions. (2) Overlap was found in the types of communicative functions expressed across different communication modalities. However, requests were conveyed via gesture more frequently compared to speech or gesture–speech. In contrast, dis/agree/acknowledging and responding to a question posed by the conversational partner was expressed more frequently via speech compared to gesture or gesture–speech. (3) The total number of gestures was negatively associated with total speech utterances after controlling for chronological age, receptive communication ability, and nonverbal IQ.ConclusionsAdolescents may be employing different communication strategies to maintain the conversational exchange and to further clarify the message they want to convey to the conversational partner. Although overlap occurred in communicative functions across gesture, speech, and gesture–speech, nuanced differences emerged in how often they were expressed across different modalities of communication. Given their speech production abilities, gestures may play a compensatory role for some individuals with autism spectrum disorder who are minimally verbal.ImplicationsFindings underscore the importance of assessing multiple modalities of communication to provide a fuller picture of their social communication abilities. Our results identified specific communicative strengths and areas for growth that can be targeted and expanded upon within gesture and speech to optimize social communication development.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-08-04T01:39:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211035065
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Corrigendum to “‘I have more control over my life’: A qualitative
           exploration of challenges, opportunities, and support needs among autistic
           university students”

    • Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.

      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T05:10:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211028689
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Play-based interventions to support social and communication development
           in autistic children aged 2–8 years: A scoping review

    • Authors: Jenny L Gibson, Emma Pritchard, Carmen de Lemos
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsPlay is used by practitioners from across disciplinary backgrounds as a natural and enjoyable context for providing intervention and support in early childhood. In the case of autism interventions, many therapies are based on the association between social play and the development of social skills, language development, and communication skills, as these are often particular areas of challenge for autistic children. However, play is a wide-ranging concept and the extant literature on play-based interventions is large and heterogeneous. This means it is challenging for practitioners and families to navigate the evidence base and make choices about differing intervention strategies. This review aims to provide a comprehensive map of the research on this topic and to develop a conceptual framework to inform clinical decision-making.MethodsAn initial stakeholder consultation confirmed the relevance of the topic to practitioners and autistic people. A scoping review methodology (preregistered) was used to identify relevant literature. We systematically searched seven databases to find peer-reviewed primary intervention studies of play-based approaches targeting language, social and communication outcomes for autistic children aged 2-8 years. We then summarised the literature using narrative synthesis and Evidence Gap Maps (EGMs). The literature was summarised according to a range of characteristics, including study design, population characteristics, agent of intervention and outcomes measured, among others. These summaries were then used to develop a framework for some key considerations for practitioners appraising play-based approaches.Results388 studies met inclusion criteria. Approximately 21% of studies were RCTs, and over 50% had ≤10 participants. Over 45% of studies reported multiple relevant outcomes, with social play skills being the most common single intervention target. Girls and minority background groups are under-represented. A range of intervention types were identified, and some high-level categorisations are proposed.Main contribution: On the basis of the evidence synthesis we suggest important dimensions for appraisal of play-based interventions, including the role of play within an intervention (as a context, a key developmental mechanism, or a component of a larger approach), the underpinning philosophy (e.g. behaviourist or developmental), and the role of the practitioner (providing parent feedback, 1:1 intervention, group facilitation).ConclusionsThe wide range of approaches uncovered by this review is a testament to the wonderful diversity inherent to both play and autism. However, research could usefully focus on consolidating the evidence base for existing approaches, rather than aiming for further diversification. Implications: The conceptual framework proposed in this review can help practitioners appraise the literature and aid their advice to families when making shared intervention decisions.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T04:08:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211015840
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Autistic adults’ experiences of diagnostic disclosure in the workplace:
           Decision-making and factors associated with outcomes

    • Authors: Anna Melissa Romualdez, Zachary Walker, Anna Remington
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Autistic individuals often struggle to find and maintain employment. This may be because many workplaces are not suited to autistic individuals’ needs. Among other difficulties, many autistic employees experience distracting or disruptive sensory environments, lack of flexibility in work hours, and unclear communication from colleagues. One possible way of mitigating these difficulties is for employees to disclose their diagnosis at work. While disclosure may increase understanding and acceptance from colleagues, it can also lead to discrimination and stigma in the workplace. Research has shown that disclosure outcomes are often mixed, but it is unclear what factors are associated with either positive or negative outcomes of disclosure for autistic people. This study aimed to identify these factors and explore the reasons why autistic employees choose to disclose or to keep their diagnosis private. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 clinically-diagnosed autistic adults (12 male and 12 female) who were currently, or had been, employed in the UK (mean age = 45.7 years). Through thematic analysis, we identified three main themes under experiences of disclosure: 1) A preference for keeping my diagnosis private; 2) The importance of disclosure in the workplace; and 3) Disclosure has mixed outcomes. We also identified three factors associated with disclosure outcomes: understanding of autism, adaptations, and organisational culture. These results have implications for improving inclusive practices on both the individual and organisational level to ensure more positive disclosure experiences for autistic employees.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T04:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211022955
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Reviewing the link between language abilities and peer relations in
           children with developmental language disorder: The importance of
           children’s own perspectives

    • Authors: Lenka Janik Blaskova, Jenny L Gibson
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsChildren with developmental language disorder (DLD) are at risk of difficulties in their friendships and peer relations. The present review explores how research directly involving children with DLD can inform our understanding of peer relations in this group, and how research insights may change according to the nature of their involvement in the studies. We further examine how these findings might shape current theoretical understandings of the links between language impairment and peer relations.MethodsAn integrative review methodology was used in order to identify relevant studies and synthesise the findings. A structured database search was carried out using the qualitative PICo framework; Population = 4–12-year-old children with DLD, phenomenon of Interest = peer relations, Context = research studies directly including children. After screening, 52 studies were included in a narrative research synthesis.Main contribution: We identified six main types of study that directly included children with DLD; interview, sociometric, self-report, task-based, naturalistic observation and staged observation. Interview-based studies were the most likely to use a meaningful participatory approach. Indications of good practices for participation included reporting on involvement practices, seeking child assent, adapting materials and language used, using visual supports, using child-preferred communication methods and using art-based approaches. Findings from the narrative synthesis of studies highlight the importance of friendships to quality of life, and the role of pragmatic language skills and self-perceptions in building friendships.ConclusionsResearch on the peer relations of children with DLD is in the early stages when it comes to taking a participatory approach, however there are some examples of inclusive practice from which the whole field can learn. The findings show that research that directly includes children with language disorders and takes account of their communication challenges can help build a more comprehensive knowledge of their world and leads to interesting avenues for interventions targeting social adjustment.Implications: Clinical implications are discussed with reference to the highlighted pragmatic language and social needs of children with DLD, which are typically not addressed unless disproportionately affected in comparison to structural language impairments.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T01:58:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211021515
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Oral language comprehension interventions in school-age children and
           adolescents with developmental language disorder: A systematic scoping
           review

    • Authors: Sirpa Tarvainen, Kaisa Launonen, Suvi Stolt
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background & aimsDifficulties understanding spoken language are associated with several social and academic risks in school-age children and adolescents with developmental language disorder (DLD). Still, interventions for this group have received little attention, and there are no reviews focusing on oral language comprehension interventions in school-age children and adolescents. The objective of this systematic scoping review was to identify interventions targeting oral language comprehension in school-age children and adolescents with DLD. Further, the aim was to examine the focus of intervention, efficacy, and level of evidence of the identified interventions. The present review is the second part of a larger search on oral language comprehension interventions. The first review examined the same factors in children 8 years and younger.MethodsA systematic scoping review of eight databases was conducted. Of the 2399 sourced articles, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Another 8 articles were identified through reference lists of sourced articles. In these 20 articles, containing 21 studies, 1661 children aged 5–16 years participated. The data were extracted and analysed, and the intervention focus, efficacy, and level of evidence were examined.Main contribution: In the interventions intended for school-age children and adolescents with DLD, three intervention foci were identified that targeted aspects of language and language processing, as well as modifying the communicative environment. Of the included studies, 57% reported positive results, 14% reported mixed results, and 29% reported no effects on oral language comprehension. The level of evidence varied. One can have high confidence in the results of 19%, moderate in 38%, and indicative confidence in 43% of the included studies.ConclusionsResults of the present review suggest that there are a few interventions providing high confidence on the efficacy of improving oral language comprehension difficulties in school-age children and adolescents with DLD. Most interventions indicating efficacy provide moderate or indicative confidence in the results. More research with a high level of evidence is urgently needed. Most of the interventions indicating efficacy focused directly on language skills or modified the communicative environment. The results suggest that the therapy techniques focusing on improving language processing skills indicate efficacy only when they aim at compensating current language processing skills, not trying to improve them.Implications: The findings on different therapy techniques, their focus of intervention, efficacy, and level of evidence provide information for clinical practice and direct future investigations in this sparsely researched topic.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T06:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211010423
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • ‘I have more control over my life’: A qualitative exploration of
           challenges, opportunities, and support needs among autistic university
           students

    • Authors: Matthew Scott, Felicity Sedgewick
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      BackgroundAutistic people are known to experience more mental health issues than non-autistic people, and the same is true among university students. These difficulties can have long-term consequences, such as dropping out of university and unemployment. Understanding the challenges autistic students face can help institutions to better support this group, while allowing celebration of the opportunities higher education offers.Methods12 autistic university students took part in semi-structured interviews about their mental health, the impact of university on their mental health, and their experiences of support while in higher education. Interviews were subject to thematic analysis.ResultsThree key themes were identified from autistic student accounts: Relationships, Independence, and Support. While each of these encompassed positive and negative elements, Relationships were described as tying everything together – when these were supportive, things went well, but when they were characterized by stigmatizing attitudes, students experienced much greater difficulties at university.ConclusionsAutistic students can and do thrive at university, as shown by many of our participants. However, all faced significant challenges with their mental health at times, and experienced varying levels of support. Improving autism knowledge among staff, with emphasis on enabling better relationships, would make a significant difference to the autistic student experience.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T05:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211010419
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Cognitive and linguistic effects of narrative-based language intervention
           in children with Developmental Language Disorder

    • Authors: Laura J Pauls, Lisa MD Archibald
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsNarrative-based language intervention provides a naturalistic context for targeting overall story structure and specific syntactic goals in children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Given the cognitive demands of narratives, narrative-based language intervention also has the potential to positively impact related abilities such as working memory and academic skills.MethodsTen children (8–11 years old) with DLD completed 15 sessions of narrative-based language intervention.ResultsResults of single subject data revealed gains in language for five participants, four of whom improved on a probe tapping working memory. An additional four participants improved on a working memory probe only. On standardized measures, clinically significant gains were noted for one additional participant on a language measure and one additional participant on a visuospatial working memory. Carry over to reading was noted for three participants and to math for one participant. Across measures, gains in both verbal and visuospatial working memory were common. A responder analysis revealed that improvement in language may be associated with higher verbal short-term memory and receptive language at baseline. Those with working memory impairments were among those showing the fewest improvements across measures.ConclusionsNarrative-based language intervention impacted verbal skills in different ways across individual children with DLD.Implications: Further research is needed to gain an understanding of who benefits most from narrative-based language intervention.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T05:07:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211015867
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • The complexity of early diagnostic decision making: A follow-up study of
           young children with language difficulties

    • Authors: Rianne Jansen, Jarymke Maljaars, Inge Zink, Jean Steyaert, Ilse Noens
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background & aimsDue to the complexity of early diagnostic decision making, we examined the predictive value of an early diagnostic classification and early abilities on later best estimate diagnosis for 22 clinically referred children with language difficulties.Methods and proceduresFour years after initial evaluation (Time 1), the clinical files of these children were reviewed. A best-estimate (BE) diagnosis of language disorder (LD), intellectual disability (ID), or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was established, with ASD being most common.Outcomes and resultsEarly clinical classifications were relatively unstable or difficult to establish at a young age. The magnitude of children’s cognitive and receptive language delay was a significant predictor of a later BE diagnosis of ID and LD respectively. A BE diagnosis of ASD, by contrast, could not be predicted from children’s early social communication problems nor the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests.ConclusionsTaken together, the results of this study suggest that language difficulties can be an early marker of a neurodevelopmental disorder which is often not identified at the age of first referral.ImplicationsEligibility for treatment should, therefore, be based on biopsychosocial case formulation rather than DSM or ICD diagnostic classification.What this paper adds'In this study a dimensional approach was used to characterize the abilities of young children referred with mild to profound receptive and/or expressive language difficulties. Later on, a categorical approach was adopted to establish best estimate diagnoses. Our clinical, broadly defined sample reflects the heterogeneous intake of young children referred for diagnostic assessment. Other studies on diagnostic stability often only focus on one diagnostic category (and are explicitly excluding children with specific other diagnoses), not taking into account the difficulties of early differential diagnostic decision making and stability across different categories over time. Investigations of differential diagnosis within a clinical group, instead of only differentiating children with a specific diagnosis from typically developing children, may be more informative for clinicians.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-04-19T04:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2396941520984894
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Word learning and verbal working memory in children with developmental
           language disorder

    • Authors: Emily Jackson, Suze Leitão, Mary Claessen, Mark Boyes
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsPrevious research into word learning in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) indicates that the learning of word forms and meanings, rather than form-referent links, is problematic. This difficulty appears to arise with impaired encoding, while retention of word knowledge remains intact. Evidence also suggests that word learning skills may be related to verbal working memory. We aimed to substantiate these findings in the current study by exploring word learning over a series of days.MethodsFifty children with DLD (mean age 6; 11, 72% male) and 54 age-matched typically developing (TD) children (mean age 6; 10, 56% male) were taught eight novel words across a four-day word learning protocol. Day 1 measured encoding, Days 2 and 3 measured re-encoding, and Day 4 assessed retention. At each day, word learning success was evaluated using Naming, Recognition, Description, and Identification tasks.ResultsChildren with DLD showed comparable performance to the TD group on the Identification task, indicating an intact ability to learn the form-referent links. In contrast, children with DLD performed significantly worse for Naming and Recognition (signifying an impaired ability to learn novel word forms), and for Description, indicating problems establishing new word meanings. These deficits for the DLD group were apparent at Days 1, 2, and 3 of testing, indicating impairments with initial encoding and re-encoding; however, the DLD and TD groups demonstrated a similar rate of learning. All children found the retention assessments at Day 4 difficult, and there were no significant group differences. Finally, verbal working memory emerged as a significant moderator of performance on the Naming and Recognition tasks, such that children with DLD and poor verbal working memory had the lowest levels of accuracy.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that children with DLD struggle with learning novel word forms and meanings, but are unimpaired in their ability to establish new form-referent links. The findings suggest that the word learning deficit may be attributed to problems with encoding, rather than with retention, of new word knowledge; however, further exploration is required given the poor performance of both groups for retention testing. Furthermore, we found evidence that an impaired ability to learn word forms may only be apparent in children who have DLD and low levels of verbal working memory.ImplicationsWhen working with children with DLD, speech-language pathologists should assess word learning using tasks that evaluate the ability to learn word forms, meanings, and form-referent links to develop a profile of individual word learning strengths and weaknesses. Clinicians should also assess verbal working memory to identify children at particular risk of word learning deficits. Future research should explore the notion of optimal intervention intensity for facilitating word learning in children with poor language and verbal working memory.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T08:38:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211004109
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • What is the nature of peer interactions in children with language
           disorders' A qualitative study of parent and practitioner views

    • Authors: Vanessa Lloyd-Esenkaya, Claire L Forrest, Abbie Jordan, Ailsa J Russell, Michelle C St Clair
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsChildren with Language Disorders (LDs) can exhibit increased levels of social withdrawal, aggression and problems managing social conflicts. The reasons underlying this pattern of social interaction profiles remain unclear. This qualitative study aimed to document the nature of social interactions between children with LDs and their peers, and to evaluate explanations for their social behaviour, as understood by parents and practitioners.MethodsThis study focused on children with LDs who spend school hours with other children with LDs. Three parent focus groups (n = 8) and three practitioner focus groups (n = 10) were conducted with parents of children aged 4–12 attending specialist language schools and practitioners working at these schools. This was a mixed clinical sample. All children of participating parents had LD as their primary area of need, which was the reason they required specialist schooling. Focus groups were conducted across two specialist schools in the UK between March and June 2018.ResultsAn inductive reflective thematic analysis of the data identified three themes; social knowledge, coping strategies, and emotional competence. Parents and school staff reported that children with LDs experience difficulties managing peer interactions due to a combination of challenges including difficulties with understanding and regulating emotions, and difficulties understanding social situations. Some of the children with LDs were described as having developed strategies to cope with their challenges, for example imposing structure on their social interactions to manage uncertainty, which has implications for their social interactions with peers.ConclusionsChildren with LDs have difficulties understanding emotions, difficulties understanding their peer’s intentions and difficulties resolving conflict situations independently according to their parents and practitioners working with these children. Participants proposed a novel explanation that social withdrawal may be used adaptively by children with LDs to process information. This study demonstrates the complexity of the relationship between Language Disorders and peer interaction profiles.Implications: Suggestions are offered regarding future research directions, such as investigating the specific contribution language skills make to children’s emotion understanding, to better understand the reasons for peer interaction difficulties in children with Language Disorders.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T01:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23969415211005307
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Speaking like a scientist: A multiple case study on sketch and speak
           intervention to improve expository discourse

    • Authors: Amy K Peterson, Teresa A Ukrainetz, RJ Risueño
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      PurposeThis descriptive multiple case study examined the effects of a contextualized expository strategy intervention on supported and independent note-taking, verbal rehearsal, and reporting skills for three elementary students with language disorders.MethodTwo 9-year-old fourth grade students and one 11-year-old sixth grade student with language disorders participated. The intervention was delivered as sixteen individual 20-minute sessions across nine weeks by the school speech-language pathologist. Students learned to take written and pictographic notes from expository texts and use verbal formulation and rehearsal of individual sentences and whole reports in varied learning contexts. To explore both emergent and independent accomplishments, performance was examined in final intervention session presentations and pre/post intervention testing.ResultsFollowing the intervention, all three students effectively used notes and verbal rehearsal to prepare and present fluent, organized, accurate, confident oral reports to an audience. From pre- to post-test, the students showed a range of improvements in the quality of notes, use of verbal rehearsal, holistic quality of oral and written reporting, and strategy awareness.ConclusionsSketch and Speak shows potential as an expository intervention for students who struggle with academic language learning. The results support further examination of this intervention for supported strategy use by younger students and independent use by older students.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T05:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2396941521998604
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Tact instruction for children with autism spectrum disorder: A review

    • Authors: MY Savana Bak, Ana D Dueñas, Sarah M Avendaño, Ariel C Graham, Tavon Stanley
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Tacts facilitate social interaction, and a strong tact repertoire can lead to the development of other verbal operants. For children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the development of a tact repertoire can reduce stereotypical and repetitive language and increase social communication, as functional language may reduce the amount of stereotypical vocal behavior that children engage in. However, teaching tact repertoires to children with ASD that maintain and generalize is difficult. The current study reviewed tact interventions for children with ASD from 2000 to 2019 to provide an overview of current tact interventions, their effectiveness, and the inclusion of intervention components that may promote maintenance and generalization of learned tacts in children with ASD. Fifty-one studies were included in the review. Of the studies that met criteria for effect size calculations 87.18% of the interventions showed excellent or high effect. Although many of the studies focused more on stimulus control to answer specific research questions, some studies implemented intervention components and procedures that could promote acquisition and generalization of learned tacts in children with ASD. We discuss implications and the need to increase research regarding tact intervention components that can increase generalization in children with ASD.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-02-24T06:06:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2396941521999010
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Coconuts and curtain cakes: The production of wh-questions in ASD

    • Authors: Nufar Sukenik, Eléonore Morin, Naama Friedmann, Philippe Prevost, Laurice Tuller
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsChildren with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been found to exhibit difficulties in wh-question production. It is unclear whether these difficulties are pragmatic or syntactic in nature. The current study used a question elicitation task to assess the production of subject and object wh-questions of children with ASD in two different languages (Hebrew and French) wherein the syntactic structure of wh-questions is different, a fact that may contribute to better understanding of the underlying deficits affecting wh-question production. Crucially, beyond the general correct/error rate we also performed an in-depth analysis of error types, comparing syntactic to pragmatic errors and comparing the distribution of errors in the ASD group to that of children with typical development (TD) and children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD).ResultsCorrect production rates were found to be similar for the ASD and DLD groups, but error analysis revealed important differences between the ASD groups in the two languages and the DLD group. The Hebrew- and French ASD groups were found to produce pragmatic errors, which were not found in children with DLD. The pragmatic errors were similar in the two ASD groups. Syntactic errors were affected by the structure of each language.ConclusionsOur results have shown that although the two ASD groups come from different countries and speak different languages, the correct production rates and more importantly, the error types were very similar in the two ASD groups, and very different compared to TD children and children with DLD.Implications: Our results highlight the importance of creating research tasks that test different linguistic functions independently and strengthen the need for conducting fine-grained error analysis to differentiate between groups and gain insights into the deficits underlying each of them.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T01:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2396941520982953
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
  • Differential responses to child communicative behavior of parents of
           toddlers with ASD

    • Authors: Adrienne M De Froy, Megan E Sims, Benjamin M Sloan, Sebastian A Gajardo, Pamela Rosenthal Rollins
      Abstract: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, Volume 6, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Background and aimsThe quality of parent verbal input—diverse vocabulary that is well-matched to the child’s developmental level within interactions that are responsive to their interests—has been found to positively impact child language skills. For typically developing (TD) children, there is evidence that more advanced linguistic and social development differentially elicits higher quality parent input, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between parent and child. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if toddlers with ASD also differentially elicit parental verbal input by (1) analyzing the quality of parent input to the communicative behavior of their toddlers with ASD, (2) examining if parents respond differentially to more advanced toddler communicative behavior, as measured by the coordination of multiple communicative behaviors, and (3) exploring the relationship between parental responsiveness to child communicative behaviors and change in child communication and social skills.MethodsParticipants were 77 toddlers with ASD age 18-39 months and a parent who participated in a larger RCT. Ten-minute parent–toddler interactions were recorded prior to a 12-week intervention. Parent response to child communicative behaviors was coded following each child communicative behavior as no acknowledgment, responsive, directive, or nonverbal acknowledgment. Parent number of different words and difference between parent and child MLU in words were calculated separately for responsive and directive parent utterances. Child growth in language and social skills was measured using the Vineland II Communication and Socialization domain scores, respectively.Results(1) Parents were largely responsive to their toddler’s communication. When being responsive (as opposed to directive), parents used a greater number of different words within utterances that were well-matched to child language; (2) when toddlers coordinated communicative behaviors (versus producing an isolated communicative behavior), parents were more likely to respond and their replies were more likely to be responsive; and (3) parent responsiveness to child coordinated communication was significantly correlated with change in Vineland II Socialization but not Communication. A unique role of gaze coordinated child communication in eliciting responsive parental behaviors and improving growth in child social skills emerged.ConclusionsOur results support a bidirectional process between responsive parent verbal input and the social development of toddlers with ASD, with less sophisticated child communicative behaviors eliciting lower quality parent input.Implications: Our findings highlight the critical role of early parent-mediated intervention for children with ASD generally, and to enhance eye gaze through parent responsivity more specifically.
      Citation: Autism & Developmental Language Impairments
      PubDate: 2021-01-24T06:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2396941520984892
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2021)
       
 
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