Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 203 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safety and Health at Work     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
Safety and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Safety in Extreme Environments     Hybrid Journal  
Safety in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 74)
Saintika Medika     Open Access  
Salud & Sociedad: investigaciones en psicologia de la salud y psicologia social     Open Access  
Salud Areandina     Open Access  
Salud Colectiva     Open Access  
Salud(i)ciencia     Open Access  
Salus     Open Access  
Salute e Società     Full-text available via subscription  
Samsun Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Saúde Coletiva     Open Access  
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Saúde em Redes     Open Access  
Saú     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
School Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Scientia Medica     Open Access  
Scire Salutis     Open Access  
Serviço Social e Saúde     Open Access  
Sextant : Revue de recherche interdisciplinaire sur le genre et la sexualité     Open Access  
Sexual Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sexual Medicine Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Sleep and Vigilance : An International Journal of Basic, Translational and Clinical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sleep Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sleep Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
SMAD, Revista Electronica en Salud Mental, Alcohol y Drogas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Smart Health     Hybrid Journal  
Social Determinants of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social Theory & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Work in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Social Work in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Social Work in Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Society, Health & Vulnerability     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sosiaalilääketieteellinen Aikakauslehti     Open Access  
South African Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Child Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Communication Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South East Asia Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South Eastern European Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Journal of Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Southern African Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Southwest Respiratory and Critical Care Chronicles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 49)
Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health     Open Access  
SSM - Population Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SSM - Qualitative Research in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stigma and Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sundhedsprofessionelle studier     Open Access  
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustinere : Revista de Saúde e Educação     Open Access  
System Safety : Human - Technical Facility - Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Tanzania Journal of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Technology and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tempus Actas de Saúde Coletiva     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The Journal of Aquatic Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
The Journal of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Lancet Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 74)
The Lancet Planetary Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Lancet Regional Health : Americas     Open Access  
The Lancet Regional Health : Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
The Lancet Regional Health : Southeast Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Regional Health : Western Pacific     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Meducator     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Therapeutic Communities : The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Tidsskrift for Forskning i Sygdom og Samfund     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for psykisk helsearbeid     Full-text available via subscription  
Tobacco Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Tobacco Control and Public Health in Eastern Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Journal of Health Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Tropical Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TÜBAV Bilim Dergisi     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Universidad y Salud     Open Access  
Unnes Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Value in Health Regional Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Vascular Health and Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Vigilância Sanitária em Debate     Open Access  
Violence and Gender     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Water Quality, Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response     Open Access  
Women & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
World Health & Population     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
World Medical & Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Zoonotic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Електромагнітна сумісність та безпека на залізничному транспорті     Open Access  
مجله بهداشت و توسعه     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2313-576X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 67: State-of-the-Practice Survey: United States
           Departments of Transportation Worker Injuries and Safety Program Efforts

    • Authors: Lana K. Marji, Wesley C. Zech, Jason T. Kirby
      First page: 67
      Abstract: The State-of-the-Practice Survey on United States Departments of Transportation (DOTs) Worker Injuries and Safety Program Efforts is a comprehensive report that provides valuable insights into the safety programs of state DOTs. The survey was conducted using a web-based questionnaire that was distributed to all 50 state DOTs and received a response rate of 44% (22 states). The survey consisted of 40 questions that were designed to gather information about the safety programs of state DOTs, including their training and education efforts, injury analysis practices, and safety efforts. The survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a thematic analysis approach. The results highlighted contrasts in safety efforts across responding DOTs, with various methods of injury documentation, data collection, and the implementation of safety-related policies and procedures. The report offers recommendations for reducing worker injuries and illnesses, including the need for standardized injury documentation and data collection practices, the provision of regular and updated training to address new hazards that may arise due to changes in job tasks or procedures, the allocation of adequate funding and resources to support safety programs, and the development of a return-to-work program to facilitate the prompt return of injured workers. Additionally, ergonomic assessments and training should be provided to prevent musculoskeletal injuries. The report concludes that state DOTs can benefit from sharing best practices and collaborating on safety initiatives in order to improve worker safety and reduce the incidence of injuries and illnesses. The findings of this survey may be beneficial to any DOT implementing worker safety best practices within their respective agency. The limitations of the study include a lack of inferential statistical analysis due to the restricted statistical power of the sample size.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040067
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 68: Barry Turner: The Under-Acknowledged Safety

    • Authors: Kym Bills, Leesa Costello, Marcus Cattani
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Barry Turner’s 1978 Man-made Disasters and Charles Perrow’s 1984 Normal Accidents were seminal books but a detailed comparison has yet to be undertaken. Doing so is important to establish content and priority of key ideas underpinning contemporary safety science. Turner’s research found socio-technical and systemic patterns that meant that major organisational disasters could be foreseen and were preventable. Perrow’s macro-structuralist industry focus was on technologically deterministic but unpredictable and unpreventable “system” accidents, particularly rare catastrophes. Andrew Hopkins and Nick Pidgeon respectively suggested that some prominent writers who wrote after Turner may not have been aware of, or did not properly acknowledge, Turner’s work. Using a methodology involving systematic reading and historical, biographical and thematic theory analysis, a detailed review of Turner’s and Perrow’s backgrounds and publications sheds new light on Turner’s priority and accomplishment, highlighting substantial similarities as well as clear differences. Normal Accidents did not cite Turner in 1984 or when republished with major additions in 1999. Turner became better known after a 1997 second edition of Man-made Disasters but under-acknowledgment issues by Perrow and others continued. Ethical citation and potential reasons for under-acknowledgment are discussed together with lessons applicable more broadly. It is concluded that Turner’s foundational importance for safety science should be better recognised.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040068
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 69: Patient Experience during Contrast-Enhanced
           Computed Tomography Examination: Anxiety, Feelings, and Safety

    • Authors: Sandra Lange, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Anna Małecka-Dubiela
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Introductions: Computed tomography is one of the biggest breakthroughs in diagnostic imaging. In order to more accurately assess structures and pathological changes during the examination, it is necessary to administer a contrast agent. Patients presenting for the examination, very often only find out during the examination that a contrast agent is required. This increases patients’ uncertainty when giving written consent for contrast administration, as well as anxiety about the examination. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of patients who have contrast-enhanced CT scans, focusing primarily on anxiety, feelings, and safety. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in diagnostic imaging offices in Pomeranian Voivodeship in 2019–2020. The survey was aimed at patients presenting for CT examinations with intravenous contrast injection. In total, 172 patients participated in the survey. A proprietary survey questionnaire was used to conduct the study. Results and Conclusions: During a CT scan, intravenous contrast agent administration is often necessary. Although there are few studies on patients’ experiences with this examination, the authors observe that some patients experience anxiety. The results of our study showed the following: (1) 30.8% of patients experience anxiety before a CT scan with intravenous contrast injection; (2) variables such as gender, previous experience, and searching for information about the examination influence the occurrence of anxiety; (3) the most common feelings experienced by patients during intravenous contrast injection are a sensation of warmth spreading throughout the body; (4) the most common source of information about the study used among patients was the Internet; (5) most patients feel safe during a CT scan.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040069
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 70: Assessment of the Impact of Lean Tools on the
           Safety of the Shoemaking Industry

    • Authors: José Carlos Sá, Leonardo Soares, José Dinis-Carvalho, Francisco J. G. Silva, Gilberto Santos
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Both the Lean philosophy and occupational safety and health have been widely studied, although this has usually been carried out independently. However, the correlation between Lean and occupational safety and health in the industrial context is still underexplored. Indeed, Lean tools can be applied to ensure the best safety environment for workers in each kind of manufacturing process, and this deserves to be studied. The study described here aims to understand the influence of each of a set of four Lean tools used in an industrial context with a strong manual labor component, seeking to determine the influence of each of these Lean tools on the increase in safety obtained through their application. For this purpose, four Lean tools that are quite commonly applied are selected, taking into account previously presented work that pointed to the positive influence of the application of each of these tools on worker safety: total productive maintenance system, Gemba walk, visual management and Yokoten. This study aims to apply these Lean tools and to analyze their impact on productivity, and then, on the safety of a company selected as a target in order to validate the concept. For this purpose, a new tool is created. In the first instance, the tool analyzes the current state of the productive process and the safety level through the study of the risk levels detected in the plant. In terms of productivity results, a reduction between 7% and 12% in cycle time is achieved in four areas of the plant. The feedback from employees showed increased satisfaction with the processes’ simplification. To conclude, a 50% reduction in the number of work accidents per month is observed as a result of the implementation of Lean tools. The influence of the selected Lean tools on increasing both productivity and safety is clear, and our results prove the selection of tools to be largely adequate.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040070
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 71: Occupational Hearing Loss Associated with the
           Combined Exposure of Solvents and Noise: A Systematic Review and

    • Authors: Jia Ren, Hongwei Xie, Yong Hu, Yu Hong, Hua Zou, Xiangjing Gao
      First page: 71
      Abstract: To analyze the predominant frequencies of hearing threshold shift and the prevalence of hearing loss related to the co-exposure to noise and solvents. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed by retrieving published articles from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ProQuest until July 2023. Data were extracted in line with the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook, and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used to assess the studies’ quality. The meta-analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). I2 and Q statistics were used to prove the heterogeneity. A total of 22 selected studies (9948 workers), six cohort studies and 16 cross-sectional studies were included. The results revealed that 43.7%, 41.3%, and 53.6% of the participants presented with hearing loss due to noise exposure, solvent exposure, and combined exposure to noise and solvent, respectively. The workers exposed to both noise and solvents had a higher risk of hearing loss than those exposed to noise (overall weighted odds ratio [OR]: 1.76) or solvents (overall-weighted OR: 2.02) alone. The poorer hearing threshold in the combined noise and solvents exposure group was mainly at high frequencies (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz), with a peak of 29.47 dB HL at 6 kHz. The noise-exposed group’s peak hearing threshold was 28.87 dB HL at 4 kHz. The peak hearing threshold of the solvent-exposed group was 28.65 dB HL at 6 kHz. The workers exposed to noise and solvent simultaneously had a higher prevalence of hearing loss than those exposed to solvents. Co-exposure to noise and solvents increases the odds of hearing loss. The dominant hearing threshold changes occurred at 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz, and the peak value appeared at 6 kHz in workers co-exposed to noise and solvents.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040071
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 72: Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Heavy-Duty Truck
           Incident and Inspection Data

    • Authors: Amy Moore, Vivek Sujan, Adam Siekmann, Hyeonsup Lim, Shiqi (Shawn) Ou, Sarah Tennille
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Vehicular incidents, especially those involving tractor trailers, are increasing in number every year. These events are extremely costly for fleets, in terms of damage or loss of property, loss of efficiency, and certainly in terms of loss of life. Although the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is responsible for performing inspections, and fleet managers are encouraged to maintain their fleet and participate in regular inspections, it is uncertain whether these inspections are occurring at a frequency that is necessary to prevent incidents. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) of the DOT manages and maintains the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) dataset, which contains all incident and inspection data regarding commercial vehicles in the U.S. The purpose of this preliminary analysis was to explore the MCMIS dataset through spatiotemporal analyses, to uncover findings that may hint at potential improvements in the DOT inspection process and highlight location-specific trends in the dataset. These analyses are novel, as previous research using the MCMIS dataset only examined the data at the state or county level, not at a national scale. The results from the analyses pinpointed specific major metropolitan areas, namely Harris County (Houston), Texas, and three of the New York boroughs (Kings, Queens, and the Bronx), which were found to have increasing incident rates during the study period (2016–2020). An overview of potential causal factors contributing to this increase are provided as well as an overview of the inspection process, and suggestions for improvement relative to the highlighted locations in Texas and New York are also provided. Ultimately, it is suggested that the incorporation of advanced technology and automation may prove beneficial in reducing the occurrence of events that lead to incidents and may also help in the inspection process.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040072
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 73: Key Considerations in Assessing the Safety and
           Performance of Camera-Based Mirror Systems

    • Authors: Amy Moore, Jinghui Yuan, Shiqi (Shawn) Ou, Jackeline Rios Torres, Vivek Sujan, Adam Siekmann
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Camera-based mirror systems (CBMSs) are a relatively new technology in the automotive industry, and much of the United States’ medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet has been reluctant to convert from standard glass, or “west coast”, mirrors to CBMSs. CBMSs have the potential to reduce the number of truck and passenger vehicle incidents, improving overall fleet safety. CBMSs also have the potential to improve operational efficiency by improving aerodynamics and reducing drag, resulting in better fuel economy, and improving maneuverability. Improvements in overall safety are also possible; the field of view for the driver is potentially 360° with the addition of trailer cameras, allowing for visibility of the rear of the trailer and the front of the truck. These potential improvements seem promising, but the literature on driver surveys clearly shows that there is reluctance to adopt this technology for many reasons. Additionally, more robust testing in the laboratory and in the field is necessary to determine whether CBMSs are adequate to replace standard mirrors on trucks. This analysis provides an overview of key research questions for CBMS testing based on the current literature on the topic (surveys, standards, and previous testing). The purpose of this analysis is to serve as guidance in developing further testing of CBMSs, especially testing involving human subjects.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040073
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 74: Pain Treatment in Polish Emergency Medical
           Teams—Is the Pain Management Entitlement Being Used'—A
           Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Bartosz Pryba, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Anna Małecka-Dubiela
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Introduction: Pain has been identified as the most common reason for emergency medical service (EMS) calls. Despite many years of pain research, it is still true that oligoanalgesia is an ongoing phenomenon. This demonstrates the need for the implementation of new solutions and for further analyses on the causes of inadequate pain treatment. The study was undertaken to analyze analgesic treatment implemented in specialist “S” and basic “P” Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs). Methods: This retrospective study was based on the analysis of medical records using the emergency medical service card. A total of 1333 medical files were analyzed, of which 539 cases were qualified for the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The analysis has shown that the majority of interventions were undertaken by basic emergency medical teams and that acute pain was the most common reason for contacting the EMS. However, only 62.52% of patients received analgesia. It was shown that the frequency of administering paracetamol, metamizole, and ketoprofen was proportional to the increase in pain intensity. Similar correlations were identified in the cases of morphine, fentanyl, and drotaverine, which were most often administered to patients with the most severe pain. Conclusions: The nature and location of pain, as well as its intensity, affected the choice of analgesia. Opioids were administered more frequently with more extensive injuries and at greater pain intensity. Significant differences were found in the frequency at which acetylsalicylic acid was administered more often in “S” EMTs and drotaverine more often in “P” EMTs. The intravenous route was found to be the most common route of analgesia administration in EMTs.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040074
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 75: Identifying and Assessing Perceived Cycling
           Safety Components

    • Authors: Michelle Duren, Bryce Corrigan, Ryan David Kennedy, Keshia M. Pollack Porter, Johnathon Ehsani
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Perceived safety is recognized throughout the mode choice literature as a key barrier to cycling, yet its constructs are poorly understood. Although commonly understood to relate to crash and injury risk and sometimes vulnerability to crime, health impact assessments identify numerous other pathways through which cycling can negatively impact health. This study leverages a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults in 2022 to assess a set of eleven factors as potential components of perceived cycling safety. We use principal component analysis to identify components of perceived cycling safety and then employ principal component regression to assess these components in relation to predicting unsafe cycling perception. We identify five key dimensions of perceived safety. Specifically, we found that perceived bicycling safety can be encompassed in the following components: (1) contaminant exposure, (2) injurious collision risk, (3) street conditions, (4) weather conditions, and (5) crime risk. In evaluating each identified component, we found that injurious collision risk and street conditions were the most predictive of considering cycling as unsafe. We further develop an understanding of how differences in cycling behavior, such as using cycling for commuting purposes, may contribute to differences in how cycling safety components coalesce into perceived safety.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040075
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 76: Analysis of the Effects of Highway Geometric
           Design Features on the Frequency of Truck-Involved Rear-End Crashes Using
           the Random Effect Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression Model

    • Authors: Thanapong Champahom, Chamroeun Se, Sajjakaj Jomnonkwao, Rattanaporn Kasemsri, Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Statistical data indicate that trucks are more prone to rear-end crashes, making this an area of concern. The objective of this study is to create a model that analyzes the factors influencing the frequency of rear-end crashes involving trucks (TIRC). To achieve this, researchers identified the most appropriate model as Spatial Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression (SZINB). This model takes into account spatial correlation, which plays a significant role in the occurrences of TIRC on different road segments supervised by each highway ward. The estimation of parameters in the SZINB model has led to key findings that shed light on the factors contributing to a higher likelihood of TIRC. These findings include the increased probability of TIRC on curved roads compared to straight ones, roads that feature open middle islands, six lanes per direction, a slope, right-of-way shoulder width, pavement type, lane width, and a post speed limit. Based on these key findings, this study developed policy recommendations and sample measures aimed at reducing the frequency of TIRC. Implementing measures such as improving the road design on curved sections, optimizing middle islands, and enhancing traffic management on wider roads can help mitigate the risk of crashes involving trucks.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040076
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 77: Promoting Veteran-Centric Transportation Options
           through Exposure to Autonomous Shuttles

    • Authors: Sherrilene Classen, Isabelle C. Wandenkolk, Justin Mason, Nichole Stetten, Seung Woo Hwangbo, Kelsea LeBeau
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Veterans face difficulties accessing vital health and community services, especially in rural areas. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) can revolutionize transportation by enhancing access, safety, and efficiency. Yet, there is limited knowledge about how Veterans perceive AVs. This study fills this gap by assessing Veterans’ AV perceptions before and after exposure to an autonomous shuttle (AS). Using a multi-method approach, 23 participants completed pre- and post-AS Autonomous Vehicle User Perception Survey (AVUPS), with 10 participants also taking part in post-AS focus groups. Following exposure to the AS, differences were observed for three out of the four AVUPS domains: an increase in Intention to Use (p < 0.01), a decrease in Perceived Barriers (p < 0.05), and an increase in Total Acceptance (p = 0.01); Well-being remained unchanged (p = 0.81). Feedback from focus groups uncovered six qualitative themes: Perceived Benefits (n = 70), Safety (n = 66), Shuttle Experience (n = 47), AV Adoption (n = 44), Experience with AVs (n = 17), and Perception Change (n = 10). This study underscores AVs’ potential to alleviate transportation challenges faced by Veterans, contributing to more inclusive transportation solutions. The research offers insights for future policies and interventions aimed at integrating AV technology into the transportation system, particularly for mobility-vulnerable Veterans in rural and urban settings.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040077
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 78: Methodology for Risk Assessment of SARS-CoV-2
           Virus Transmission in Hospital Buildings

    • Authors: Thaysa V. da Cunha, Laryssa F. C. Willcox, Bruno B. F. da Costa, Mohammad Najjar, Carlos A. P. Soares, Assed N. Haddad
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Considering the impact of COVID-19 on hospital facilities and the relevance of risk management and occupational health and safety within this context, this study introduces a method to assess the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission risk in a toilet. The proposed method is based on a risk tripod involving environmental, human, and transmission factors. For this, risk assessment methodologies were applied, such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA), which allowed the identification of risk indicators, and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), which allowed the identification of transmission routes of COVID-19 in toilets. Subsequently, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to find each transmission route weighting for calculating the Risk Score. The results indicated that the design of sanitary equipment, with an emphasis on washbasins and toilets, especially in health or large circulation establishments, is of paramount importance in the dissemination of pathogens. Safe habits and the use of protective gear must be continuously encouraged, but greater attention must be paid to technical and engineering issues. Furthermore, the developed method proved to be an applicable tool to identify the main sources of risk and prioritize the implementation of control measures.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040078
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 79: There Is Hope in Safety Promotion! How Can
           Resources and Demands Impact Workers’ Safety Participation'

    • Authors: Simona Margheritti, Alessia Negrini, Sílvia Agostinho da Silva
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Promoting workplace safety is crucial in occupational health and safety (OHS). However, existing studies have primarily concentrated on accident prevention, overlooking the role of resources in encouraging safety. This research investigates the impact of a personal resource, namely hope, on safety participation, considering its interaction with job resources and job demands using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the context of safety. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a large company managing European shopping centers (N = 262). Of the sample, 52.3% of participants were female. Data were collected through an online questionnaire and analyzed using model 92 of Andrew F. Hayes’ Process Macro to test the hypothesized moderate serial mediation model. Our results highlighted that (1) hope directly correlates with safety participation, (2) hope and job dedication mediate the relationship between autonomy and safety participation, and (3) high job demands can undermine the beneficial effects of resources (i.e., autonomy, hope, and job dedication) on safety participation. These results suggest that workers with personal resources like hope are more likely to engage in safety practices, displaying increased dedication and focus on safety. However, excessive job demands can challenge the effectiveness of these resources in promoting safety participation. This study offers a novel perspective by integrating safety participation into the JD-R model framework.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040079
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 80: Updated Aspects of Safety Regulations for
           Biomedical Applications of Aerogel Compounds—Compendia-Like

    • Authors: Monica Neagu, Fabia Grisi, Alfio Pulvirenti, Rosana Simón-Vázquez, Carlos A. García-González, Antonella Caterina Boccia
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Aerogels have recently started to be considered as “advanced materials”; therefore, as a general consideration, aerogels’ toxicity testing should focus on their functionality which resides in their nanoscale open internal porosity. To assess the hazards of organic aerogels, testing at three levels may characterize their biophysical, in vitro and in vivo toxicity, defining distinct categories of aerogels. At the first level of testing, their abiotic characteristics are investigated, and the best aerogel(s) is forwarded to be tested at level 2, wherein in vitro methodologies may mainly evaluate the aerogels’ cellular behavior. Within level 2 of testing, the main characteristics of toxicity are investigated and the selected aerogels are introduced to in vivo animal models at level 3. In the animal model testing, target organs are investigated along with systemic parameters of toxicity. Some study cases are presented for organic or anorganic aerogels. Within this tiered workflow, aerogels-based materials can be tested in terms of human health hazard.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040080
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 81: Occupational Exposure to Biological Agents in a
           Typical Restaurant Setting: Is a Photocatalytic Air Purifier Helpful'

    • Authors: Matteo Ratti, Daniele Ceriotti, Rabia Bibi, Andrea Conti, Massimiliano Panella
      First page: 81
      Abstract: According to many national legislations, biological agents represent an occupational hazard that must be managed in order to ensure safety at workplace. Bioaerosols have been associated to many pathological conditions but, despite many efforts, precise threshold limit values (TLV) are still undefined. We planned and conducted an environmental study concerning a typical restaurant that aimed to evaluate: (1) the occupational exposure to bacterial and fungal bioaerosol; (2) the efficacy of a photocatalytic air purifier device in mitigating such exposure. This observational study evaluated two dining rooms (Area 1 and Area 2) of a restaurant which can be considered typical during two consecutive weeks. Based on a national protocol, we monitored total bacterial and mycotic loads searching for two typologies of bacteria, psychrophilic bacteria (environmental contamination) along with mesophilic bacteria (human or animal origin source), and two types of fungi, mold and yeast. Baseline total bacterial load was 346.8 CFU/m3 for Area 1 and 412.9 CFU/m3 for Area 2. When the sanitizing device was operative, the total bacterial load decreased to 202.7 CFU/m3 (−41.50%—p value: <0.01) for Area 1 and to 342.2 CFU/m3 (−17.10%—p value: 0.06) for Area 2. Considering the fungal load, the mean baseline value was 189.7 CFU/m3 for Area 1 and 141.1 CFU/m3 for Area 2. When the device was kept on, the total fungal load was 108.0 CFU/m3 (−43.10%—p value: 0.055) for Area 1 and 205.0 CFU/m3 (+45.30%—p value: 0.268) for Area 2. Our findings supported the conclusion that, concerning the occupational risk derived from biological agents, a typical restaurant should be considered relatively safe. In order to mitigate or limit any possible increase of such risk, a photocatalytic device may be helpful, but not against the pollution caused by mold or yeasts. Our research also reaffirmed the need of further research assessing the kind of relationship between diseases and exposure levels, before considering the need of setting precise threshold limit values.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040081
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 82: Estimation of Human Casualties Due to
           Earthquakes: Overview and Application of Literature Models with Emphasis
           on Occupancy Rate

    • Authors: Vincenzo Manfredi, Giuseppe Nicodemo, Angelo Masi
      First page: 82
      Abstract: In the field of seismic risk assessment, the estimation of human casualties is an important task for medical and relief agencies to develop preparedness and emergency management actions. The process of calculating casualties involves several factors along with the associated uncertainties. Despite its complexity and the limited quality and availability of data, many studies have been devoted to this topic in recent decades, but additional effort is required to better analyze these studies by also comparing the results they provide. In the present paper, an extensive literature overview of the main models proposed to estimate casualties is reported. Further, the main factors involved in the available Casualty Estimation Models are also analyzed by analyzing loss scenarios related to two strong Italian earthquakes (1980 Irpinia–Basilicata and 2009 L’Aquila). Comparing estimated vs. collected data, it is found that, in addition to the damage level, both the building material and the occupancy rate at the time of the event significantly impact the estimation of human casualties. As for the occupancy rate, based on the data on the daily life of citizens collected by the Italian Institute of Statistics, the occupancy rate functions for Italian residential building stock are derived and discussed.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9040082
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 42: Welding Fume: A Comparison Study of Industry
           Used Control Methods

    • Authors: Peter Knott, Georgia Csorba, Dustin Bennett, Ryan Kift
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Welding fume is generated during welding activities and is a known cancer-causing hazard for those working in the welding industry. Worker exposure has been shown to regularly exceed the applicable workplace exposure standard, and control measures are required to reduce worker exposure. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of control measures to prevent welding fume exposure to workers. To achieve this aim, three common welding fume control measures (local exhaust ventilation (LEV), powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs) and on-gun extraction) were used during four different welding tasks. Compared to using no controls, LEV hood capture is likely to reduce welding fume concentrations in the breathing zone of a welder by up to a factor of 9. The use of on-gun LEV is likely to reduce welding fume concentrations in the breathing zone of a welder by up to a factor of 12. The 5th percentile effective protection factors of the PAPR for all sampled welding activities were considerably greater than the required minimum protection factor of 50 specified in AS/NZS 1715:2009 for powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs) with class PAPR-P3 particulate filters with any head covering.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030042
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 43: The Impact of Harvesting Height on
           Farmers’ Musculoskeletal Tissue

    • Authors: Chun-Yao Wang, Ying-Fang Hsu, Chi-Yu Chuang, Po-Chen Hung, Hsiao-Chien Huang, Chiou-Jong Chen, Shinhao Yang
      First page: 43
      Abstract: This study aimed to examine whether different agricultural work patterns may cause MSDs in different body areas and assess their severity. In previous studies, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) have been recognized as an occupational disease in agricultural workers. However, not all MSDs resulting from agriculture occur in the same body areas or have similar severity. This study conducted a questionnaire survey to inquire about the body areas and severity of MSDs among fruit farmers. A total of 212 valid answers were collected. Subsequently, their main harvesting postures were classified into three groups to examine the differences in MSD occurrence and severity among those groups. The results indicate that the harvesting posture did result in different severities of MSDs in certain body areas. Raising hands above the shoulders caused significantly higher MSD severity in the neck, shoulder, upper back, and elbows despite the same standing posture. Additionally, those who squatted, bent, or kneeled had a significantly higher severity of MSDs in the shoulders compared to those who stood but did not raise their hands above their shoulders. This study confirmed that the different harvesting heights of fruits can affect farmers’ posture, leading to differences in the body areas affected by, and severity of, MSDs.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030043
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 44: Influence of Safety Climate on Safety
           Performance in Gas Stations in Indonesia

    • Authors: Fatma Lestari, Robiana Modjo, Aryo Wibowo, Riza Yosia Sunindijo
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Accidents in gas stations may cause injury or even death to people. Moreover, an accident in a gas station might halt its operation for some time. When an accident takes place in a region with scant amount of gas stations, it may lead to fuel scarcity in the area, affecting the economy and sparking other issues. Therefore, safety climate and safety performance in gas stations need to be evaluated. Safety climate has been used as a tool to assess the safety performance of an organization at a given time. The aim of this study was to understand the influence of safety climate on safety performance in gas stations in Indonesia. A total of 129 gas stations were selected. To assess safety climate, a safety climate questionnaire was used, while the safety performance was captured by conducting on site structured observations. The assessment shows that gas stations have a good level of safety climate, especially when it is compared with other industrial sectors in Indonesia, such as construction. The study findings also show that safety climate has a significant positive impact on safety performance. Three safety climate dimensions with significant positive influence on safety performance are management commitment, communication, and personal accountability. Therefore, improvement efforts should focus more on these dimensions to boost safety performance in gas stations.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030044
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 45: Leadership and the Promotion of Health and
           Productivity in a Changing Environment: A Multiple Focus Groups Study

    • Authors: Julio Miño-Terrancle, José M. León-Rubio, José M. León-Pérez, David Cobos-Sanchiz
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Leaders that focus on preventing risks and promoting safe and healthy behaviors are essential to reducing workplace accidents and illnesses, particularly in a changing environment where technology and the complex interconnection of systems create emerging risks with unpredictable consequences for employee wellbeing and organizational productivity. In that sense, this multiple focus group study with 32 experts in occupational safety and health (OSH) aims at providing valuable insight into the most effective strategies for promoting health and productivity in a changing context. Results indicate that a safety and prevention culture is crucial for successful risk prevention and management, with commitment required from both top management and workers. Moreover, transformational leadership is identified as a key to achieving a safety and prevention culture. In addition, training is considered a pivotal mechanism to introduce appropriate safety practices into daily work routines. This requires an interdisciplinary, integrated, and collaborative perspective. Finally, integrating risk prevention into higher education prepares professionals to face current labor market challenges. These results can guide decision making for both training OSH professionals and introducing effective OSH practices in organizations.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030045
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 46: Effective Components of Behavioural
           Interventions Aiming to Reduce Injury within the Workplace: A Systematic

    • Authors: Mairi Bowdler, Wouter Martinus Petrus Steijn, Dolf van der Beek
      First page: 46
      Abstract: For years, the connection between safety behaviours and injury and illness in high-risk industries has been recognised, but the effectiveness of this link has been somewhat overlooked. Since there is still a significant amount of injury within high-risk workplaces, this systematic review aims to examine the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to decrease fatal and non-fatal injuries within high-risk industries. Scopus and Google Scholar were used to find relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses on this topic. In total, 19 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these articles, 11 suggested that their reviewed interventions revealed some evidence of being effective in reducing injury/accident rates. Additionally, seven of the papers found that the interventions affected certain determinants, such as safety knowledge, health and safety behaviours, attitudes, efficacy, and beliefs. One of the papers found no effect at all. It must be noted that a significant amount of the articles (n = 10) reported methodological quality or quantity issues, implying that the results should be approached with caution. Nonetheless, it was found that certain components, such as multi-faceted interventions tailored to the target group, contribute to either reducing injury/accident rates or improving the specific aforementioned determinants. There is a need for additional safety interventions in high-risk industries that are based on methodologically sound structural elements and theoretical frameworks. Existing approaches, such as Intervention Mapping, can assist safety professionals in achieving this goal.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030046
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 47: Application of Near-Miss Management Systems: An
           Exploratory Field Analysis in the Italian Industrial Sector

    • Authors: Giulio Paolo Agnusdei, Maria Grazia Gnoni, Fabiana Tornese, Diego De Merich, Armando Guglielmi, Mauro Pellicci
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Near-miss events are usually identified as adverse events that could have turned into incidents/injuries but, due to an intervention of a safety system or by chance, developed into harmless situations instead. Past and present studies have also outlined the importance of collecting and analyzing near-miss events, as they have same causes of more serious events, thereby allowing for more effective preventative measures at the workplace. Although their importance has been outlined for several years, standard models for designing near-miss management systems (NMMSs) are still lacking and cannot yet support companies in their full-scale application. Despite this condition, NMMSs are applied in several industrial sectors, such as in the construction, mining, chemical, and nuclear industries. The aim of this study is to analyze how companies are developing their own NMMSs. An exploratory analysis was developed through survey analysis; it was provided to a sample of Italian companies in order to evaluate the adoption level of NMMSs as well as current practices applied by companies. The sample included companies of different sizes in the industrial sector. The results extracted from the field analysis outline interesting issues that point out current procedures adopted for the identification, collection, and analysis of near-miss events as well as real benefits and criticalities related to the application of NMMSs.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030047
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 48: Modelling the Impact of Driver Work Environment
           on Driving Performance among Oil and Gas Heavy Vehicles: SEM-PLS

    • Authors: Al-Baraa Abdulrahman Al-Mekhlafi, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam Isha, Ali Nasser Al-Tahitah, Ahmed Farouk Kineber, Baker Nasser Saleh Al-Dhawi, Muhammad Ajmal
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Driving heavy vehicles with dangerous cargo involves various work environments that can significantly impact road safety. This research aims to study the impact of oil and gas tanker drivers’ work environment on driving performance to identify and address any issues that may affect their ability to carry out their jobs effectively. To achieve this, a quantitative approach was employed using a questionnaire survey adapted from the literature review. The data collected from a sample of drivers of oil- and gas-heavy vehicles were analyzed using structural equation modelling. The study’s findings reveal a significant association between the drivers’ work environment and driving performance, represented by a path coefficient of β = 0.237. These results highlight the substantial contribution of the work environment to driving performance, with an effect of 63%. Consequently, the study emphasizes the importance of considering the work environment as a potential factor when assessing and enhancing tanker drivers’ driving abilities during oil and gas transportation.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030048
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 49: Insights into Ionic Liquids for Flame Retardant:
           A Study Based on Bibliometric Mapping

    • Authors: Kai Pan, Hui Liu, Zhijun Wang, Wenjing Ji, Jianhai Wang, Rui Huang, Ze Wei, Dong Ye, Chang Xu, Haining Wang
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Fire is a typical disaster in the processing industry. Ionic liquids, as a type of green flame retardant, play an important role in process safety. In order to grasp the current research status, hotspots, and frontiers in the field of ionic liquids in flame retardancy, the bibliometric mapping method is applied to study the relevant literature in Web of Science datasets from 2000–2022 in this paper. The results show that the research on ionic liquids in flame retardancy is multidisciplinary and involves some disciplines such as energy science, material science, and environmental protection. Journal of Power Sources, Polymer Degradation and Stability, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, and Chemical Engineering Journal are the core journals in the field. The results of keyword co-occurrence indicate that the hotspots of research can be divided into five components: the improvement and application of pure ionic liquids electrolytes, the research of gel polymer electrolytes, applying ionic liquids to enhance the polymer materials’ flame retardancy properties, utilizing ionic liquids and inorganic materials to synergize flame retardant polymers, and using ionic liquids flame retardant to improve material’s multiple properties. The burst terms and time zone diagram’s results point out the combination of computational quantum chemistry to study the flame retardancy mechanism of ionic liquids, the study of fluorinated electrolytes, ionic liquids for smoke suppression, phosphorus-containing ionic liquids for flame retardant, and machine learning-assisted design of ILs flame retardants are the research frontiers and future research trends.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030049
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 50: A Multidisciplinary Vision of the Criminal,
           Social and Occupational Risk Consequences of the Use of Police Force

    • Authors: José C. Vera-Jiménez, Domingo Villero-Carro, Lucas González-Herrera, José A. Álvarez, Jesús Ayuso
      First page: 50
      Abstract: (1) Background: The use of force by public and private security forces is currently an issue of great relevance because of the potential injuries caused by any excessive use of force by either active or passive subjects or a deficit in the real mastery of appropriate physical intervention techniques (PITs). For this reason, certain traditionally used physical intervention techniques have been questioned by scientific research studies and punished by justice. On the other hand, certain media have dealt with this matter in a biased and unfair manner by broadcasting videos where the use of force by police officer is displayed out of context. As a consequence, this problem has been brought under the spotlight, causing general uneasiness of the communities and rapidly spreading over social networks while favoring all sorts of parallel judgments. (2) Research method: A suit was equipped with 19 inertial measurement units (IMUs) and a Biomechanics of Bodies software application for Marras analysis of the data collected on trajectory, trunk twisting velocity, sagittal angle, load, and nature and severity of the injuries associated with the different intervention techniques examined. (3) Results: According to the data registered, the implementation of operational tactical procedures (OTPs) reduces the probability of injuries and leads to a more satisfactory outcome. (4) Conclusions: The implementation of operational tactical procedures, together with an awareness of the risks associated with the excessive use of force by public and private security forces and bodies, could reduce the risk of injuries suffered by both officers and citizens.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030050
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 51: The Prevention of Industrial Manual Tool
           Accidents Considering Occupational Health and Safety

    • Authors: Ricardo P. Arciniega-Rocha, Vanessa C. Erazo-Chamorro, Gyula Szabo
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The industrial sector is improving its management systems and designing healthy workspaces by focusing on selecting the best ways to reduce accidents and optimize financial and human resources. Hand tools represent the general equipment used in a significant range of industrial jobs. This research aims to develop a tool selection method to help users, managers, and tool designers ensure awareness and care regarding ergonomics based on the anthropometrics of employees, considering the main risk factors for tool selection. The information, which relates to hand security risk factors and the established parameters set by official international institutions, is evaluated during the study. This paper also presents a safety risk assessment framework based on criteria collected through a survey from 10 experts to rate the initial risk value and determine its importance using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). As a result, the analysis identified the possibility of injury (with 73.06% accuracy) as the biggest concern for companies due to its immediate effects on workers’ health. It provides a decision regimen—a tool for decision-makers to design and plan prevention activities to reduce accidents, injuries, and possible illnesses. It further lays out a methodical and analytical model to be used by managers to ensure correct hand tool selection. This model can be used to reduce the possibility of illnesses or injuries for workers and tailor the ergonomic design of each workstation according to specific hand anthropometric data for the worker.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030051
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 52: Paediatric Homecare Risk Management: An
           Application of Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM)

    • Authors: Kevin M. Hoy, Enda Fallon, Martina Kelly
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Paediatric homecare is an advancing field of healthcare, bringing care direct to patients in their own homes. Risk management is an integral component of homecare services, including incident and risk assessment management. The objective of the study was to investigate risk management in homecare focusing on two aspects: incident reporting and risk assessments. A Grounded Theory approach was used to gather key functions of these aspects; these were then mapped using the Functional Resonance Analysis method (FRAM). Nineteen nurses working in paediatric homecare services were interviewed for the study. The interviews were semi-structured and focused on risk, quality, complaints, audit, care, and management. The interview data were transcribed and coded using Nvivo; the data were then converted into functions for utilization in the FRAM tool. The FRAM detailed the process of incident reporting and risk assessment management of the actual work carried out as viewed by the participants of the study. The information was then analysed and contrasted with the organizational policy to gain an understanding of the systems of incident reporting and risk assessments, which then led to the development of a refined process that could have less variability in function. Consequently, changes to policy and training in risk management were recommended to enhance the systems.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030052
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 53: Virtual Assessment of a Representative Torso
           Airbag under the Fall from Height Impact Conditions

    • Authors: Raúl Aranda-Marco, Steffen Peldschus
      First page: 53
      Abstract: A fall from height is the main cause of serious injuries and fatalities in occupational and work-related accidents, especially construction. Falls from scaffolds, ladders, or roofs are very frequent accident scenarios. Especially for those falls from a height of 1 m to 6 m, the use of wearable smart airbags has been proposed to mitigate possible torso injuries. In this study, a virtual assessment of such an inflatable protector was conducted using numerical simulations and finite element human body models in order to determine its impact-protection performance under realistic impact conditions and identify its possible limitations. The findings obtained from the simulation study showed a significant protective effect provided by the airbag, mitigating a multiple rib fracture scenario and reducing the risk of internal organ injuries for those falling from four meters of height or less. The use case analyzed in this research demonstrates the suitability of using a virtual environment not only to evaluate current protectors but also to develop new protector devices, which could improve occupational safety.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030053
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 54: Mega Sporting Event Scenario Analysis and Drone
           Camera Surveillance Impacts on Command-and-Control Centre Situational
           Awareness for Dynamic Decision-Making

    • Authors: Khalifa Al-Dosari, Ziad Hunaiti, Wamadeva Balachandran
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Mega sports events may encounter safety and security challenges related to risk management issues such as overcrowding, disorderly behavior, assaults, and security breaches. An incident during the Champions League Final in France in 2022 serves as an example of such challenges. Therefore, this study focuses specifically on the Champions League Final in France, 2022, and presents a situational scenario analysis for safety and security professionals. The objective is to enhance situational awareness and improve risk management strategies for similar events. The study commences by investigating the awareness among security and safety professionals regarding the potential consequences of mega sporting events, utilizing a post-hoc damage evaluation of France ’22. It then compares the effectiveness of fixed and drone cameras in surveillance imaging, aiming to identify ways to enhance situational analysis for improved risk management. The findings indicate that safety and security professionals acknowledged the negative outcomes of adverse events and demonstrated higher situational awareness when using drone surveillance as opposed to relying solely on fixed cameras. They also expressed positive attitudes towards the adoption of surveillance for mega sporting events. Moreover, the study introduces a model for drone surveillance scenario analysis, designed for dynamic decision-making. This model has been developed and aligned to effectively integrate drone surveillance and enhance situational awareness, not only for mega sports events but also for similar applications in various contexts. This research contributes to the understanding of risk management and situational awareness in the realm of mega sports events. It underscores the significance of drone surveillance and proposes strategies to enhance security professionals’ ability to respond effectively to potential threats, ensuring the safety of participants and spectators.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030054
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 55: Intervention Mapping as a Framework for
           Developing and Testing an Intervention to Promote Safety at a Rail
           Infrastructure Maintenance Company

    • Authors: Dolf van der Beek, Wouter Martinus Petrus Steijn, Jop Groeneweg
      First page: 55
      Abstract: In this article, the authors apply the intervention mapping (IM) protocol to develop safety leadership training for a rail infrastructure maintenance company. The IM protocol helps to create an evidence-based intervention in a structured way, based on concrete evidence. The application of IM within the occupational safety domain is limited, a research gap that this article bridges with the development and testing of a safety leadership intervention to promote safety behavior among managers. The company was positively and actively engaged in the training program thanks to the IM protocol. The local support group took full advantage of the opportunities to provide input during the development of the training’s various components. Despite this, interpersonal problems within the leadership team itself, such as a lack of psychological safety, were not identified during the needs assessment. These issues had an impact on the overall effectiveness of the training, as they manifested during the training when managers met physically for the first time in several years (due to the coronavirus). Our IM protocol will be adjusted accordingly for future applications, and we hope that sharing our experiences will enable fellow researchers to avoid this problem.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030055
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 56: Psychosocial Safety and Health Hazards and Their
           Impacts on Offshore Oil and Gas Workers

    • Authors: Emma D’Antoine, Janis Jansz, Ahmed Barifcani, Sherrilyn Shaw-Mills, Mark Harris, Christopher Lagat
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The offshore oil and gas working environment is an inherently dangerous one, with risks posed to physical safety on a daily basis. One neglected field of research is the added psychosocial stressors present in this environment. This research examined the experiences of offshore oil and gas workers through one-on-one online interviews which were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed through the qualitative software NVivo, which generated themes and patterns for the responses given to questions that were developed through a focus group. The results of the analysis showed that multiple psychosocial stressors are present in this population, such as fear of speaking up, unsatisfactory company-provided facilities, work–life interference, work status, micromanaging, gender harassment and bullying. In addition, interviews identified that production and time pressures, along with fatigue, can influence accidents and mistakes. Climate factors also cause discomfort. However, these are managed according to best practices by organizations. Due to the timing of the study, COVID-19 was a significant stressor for some, but not all, employees. In conclusion, offshore oil and gas workers face multiple stressors in a dangerous environment that may lead to devastating consequences.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030056
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 57: Exploring the Robustness of Alternative Cluster
           Detection and the Threshold Distance Method for Crash Hot Spot Analysis: A
           Study on Vulnerable Road Users

    • Authors: Muhammad Faisal Habib, Raj Bridgelall, Diomo Motuba, Baishali Rahman
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Traditional hot spot and cluster analysis techniques based on the Euclidean distance may not be adequate for assessing high-risk locations related to crashes. This is because crashes occur on transportation networks where the spatial distance is network-based. Therefore, this research aims to conduct spatial analysis to identify clusters of high- and low-risk crash locations. Using vulnerable road users’ crash data of San Francisco, the first step in the workflow involves using Ripley’s K-and G-functions to detect the presence of clustering patterns and to identify their threshold distance. Next, the threshold distance is incorporated into the Getis-Ord Gi* method to identify local hot and cold spots. The analysis demonstrates that the network-constrained G-function can effectively define the appropriate threshold distances for spatial correlation analysis. This workflow can serve as an analytical template to aid planners in improving their threshold distance selection for hot spot analysis as it employs actual road-network distances to produce more accurate results, which is especially relevant when assessing discrete-data phenomena such as crashes.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030057
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 58: Application of the Apriori Algorithm for Traffic
           Crash Analysis in Thailand

    • Authors: Ittirit Mohamad, Rattanaporn Kasemsri, Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha, Sajjakaj Jomnonkwao
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Accidents pose significant obstacles to economic progress and quality of life, especially in developing countries. Thailand faces such challenges and this research seeks to assess the frequency and most common causes of road accidents that lead to fatalities. This study employed the Apriori algorithm to examine the interrelationships among factors contributing to accidents in order to inform policymaking for reducing accident rates, minimizing economic and human losses, and enhancing the effectiveness of the healthcare system. By analyzing road accident data from 2015 to 2020 in Thailand (167,820 accidents causing THB 1.13 billion in damages), this article specifically focuses on the drivers responsible for fatal highway accidents. The findings reveal several interconnected variables that heighten the likelihood of fatalities, such as male gender, exceeding speed limits, riding a motorbike, traveling on straight roads, encountering dry surface conditions, and clear weather. An association rule analysis underscores the increased risk of injury or death in traffic accidents.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030058
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 59: Potential Effects of Permanent Daylight Savings
           Time on Daylight Exposure and Risk during Commute Times across United

    • Authors: Jaime K. Devine, Jake Choynowski, Steven R. Hursh
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Background: Permanent Daylight Savings Time (DST) may improve road safety by providing more daylight in the evening but could merely shift risk to morning commutes or increase risk due to fatigue and circadian misalignment. Methods: To identify how potential daylight exposure and fatigue risk could differ between permanent DST versus permanent Standard Time (ST) or current time arrangements (CTA), generic work and school schedules in five United States cities were modeled in SAFTE-FAST biomathematical modeling software. Commute data were categorized by morning (0700–0900) and evening (1600–1800) rush hours. Results: Percent darkness was greater under DST compared with ST for the total waking day (t = 2.59, p = 0.03) and sleep periods (t = 2.46, p = 0.045). Waketimes occurred before sunrise 63 ± 41% percent of the time under DST compared with CTA (42 ± 37%) or ST (33 ± 38%; F(2,74) = 76.37; p < 0.001). Percent darkness was greater during morning (16 ± 31%) and lower during evening rush hour (0 ± 0%) in DST compared with either CTA (morning: 7 ± 23%; evening: 7 ± 14%) or ST (morning: 7 ± 23%; evening: 7 ± 15%). Discussion: Morning rush hour overlaps with students’ commutes and shift workers’ reverse commutes, which may increase traffic congestion and risk compared with evening rush hour. Switching to permanent DST may be more disruptive than either switching to ST or keeping CTA without noticeable benefit to fatigue or potential daylight exposure.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030059
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 60: Towards a Sustainable and Safe Future: Mapping
           Bike Accidents in Urbanized Context

    • Authors: Ahmed Jaber, Bálint Csonka
      First page: 60
      Abstract: This manuscript presents a study on the spatial relationships between bike accidents, the built environment, land use, and transportation network characteristics in Budapest, Hungary using geographic weighted regression (GWR). The sample period includes bike crash data between 2017 and 2022. The findings provide insights into the spatial distribution of bike crashes and their severity, which can be useful for designing targeted interventions to improve bike safety in Budapest and be useful for policymakers and city planners in developing effective strategies to reduce the severity of bike crashes in urban areas. The study reveals that built environment features, such as traffic signals, road crossings, and bus stops, are positively correlated with the bike crash index, particularly in the inner areas of the city. However, traffic signals have a negative correlation with the bike crash index in the suburbs, where they may contribute to making roads safer for cyclists. The study also shows that commercial activity and PT stops have a higher impact on bike crashes in the northern and western districts. GWR analysis further suggests that one-way roads and higher speed limits are associated with more severe bike crashes, while green and recreational areas are generally safer for cyclists. Future research should be focused on the traffic volume and bike trips’ effects on the severity index.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030060
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 61: The Development of the Pooled Rideshare
           Acceptance Model (PRAM)

    • Authors: Rakesh Gangadharaiah, Johnell O. Brooks, Patrick J. Rosopa, Haotian Su, Lisa Boor, Ashley Edgar, Kristin Kolodge, Yunyi Jia
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Due to the advancements in real-time information communication technologies and sharing economies, rideshare services have gained significant momentum by offering dynamic and/or on-demand services. Rideshare service companies evolved from personal rideshare, where riders traveled solo or with known individuals, into pooled rideshare (PR), where riders can travel with one to multiple unknown riders. Similar to other shared economy services, pooled rideshare is beneficial as it efficiently utilizes resources, resulting in reduced energy usage, as well as reduced costs for the riders. However, previous research has demonstrated that riders have concerns about using pooled rideshare, especially regarding personal safety. A U.S. national survey with 5385 participants was used to understand human factor-related barriers and user preferences to develop a novel Pooled Rideshare Acceptance Model (PRAM). This model used a covariance-based structural equation model (CB-SEM) to identify the relationships between willingness to consider PR factors (time/cost, privacy, safety, service experience, and traffic/environment) and optimizing one’s experience of PR factors (vehicle technology/accessibility, convenience, comfort/ease of use, and passenger safety), resulting in the higher-order factor trust service. We examined the factors’ relative contribution to one’s willingness/attitude towards PR and user acceptance of PR. Privacy, safety, trust service, and convenience were statistically significant factors in the model, as were the comfort/ease of use factor and the service experience, traffic/environment, and passenger safety factors. The only two non-significant factors in the model were time/cost and vehicle technology/accessibility; it is only when a rider feels safe that individuals then consider the additional non-significant variables of time, cost, technology, and accessibility. Privacy, safety, and service experience were factors that discouraged the use of PR, whereas the convenience factor greatly encouraged the acceptance of PR. Despite the time/cost factor’s lack of significance, individual items related to time and cost were crucial when viewed within the context of convenience. This highlights that while user perceptions of privacy and safety are paramount to their attitude towards PR, once safety concerns are addressed, and services are deemed convenient, time and cost elements significantly enhance their trust in pooled rideshare services. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of user acceptance of PR services and offers actionable insights for policymakers and rideshare companies to improve their services and increase user adoption.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030061
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 62: Online Process Safety Performance Indicators
           Using Big Data: How a PSPI Looks Different from a Data Perspective

    • Authors: Paul Singh, Coen van Gulijk, Neil Sunderland
      First page: 62
      Abstract: This work presents a data-centric method to use IoT data, generated from the site, to monitor core functions of safety barriers on a batch reactor. The approach turns process safety performance indicators (PSPIs) into online, globally available safety indicators that eliminate variability in human interpretation. This work also showcases a class of PSPIs that are reliable and time-dependent but only work in a digital online environment: profile PSPIs. It is demonstrated that the profile PSPI opens many new opportunities for leading indicators, without the need for complex mathematics. Online PSPI analyses were performed at the Syngenta Huddersfield Manufacturing Centre, Leeds Road, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, and shared with their international headquarters in Basel, Switzerland. The performance was determined with industry software to extract time-series data and perform the calculations. The calculations were based on decades of IoT data stored in the AVEVA Factory Historian. Non-trivial data cleansing and additional data tags were required for the creation of relevant signal conditions and composite conditions. This work demonstrates that digital methods do not require gifted data analysts to report existing PSPIs in near real-time and is well within the capabilities of chemical (safety) engineers. Current PSPIs can also be evaluated in terms of their effectiveness to allow management to make decisions that lead to corrective actions. This improves significantly on traditional PSPI processes that, when reviewed monthly, lead to untimely decisions and actions. This approach also makes it possible to review PSPIs as they develop, receiving notifications of PSPIs when they reach prescribed limits, all with the potential to recommend alternative PSPIs that are more proactive in nature.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030062
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 63: Safer Working at Heights: Exploring the
           Usability of Virtual Reality for Construction Safety Training among
           Blue-Collar Workers in Kuwait

    • Authors: Mohamad Iyad Al-Khiami, Martin Jaeger
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Virtual Reality (VR) construction safety training modules have reached a level of maturity which renders them as a serious alternative to traditional safety training modules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usability of a particular safety training module related to “Working at heights” for blue-collar construction workers in Kuwait. A mixed study approach was applied based on a semi-quasi experimental research design, utilizing a control group/experimental group with pre-/post-test measurements, supplemented by observations. The findings indicate a statistically insignificant higher learning effectiveness of the workers exposed to the VR approach. Observations confirmed that trainees require an extended time of preparation to become familiar with moving within the virtual environment and using the related hardware. Furthermore, younger users with less work experience reported a higher usability than older users with more work experience. VR content developers are encouraged to investigate the possibilities of simplifying the virtual environment to make it more relevant for blue-collar workers, reduce the complexity of the hardware, and intensify the feeling of the consequences resulting from users’ choices. Construction companies and educational institutions training construction blue-collar workers can benefit from the VR approach to safety training if they allow sufficient time for familiarization with the virtual training module.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030063
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 64: A New Shift in Implementing Unmanned Aerial
           Vehicles (UAVs) in the Safety and Security of Smart Cities: A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Khalifa AL-Dosari, Noora Fetais
      First page: 64
      Abstract: The rapid rise of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and their integration into smart city initiatives has sparked a surge of research interest in a broad array of thematic areas. This study undertakes a comprehensive review of recent scholarly literature to elucidate key research trends and innovative strategies for applying UAVs in smart cities. Through a detailed descriptive analysis, we identify prominent research clusters, including integrating the Internet of Things (IoT) with UAVs, applying artificial intelligence in surveillance, exploring the Internet of Drones (IoD), and cybersecurity challenges faced by smart cities. It is observed that security and privacy concerns within smart cities receive the most scholarly attention, indicating their central importance in shaping smart city strategies. The review of innovative strategies reveals a strong emphasis on leveraging cutting-edge technologies to enhance UAV capabilities and ensure drones’ efficient, secure, and ethical deployment in smart city environments. This study provides crucial insights that inform the design of future research and policies in the burgeoning field of smart city development through the use of UAVs.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030064
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 65: A Deep-Learning Approach to Driver Drowsiness

    • Authors: Mohammed Imran Basheer Ahmed, Halah Alabdulkarem, Fatimah Alomair, Dana Aldossary, Manar Alahmari, Munira Alhumaidan, Shoog Alrassan, Atta Rahman, Mustafa Youldash, Gohar Zaman
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Drowsy driving is a widespread cause of traffic accidents, especially on highways. It has become an essential task to seek an understanding of the situation in order to be able to take immediate remedial actions to detect driver drowsiness and enhance road safety. To address the issue of road safety, the proposed model offers a method for evaluating the level of driver fatigue based on changes in a driver’s eyeball movement using a convolutional neural network (CNN). Further, with the help of CNN and VGG16 models, facial sleepiness expressions were detected and classified into four categories (open, closed, yawning, and no yawning). Subsequently, a dataset of 2900 images of eye conditions associated with driver sleepiness was used to test the models, which include a different range of features such as gender, age, head position, and illumination. The results of the devolved models show a high degree of accountability, whereas the CNN model achieved an accuracy rate of 97%, a precision of 99%, and recall and F-score values of 99%. The VGG16 model reached an accuracy rate of 74%. This is a considerable contrast between the state-of-the-art methods in the literature for similar problems.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030065
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 66: Assessing the Impact of 20 mph Speed Limits on
           Vehicle Speeds in Rural Areas: The Case of the Scottish Borders

    • Authors: Adebola Olowosegun, Grigorios Fountas, Adrian Davis
      First page: 66
      Abstract: This paper aims at delivering new empirical evidence as to the effectiveness of 20 mph speed limits in rural areas. For this purpose, speed and traffic data were drawn from the area of the Scottish Borders, UK, where the local Council led the rollout of a 20 mph speed limit trial in 97 villages and towns from October 2020. This intervention is considered as one of the first of its kind in the UK and overseas, as it was carried out on a large scale, in predominantly rural areas. To evaluate the impact of the 20 mph speed limit on vehicle speeds, we conducted a “before–after” quantitative analysis using traffic and speed data collected in different waves before and after the intervention. The descriptive analysis showed that both mean and 85th percentile speeds reduced directly after the introduction of the 20 mph speed limit (by 3.1 mph and 3.2 mph, respectively), and that such speed reductions were largely maintained even up to eight months after the onset of the intervention. The largest speed reductions were observed in locations with high-speed patterns before the intervention, and especially in those having mean speeds greater than 25 mph before the intervention. Both non-parametric and parametric statistical tests, which were conducted using approximately five million speed observations, showed that the observed speed changes were statistically significant for the vast majority of cases. Linear regression models were also estimated confirming the significant impact of the 20 mph limit on vehicle speeds, while controlling for the influence of traffic volume. Overall, the findings of this study will likely assist in filling an evidence gap regarding the effectiveness of 20 mph speed limits in rural settlements. They can also provide encouragement to those local authorities in the UK and abroad that are currently actively examining the possibility of setting the 20 mph as the default limit in built-up areas.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9030066
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 19: Physiological Stress Responses to Fear and
           Anxiety in a Height Change Experiment among Non-Labor Teenagers

    • Authors: Apiruck Wonghempoom, Warawoot Chuangchai, Pattamon Selanon
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Working on elevated surfaces without prior experience can be dangerous, particularly for young people, who are significantly more at risk of developing fear and anxiety, which might lead to falls and fatalities. This critical problem has, however, received limited research attention. The present study aimed to demonstrate the associations among physiological responses, fear, and anxiety in Thai teenagers at various height levels. Sixty teenagers (30 males and 30 females) between the ages of 15 and 18 who had no labor skills were recruited to perform the task at 11 levels, starting at zero meters and increasing by one meter at each level. The measurements were examined and recorded once the task at each level was finished. The main results indicated that heart rate was partially positively associated with mean arterial pressure, fear, and anxiety (with all p values < 0.001) in all teenagers (after controlling for level and sex), as well as male and female teenagers (after controlling for level). The present study suggested monitoring heart rate data in teenagers conducting activities at heights, which can be triggered by fear and anxiety, as a strategy for preventing falls from height hazards.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020019
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 20: A Crash Data Analysis through a Comparative
           Application of Regression and Neural Network Models

    • Authors: Lorenzo Mussone, Mohammadamin Alizadeh Meinagh
      First page: 20
      Abstract: One way to reduce road crashes is to determine the main influential factors among a long list that are attributable to driver behavior, environmental conditions, vehicle features, road type, and traffic signs. Hence, selecting the best modelling tool for extracting the relations between crash factors and their outcomes is a crucial task. To analyze the road crash data of Milan City, Italy, gathered between 2014–2017, this study used artificial neural networks (ANNs), generalized linear mixed-effects (GLME), multinomial regression (MNR), and general nonlinear regression (NLM), as the modelling tools. The data set contained 35,182 records of road crashes with injuries or fatalities. The findings showed that unbalanced and incomplete data sets had an impact on outcome performance, and data treatment methods could help overcome this problem. Age and gender were the most influential recurrent factors in crashes. Additionally, ANNs demonstrated a superior capability to approximate complicated relationships between an input and output better than the other regression models. However, they cannot provide an analytical formulation, but can be used as a baseline for other regression models. Due to this, GLME and MNR were utilized to gather information regarding the analytical framework of the model, that aimed to construct a particular NLM.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020020
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 21: An Assessment of Horse-Drawn Vehicle Incidents
           from U.S. News Media Reports within AgInjuryNews

    • Authors: Nicole Becklinger
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Some old-order Anabaptist communities rely on animal-drawn vehicles for transportation and farm work. This research examines reports involving horse-drawn vehicles found in the AgInjuryNews dataset, which provides a publicly accessible collection of agricultural injury reports primarily gathered from news media. The goals of this research are to characterize the reports and to compare results with previous research to assess the utility of using AgInjuryNews to examine horse-drawn vehicle incidents. A total of 38 reports representing 83 victims were identified. Chi-square tests comparing victim and incident traits for fatal and nonfatal injuries were significant for the victim’s role in the incident, vehicle type, presence of a motor vehicle, rear-ending by a motor vehicle, spooked horses, a victim being run over or struck by a vehicle, and a victim being ejected or falling from a vehicle. Additional analysis of incidents involving horse-drawn farm equipment showed that a significantly higher proportion of off-road incidents were fatal compared to on-road incidents. The proportion of fatal injuries in the AgInjuryNews dataset was approximately 10 times higher than observed in a study using Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (DOT) data. Compared to previous research, the AgInjuryNews reports contained a higher proportion of incidents where a motor vehicle rear-ended a horse-drawn vehicle, and fewer cases of horse-drawn vehicles being struck by motor vehicles while crossing or entering a main road and making left turns. Reports of buggy crashes found in AgInjuryNews differed from those found in a Nexis Uni search in that the bulk of the articles from Nexis Uni referred to cases involving criminal charges for impaired driving or hit-and-run crashes. While it is evident that the reports included in the sample are incidents that media sources find compelling rather than comprehensive injury surveillance, it is possible to gain new insights using the AgInjuryNews reports.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020021
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 22: A Scoping Literature Review of Natural Language
           Processing Application to Safety Occurrence Reports

    • Authors: Jon Ricketts, David Barry, Weisi Guo, Jonathan Pelham
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Safety occurrence reports can contain valuable information on how incidents occur, revealing knowledge that can assist safety practitioners. This paper presents and discusses a literature review exploring how Natural Language Processing (NLP) has been applied to occurrence reports within safety-critical industries, informing further research on the topic and highlighting common challenges. Some of the uses of NLP include the ability for occurrence reports to be automatically classified against categories, and entities such as causes and consequences to be extracted from the text as well as the semantic searching of occurrence databases. The review revealed that machine learning models form the dominant method when applying NLP, although rule-based algorithms still provide a viable option for some entity extraction tasks. Recent advances in deep learning models such as Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding are now achieving a high accuracy while eliminating the need to substantially pre-process text. The construction of safety-themed datasets would be of benefit for the application of NLP to occurrence reporting, as this would allow the fine-tuning of current language models to safety tasks. An interesting approach is the use of topic modelling, which represents a shift away from the prescriptive classification taxonomies, splitting data into “topics”. Where many papers focus on the computational accuracy of models, they would also benefit from real-world trials to further inform usefulness. It is anticipated that NLP will soon become a mainstream tool used by safety practitioners to efficiently process and gain knowledge from safety-related text.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020022
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 23: Workforce Diversity and Occupational Hearing

    • Authors: David Nadler
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Hearing loss is one of the more common occupation health hazards across the globe yet is preventable. Extensive research has been done across a number of industries measuring the magnitude and frequency of hearing impairment. This study uses the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to analyze hearing impairment in the United States. Regression and structural equation models were developed utilizing this publicly available data. A statistically significant correlation exists between general hearing condition and ethnicity, χ2 (30, N = 8897) = 264.817, p < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation exists in this database between general hearing condition and gender, χ2 (6, N = 8897) = 40.729, p < 0.001. An ordinal logistic regression was significant between the general health and ethnicity, χ2 (30, N = 5968) = 212.123, p < 0.001. A structural equation model presents the first of its type for this area of research. Focusing on addressing diversity issues may be the foundation for hearing health improvement. Tools such as smartphone apps may be useful for tracking hearing loss within the workforce.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020023
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 24: Prevalence and Characteristics of Ambulance
           Collisions, a Systematic Literature Review

    • Authors: Milad Delavary, Zahra Ghayeninezhad, Martin Lavallière
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The risk of dying or being injured as a result of traffic collisions is higher for medical emergency responders than for other professional drivers. This systematic review synthesizes the literature regarding the collisions of ambulances, focusing on the prevalence and characteristics surrounding such events. Keywords including paramedics and traffic collisions were searched in papers available in PubMed from January 1990 to July 2021. Two independent reviewers screened the abstracts of 2494 papers and ended up with 93 full-text articles to assess for eligibility, of which 26 papers were finally kept for this review. There was a total of 18 studies conducted in the United States, followed by 3 in Turkey, 2 in Taiwan, 1 in both the United States and Canada, 1 in France, and 1 in Poland. There is a high record of injury and fatal collisions for ambulances compared to other commercial or similarly sized vehicles. Drivers less than 35 years old with low experience and a history of citations are more likely to be involved in such collisions. Ambulance collisions are more likely to happen in urban areas and intersections are the riskiest locations. Most collisions occur when the ambulance is responding to an emergency call (i.e., going to the patient or the hospital) and using lights and sirens. Tailored preventive policies and programs for improving paramedics’ safety should be sought to reduce the burden of these occupational collisions.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020024
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 25: How Provisional Improvement Notices Influence
           Employee Voice and Silence

    • Authors: Phillip Ho
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Health and safety representatives (HSR) have the power to issue provisional improvement notices (PIN) to their employer for safety breaches. This paper examines how PINs influence workplace dynamics or employee voice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HSRs and other key stakeholders. They provided details of their organisations which were used to form three case studies. Some HSRs did not believe PINS would be required as management had implemented a positive safety culture. Other HSRs feared retaliation and were afraid to issue PINs. Overall, how PINs influence employee voice was primarily driven by workplace dynamics, management attitudes as well as broader economic and political factors. There was evidence that PINs increased the confidence of HSRs to perform their duties.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020025
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 26: Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Generative
           Voluntary Safety Reporting Culture (GVSRC) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil
           and Gas (O&G) Sector Using the Offshore Safety Action Program (OSAP)

    • Authors: Daniel Kwasi Adjekum, Nana Yaw Owusu-Amponsah, Samuel Asante Afari, Zachary Waller, Vamegh Rasouli, Gary Ullrich, Paul Snyder, Neal Corbin
      First page: 26
      Abstract: To fill a gap in understanding of the Generative Voluntary Safety Reporting Culture (GVSRC) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas (O&G) sector, perspectives of stakeholders based on their experiences were explored using attributes of a proposed Offshore Safety Action Program (OSAP) modeled after the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP). A phenomenological approach encompassing semi-structured interviews (n = 18) and five focus-group sessions (n = 18) was used to collect data from a cross-section of top management, supervisors, regulatory representatives, and subject-matter experts (SME). Four themes emerged from a Thematic Analysis: (1) Voluntary safety reporting culture, (2) Voluntary safety reporting bottlenecks, (3) Universality, and (4) Organizational review of safety events. Most respondents strongly supported the OSAP because it ensures a formalized adjudication of voluntary safety reports by an Event Review Committee (ERC) with representation from employees, management, and regulators. Most respondents supported the non-punitive and confidential attributes of the OSAP as a means to enhance GVSRC. However, there were varying perspectives on defining intentional disregard for safety under the OSAP. Due to the enumerated challenges of cost, respondents agreed that organizations use a scalable process commensurate with the complexity of their operations when adopting the OSAP. A veritable framework for data-driven corrective actions, organizational learning, and enhanced GVSRC in the offshore sector is a potential policy implication of adopting the OSAP.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020026
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 27: Efficacy of Antivibration Gloves When Used with
           Electric Hammers of about 10 kg for Chiseling Limestone Rocks

    • Authors: Guido Alfaro Degan, Andrea Antonucci, Dario Lippiello
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The ISO Standard 10819:2013 defines the method for evaluating the performances of antivibration (AV) gloves, but when used in real fields, the protection can be dissimilar to that labeled. This paper investigates the transmissibility, at the palm level, of three different types of AV gloves (air, gel, neoprene) and an ordinary leather glove, during the use of four similar electric hammers (average weight of 10 kg, and average impact energy of 18 J), in a limestone quarry plant. As the average triaxial transmissibility for all the hammers, results show very limited benefits in reducing the vibration (6%), with no significative differences among the different gloves. The working leather glove, instead, shows a transmissibility quite equal to the unit. Anyway, results can be different for the same glove when used among the different hammers, providing in some cases 19% of protection. Some differences can be found regarding the transmissibility through the three main axes for the same type of glove: the glove in gel seems to perform better in shear than in compression. The transmissibility in compression is around 20% higher than that provided by the manufacturers of the certified gloves. The usage of specific excitation curves during laboratory tests could help in providing a more accurate estimation of the transmissibility of the gloves when used with a specific tool.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020027
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 28: Case Study: Modeling a Grain Bin for Safe Entry

    • Authors: Michael Dyer, Serap Gorucu, Randall Bock, Roderick Thomas, Jude Liu, Linda Fetzer
      First page: 28
      Abstract: All new grain bins produced after 2018 are recommended to have anchor points capable of handling a 2000 lb loading for attachment of bin entry lifeline systems. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a safe entry anchor point retrofit by using finite element analysis (FEA). We used a grain bin owned by Penn State for 3D FEA modeling in SolidWorks. To validate the model results from the FEA model, first strain and then deflection measurements were conducted on the grain. Strain gauges were applied to the grain bin in five locations and strain values were obtained after applying static loads. The strain gauge measurements from the experimental study were compared to the strain output from the FEA simulation. The error seen was far greater than was expected. The most pertinent error source was strain gauge installation error and equipment failure. Then, the vertical roof deflection of the bin was measured using a precision phase-comparison laser while applying incremental static loads to the retrofitted rescue anchor points. The FEA model results were compared to the experimentally measured deflection results. A 3D FEA model of a grain bin was created. A high amount of error was observed in deflections between the measured and FEA modeling. The errors have resulted from the assumptions made during the model creation. However, the SolidWorks Simulation model still may be used to estimate loading scenarios in a safe and non-destructive way. Based on the research findings, the project team recommends that the suitability of any bin to safely accommodate a lifeline and anchor point system must be verified on a case-by-case basis. Evaluation by a professional structural engineer and consulting with the manufacturer are recommended. This recommendation extends to all-grain bins, including those post-2018.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020028
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 29: Predicting Intoxication Using Motorcycle and
           Head Movements of Riders Wearing Alcohol Intoxication Goggles

    • Authors: Rosemary Seva, Imanuel Luir del del Rosario, Lorenzo Miguel Peñafiel, John Michael Young, Edwin Sybingco
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The movement of a motorcycle is one of the critical factors that influences the stability of the ride. It has been established that the gait patterns of drunk and sober people are distinct. However, drunk motorcycle (MC) drivers’ balance has not been investigated as a predictor of intoxication. This paper characterized and used MC and head movements, such as pitch and roll, to predict intoxication while riding. Two separate experiments were conducted to monitor MC and head movement. Male participants were recruited between the ages of 23 and 50 to participate in the study. Participants used alcohol intoxication goggles (AIG) to simulate blood alcohol content (BAC) while driving on a straight path. Placebo goggles were used for control. Results showed that pitch and roll amplitudes of the MC could distinguish drivers wearing placebo and AIGs, as well as the pitch and roll frequency of the head. Deep learning can be used to predict the intoxication of MC riders. The predictive accuracy of the algorithm shows a viable opportunity for the use of movement to monitor drunk riders on the road.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020029
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 30: Infrastructure-Based Performance Evaluation for
           Low-Speed Automated Vehicle (LSAV)

    • Authors: Sheila Klauer, Yubin Hong, Mike Mollenhauer, Jean Paul Talledo Vilela
      First page: 30
      Abstract: This study assessed the limitations of the EasyMile EZ10 Gen 3 low-speed automated vehicle (LSAV) while operating on public roadways. The primary interest was to evaluate the infrastructure elements that posed the greatest challenges for the LSAV. A route was chosen that would satisfy a legitimate transit need. This route included more operational complexity and higher traffic volumes than a typical EasyMile LSAV deployment. The results indicate that the LSAV operated at a lower-than-expected speed (6 to 8 mph), with a high frequency of disengagements, and a regular need for safety operator intervention. Four-way stop-sign controlled intersections, three-lane roads with a shared turning lane in the middle, open areas, and areas without clear markings were the most challenging for the LSAV. Some important considerations include the need to have LSAVs operate on roadways where other vehicles may pass more safely, or on streets with slower posted speed limits. Additionally, the low passenger capacity and inability to understand where passengers are located onboard make it hard for the LSAV to replace bus transits. Currently, the LSAV is best suited to provide first/last-mile services, short routes within a controlled access area, and fill in gaps in conventional transits.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020030
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 31: Conceptual Framework for Hazards Management in
           the Surface Mining Industry—Application of Structural Equation

    • Authors: Saira Sherin, Salim Raza, Ishaq Ahmad
      First page: 31
      Abstract: This paper presents a conceptual framework with the application of the structural equation modeling (SEM) method for improving safety in the surface mining industry. The focus of the study is to address the essential components of occupational safety and assess them to develop significant linkages because they are often addressed individually. In this study, the risk (accident causation) factors were examined for continuous improvement based on the risk management process and the application of engineering, education, and enforcement. Data collected from mine employees were utilized to evaluate the framework using SEM. The final structure model showed good fit indices, including chi-square to a degree of freedom (x2/df) equal to 2.545, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.034 with a probability of 1.0, and a valid framework path. All the factors had a significant positive effect on workplace conditions and workers’ commitment, except machinery, which had a positive non-significant effect on workplace conditions. The effects of the mediated factors of worker commitment and workplace conditions on the number of accidents were β = −0.76 and β = −0.145, respectively, and the effects on job satisfaction were β = 0.31 and β = 0.433. The research concluded that any risk factor reduction can improve safety in the mining industry; however, the correlation of all factors’ effects magnifies the influence of a single factor. Furthermore, the conceptual framework is recommended for identifying the factors that need modification in order to manage hazards and improve safety in the workplace.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020031
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 32: Comparing Machine Learning Techniques for
           Predictions of Motorway Segment Crash Risk Level

    • Authors: Dimitrios Nikolaou, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Anastasios Dragomanovits, Julia Roussou, George Yannis
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Motorways are typically the safest road environment in terms of injury crashes per million vehicle kilometres; however, given the high severity of crashes occurring therein, there is still space for road safety improvements. The objective of this study is to compare the classification performance of five machine learning techniques for predictions of crash risk levels of motorway segments. To that end, data on crash risk levels, driving behaviour metrics, and road geometry characteristics of 668 motorway segments were exploited. The utilized dataset was divided into training and test subsets, with a proportion of 75% and 25%, respectively. The training subset was used to train the models, whereas the test subset was used for the evaluation of their performance. The response variable of the models was the crash risk level of the considered motorway segments, while the predictors were various road design characteristics and naturalistic driving behaviour metrics. The techniques considered were Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and K-Nearest Neighbours. Among the five techniques, the Random Forest model achieved the best classification performance (overall accuracy: 89.3%, macro-averaged precision: 89.0%, macro-averaged recall: 88.4%, macro-averaged F1 score: 88.6%). Moreover, the Shapley additive explanations were calculated in order to assist with the interpretation of the model’s outcomes. The findings of this study are particularly useful as the Random Forest model could be used as a highly promising proactive road safety tool for identifying potentially hazardous motorway segments.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020032
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 33: Natech Accidents Triggered by Heat Waves

    • Authors: Federica Ricci, Valeria Casson Moreno, Valerio Cozzani
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Natech accidents have an increasing relevance due to the growing number of such events and to their severe consequences. Climate change and global warming are intensifying the occurrence and the magnitude of climate-related natural events, further increasing the risk of cascading sequences triggered by natural disasters impacting industrial installations. The present study focuses on Natech triggered by heat waves. The features of this specific category of Natech events were investigated by past accident analysis, collecting an extended dataset of past events. The dataset analysis allowed the identification of the key factors that characterize these accident scenarios, such as the direct causes, the technological scenario that occurred, the substance categories, and the equipment items more frequently involved. The main direct cause of accidents resulted in an internal pressure increase, exceeding equipment design limits. Fire scenarios represent the most important category of technological scenarios that occurred. Besides equipment items handling liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, waste storage and processing systems also resulted frequently in accidents, due to the self-decomposition and self-ignition phenomena. The analysis of past accidents also allowed identifying some lessons learned, useful to identify specific actions aimed at preventing and/or mitigating the possible occurrence of these accident scenarios.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020033
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 34: Traffic Fatalities and Urban Infrastructure: A
           Spatial Variability Study Using Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression
           Applied in Cali (Colombia)

    • Authors: Harvy Vivas Pacheco, Diego Rodríguez-Mariaca, Ciro Jaramillo, Andrés Fandiño-Losada, María Isabel Gutiérrez-Martínez
      First page: 34
      Abstract: The mobility plan and the road infrastructure works implemented, together with the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) connected bus system in its first two phases, generated optimistic expectations about the reduction of lethal crashes in the city. This research studies the relationship between investments in transportation infrastructure in the city and the distribution of traffic fatalities. Although it is not strictly speaking an impact assessment, the approach we propose performs geostatistical contrasts between intervened and non-intervened areas, using a geographically weighted model that attempts to model the spatial variability of the factors associated with the intra-urban road traffic crash rate, controlling for infrastructure interventions and some proxy indicators of urban structure. The findings reveal that fatalities decreased in areas both with and without intervention. Despite the expectation of reducing fatal injuries, the differential effects of the interventions were relatively small. The risk of road traffic crashes was even increased in critical points of the city with recurrent lethal crashes. The effects of road interventions on fatal road traffic crashes in Cali did not correspond to the high social and economic costs involved in the BRT system and the work plan.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020034
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 35: Innovative Technologies for Occupational Health
           and Safety: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Omar Flor-Unda, Mauricio Fuentes, Daniel Dávila, Mario Rivera, Gladys Llano, Carlos Izurieta, Patricia Acosta-Vargas
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Technological advancements have allowed for the design and development of multiple intelligent devices that monitor the health and safety status of workers in the industry in general. This paper reviews and describes the alternative technologies and their potential for monitoring risk situations, vital signs, physical variables, worker positions, and behavioral trends of workers in their work activities in the workplace. A scoping review was conducted using PRISMA ScR in which information was extracted from 99 scientific articles related to these technological advances. The operational characteristics and utilities of devices whose primary function is to control better and monitor worker safety and health were identified. It was concluded that technology strongly improves the acquisition and sending of information. This information can be used to provide alerts and feedback to workers so that they act more safely and protect their health. In addition, technological developments have resulted in devices that eliminate operational risks by replacing manual activities with automated and autonomous tasks.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020035
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 36: A User-Centered Design Exploration of Factors
           That Influence the Rideshare Experience

    • Authors: Rakesh Gangadharaiah, Haotian Su, Elenah B. Rosopa, Johnell O. Brooks, Kristin Kolodge, Lisa Boor, Patrick J. Rosopa, Yunyi Jia
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The rise of real-time information communication through smartphones and wireless networks enabled the growth of ridesharing services. While personal rideshare services (individuals riding alone or with acquaintances) initially dominated the market, the popularity of pooled ridesharing (individuals sharing rides with people they do not know) has grown globally. However, pooled ridesharing remains less common in the U.S., where personal vehicle usage is still the norm. Vehicle design and rideshare services may need to be tailored to user preferences to increase pooled rideshare adoption. Based on a large, national U.S. survey (N = 5385), the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that four key factors influence riders’ willingness to consider pooled ridesharing: comfort/ease of use, convenience, vehicle technology/accessibility, and passenger safety. A binomial logistic regression was conducted to determine how the four factors influence one’s willingness to consider pooled ridesharing. The two factors that positively influence riders’ willingness to consider pooled ridesharing are vehicle technology/accessibility (B = 1.10) and convenience (B = 0.94), while lack of passenger safety (B = −0.63) and comfort/ease of use (B = −0.17) are pooled ridesharing deterrents. Understanding user-centered design and service factors are critical to increase the use of pooled ridesharing services in the future.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020036
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 37: A Knowledge-Driven Model to Assess Inherent
           Safety in Process Infrastructure

    • Authors: Kamran Gholamizadeh, Esmaeil Zarei, Sohag Kabir, Abbas Mamudu, Yasaman Aala, Iraj Mohammadfam
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Process safety has drawn increasing attention in recent years and has been investigated from different perspectives, such as quantitative risk analysis, consequence modeling, and regulations. However, rare attempts have been made to focus on inherent safety design assessment, despite being the most cost-effective safety tactic and its vital role in sustainable development and safe operation of process infrastructure. Accordingly, the present research proposed a knowledge-driven model to assess inherent safety in process infrastructure under uncertainty. We first developed a holistic taxonomy of contributing factors into inherent safety design considering chemical, reaction, process, equipment, human factors, and organizational concerns associated with process plants. Then, we used subject matter experts, content validity ratio (CVR), and content validity index (CVI) to validate the taxonomy and data collection tools. We then employed a fuzzy inference system and the Extent Analysis (EA) method for knowledge acquisition under uncertainty. We tested the proposed model on a steam methane-reforming plant that produces hydrogen as renewable energy. The findings revealed the most contributing factors and indicators to improve the inherent safety design in the studied plant and effectively support the decision-making process to assign proper safety countermeasures.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020037
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 38: Factors Impacting Occupational Safety among
           Women Engineers

    • Authors: Nadia Abdelhamid Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed, Bahadur Ali Soomro
      First page: 38
      Abstract: On the one hand, in the present era, construction companies are one of Egypt’s fastest-growing industries and provide significant economic returns. On the other hand, construction industries significantly put individuals in danger of accidental death. In this study, the researchers examined the factors that affect Occupational Safety (OCS) measures among women engineers working in Egypt’s construction industries. This is a quantitative study that used cross-sectional data, and the researchers used 376 usable samples. By applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), this study’s findings demonstrate that the Work Environment (WEN), Personal Protection (PP), Training and Education of Safety Skills (TESS), Familiarity with Safety Regulations (FSR) and Safety Commitment (SCT) influence OCS. This study’s findings will help policymakers and planners design effective safety policies on construction sites. This study’s findings about adopting precautionary and safety measures will help reduce the death rates on Egypt’s construction sites. Finally, particularly in developing countries, this study’s findings will contribute to the health and safety and environment and health literature.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020038
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 39: Comparison of Traditional Physical Intervention
           Techniques vs. Operational Tactical Procedures and Techniques in the Use
           of Force during Police Arrests

    • Authors: José C. Vera-Jiménez, Domingo Villero-Carro, Andrés Pastor-Fernandez, James Shippen, Marta Ferreiro-González, José C. Vera-Jurado, José A. Álvarez, Jesús Ayuso
      First page: 39
      Abstract: (1) Background: A set of relevant police ergonomic parameters (PEP) have been used for the assessment and prevention of occupational risks involved in police physical interventions (PITs). Through this set of PEPs, a comparison has been made between two traditional PITs against two novel OTPs (operational tactical procedures). (2) Method: The data have been collected by means of a motion capture suit fitted with 19 inertial measurement units (IMUs). A specific and powerful software package specific for ergonomic analysis has been used to manage the large amount of data registered and to generate a series of three-dimensional plots. Traditional PITs and newer OTPs have been performed for their analysis. Specifically, the PEPs corresponding to the implementation of four PITs have been analyzed by collecting the measurements provided by a set of IMUs installed on a motion capture suit, and their occupational risk assessments have been compared against those corresponding to newer OTPs. (3) Results: For the four PITs, the PEPs have been analyzed with the measured values from the IMUs, throughout the duration of each technique. The two traditional intervention techniques have scored higher than the new OTPs in the REBA system, the asymmetry angle, L5-pelvis shear and joint contact forces, and the total muscle power measurements. (4) Conclusions: It has been confirmed that the new OTPs minimize the risk of injuries, since their PEPs reached lower values than those corresponding to the traditional PITs, which are still being taught at police academies.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020039
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 40: Discomfort in Use and Physical Disturbance of
           FFP2 Masks in a Group of Italian Doctors, Nurses and Nursing Aides during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Margherita Micheletti Cremasco, Lucia Vigoroso, Cristina Solinas, Federica Caffaro
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Face masks represent an effective COVID-19 mitigation strategy; this study investigated the quality in use of FFP2 masks in a group of 156 frontline HCWs recruited through a snowball procedure in northwest Italy. Participants filled out an online questionnaire (January 2022) on FFP2 sources of discomfort, physical disturbance at different anatomical points and suggestions for improvement. Most of the participants (69%) reported a feeling of protection and safety, but they also reported episodes of dyspnea (70%). The majority of glasses wearers (62%) reported fogging and displacement of their glasses. Humidity and heat were the main discomfort sources (39%), followed by elastic bands (32%). Physical disturbances were frequent and heavier on the ears, nose and cheekbones. Nursing aides and nurses perceived significantly more discomfort compared to doctors and nursing aides had the highest rate of physical disturbance. To address these issues, following participants’ suggestions, FFP2 masks should be redesigned to be more adjustable, with different sizes and softer fabrics. The investigation pointed out criticalities in the use of FFP2 masks related to different professional roles within the overall group of HCWs and stressed the need for an FFP2 human-centered design that accounts not only for physical needs but also for workload and task variability.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020040
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 41: Safety Practices and Associated Factors among

    • Authors: Sisay Ketema, Abayneh Melaku, Habtamu Demelash, Meseret G/Mariam, Seblework Mekonen, Taffere Addis, Argaw Ambelu
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Occupational safety is a critical concern for disease prevention and control at healthcare facilities. Medical waste handlers, in particular, are those most exposed to occupational hazards among healthcare workers. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate safety practices and associated factors among healthcare waste handlers in four public hospitals, southwest Ethiopia from 15 March to 30 May 2022. The study included 203 healthcare waste handlers. The data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and observational checklists. The overall performance of occupational safety practices among healthcare waste handlers was 47.3% (95%CI; 40.3, 54.2). Waste handlers with an educational status of secondary and above (AOR 4.95; 95%CI 2.13, 11.50), good knowledge of infection prevention and safety practices (AOR 4.95; 95%CI 2.13, 11.50), training in infection prevention and safety practices (AOR 2.57; 95%CI 1.25, 5.29), and adequate access to safety materials (AOR 3.45; 95%CI 1.57, 7.60) had significantly better occupational safety practices than their counterparts. In general, medical waste handlers’ occupational safety practices were found to be inadequate. Waste handlers’ knowledge of safety measures and training, educational level, and availability of safety materials were predictors of safe occupational practices. Therefore, appropriate strategies and actions are needed to ensure the safe occupational practices of healthcare waste handlers.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9020041
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 1: A System-Dynamic Model for Human–Robot
           Interaction; Solving the Puzzle of Complex Interactions

    • Authors: Wouter Martinus Petrus Steijn, Coen Van Gulijk, Dolf Van der Beek, Teun Sluijs
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Cooperative robots in the workspace have an effect on safety that is not yet fully understood. This work collates pre-existing knowledge on human, technological and organizational factors for human-robot interaction and develops a system dynamics model that captures the complex interactions. Expert consultation in the form of a Delphi study is used to derive a tractable model from pre-existing puzzle pieces. A final model is presented, which contains 10 nodes and 20 relationships containing the three key outcome factors of human-robot interaction, viz. Safety, Efficiency and Sustainability. By combining these factors into a single tractable framework, this model bridges the gap between individual efforts from previous works in the field of robotics.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010001
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 2: Differences in Pedestrian Behavior at Crosswalk
           between Communicating with Conventional Vehicle and Automated Vehicle in
           Real Traffic Environment

    • Authors: Masahiro Taima, Tatsuru Daimon
      First page: 2
      Abstract: In this study, we examine the differences in pedestrian behavior at crosswalks between communicating with conventional vehicles (CVs) and automated vehicles (AVs). To analyze pedestrian behavior statistically, we record the pedestrian’s position (x- and y-coordinates) every 0.5 s and perform a hot spot analysis. A Toyota Prius (ZVW30) is used as the CV and AV, and the vehicle behavior is controlled using the Wizard of Oz method. An experiment is conducted on a public road in Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan, where 38 participants are recruited for each experiment involving a CV and an AV. The participants cross the road after communicating with the CV or AV. The results show that the pedestrians can cross earlier when communicating with the CV as compared with the AV. The hot spot analysis shows that pedestrians who communicate with the CV decide to cross the road before the CV stops; however, pedestrians who communicate with the AVs decide to cross the road after the AV stops. It is discovered that perceived safety does not significantly affect pedestrian behavior; therefore, earlier perceived safety by drivers’ communication and external human–machine interface is more important than higher perceived safety for achieving efficient communication.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010002
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 3: Occupational Risk Assessment in Landfills:
           Research Outcomes from Italy

    • Authors: Mara Lombardi, Francesca Mauro, Mario Fargnoli, Quintilio Napoleoni, Davide Berardi, Simona Berardi
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Industrial production has brought increased wellbeing in the last years, but the amount of solid waste has undoubtedly increased. Thus, open dumpsites and landfills have been created throughout the world, with serious impacts on the environment and public health. In such a context, occupational health and safety (OHS) issues related to workers that have to deal with landfill characterization or management have not been considered sufficiently. To reduce such a research gap, in 2019 a research project started in Italy on OHS risk assessment in landfills. In fact, in such facilities, workers can be subjected to direct contact with the polluted environment and might not be completely aware of the entity and type of pollution (e.g., in open dumpsites). Starting with the analysis of INAIL data on accidents at work which occurred in Italy during the period 2008–2019, a specific risk analysis was carried out with the goal of defining risk determinants and profiles by means of K-means cluster analysis. Such an analysis allowed us to recognize the use of work equipment and the work environment as the main determinants of the accidents on the one hand, and the “driver of the excavator” as the most risky activity on the other. The achieved results take a step forward towards the characterization of occupational health and safety issues in landfills. Accordingly, the research outcomes represent a basis on which to address further research work in this field.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010003
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 4: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Safety in 2022

    • Authors: Safety Editorial Office Safety Editorial Office
      First page: 4
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010004
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 5: The Effect of Driving Style on Responses to
           Unexpected Vehicle Cyberattacks

    • Authors: Fangda Zhang, Meng Wang, Jah’inaya Parker, Shannon C. Roberts
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Vehicle cybersecurity is a serious concern, as modern vehicles are vulnerable to cyberattacks. How drivers respond to situations induced by vehicle cyberattacks is safety critical. This paper sought to understand the effect of human drivers’ risky driving style on response behavior to unexpected vehicle cyberattacks. A driving simulator study was conducted wherein 32 participants experienced a series of simulated drives in which unexpected events caused by vehicle cyberattacks were presented. Participants’ response behavior was assessed by their change in velocity after the cybersecurity events occurred, their post-event acceleration, as well as time to first reaction. Risky driving style was portrayed by scores on the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS). Half of the participants also received training regarding vehicle cybersecurity before the experiment. Results suggest that when encountering certain cyberattack-induced unexpected events, whether one received training, driving scenario, participants’ gender, DBQ-Violation scores, together with their sensation seeking measured by disinhibition, had a significant impact on their response behavior. Although both the DBQ and sensation seeking have been constantly reported to be linked with risky and aberrant driving behavior, we found that drivers with higher sensation seeking tended to respond to unexpected driving situations induced by vehicle cyberattacks in a less risky and potentially safer manner. This study incorporates not only human factors into the safety research of vehicle cybersecurity, but also builds direct connections between drivers’ risky driving style, which may come from their inherent risk-taking tendency, to response behavior to vehicle cyberattacks.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010005
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 6: Determination of Requirements for the Improvement
           of Occupational Safety in the Cleaning of Vertical Tanks of Petroleum

    • Authors: Ramírez-Peña, Cerezo-Narváez, Pastor-Fernández, Otero-Mateo, Ballesteros-Pérez
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Since the beginning of the second industrial revolution, the use of tanks for the storage of petroleum products ensured the permanent supply of equipment that depended on fossil fuel derived from petroleum, either for direct consumption or as an element for power generation. For correct operation, periodic cleaning of these confined spaces was required, being a common practice for the direct exposure of operators to explosive atmospheres. Currently, there are many industries that keep this kind of deposit, and cleaning works are considered of high occupational risk. In this context, the question arises as to whether human–machine collaboration thanks to the technologies that compose Industry 5.0 can mitigate these risks while generating a sustainable balance by optimizing costs and protecting the environment. In the present work, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is used to prioritize the requirements that should be compiled to establish safe protocols in tank cleaning works, solving the multi-criteria problem. Results prove that a couple of alternatives improve the working conditions of the people involved in this process: the chemical cleaning and the robotic cleaning, which approximately accounts for two thirds of the decision. These requirements are aligned with the Industry 5.0 paradigm, encouraging the use of robots for high-risk processes, and influencing human behavior. In addition, cost reduction is achieved without compromising on quality of service or delivery schedule, thus enabling a circular economy that promotes occupational safety in company policies.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010006
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 7: Minimal Risk Maneuvers of Automated Vehicles:
           Effects of a Contact Analog Head-Up Display Supporting Driver Decisions
           and Actions in Transition Phases

    • Authors: Burak Karakaya, Klaus Bengler
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Minimal risk maneuvers (MRMs), as part of highly automated systems, aim at minimizing the risk during a transition phase from automated to manual driving. Previous studies show that many drivers have an urge to intervene in transition phases despite the system’s capability to safely come to a standstill. A human–machine interface (HMI) concept was developed to support driver decisions by providing environmental information and action recommendations. This was investigated in a static driving simulator experiment with 36 participants. Two scenarios that differed in the traffic on the adjacent left lane were implemented and the HMI concept displayed the content accordingly. Results of the study again show a high intervention rate of drivers overtaking the obstacle from the left, even if the lane is occupied by other vehicles. The HMI concept had a positive influence on the manner of intervention by encouraging a standstill in the shoulder lane. Nevertheless, negative consequences included accidents and dangerous situations, but at lower frequencies and proportions during drives with the HMI concept. In conclusion, the risk during the transition phase was reduced. Furthermore, the results showed a significant decrease in the subjective workload and a positive influence on the drivers’ understanding and predictability of the automated system.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 8: Construction Health and Safety Agent
           Collaboration and Its Influence on Health and Safety Performance in the
           South African Construction Industry

    • Authors: Ndaleni Phinias Rantsatsi, Innocent Musonda, Justus Agumba
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Fatalities, injuries, and illnesses continue to occur in the construction industry (CI), despite efforts made by clients, designers, and contractors. The lack of collaboration between these project actors and construction health and safety agents (CHSA) remains a challenge for both construction professionals and academics. Given the urgent need for CHSA to collaborate with other construction project members, this study proposes a model for improving CHSA collaboration and its influence on health and safety (H&S) performance. The exploratory sequential mixed method, which included a Delphi study and a questionnaire survey, was adopted. H&S experts were purposively sampled. A three-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the factors, and these factors were categorized into 9 main factors developed from a review of the literature and the input of 15 H&S experts, 14 of whom completed all 3 iterations. Stratified sampling was used to gather quantitative data. A total of 257 questionnaires were returned, of which 213 responses were usable for analysis. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 was conducted and resulted in 6 main factors. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to establish the validity and reliability of constructs, and finally, path analysis in EQS version 6.4 was used to analyze the results of the questionnaire survey and evaluate the goodness of model fit. The findings were that mutuality, trust, institutional support, project context, and common purpose contribute to CHSA collaboration. Additionally, the influence of project context, common purpose, and CHSA collaboration on H&S performance were found to be statistically significant. The study’s implication is that in order to improve H&S performance, clients, designers, and contractors may not limit the participation of CHSA on the project. The implication for the CI is that by promoting CHSA collaboration, the likelihood of CHSA influence could increase and H&S performance could improve on construction projects. The study revealed that collaboration should be considered for improving H&S performance. The study is limited to respondents who met the selection criteria to participate in the Delphi study and questionnaire survey. Any registered persons who did not receive regular communication and announcements would have not participated. Despite the requirements of the South Africa Construction Regulations 2014 that CHSA should be part of the construction project team, more studies should be conducted to investigate the CHSA level of involvement on the project.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010008
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 9: Safety Climate Assessment in Fuel Stations in the
           West Java Region

    • Authors: Aryo Wibowo, Fatma Lestari, Robiana Modjo
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Fuel station accidents still happen frequently all around the world. Accidents in fuel stations may cause harm to many. Fuel station environments must thus be managed well to maintain a high safety climate level. However, our literature review shows that research on the safety climate in fuel stations is scarce. This study attempts to assess the safety climate level in fuel stations in the West Java region, Indonesia. The aims of this research are to acquire the safety climate level of fuel stations, review safety climate dimensions which need serious improvement, and discover key aspects that impact the safety climate level. To achieve these goals, the Bahasa Indonesia version of the NOSACQ-50 questionnaire was used to assess the safety climate in 240 fuel stations; 678 responses were collected. The findings show that the safety climate level of fuel stations was, on average, 3.07, which is a fairly good score. Among all seven dimensions, workers’ safety priority and risk non-acceptance need the most improvement. Moreover, safety training is found to be the most influential aspect on safety climate because workers with training experience have higher safety climate perceptions. Ironically, more than 28% of respondents reported that they had not been properly trained. Therefore, fuel stations need to make sure that all employees have attended appropriate safety training. In this way, higher safety climate ratings can be achieved, hence moving forward to a safer working environment.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 10: Technical Failures in Helicopters:
           Non-Powerplant-Related Accidents

    • Authors: Alex de Voogt, Keyashia Nero
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Technical failures in helicopters are a main concern for helicopter safety. The prominence of mechanical failures differs for specific helicopter operations. This analysis used 151 General Aviation accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board online database from an 11-year time period. The information in each report was collated, including the list of findings for each accident. Possible relations between causes and specific flight operations were analyzed by looking at significant differences between expected and actual values within the dataset of categorical data. It is found that the proportion of fatal accidents in this category of accidents is low (16.6%) compared with the percentage of fatal helicopter accidents in general, as well as those of specific helicopter operations. Instructional flights appear significantly more likely to be associated with maintenance-related causes. Causes related to fatigue of aircraft parts are more often associated with ferry and positional flights, as well as helicopters with turbo-shaft engines. Future research is recommended for these specific associations to further mitigate the number of accidents with non-powerplant failures.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010010
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 11: Fatigue and Secondary Media Impacts in the
           Automated Vehicle: A Multidimensional State Perspective

    • Authors: Catherine E. Neubauer, Gerald Matthews, Erika P. De Los Santos
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Safety researchers increasingly recognize the impacts of task-induced fatigue on vehicle driving behavior. The current study (N = 180) explored the use of a multidimensional fatigue measure, the Driver Fatigue Questionnaire (DFQ), to test the impacts of vehicle automation, secondary media use, and driver personality on fatigue states and performance in a driving simulator. Secondary media included a trivia game and a cellphone conversation. Simulated driving induced large-magnitude fatigue states in participants, including tiredness, confusion, coping through self-comforting, and muscular symptoms. Consistent with previous laboratory and field studies, dispositional fatigue proneness predicted increases in state fatigue during the drive, especially tiredness, irrespective of automation level and secondary media. Similar to previous studies, automation slowed braking response to the emergency event following takeover but did not affect fatigue. Secondary media use relieved subjective fatigue and improved lateral control but did not affect emergency braking. Confusion was, surprisingly, associated with faster braking, and tiredness was associated with impaired control of lateral position of the vehicle. These associations were not moderated by the experimental factors. Overall, data support the use of multidimensional assessments of both fatigue symptoms and information-processing components for evaluating safety impacts of interventions for fatigue.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010011
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 12: Relationship between Butyrylcholinesterase
           Activity and Cognitive Ability in Workers Exposed to Chlorpyrifos

    • Authors: Jaime Rosales-Rimache, Paola Machado-Pereyra, Guido Bendezu-Quispe
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Background. The use of Chlorpyrifos leads to a public, environmental, and occupational health problem associated with adverse effects in the exposed population, generating alterations mainly in the central nervous system, such as cognitive function. This study aimed to estimate the association between butyrylcholinesterase activity (BChE) and cognitive ability in workers exposed to chlorpyrifos. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study, where we measured BChE in serum samples as an indicator of exposure to chlorpyrifos. The cognitive ability was assessed by the mean score of the Peruvian version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We also used a questionary to collect demographic and occupational information. Results. We evaluated 120 farmers with a predominance of males (92%) and a mean age of 32.1 ± 9.0 years. We found most of the workers in fumigation activities (84%). The mean BChE was 6144.7 ± 2355.0 U/L, and 46% presented inhibition enzyme (<5500 U/L). The median MMSE score was 28 (interquartile range: 26.5–31.5; 6% showed an alteration in cognitive ability (score < 24)). The MMSE test found a significant association between BChE inhibition and MMSE score (β: −0.071, 95%CI: −0.108 to −0.025). Conclusion. In this study, 45.8% of workers exposed to chlorpyriphos presented BChE inhibition. The BChE inhibition is significantly associated with the MMSE score in workers exposed to chlorpyrifos.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010012
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 13: Safety of Automated Agricultural Machineries: A
           Systematic Literature Review

    • Authors: Guy R. Aby, Salah F. Issa
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Automated agricultural machinery has advanced significantly in the previous ten years; however, the ability of such robots to operate safely will be critical to their commercialization. This study provides a holistic evaluation of the work carried out so far in the field of automated agricultural machines’ safety, as well as a framework for future research considerations. Previous automated agricultural machines’ safety-related studies are analyzed and grouped into three categories: (1) environmental perception, (2) risk assessment as well as risk mitigation, and (3) human factors as well as ergonomics. The key findings are as follows: (1) The usage of single perception, multiple perception sensors, developing datasets of agricultural environments, different algorithms, and external solutions to improve sensor performance were all explored as options to improve automated agricultural machines’ safety. (2) Current risk assessment methods cannot be efficient when dealing with new technology, such as automated agricultural machines, due to a lack of pre-existing knowledge. Full compliance with the guidelines provided by the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO 18497) cannot ensure automated agricultural machines’ safety. A regulatory framework and being able to test the functionalities of automated agricultural machines within a reliable software environment are efficient ways to mitigate risks. (3) Knowing foreseeable human activity is critical to ensure safe human–robot interaction.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010013
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 14: SHIELD Human Factors Taxonomy and Database for
           Learning from Aviation and Maritime Safety Occurrences

    • Authors: Sybert Stroeve, Barry Kirwan, Osman Turan, Rafet Emek Kurt, Bas van Doorn, Luca Save, Patrick Jonk, Beatriz Navas de Maya, Andy Kilner, Ronald Verhoeven, Yasser B. A. Farag, Ali Demiral, Béatrice Bettignies-Thiebaux, Louis de Wolff, Vincent de Vries, Sung Il Ahn, Simone Pozzi
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Human factors (HF) in aviation and maritime safety occurrences are not always systematically analysed and reported in a way that makes the extraction of trends and comparisons possible in support of effective safety management and feedback for design. As a way forward, a taxonomy and data repository were designed for the systematic collection and assessment of human factors in aviation and maritime incidents and accidents, called SHIELD (Safety Human Incident and Error Learning Database). The HF taxonomy uses four layers: The top layer addresses the sharp end where acts of human operators contribute to a safety occurrence; the next layer concerns preconditions that affect human performance; the third layer describes decisions or policies of operations leaders that affect the practices or conditions of operations; and the bottom layer concerns influences from decisions, policies or methods adopted at an organisational level. The paper presents the full details, guidance and examples for the effective use of the HF taxonomy. The taxonomy has been effectively used by maritime and aviation stakeholders, as follows from questionnaire evaluation scores and feedback. It was found to offer an intuitive and well-documented framework to classify HF in safety occurrences.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010014
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 15: Aircrews, Rules and the Bogeyman: Mapping the
           Benefits and Fears of Noncompliance

    • Authors: Leonie Boskeljon-Horst, Robert J. De Boer, Vincent Steinmetz, Sidney W. A. Dekker
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Although rules support people while executing tasks, they are not the same as work-as-done. It can be impossible to follow the rules and finish the job at the same time. In this study, the objective is to better understand the stakes and interests that lie behind retaining gaps between work-as-prescribed and work-as-done, mapping the benefits and fears of noncompliance. The study was conducted along the vertical hierarchy of an operational flight squadron of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. We applied a qualitative survey research methodology using semi-structured interviews, complemented by an investigation of relevant documents. We found a public and political commitment to compliance made by the Dutch Department of Defence, which reinforces a cycle of issuing promises followed by pressure to keep the promise. This contradicts the found need for adaptation and freedom to use expertise. The official safety narrative seems to convey a hidden message—bad things happen to bad people, reminiscent of a bogeyman. One opportunity to resolve the situation is a doctrine change, changing prescriptive rules to guidelines.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010015
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 16: A Feasibility Study on the Conversion from
           Manual to Semi-Automatic Material Handling in an Oil and Gas Service

    • Authors: Adi Saptari, Poh Kiat Ng, Michelle Junardi, Andira Taslim
      First page: 16
      Abstract: In manufacturing companies, manual material handling (MMH) involves lifting, pushing, pulling, carrying, moving, and lowering objects, which can lead to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers, resulting in high labor costs due to excessive overtime incurred for manual product preparation. The aim of this study was to show how ergonomic measures were used to reduce the risk of MSDs and to reduce operating costs in the warehouse department of an oil and gas service company. A preliminary study using the Nordic Body Map survey showed that the workers experienced pain in various parts of the body, indicating the presence of MSDs. The researchers then used methods such as the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) assessments to verify whether the MMH activities had an acceptable level of risk. The results revealed that certain manual material handling (MMH) activities were assessed as low–very high risk, with RULA scores ranging from 3 to 7 and REBA scores ranging from 4 to 11. An immediate solution was to replace the manual process with a semi-automatic process using a vacuum lifter. A feasibility study was conducted using the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period to justify the economic viability of the solution. The analysis indicated that implementing the vacuum lifter not only mitigated the risk of MSDs but also reduced the operating costs, demonstrating its viability and profitability. Overall, this study suggests that implementing a vacuum lifter as an assistive device in the warehouse would be a beneficial investment for both the workers and the company, improving both well-being and finances.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010016
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 17: Commercial Aircraft-Assisted Suicide Accident
           Investigations Re-Visited—Agreeing to Disagree'

    • Authors: Alpo Vuorio, Robert Bor, Antti Sajantila, Anna-Stina Suhonen-Malm, Bruce Budowle
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Background: The number of aircraft-assisted suicides can only be considered a rough estimate because it is difficult and, at times, impossible to identify all cases of suicide. Methods: Four recent reports of accidents occurring in 1997 in Indonesia, 1999 in Massachusetts in the United States, 2013 in Namibia, and 2015 in France related to commercial aircraft-assisted suicides were analyzed. This analysis relied on data extracted from the accident reports that supported aircraft-assisted suicide from the: (a) cockpit voice recorder (CVR) and flight data recorder (FDR), (b) medical history, (c) psychosocial history, (d) toxicology, (e) autopsy, and (f) any methodology that utilized aviation medicine. There are some limitations in this study. Although all analyzed accident investigations followed ICAO Annex 13 guidelines, there is variability in their accident investigations and reporting. In addition, accident investigation reports represent accidents from 1997 to 2015, and during this time, there has been a change in the way accidents are reported. The nature of this analysis is explorative. The aim was to identify how the various aircraft accident investigators concluded that the accidents were due to suicidal acts. Results: In all four accident reports, FDR data were available. CVR data were also available, except for one accident where CVR data were only partially available. Comprehensive medical and psychosocial histories were available in only one of four of the accident reports. Conclusion: To prevent accidents involving commercial aircraft, it is necessary to identify the causes of these accidents to be able to provide meaningful safety recommendations. A detailed psychological autopsy of pilots can and likely will assist in investigations, as well as generate recommendations that will substantially contribute to mitigating accidents due to pilot suicide. Airborne image recording may be a useful tool to provide additional information about events leading up to a crash and thus assist in accident investigations.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010017
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Safety, Vol. 9, Pages 18: Exploring the Use of Geographic Information
           Systems to Identify Spatial Patterns of Remote UAS Pilots and Possible
           National Airspace Risk

    • Authors: Damon J. Lercel, Joseph P. Hupy
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the United States National Airspace System (NAS) has resulted in an increasing number of close encounters between manned aircraft and UAS, which correlates with the increasing number of remote pilots in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airmen database. This research explores spatial patterns of registered airmen using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses that provide notable spatial distribution patterns of pilots and how they relate to UAS sightings and airspace categories. The application of GIS to these aviation data may assist safety practitioners with identifying geographic patterns, areas of higher risk, and ultimately improve safety management. The authors analyzed publicly available airmen data to examine spatial distribution patterns, data correlations, and inferences. Airmen addresses were first geocoded into ArcPro 10.4 GIS software as a vector data layer containing attribute values of the database. The spatial analysis tool set was then utilized to establish clustering, density patterns, and spatial relationships between various categories of registered airmen. These density analyses revealed implicitly that commercial registered pilots tend to have the highest clustering near major commercial use controlled airspace, yet registered remote (UAS) pilots are also clustered in these and other densely populated areas. UAS sighting data were also geocoded using zip code values of the reported city to potentially correlate UAS sighting with registered remote pilots, yet the lack of spatial precision in the database made establishing any type of spatial relationship ineffective. The implicit spatial relationships between commercial and remote registered pilots revealed further research is needed to integrate UAS safely and effectively into the national airspace. The poor quality of UAS sighting data also demonstrates the need to better utilize GIS to monitor and track UAS flights within the context of an Unmanned Traffic Management System.
      Citation: Safety
      PubDate: 2023-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/safety9010018
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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