Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Aging and Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access  
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 208)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
ASA Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Population Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access  
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biograph-I : Journal of Biostatistics and Demographic Dynamic     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access  
Biosalud     Open Access  
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access  
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access  
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access  
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access  
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access  
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleaner and Responsible Consumption     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal  
D Y Patil Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Das österreichische Gesundheitswesen ÖKZ     Hybrid Journal  
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Discover Social Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access  
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Health Communication     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
F&S Reports     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access  
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Neuroergonomics     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Health Behavior Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Equity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Information : Jurnal Penelitian     Open Access  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Health Notions     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Global Mental Health
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2054-4251 - ISSN (Online) 2054-4251
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • Alcohol use among adolescents in India: a systematic review

    • Authors: Nadkarni; Abhijit, Tu, Allison, Garg, Ankur, Gupta, Devika, Gupta, Sonal, Bhatia, Urvita, Tiwari, Niharika, Heath, Anna, Wen, Karen, Fernandes, Godwin, Velleman, Richard
      First page: 1
      Abstract: BackgroundAlcohol use is typically established during adolescence and initiation of use at a young age poses risks for short- and long-term health and social outcomes. However, there is limited understanding of the onset, progression and impact of alcohol use among adolescents in India. The aim of this review is to synthesise the evidence about prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders in adolescents from India.MethodsSystematic review was conducted using relevant online databases, grey literature and unpublished data/outcomes from subject experts. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed and applied to screening rounds. Titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers for eligibility, and then full texts were assessed for inclusion. Narrative synthesis of the eligible studies was conducted.ResultsFifty-five peer-reviewed papers and one report were eligible for inclusion in this review. Prevalence of ever or lifetime alcohol consumption ranged from 3.9% to 69.8%; and prevalence of alcohol consumption at least once in the past year ranged from 10.6% to 32.9%. The mean age for initiation of drinking ranged from 14.4 to 18.3 years. Some correlates associated with alcohol consumption included being male, older age, academic difficulties, parental use of alcohol or tobacco, non-contact sexual abuse and perpetuation of violence.ConclusionThe evidence base for alcohol use among adolescents in India needs a deeper exploration. Despite gaps in the evidence base, this synthesis provides a reasonable understanding of alcohol use among adolescents in India and can provide direction to policymakers.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2021.48
       
  • Integrating assisted tele-psychiatry into primary healthcare in Goa,
           India: a feasibility study

    • Authors: Garg; Ankur, Agrawal, Ravindra, Velleman, Richard, Rane, Anil, Costa, Sheina, Gupta, Devika, Dsouza, Ethel, Jambhale, Abhijeet, Sabnis, Akshada, Fernandes, Godwin, Bhatia, Urvita, Nadkarni, Abhijit
      Pages: 26 - 36
      Abstract: BackgroundTele-psychiatry is an increasingly acceptable and feasible platform to deliver mental health care with the potential to increase access to care in low-resource settings. We aim to examine the acceptability and preliminary impact of the delivery of assisted tele-psychiatry services in primary healthcare settings in Goa, India.MethodsBefore-after uncontrolled treatment cohort study. In total, 161 adults with either a mental or alcohol use disorder were provided tele-consultation by psychiatrists through a customised video conferencing platform, along with medication or counselling (via trained lay counsellors) or both as needed. Data on socio-demographics, clinical outcomes and process indicators were collected at baseline and 3 months post-baseline. Paired t tests were used to assess clinical outcomes pre- and post-treatment using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and World Health Organisation Disability Adjustment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0, and logistic regression was used to find associations between changes in these scores and various factors.ResultsThe most common diagnosis was depression (35%). Post-treatment, there was a significant reduction in both GHQ-12 and WHODAS 2.0 scores. Participants showed high satisfaction with the tele-psychiatry services and technology platform. Improvement in GHQ-12 score was associated with being employed [OR 8.74 (1.92–39.75, p = 0.005)] and being a homemaker [OR 6.42 (CI 1.61–25.57, p = 0.008)].ConclusionTreatment of mental disorders through a tele-psychiatry platform appears to be highly acceptable and is associated with improved clinical outcomes. Considering its potential for scalability, a model of assisted tele-psychiatry integrated into primary care can be an important strategy to increase access to mental healthcare in low-resource settings.
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2021.47
       
  • Mental health needs of the COVID-19 patients and staff in the Fangcang
           shelter hospital: a qualitative research in Wuhan, China – ERRATUM

    • Authors: Lu; Jing, Zhao, Min, Wu, Qianying, Ma, Chenyi, Du, Xiangdong, Lu, Xinchuan, Jia, Qiufang, Li, Chuanwei
      Pages: 37 - 37
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.8
       
  • Women's mental health in Mozambique: is maternity a protective factor'

    • Authors: Khan; Saida, Scorza, Pamela, Lovero, Kathryn L., dos Santos, Palmira, Fumo, Wilza, Camara, Barbara, Oquendo, Maria A., Wainberg, Milton L., Fejo, Marcelo, Duarte, Cristiane S.
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: BackgroudGlobally, women have been shown to have high rates of common mental disorders (CMDs). In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), women face significant challenges related to maternity. However, no study has compared mental health problems among pregnant/post-partum women, childless women of childbearing age, and women with children in a low-income country. We sought to compare the frequency of CMD and suicide risk in a sample of women presenting or accompanying patients in primary care in two Mozambican semi-urban settings.MethodsWe administered the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to 853 women, of whom 220 (25.8%) were pregnant/post-partum, 177 (20.8%) were non-pregnant and childless, and 456 (53.5%) were non-pregnant and with children more than 1-year-old. Logistic regression models compared the likelihood of a psychiatric disorder across groups, adjusting for sociodemographic and chronic-illness covariates.ResultsWe found a high frequency of CMD and suicide risk among all women in this low-income context sample. In adjusted models, no differences in rates of depression, anxiety, or panic disorder were observed among groups. However, suicide risk was higher in women without children than pregnant/post-partum women.ConclusionThe frequency of CMD among women of childbearing age in our study was higher than documented rates in high-income countries and other LMIC. Additionally, we found that motherhood was not protective and that pregnancy and the postpartum period were not stages of increased risk for most disorders. This highlights the need to expand mental health services not only for perinatal women but all women of childbearing age in this and possibly similar settings.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.1
       
  • COVID-19 post-vaccination depression in older Israeli adults: the role of
           negative world assumptions

    • Authors: Greenblatt-Kimron; Lee, Hoffman, Yaakov, Ben-Ezra, Menachem, Goodwin, Robin, Palgi, Yuval
      Pages: 45 - 48
      Abstract: BackgroundWith the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the aging population has been shown to be highly vulnerable. As a result, policy makers and the media urged older adults to restrict social interactions, placing them at greater risk of mental health problems, such as depression. However, there has been a little previous attempt to examine coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-related risk factors and depressive symptoms amongst older adults.MethodsParticipants (938 older adults, Mage = 68.99, s.d. = 3.41, range 65–85) answered an online questionnaire at the start of the COVID-19 vaccination program in Israel. Participants completed measures of background characteristics, world assumptions, COVID-19 vaccine-related variables, and symptoms of depression.ResultsUnivariate logistic regression revealed that more negative world assumptions were linked with clinical depression levels.ConclusionsOlder adults in our sample were susceptible to unique factors associated with clinical depression influenced by their world assumptions during their COVID-19 vaccination. The high level of depression following vaccination indicates that it may take time to recover from depression associated with pandemic distress. Cognitive interventions that focus on world assumptions are recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.11
       
  • Food insecurity and common mental disorders in perinatal women living in
           low socio-economic settings in Cape Town, South Africa during the COVID-19
           pandemic: a cohort study

    • Authors: Abrahams; Zulfa, Lund, Crick
      Pages: 49 - 60
      Abstract: BackgroundCommon mental disorders (CMDs), i.e. depression and anxiety, are highly prevalent during the perinatal period, and is associated with poverty, food insecurity and domestic violence. We collected data from perinatal women at two time-points during the COVID-19 pandemic to test the hypotheses that (1) socio-economic adversities at baseline would be associated with CMD prevalence at follow-up and (2) worse mental health at baseline would be associated with higher food insecurity prevalence at follow-up.MethodsTelephonic interviews with perinatal women attending healthcare facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. Multivariable (multilevel) regression analysis was used to model the associations of baseline risk factors with the prevalence of household food insecurity and probable CMD at 3 months follow-up.ResultsAt baseline 859 women were recruited, of whom 217 (25%) were pregnant, 631 (73%) had given birth in the previous 6 months, 106 (12%) had probable CMD, and 375 (44%) were severely food insecure. At follow-up (n = 634), 22 (4%) were still pregnant, 603 (95%) had given birth, 44 (7%) had probable CMD, and 207 (33%) were severely food insecure. In the multivariable regression model, after controlling for confounders, unemployment [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.19 (1.12–2.27); p < 0.001] and had higher scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [IRR 1.05 (1.03–1.09); p < 0.001] at baseline predicted food insecurity at follow-up; and experiencing domestic violence [OR 2.79 (1.41–5.50); p = 0.003] at baseline predicted CMD at follow-up.ConclusionsThis study highlights the complex bidirectional relationship between mental health and socio-economic adversity among perinatal women during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.12
       
  • Afghanistan's humanitarian crisis and its impacts on the mental health of
           healthcare workers during COVID-19

    • Authors: Islam; Zarmina, Rija, Aiman, Mohanan, Parvathy, Qamar, Khulud, Jahangir, Kainat, Nawaz, Faisal A., Essar, Mohammad Yasir
      Pages: 61 - 64
      Abstract: Afghanistan's humanitarian crisis has severely impacted the mental health of frontline workers. With the introduction of the Taliban government, ongoing civil unrest, and other forms of violent attacks, healthcare workers (HCWs) continue to provide patient care despite minimal resources. A severe contraction in the economy, poor supply of medications, political turmoil, and insufficient humanitarian aid have added to pre-existing problems. High levels of insecurity and instability as well as decades of traumatic experiences have contributed to increasing mental health challenges amongst frontline workers. Despite the scarcity of mental health services, HCWs continue to persevere with their service to the community. However, inadequate interventions may have serious implications for HCWs bearing the brunt of multiple traumas. Thus, governmental and international involvement is needed to address both the economic and psychological needs of HCWs in Afghanistan.
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.3
       
  • National characteristics associated with prevalence of depression and
           anxiety symptoms: a cross-sectional ecological study

    • Authors: Jorm; Anthony F., Mulder, Roger T.
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: BackgroundCross-national comparisons of the prevalence of mental disorders have relied on lay-administered interviews scored using complex diagnostic algorithms. However, this approach has led to some paradoxical findings, with more vulnerable countries showing lower prevalence, and its appropriateness for cross-national comparisons has been questioned. This study used an alternative method involving simple questions from social surveys to assess the prevalence of specific depression and anxiety symptoms, and investigated their association with national indicators of human development, quality of government, mental health resources, and mental health governance.MethodsThe study used data on the prevalence of three symptoms indicating depression or anxiety: sadness, worry, and unhappiness. These data were taken from the Gallup World Poll (142 countries) and the World Values Survey (77 countries). National characteristics examined covered indicators of human development (income, life span, education, gender equality), quality of government (human freedom, perceptions of corruption), mental health resources (per capita numbers of psychiatrists, mental health nurses, psychologists, and social workers), and mental health governance (whether there is a national mental health plan and a mental health law).ResultsAll the human development and quality of government indicators, and some of the mental health resource indicators, were strongly associated with a lower prevalence of symptoms.ConclusionPopulations of nations with higher human development, quality of government, and mental health resources have better mental health when measured by the prevalence of specific symptoms.
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.9
       
  • Mental health literacy amongst children with common mental health problems
           and their parents in Java, Indonesia: a qualitative study

    • Authors: Brooks; Helen, Prawira, Benny, Windfuhr, Kirsten, Irmansyah, Irman, Lovell, Karina, Syarif, Armaji Kamaludi, Dewi, Suzy Yusna, Pahlevi, Swastika Wulan, Rahayu, Atik Puji, Syachroni, , Afrilia, Annisa Rizky, Renwick, Laoise, Pedley, Rebecca, Salim, Soraya, Bee, Penny
      Pages: 72 - 83
      Abstract: BackgroundOptimising mental health literacy (MHL) at the individual and population level can be an effective mental health improvement and prevention tool. However, concepts of MHL are largely based on evidence from high-income countries. Little is known about the manifestation and role of MHL in countries where collectivist health and social cultures are dominant.AimThis study aimed to examine the MHL of Indonesian children and young people (CYP) with experience of common mental health problems and their parents.MethodsSemi-structured interviews with 40 participants (19 CYP aged 11–15 with experience of common mental health problems and 21 parents) from three areas of Java, Indonesia. Data were analysed using framework analysis, informed by Jorm's 1997 Mental Health Literacy Framework.ResultsParents and CYP demonstrated relatively low levels of MHL defined from a conventional perspective. Religiosity and spirituality were salient in participants' accounts, particularly parents, as were narratives about personal responsibility. These beliefs appeared to contribute to a high level of self-blame for mental illness, self-reliance for symptom management, the foregrounding of support from spiritual/traditional healers and a reduced propensity to access professional help. CYP were heavily reliant on family support, but parents often felt they were not best placed to communicate with their children about mental health. Providing trusted, technology-based sources of mental health information were advocated by CYP.ConclusionRobust efforts are needed to improve MHL in low- and middle-income countries drawing on culturally appropriate approaches to reduce stigma and optimise timely, effective help-seeking for CYP. Enhancing parental and family level literacy may be efficacious, especially when combined with mechanisms to facilitate open communication, as may the development of standalone interventions directly developed to reach younger generations. Future research may usefully establish the comparative efficacy and acceptability of these different approaches.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.5
       
  • A systematic review of the role of culture in the mental health service
           utilisation among ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom

    • Authors: Nwokoroku; Sandra Chidimma, Neil, Barbara, Dlamini, Chris, Osuchukwu, Vivian Chinonso
      Pages: 84 - 93
      Abstract: Although mental health (MH) services and psychological support are tailored to fit the MH needs of those requiring these services in the UK, underutilisation persists. Current evidence suggests that ethnic minorities underutilise MH services with culture implicated in this trend. However, there is limited evidence from systematic reviews integrating the findings of primary studies on the role of culture in MH service utilisation among ethnic minorities. This review aims to synthesise and summarise evidence on the role of culture in MH service utilisation among ethnic minorities in the UK. Two reviewers searched CINAHL, APA PsycINFO and Medline databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Two other reviewers screened the abstracts and full text, while three conducted data extraction and assessed study quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist for qualitative studies. One's culture was repeatedly identified to play a role in MH service utilisation among the ethnic minorities in the UK. The impact of cultural factors on service utilisation was through its effects on structure/institution, beliefs, stigma and perception of service. In addition, discrimination and other racism-related negative experiences during service use were found to inform perception and use of MH services. These findings suggest that MH services should be tailored to cultural differences to optimise service utilisation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.2
       
  • Investing in mental health in Somalia: harnessing community mental health
           services through task shifting

    • Authors: Ibrahim; Mohamed, Malik, Mamunur Rahman, Noor, Zeynab
      Pages: 94 - 98
      Abstract: BackgroundThe increase of mental health issues globally has been well documented and now reflected in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals as a matter of global health significance. At the same time, studies show the mental health situations in conflict and post-conflict settings much higher than the rest of the world, lack the financial, health services and human resource capacity to address the challenges.MethodsThe study used a descriptive literature review and collected data from public domain, mostly mental health data from WHO's Global Health Observatory. Since there is no primary database for Somalia's public health research, the bibliographic databases used for mental health in this study included Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar.ResultsThe review of the mental health literature shows one of the biggest casualties of the civil war was loss of essential human resources in healthcare as most either fled the country or were part of the victims of the war.ConclusionIn an attempt to address the human resource gap, there are calls to task-shift so that available human resource can be utilized efficiently and effectively. This policy paper discusses the case of Somalia, the impact of decade-long civil conflict on mental health and health services, the significant gap in mental health service delivery and how to strategically and evidently task-shift in closing the mental health gap in service delivery.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.4
       
  • A cross-cultural exploration of compassion, and facilitators and
           inhibitors of compassion in UK and Sri Lankan people

    • Authors: Kariyawasam; Lasara, Ononaiye, Margarita, Irons, Chris, Kirby, Sarah E.
      Pages: 99 - 110
      Abstract: BackgroundPractising compassion has shown to increase well-being and reduce distress in people across cultures. However, very little research has explored cultural differences in different facets of compassion with a dearth of research evident especially in the Asian context. Several inhibitors and facilitators of compassion have been identified although the nuances of cultural differences of these remain unexploited. This study aimed to discover cross-cultural similarities and differences of the levels of compassion, facilitators and inhibitors of compassion between Sri Lankan and UK people.MethodsA cross-sectional, questionnaire-based quantitative research was conducted among 149 Sri Lankan and 300 UK participants. Individual predictors (such as fears of compassion, self-reassurance, external shame, social safeness and pleasure, depression and anxiety) were also explored in relation to compassion, compassion to others, and compassion from others in each group.ResultsThe results indicated that Sri Lankan participants were more self-reassured and self-compassionate and self-identifying as a Buddhist predicted higher self-compassion, when compared to UK participants. However, Sri Lankan participants reported higher levels of external shame and fear of compassion not just towards themselves, but also towards and from others, indicating difficulty in engaging compassionately with others. In contrast, UK participants reported higher social safeness, indicating that they were more likely to feel safe and soothed by the society than the Sri Lankan participants.ConclusionsSociety plays a pivotal role in shaping one's experiences of compassion. This study suggests that specific cultural and social factors should be considered when implementing Western compassionate approaches to non-Western settings.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.10
       
  • Mental health preparedness and response during the COVID-19 pandemic: from
           global to national implementation

    • Authors: Panichkriangkrai; Warisa, Detkong, Terdsak, Kruahong, Navinee, Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon, Tangcharoensathien, Viroj
      Pages: 111 - 114
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.15
       
  • Building Resilience Against ViolencE (BRAVE): protocol of a parenting
           intervention for mothers and fathers with post-traumatic stress disorder
           in Pakistan

    • Authors: Chaudhry; Nasim, Farooque, Sana, Kiran, Tayyeba, Eylem-van Bergeijk, Ozlem, Chaudhry, Imran B., Memon, Rakhshi, Husain, Mina, Andriopoulou, Panoraia, Hussain Rana, Mowadat, Naeem, Farooq, Husain, Nusrat
      Pages: 115 - 122
      Abstract: BackgroundPrevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high in Pakistan both due to natural disasters and ongoing conflicts. Offspring of trauma survivors are at increased risk for mental and physical illnesses. Parental PTSD has been linked to troubled parent–child relationships, behaviour problems, trauma symptoms, and depression in children. This study aims to explore the acceptability, feasibility and indications of the effectiveness of group learning through play plus trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (LTP Plus TF-CBT) for parents experiencing PTSD.Methods/DesignThis is a two-arm pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). We aim to recruit 300 parents with a diagnosis of PTSD. The screening will be done using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Diagnosis of PTSD will be confirmed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale-5 (CAPS-5). Union Councils from Peshawar and Karachi will be randomised into either group LTP Plus TF CBT arm or treatment as usual (TAU). The intervention includes 12 sessions of LTP Plus TF-CBT delivered weekly in the first 2 months and then fortnightly in a group setting by trained psychologists. The groups will be co-facilitated by the community health workers (CHWs). Parents will be assessed at baseline and 4th month (end of the intervention), using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) Scale, Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI), and Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3)DiscussionThis trial would help build an understanding of the acceptability, feasibility and indications of the effectiveness of a low-cost parenting intervention.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2021.42
       
  • The psychological outcomes of COVID-19 affected the pandemic-after risk
           perceptions of nurse clinicians: a latent profile analysis

    • Authors: Qianlan; Yin, Tianya, Hou, Wei, Li, Jia, Gao, Chunyan, Ni, Wei, Zhao, Bin, Lian, Huifen, Li, Wei, Dong, Guanghui, Deng, Yan, Jia
      Pages: 123 - 132
      Abstract: BackgroundRisk perception among nurses after the COVID-19 pandemic is a crucial factor affecting their attitudes and willingness to work in clinics. Those with poor psychological status could perceive risks sensitively as fears or threats that are discouraging. This article aimed to determine whether psychological outcomes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and insomnia, following the COVID-19 pandemic were differentially related to the risk perceptions of nurses working in clinics and increased perceived risk.MethodThe participants were 668 nurse clinicians from five local hospitals. Risk perceptions and psychological outcomes were measured by adapted questionnaires via the Internet. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified subgroups of individuals who showed similar profiles regarding the perceived risks in nursing. Multinomial regression and probit regression were used to examine the extent to which sociodemographic and psychological outcomes predicted class membership.ResultsLPA revealed four classes: groups with low-, mild-, moderate-, and high-level risk perceptions. Membership of the high-level risk perception class was predicted by the severity of psychological outcomes. Anxiety significantly accounted for a moderate increase in risk perceptions, while the symptoms of insomnia, depression, and PTSD accelerated the increase to the high level of risk perception class.ConclusionsBy classifying groups of nurse clinicians sharing similar profiles regarding risk perceptions and then exploring associated predictors, this study shows the psychological outcomes after COVID-19 significantly impacted pandemic-associated risk perceptions and suggests intervening in nurses' psychological outcomes while simultaneously focusing on work-related worries is important following the outbreak of COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.13
       
  • Advancing and translating knowledge: a systematic inquiry into the
           2010–2020 mental health and psychosocial support intervention research
           evidence base

    • Authors: Nemiro; Ashley, Jones, Theresa, Tulloch, Olivia, Snider, Leslie
      Pages: 133 - 145
      Abstract: Background and study objectivesMHPSS is increasingly seen as a critical component to effective and responsible humanitarian programming. This review examines the extent to which MHPSS research generated since 2010 has contributed to the public health evidence base and how this has influenced and impacted programming and policy in humanitarian settings.MethodsThis mixed-method study included a scoping literature review (n = 50) and a consultation process with qualitative key informant interviews (n = 19) and online survey responses (n = 52) to identify the facilitating and inhibiting factors for the two areas of inquiry and to understand the broader context in which knowledge is generated and taken up. The interviews were thematically analysed and the survey responses were descriptively analysed.ResultsThe review identified a rapidly growing evidence base that has evaluated a range of MHPSS interventions. However, few studies examined long-term impacts of interventions, there was limited direct evidence on outcomes for children and adolescents and whole family approaches, and there were minimal replications of the same approach that could test efficacy across settings and population groups. A general shift was identified in the consultation process away from a focus on disorder towards the more positive aspects of wellbeing. However, there remained a mismatch in many studies included in the literature review, whereby the interventions were broad, community-based but the outcome measures used still focused on changes in symptoms of mental disorders.ConclusionThe evidence base for MHPSS has grown significantly over the last 10 years. However, several knowledge gaps remain, as does the divide between research and practice. Moving forward, MHPSS intervention research needs to be more responsive to the needs on the ground.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.6
       
  • Feasibility of a school-based mental health program implementation to
           improve the status of depression and quality of life of mothers of
           children with autism spectrum disorders in urban Bangladesh: MENTHOL study
           

    • Authors: Naheed; Aliya, Islam, Md. Saimul, Brooks, Meredith B., Fawzi, Mary C. Smith, Ashraf, Mir Nabila, Ahmed, Helal Uddin, Uddin, M. M. Jalal, Koly, Kamrun Nahar, Galea, Jerome T., Akhter, Shaheen, Nelson, Charles, Hossain, Saima Wazed, Munir, Kerim M.
      Pages: 146 - 156
      Abstract: BackgroundWe assessed the feasibility of implementing psychological counseling services (PCS) for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) integrated within special education settings in urban Bangladesh.MethodIn two special education schools for ASD in Dhaka City, trained female psychologists screened mothers using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). PCS was administered to all the mothers irrespective of a diagnosis of depression. Mothers with a PHQ-9 score>4 who met criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) based on the DSM-IV Structured Interview Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) were also administered skill-building training through monthly home visits to support ASD care. The level of depression was assessed by the Depression Measurement Scale (DMS), and quality of life (QoL) was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of EQ5D5L scale before and after PCS.ResultAmong 188 mothers enrolled in the study, 81 (43%) received PCS, and 27.1% (22) had MDE. In the first month, 73 sessions were scheduled and 60 completed (85%). In the last month, 53 sessions were scheduled and 52 completed (98%). The mean DMS score decreased from 79.5 ± 23 to 60 ± 20 (p = 0.004), and DMS scores were significantly higher among mothers with MDE (97.8 ± 12.1 v. 69.9 ± 22.1; p < 0.001) compared to those without MDE (72.7 ± 22.6 v. 56.1 ± 18.1; p = 0.003). The mean VAS score improved from 70.3 ± 14.1 to 80.2 ± 13.3 (p = 0.001) between the first and the last session. Changes in DMS were negatively correlated with changes in VAS scores (β: −0.213, 95% CI 0.370 to −0.056).ConclusionWithin special education schools for ASD in urban Bangladesh, it was feasible to administer an integrated program of PCS for mothers of children with ASD by trained psychologists who were able to screen and intervene to reduce their level of depression and improve their quality of life.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.16
       
  • Prevention of common mental disorders among women in the perinatal period:
           a critical mixed-methods review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Waqas; Ahmed, Zafar, Syeda Wajeeha, Meraj, Hafsa, Tariq, Mahjabeen, Naveed, Sadiq, Fatima, Batool, Chowdhary, Neerja, Dua, Tarun, Rahman, Atif
      Pages: 157 - 172
      Abstract: Perinatal depression and anxiety account for a high burden of perinatal morbidity and poor psychosocial functioning. There is a growing interest among mental health professionals, to devise interventions to prevent this condition. This review synthesizes evidence for the effectiveness of psychological and psychosocial interventions aimed at the prevention of perinatal depression and anxiety. We also explore qualitative evidence to understand the acceptability and feasibility of these interventions. Using a mixed-methods approach, data from a total of 21 studies were collated to inform the evidence for preventive interventions for perinatal depression and anxiety. Based on their theoretical orientations, these interventions were described by authors as cognitive-behavioral (n = 7); psychoeducational (n = 6); mindfulness (n = 2); and interpersonal psychotherapy (n = 2). These also included psychosocial approaches such as social support (n = 1) and multicomponent interventions (n = 3). For depressive symptoms, these interventions yielded moderate to strong effect sizes in favor of the intervention group [standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.95 to −0.23]. For anxiety symptoms, a strong effect size was estimated in favor of the intervention group (SMD = −1.43, 95% CI −2.22 to −0.65). Preventive interventions significantly reduce the severity of perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms. These interventions are also acceptable and feasible in many settings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.17
       
  • Hidden within a pandemic: how is international funding supporting mental
           health during COVID-19'

    • Authors: Gribble; Rebecca S. F., Durham, Jenna R., Roy, Samantha F.
      Pages: 173 - 180
      Abstract: BackgroundThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is bringing to light the long-neglected area of mental health. Current evidence demonstrates an increase in mental, neurological and substance use conditions globally. Although long-established as a leading cause of disease burden, mental health has been historically grossly underfunded. This analysis seeks to demonstrate the extent to which funding for mental health has been prioritised within the international COVID-19 response.MethodsThe authors analysed the development and humanitarian funding through data provided by the International Aid Transparency Initiative. Project-level COVID-19 data from January 2020 to March 2021 were reviewed for mental health relevance. Relevant projects were then classified into categories based on populations of concern for mental health and the degree of COVID-19 involvement. Financial information was assessed through project transaction data in US Dollars.ResultsOf the 8319 projects provided, 417 were mental health relevant. Mental health-relevant funding accounted for less than 2% of all COVID-19 development and humanitarian funding. Target populations which received the majority of mental health relevant funding were children and humanitarian populations, and 46% of funding went towards activities which combined COVID-19 responses with general humanitarian actions. Over half of mental health relevant funding was received by ten countries, and ten donor organisations provided almost 90% of funding.ConclusionThis analysis shows that the international donor community is currently falling short in supporting mental health within and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. As the pandemic continues, sustainable country-led awareness, treatment, and prevention for mental, neurological and substance use conditions must be prioritised
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.19
       
  • Depression and suicidal behavior in South Asia: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis

    • Authors: Arafat; S M Yasir, Saleem, Tamkeen, Menon, Vikas, Ali, Syeda Ayat-e-Zainab, Baminiwatta, Anuradha, Kar, Sujita Kumar, Akter, Hasina, Singh, Rakesh
      Pages: 181 - 192
      Abstract: BackgroundEstimates of depression in suicidal behavior in South Asia would help to formulate suicide prevention strategies in the region that hasn't been assessed yet.ObjectivesWe aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of depression in fatal and non-fatal attempts of suicide in eight South Asian countries.MethodsWe searched Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO by specific search terms to identify articles assessing depression in fatal and non-fatal attempts of suicide in South Asian countries published between 2001 and 2020. Two separate meta-analyses were conducted for fatal and non-fatal attempts. Due to the high heterogeneity of studies (96–98%), random-effects models were used to calculate pooled prevalence rates.ResultsA total of 38 studies was identified from five south Asian countries (India [27], Pakistan [6], Sri Lanka [3], Nepal [1], and Bangladesh [1]). The majority of studies (n = 27) were published after 2010. Twenty-two studies reported non-fatal attempts, and sixteen reported suicide. The prevalence of depression among non-fatal attempts ranged from 14% to 78% where the pooled prevalence rate was 32.7% [95% CI 26–39.3%]. The prevalence of depression among suicides ranged from 8% to 79% where the pooled prevalence estimate was 37.3% [95% CI 26.9–47.6%].ConclusionsThis review revealed the pooled prevalence of depression among fatal and non-fatal suicidal attempts in South Asian countries, which seems to be lower when comparedto the Western countries. However, a cautious interpretation is warranted due to the heterogeneity of study methods, sample size, and measurement of depression.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.20
       
  • Bull's eye or typhoon eye' Psychological distress and associated
           factors in Wuhan and surrounding areas during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Gao; Haiyan, Chen, Xi, Zou, Yuchun
      Pages: 193 - 201
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant psychological consequences among the public, especially for people in the epicenter. This study examined the ‘bull's eye’ model by comparing the level of psychological distress and the effect of different stressors in Wuhan (the original epicenter) with that in the surrounding areas in Hubei Province during the pandemic. Data were obtained from a cross-national survey of 10 478 respondents between the ages of 18 and 80 years in Hubei Province during the peak of the pandemic. Results of the ordinary least squares regression models showed that Wuhan residents experienced more psychological distress than those in the surrounding areas. Social and economic problems caused by the pandemic, risk exposure, perceived discrimination, and information-seeking behaviors were positively associated with distress. Social assistance was negatively associated with distress. Findings were consistent with the bull's eye model by revealing both a higher level of psychological distress and a stronger effect of stressors among the Wuhan residents than with those in low-risk areas. Thus, policymakers and psychological workers should provide adequate psychological services in high-risk areas. Lowering risk exposure, reducing discrimination against people in the epicenter, and improving information quality are essential to alleviate their psychological distress.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.18
       
  • An urgent call for action: Lebanon's children are falling through the
           cracks after economic collapse and a destructive blast

    • Authors: Obeid; Rita, Saade, Sabine
      Pages: 202 - 205
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.14
       
  • Mapping the legal foundations of planetary mental health

    • Authors: Ip; Eric C., Cheung, Daisy
      Pages: 206 - 210
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.22
       
  • Motivations and barriers for clinical mental health help-seeking in
           Bangladeshi university students: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Sifat; Munjireen S., Tasnim, Naima, Hoque, Nushrat, Saperstein, Sandra, Shin, Richard Q., Feldman, Robert, Stoebenau, Kirsten, Green, Kerry M.
      Pages: 211 - 220
      Abstract: BackgroundUniversity and college students are vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. People in low-income countries are disproportionately impacted by mental health problems, yet few studies examine routes to accessing clinical services. Examining motivation and barriers toward seeking clinical mental health services in university students in Bangladesh is important.MethodUsing a cross-sectional survey (n = 350), we assess the relationship between the constructs of autonomy, relatedness, and competency toward using clinical mental health practices (i.e. using professional resources, taking medication) with (1) positive views, (2) perceived need, and (3) use of clinical mental health services among Bangladeshi university students.ResultsResults showed that the perceived need for mental health support was the predictor of the largest magnitude (aOR = 4.99, p = 0.005) for using clinical services. Having a positive view of clinical services was predictive of clinical service use (aOR = 2.87, p = 0.033); however, that association became insignificant (p = 0.054) when adjusting for the perceived need for mental health care. Of the SDT constructs, social influences were predictive of perceiving a need for mental health support, and mental health knowledge was predictive (aOR = 1.10, p = 0.001) of having a positive view of clinical mental health care.ConclusionOur findings show that knowledge of mental health is associated with positive views of mental health services, and that higher levels of stress and the presence of people with mental health problems are associated with the perception of a need for mental health care, which is ultimately responsible for using the services.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.24
       
  • Competency-based mental health supervision: evidence-based tool needs for
           the humanitarian context

    • Authors: Böhm; Bettina, Palma, Miguel, Ousley, Janet, Keane, Gregory
      Pages: 221 - 222
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.23
       
  • Interventions for adolescents and adults with psychosis in Africa: a
           systematic review and narrative synthesis

    • Authors: Hunt; Xanthe, Abdurahman, Haleem, Omobowale, Olubukola, Afolayan, Adeola, Munetsi, Epiphania, Dzapasi, Lloyd, Mokaya, Nyareso, Koroma, Alhaji, Barrie, Ibrahim, Ogunmola, Olusegun, Koroma, Abubakar, Shakespeare, Tom, Eaton, Julian, Ryan, Grace
      Pages: 223 - 240
      Abstract: BackgroundThe Global Burden of Disease attributable to psychotic disorders in African countries is high and has increased sharply in recent years. Yet, there is a scarcity of evidence on effective, appropriate and acceptable interventions for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders on the continent.MethodsWe carried out a systematic review and narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed literature evaluating the impact of non-pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults (10–65 years) in African countries. Two reviewers independently double-screened all articles and performed data extraction and quality appraisal using standardized tools.ResultsOf the 8529 unique texts returned by our search, 12 studies were identified for inclusion, from seven countries: Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Sudan. They evaluated a range of interventions with one or more clinical, psychological or psychosocial, education or awareness or traditional or faith-based components, and were delivered by either mental health specialists or non-specialist health workers. Ten of the 12 included studies reported significant, positive effects on a range of outcomes (including functioning, symptoms and stigma). Nearly half of the interventions were based out of health facilities. Based on quality appraisals, confidence in these studies' findings is only rated low to medium.ConclusionFurther research is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that meet the diverse needs of people with psychosis, within and beyond the health sector.
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.25
       
  • Validating measures of stigma against those with mental illness among a
           community sample in Kilifi Kenya

    • Authors: Bitta; Mary A., Baariu, Judy, Fondo, Elias, Kariuki, Symon M., Lennox, Belinda, Newton, Charles R. J. C.
      Pages: 241 - 248
      Abstract: BackgroundStigma against persons with mental illness is a universal phenomenon, but culture influences the understanding of etiology of mental illness and utilization of health services.MethodsWe validated Kiswahili versions of three measures of stigma which were originally developed in the United Kingdom: Community Attitudes Toward the Mentally Ill Scale (CAMI), Reported and Intended Behaviors Scale (RIBS) and Mental Health Awareness Knowledge Schedule (MAKS) and evaluated their psychometric properties using a community sample (N = 616) in Kilifi, Kenya.ResultsConfirmatory factor analysis confirmed the one-factor solution for RIBS [root mean-squared error of approximation (RMSEA) < 0.01, comparative fit index (CFI) = 1.00, Tucker–Lewis index (TLI) = 1.01] and two-factor solution for MAKS (RMSEA = 0.04, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.95). A 23-item, three-factor model provided the best indices of goodness of fit for CAMI (RMSEA = 0.04, CFI = 0.90, TLI = 0.89). MAKS converged with both CAMI and RIBS. Internal consistency was good for the RIBS and acceptable for CAMI and MAKS. Test–retest reliabilities were excellent for RIBS and poor for CAMI and MAKS, but kappa scores for inter-rater agreement were relatively low for these scales. Results support validity of the original MAKS and RIBS scale and a modified CAMI scale and suggest that stigma is not an enduring trait in this population. The low kappa scores are consistent with first kappa paradox which is due to adjustment for agreements by chance in case of marginal prevalence values.ConclusionsKiswahili versions of the MAKS, RIBS and a modified version of the CAMI are valid for use in the study population. Stigma against people with mental illness may not be an enduring trait in this population.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.26
       
  • Competency-based mental health supervision: evidence-based tool needs for
           the humanitarian context – ERRATUM

    • Authors: Böhm; Bettina, Palma, Miguel, Ousley, Janet, Keane, Gregory
      Pages: 249 - 249
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.31
       
  • Prevalence of mental disorders in refugees and asylum seekers: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Patanè; Martina, Ghane, Samrad, Karyotaki, Eirini, Cuijpers, Pim, Schoonmade, Linda, Tarsitani, Lorenzo, Sijbrandij, Marit
      Pages: 250 - 263
      Abstract: BackgroundStudies have identified high rates of mental disorders in refugees, but most used self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we examined the percentages of adult refugees and asylum seekers meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder (BPD), and psychosis.MethodsA systematic literature search in three databases was conducted. We included studies examining the prevalence of MDD, post-traumatic stress disorder, BPD, and psychosis in adult refugees according to a clinical diagnosis. To estimate the pooled prevalence rates, we performed a meta-analysis using the Meta-prop package in Stata (PROSPERO: CRD42018111778).ResultsWe identified 7048 records and 40 studies (11 053 participants) were included. The estimated pooled prevalence rates were 32% (95% CI 26–39%; I2= 99%) for MDD, 31% (95% CI 25–38%; I2= 99.5%) for post-traumatic stress disorder, 5% (95% CI 2–9%; I2 = 97.7%) for BPD, and 1% (95% CI 1–2%; I2= 0.00%) for psychosis. Subgroup analyses showed significantly higher prevalence rates of MDD in studies conducted in low-middle income countries (47%; 95% CI 38–57%, p = 0.001) than high-income countries studies (28%; 95% CI 22–33%), and in studies which used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (37%; 95% CI 28–46% p = 0.05) compared to other diagnostic interviews (26%; 95% CI 20–33%). Studies among convenience samples reported significant (p = 0.001) higher prevalence rates of MDD (35%; 95% CI 23–46%) and PTSD (34%; 95% CI 22–47%) than studies among probability-based samples (MDD: 30%; 95% CI 21–39%; PTSD: 28%; 95% 19–37%).ConclusionsThis meta-analysis has shown a markedly high prevalence of mental disorders among refugees. Our results underline the devastating effects of war and violence, and the necessity to provide mental health intervention to address mental disorders among refugees. The results should be cautiously interpreted due to the high heterogeneity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.29
       
  • Effectiveness of interventions to address obesity and health risk
           behaviours among people with severe mental illness in low- and
           middle-income countries (LMICs): a systematic review and meta analysis

    • Authors: Zavala; Gerardo A., Todowede, Olamide, Mazumdar, Papiya, Aslam, Faiza, Choudhury, Asiful Haidar, Jarde, Alexander, Khalid, Humaira, Reddy, Sadananda, Gilbody, Simon, Siddiqi, Najma
      Pages: 264 - 273
      Abstract: IntroductionPeople with severe mental illness (SMI) are more likely to have obesity and engage in health risk behaviours than the general population. The aims of this study are (1) evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that focus on body weight, smoking cessation, improving sleeping patterns, and alcohol and illicit substance abuse; (2) Compare the number of interventions addressing body weight and health risk behaviours in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) v. those reported in published systematic reviews focusing on high-income countries (HICs).MethodsIntervention studies published up to December 2020 were identified through a structured search in the following database; OVID MEDLINE (1946–December 2020), EMBASE (1974–December 2020), CINAHL (1975–2020), APA PsychoINFO (1806–2020). Two authors independently selected studies, extracted study characteristics and data and assessed the risk of bias. and risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool V2. We conducted a narrative synthesis and, in the studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to address body weight, we conducted random-effects meta-analysis of mean differences in weight gain. We did a systematic search of systematic reviews looking at cardiometabolic and health risk behaviours in people with SMI. We compared the number of available studies of LMICs with those of HICs.ResultsWe assessed 15 657 records, of which 9 met the study inclusion criteria. Six focused on healthy weight management, one on sleeping patterns and two tested a physical activity intervention to improve quality of life. Interventions to reduce weight in people with SMI are effective, with a pooled mean difference of −4.2 kg (95% CI −6.25 to −2.18, 9 studies, 459 participants, I2 = 37.8%). The quality and sample size of the studies was not optimal, most were small studies, with inadequate power to evaluate the primary outcome. Only two were assessed as high quality (i.e. scored ‘low’ in the overall risk of bias assessment). We found 5 reviews assessing the effectiveness of interventions to reduce weight, perform physical activity and address smoking in people with SMI. From the five systematic reviews, we identified 84 unique studies, of which only 6 were performed in LMICs.ConclusionPharmacological and activity-based interventions are effective to maintain and reduce body weight in people with SMI. There was a very limited number of interventions addressing sleep and physical activity and no interventions addressing smoking, alcohol or harmful drug use. There is a need to test the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of context-appropriate interventions to address health risk behaviours that might help reduce the mortality gap in people with SMI in LMICs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.21
       
  • Levels of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress among Ugandan
           adults during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: cross-sectional
           evidence from a mobile phone-based population survey

    • Authors: Clarke-Deelder; Emma, Rokicki, Slawa, McGovern, Mark E., Birabwa, Catherine, Cohen, Jessica L., Waiswa, Peter, Abbo, Catherine
      Pages: 274 - 284
      Abstract: ObjectivesPolicy measures to slow the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), such as curfews and business closures, may have negative effects on mental health. Populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) may be particularly affected due to high rates of poverty and less comprehensive welfare systems, but the evidence is scarce. We evaluated predictors of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in Uganda, which implemented one of the world's most stringent lockdowns.MethodsWe conducted a mobile phone-based cross-sectional survey from December 2020 through April 2021 among individuals aged 18 years or over in Uganda. We measured depression, anxiety, and psychological distress using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-2, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-2, and the PHQ-4. We applied linear regression to assess associations between experiences of COVID-19 (including fear of infection, social isolation, income loss, difficulty accessing medical care, school closings, and interactions with police) and PHQ-4 score, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics.Results29.2% of 4066 total participants reported scores indicating moderate psychological distress, and 12.1% reported scores indicating severe distress. Distress was most common among individuals who were female, had lower levels of education, and lived in households with children. Related to COVID-19, PHQ-4 score was significantly associated with difficulty accessing medical care, worries about COVID-19, worries about interactions with police over lockdown measures, and days spent at home.ConclusionsThere is an urgent need to address the significant burden of psychological distress associated with COVID-19 and policy responses in LMICs. Pandemic mitigation strategies must consider mental health consequences.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.28
       
  • Anxiety and depressive symptoms among physicians during the COVID-19
           pandemic in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Hasan; M. Tasdik, Hossain, Sahadat, Safa, Farhana, Anjum, Afifa, Khan, Abid Hasan, Koly, Kamrun Nahar, Alam, Syeda Fatema, Rafi, Md. Abdur, Podder, Vivek, Trisa, Tonima Islam, Nodi, Rhedeya Nury, Azad, Dewan Tasnia, Ashraf, Fatema, Akther, S. M. Quamrul, Ahmed, Helal Uddin, Rosenbaum, Simon, Thornicroft, Graham
      Pages: 285 - 297
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn addition to risking their physical well-being, frontline physicians are enduring significant emotional burden both at work and home during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to investigate the levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and to identify associated factors among Bangladeshi physicians during the COVID-19 outbreak.Methods and designA cross-sectional study using an online survey following a convenience sampling technique was conducted between April 21 and May 10, 2020. Outcomes assessed included demographic questions, COVID-19 related questions, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).ResultsThe survey was completed by 412 Bangladeshi physicians. The findings revealed that, in terms of standardized HADS cut-off points, the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among physicians was 67.72% and 48.5% respectively. Risk factors for higher rates of anxiety or depressive symptoms were: being female, physicians who had experienced COVID-19 like symptoms during the pandemic, those who had not received incentives, those who used self-funded personal protective equipment (PPE), not received adequate training, lacking perceived self-efficacy to manage COVID-19 positive patients, greater perceived stress of being infected, fear of getting assaulted/humiliated, being more connected with social media, having lower income levels to support the family, feeling more agitated, less than 2 h of leisure activity per day and short sleep duration. All these factors were found to be positively associated with anxiety and depression in unadjusted and adjusted statistical models.ConclusionsThis study identifies a real concern about the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among Bangladeshi physicians and identifies several associated factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the vulnerability of the physicians in this extraordinary period whilst they are putting their own lives at risk to help people infected by COVID-19, health authorities should address the psychological needs of medical staff and formulate effective strategies to support vital frontline health workers.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.30
       
  • Quality of life of mothers of children and adolescents with mental health
           problems in Mongolia: associations with the severity of children's mental
           health problems and family structure

    • Authors: Aoki; Ai, Togoobaatar, Ganchimeg, Tseveenjav, Anudari, Nyam, Naranbaatar, Zuunnast, Khishigsuren, Takehara, Kenji
      Pages: 298 - 305
      Abstract: BackgroundIn low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), most parents of children with mental health problems receive limited support from social and health services while caring for their children. However, research on the quality of life (QOL) of these parents in LMICs is limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal QOL and children's mental health problems, and other related factors in Mongolia.MethodsA cross-sectional analysis of children aged 4–17 years who lived in Ulaanbaatar and visited the National Mental Health Centre in Mongolia and their mothers was conducted. The mothers' QOL was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF, and the severity of children's mental health problems was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed using the mothers' WHOQOL domain scores as dependent variables and the children's SDQ scores and demographic and socioeconomic factors as explanatory variables.ResultsA total of 242 child-mother dyads were included in this study, and 231 dyads were included in the multivariate regression analyses. Children's SDQ internalising scores were negatively associated with all four maternal QOL domain scores, while their externalising scores were negatively associated with maternal physical and psychological domain scores. Non-cohabitation of fathers was negatively associated with physical, social, and environmental domain scores, and non-cohabitation of grandparents was associated with psychological and environmental domain scores.ConclusionsIn Mongolia, maternal QOL is influenced by the severity of children's mental health problems and family member support. These findings highlight the importance of developing systems to support all families.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.34
       
  • Prevalence and associated factors of paternal stress, anxiety, and
           depression symptoms in the early postnatal period

    • Authors: Philpott; Lloyd Frank, Leahy-Warren, Patricia, FitzGerald, Serena, Savage, Eileen
      Pages: 306 - 321
      Abstract: BackgroundThe changes experienced during the transition to first-time or subsequent fatherhood are mainly positive; however, fathers can also experience adverse mental health outcomes such as stress, anxiety, and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of paternal stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms in the early postnatal period.MethodsA quantitative, descriptive correlational design was used. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire comprising of the Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.ResultsA total of 336 fathers were included in the study. The prevalence rates were 41.1% (n = 138) for moderate/high stress symptoms, 20.8% (n = 70) for state anxiety symptoms, 25.9% (n = 87) for trait anxiety symptoms, and 13.4% (n = 45) for depression symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, several factors were associated with increased stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms including being a subsequent father (p = 0.009), not living in a house (p = 0.009), having a history of adverse mental health (p = 0.008), and having a partner with a history of anxiety (p = 0.040).ConclusionThe findings suggest that fathers are at risk of adverse mental health in the early postnatal period which is a pivotal time for fathers in terms of bonding with their infant and redefining their relationship with their partner.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.33
       
  • The relation of unrest-related distress with probable depression during
           and after widespread civil unrest

    • Authors: Tao; Tiffany Junchen, Li, Tsz Wai, Yim, Sammi Sum Wai, Hou, Wai Kai
      Pages: 322 - 327
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study investigated whether subjective unrest-related distress was associated with probable depression during and after the 2019 anti-ELAB movement in Hong Kong.MethodsPopulation-representative data were collected from 7157 Hong Kong Chinese in four cross-sectional surveys (July 2019–July 2020). Logistic regression examined the association between subjective unrest-related distress and probable depression (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10), stratified by the number of conflicts/protests across the four timepoints.ResultsUnrest-related distress was positively associated with probable depression across different numbers of conflicts/protests.ConclusionUnrest-related distress is a core indicator of probable depression. Public health interventions should target at resolving the distress during seemingly peaceful period after unrest.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.27
       
  • Psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers: cross-sectional
           analyses from 14 countries

    • Authors: Ghozy; Sherief, Cross, Wendy M., Islam, Shariful, Al-Mawali, Adhra Hilal, AlQurashi, Alaa Ashraf, Hamza, Amr, Joseph, Bindu, Banik, Biswajit, Elsori, Deena H., Sultana, Farhana, Yasmin, Farhana, Mahmud, Ilias, Lam, Louisa, Hammoud, Majeda, Salehin, Masudus, Keblawi, Mohammed Ali, Eltewacy, Nael Kamel, Al Laham, Nahed, El-Khazragy, Nashwa, Oli, Natalia, Tungpunkom, Patraporn, Almustanyir, Sami, Chair, Sek Ying, Alif, Sheikh M., Al-Madhoun, Sondos, Chien, Wai Tong, Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
      Pages: 328 - 338
      Abstract: BackgroundHealthcare workers (HCWs) have been impacted psychologically due to their professional responsibilities over the prolonged era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to identify the predictors of psychological distress, fear, and coping during the COVID-19 pandemic among HCWs.MethodsA cross-sectional online survey was conducted among self-identified HCWs across 14 countries (12 from Asia and two from Africa). The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and the Brief Resilient Coping Scale were used to assess the psychological distress, fear, and coping of HCWs, respectively.ResultsA total of 2447 HCWs participated; 36% were doctors, and 42% were nurses, with a mean age of 36 (±12) years, and 70% were females. Moderate to very-high psychological distress was prevalent in 67% of the HCWs; the lowest rate was reported in the United Arab Emirates (1%) and the highest in Indonesia (16%). The prevalence of high levels of fear was 20%; the lowest rate was reported in Libya (9%) and the highest in Egypt (32%). The prevalence of medium-to-high resilient coping was 63%; the lowest rate was reported in Libya (28%) and the highest in Syria (76%).ConclusionCOVID-19 has augmented the psychological distress among HCWs. Factors identified in this study should be considered in managing the wellbeing of HCWs, who had been serving as the frontline drivers in managing the crisis successfully across all participating countries. Furthermore, interventions to address their psychological distress should be considered.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.35
       
  • The difference between the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale and the
           Brief Resilience Scale when assessing resilience: confirmatory factor
           analysis and predictive effects

    • Authors: Ye; Yun-Ci, Wu, Chia-Huei, Huang, Tzu-Yun, Yang, Cheng-Ta
      Pages: 339 - 346
      Abstract: BackgroundThe Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) are two scales widely used to measure resilience. Although both scales seek to assess an individual's ability to recover from and adapt to disruptions or stressful events, they can capture different aspects of resilience. While the CD-RISC focuses on resources that can help individuals to recover from and adapt to disruptions or stressful events, the BRS directly measures one's ability to bounce back or be resilient. The aim of this study is to better understand resilience through empirically examining the differences between the CD-RISC and the BRS.MethodSamples (a pooled sample N = 448 and two subsamples N = 202 and 246) consisting of undergraduate students from Taiwan were used. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to examine the relationship between the CD-RISC and BRS. Regression analysis was conducted to examine predictive effects of the CD-RISC and BRS on depression and life satisfaction.ResultThe results of CFA using different samples consistently show that the CD-RISC and the BRS are highly correlated but still distinct. The results of regression analyses using different samples also consistently show that the CD-RISC and the BRS have unique predictive effects regarding depression and life satisfaction.ConclusionsThe research findings suggest that the CD-RISC and the BRS capture different aspects of resilience. For future research on resilience, researchers should pay closer attention to the differences between these scales and choose the one that most closely fits their research purpose.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.38
       
  • Maintenance of intervention effects: long-term outcomes for participants
           in a group talk-therapy trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    • Authors: Bass; Judith K., Murray, Sarah M., Lakin, Daniel P., Kaysen, Debra, Annan, Jeannie, Matabaro, Amani, Bolton, Paul A.
      Pages: 347 - 354
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite the growth of psychotherapy trials in low- and middle-income countries, there have been limited follow-up studies of more than 2 years. This study follows up female sexual violence survivors approximately 6 years after completing a 12-session group cognitive processing therapy (CPT) program in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.MethodsBaseline trial data were collected in December 2010 from 134 women in 7 study villages randomly allocated to CPT. Study women were over 18 years, reported personally experiencing or witnessing sexual violence, and reported elevated depression, anxiety and/or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Women were followed up (1) post-treatment (6-months after baseline); (2) 6 months later; (3) 12 months later; and (4) in March 2017 (6.3 years after baseline). At the long-term follow-up, 103 women (77%) in 6 of 7 CPT villages were re-assessed; one village was not visited due to ongoing insecurity.ResultsWe found strong continued intervention effects; nearly all women maintained treatment impacts over the first two years; at long-term follow-up, approximately half continued to maintain low symptom scores. Relapse rates for probable PTSD and probable depression and anxiety were 20%.ConclusionsThis study extends prior research to show that treatment impacts can be maintained for several years despite experiences of ongoing trauma. The women described continuing to meet with the women in their therapy group and using the skills they learned in the psychotherapy, providing evidence of the potential for these programs to provide valuable social supports and skills that people use as they continue to face adversity.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.39
       
  • Mobilizing digital technology to implement a population-based
           

    • Authors: Santa-Cruz; Janeth, Moran, Leydi, Tovar, Marco, Peinado, Jesus, Cutipe, Yuri, Ramos, Lourdes, Astupillo, Aldo, Rosler, Melanie, Raviola, Giuseppe, Lecca, Leonid, Smith, Stephanie L., Contreras, Carmen
      Pages: 355 - 365
      Abstract: BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic caused considerable burden on mental health worldwide. To address this emergency in Peru, Socios en Salud (SES) implemented an innovative digital system for the diagnosis and psychological therapy in vulnerable populations. We describe the development, implementation, and participant outcomes of this intervention.MethodsWe conducted an intervention in a general population of Lima, Peru using a digital tool, ChatBot-Juntos, incorporating the abbreviated Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) to screen psychological distress. Participants positive for psychological distress received remote Psychological First Aid (PFA) and grief therapy if needed. Participants with a mental health condition or safety concern were referred to mental health services. SRQ scores were collected 3 months after PFA sessions. Differences between screening and follow-up scores were compared using Wilcoxon sign-rank test.ResultsIn total, 2027 people were screened; 1581 (77.9%) screened positive for psychological distress. Nine hundred ninety-seven (63%) people with psychological distress received PFA, and 320 (32.1%) of those were also referred for mental health care. At 3 months after follow-up, SRQ scores were collected for 579 (58%) participants. Significant reduction in SRQ scores was observed 3 months after PFA [median SRQ score changed from 9 to 5 (p < 0.001)], and after PFA plus referral to mental health services [median SRQ score changed from 11 to 6 (p < 0.001)].ConclusionDigital technology can be used to screen for psychological distress and deliver mental health support for populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. More research is needed to determine whether technology contributes to improved mental health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.36
       
  • Is everyone invited to the discussion table' A bibliometric analysis
           COVID-19-related mental health literature

    • Authors: Yalcin; Nadir, Bayraktar, Izgi, Karabulut, Erdem, de Filippis, Renato, Jaguga, Florence, Karaliuniene, Ruta, Nagendrappa, Sachin, Noël, Camille, Ojeahere, Margaret Isioma, Ori, Dorottya, Ransing, Ramdas, Saeed, Fahimeh, Shalbafan, Mohammadreza, Shoib, Sheikh, Ullah, Irfan, Vadivel, Ramyadarshni, Vahdani, Bita, Ramalho, Rodrigo
      Pages: 366 - 374
      Abstract: BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has captured the mental health discussion worldwide. Examining countries' representation in this discussion could prove instrumental in identifying potential gaps in terms of ensuring a truly global conversation in times of global crisis.MethodsWe collected mental health and COVID-19-related journal articles published in PubMed in 2020. We focused on the corresponding authors' countries of affiliation to explore countries' representation. We also examined these articles' academic impact and correlations with their corresponding authors' countries of affiliation. Additional journals and countries' indicators were collected from the Web of Science and World Bank websites, respectively. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics and the VOSviewer software.ResultsIn total, 3492 publications were analyzed. Based on the corresponding author, high-income countries produced 61.9% of these publications. Corresponding authors from Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East combined accounted for 11.8% of the publications. Europe hosted corresponding authors with the most publications and citations, and corresponding authors from North America had the largest mean journal impact factor.ConclusionsThe global scientific discussion during the COVID-19 pandemic saw an increased contribution of academics from developing countries. However, authors from high-income countries have continued to shape this discussion. It is imperative to ensure the active participation of low- and middle-income countries in setting up the global mental health research agenda, particularly in situations of global crisis, such as the ongoing pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.37
       
  • ENhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors (ENACT) tool:
           adaptation and psychometric properties in South Africa

    • Authors: Spedding; Maxine, Kohrt, Brandon, Myers, Bronwyn, Stein, Dan J., Petersen, Inge, Lund, Crick, Sorsdahl, Katherine
      Pages: 375 - 383
      Abstract: BackgroundThe ENhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors (ENACT) tool measures a set of therapeutic competencies required for the effective psychological intervention, including delivery by non-specialists. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of the ENACT for the South African (SA) context and presents the tool's initial psychometric properties.MethodsWe employed a four-step process: (1) Item generation: 204 therapeutic factors were generated by SA psychologists and drawn from the original ENACT as potential items; (2) Item relevance: SA therapists identified 96 items that were thematically coded according to their relationship to one another and were assigned to six domains; (3) Item utility: The ENACT-SA scale was piloted by rating recordings of psychological therapy sessions and stakeholder input; and (4) Psychometric properties: Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the final 12-item ENACT-SA were explored using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation co-efficient (ICC) for both clinical psychologists and registered counsellors.ResultsAlthough the original ENACT provided a framework for developing a tool for use in SA, several modifications were made to improve the applicability of the tool for the SA context, and optimise its adaptability other contexts. The adapted 12-item tool's internal consistency was good, while the inter-rater reliability was acceptable for both clinical psychologists and registered counsellors.ConclusionThe ENACT-SA is a reliable tool to assess common factors in psychological treatments. It is recommended that the tool be used in conjunction with assessment protocols and treatment-specific competency measures to fully assess implementation fidelity and potential mechanisms of therapeutic change.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.40
       
  • Real-time suicide surveillance supporting policy and practice

    • Authors: Benson; R., Brunsdon, C., Rigby, J., Corcoran, P., Ryan, M., Cassidy, E., Dodd, P., Hennebry, D., Arensman, E.
      Pages: 384 - 388
      Abstract: Suicide mortality rates are a strong indicator of population mental-health and can be used to determine the efficacy of prevention measures. Monitoring suicide mortality rates in real-time provides an evidence-base to inform targeted interventions in a timely manner and accelerate suicide prevention responses. This paper outlines the importance of real-time suicide surveillance in the context of policy and practice, with a particular focus on public health and humanitarian crises.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.42
       
  • Psycho-behavioural responses of the general population to COVID-19 after
           mass vaccination: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Chien; Wai Tong, Leung, Alice Wai Yi, Lam, Stanley Kam Ki, Choi, Kai Chow, Wong, Cho Lee
      Pages: 389 - 396
      Abstract: BackgroundPrevious studies have examined public psycho-behavioural responses in the early stages of the epidemic, little is known after mass vaccination has been implemented. This study aimed to investigate the public's behavioural (adoption of COVID-19 precautionary measures) and psychological (depression, anxiety and stress) responses to COVID-19 and their relationships after the launch of the territory-wide vaccination programme in Hong Kong.MethodsA cross-sectional survey study using anonymous online or face-to-face questionnaires was conducted between June 2021 and September 2021. A convenience sample of Hong Kong Chinese residents aged ⩾18 years were recruited online by referrals and from a university-run community vaccination centre.ResultsA total of 1893 valid questionnaires were received. The results showed that Hong Kong residents have high levels of adoption of precautionary measures and low levels of depression, anxiety and stress after the mass vaccination. Hierarchical regression analysis identified that in the fully adjusted model, the adoption of precautionary measures was a consistent protective factor (β ranged −1.51 to −1.67, p < 0.001) for depression, anxiety and stress amid the COVID-19 pandemic.ConclusionsThis study offers new information on the public's psycho-behavioural responses to the pandemic, as well as insights into public health planning after introducing the mass vaccination.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.45
       
  • Mental health implications on Afghan children: an impending catastrophe

    • Authors: Qamar; Khulud, Priya, , Rija, Aiman, Vohra, Laiba Imran, Nawaz, Faisal A., Essar, Mohammad Yasir
      Pages: 397 - 400
      Abstract: Afghan children have suffered for decades because of chronic socioeconomic health crises. The current state of Afghanistan has deprived the basic human needs of children. The lack of freedom leaves their voices unheard, causing detrimental effects on their mental health. Mental illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression are prevalent in Afghanistan, causing severe negative outcomes among children. Promotion of mental health services, psychological training, awareness campaigns, acceptance of Afghan refugees, and initiatives to support re-connecting with loved ones, are among the many recommended measures needed to manage this alarming situation. This requires an immediate action plan from government and public health officials to mitigate this impending catastrophe.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.43
       
  • Longitudinal experiences and risk factors for common mental health
           problems and suicidal behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi,
           Kenya

    • Authors: Beksinska; Alicja, Shah, Pooja, Kungu, Mary, Kabuti, Rhoda, Babu, Hellen, Jama, Zaina, Panneh, Mamtuti, Nyariki, Emily, Nyabuto, Chrispo, Okumu, Monica, Ngurukiri, Pauline, Irungu, Erastus, Kaul, Rupert, Seeley, Janet, Gafos, Mitzy, Beattie, Tara S., Weiss, Helen A., Kimani, Joshua
      Pages: 401 - 415
      Abstract: BackgroundFemale sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of mental health problems and suicide risk. Few longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for poor mental health among FSWs.MethodsMaisha Fiti is a longitudinal study among FSWs randomly selected from Sex Worker Outreach Programme clinics across Nairobi. Behavioural-biological survey data were collected at baseline (n = 1003, June–December 2019), midline (n = 366) (Jan–March 2020) and endline (n = 877) (June 2020–Jan 2021). Women reporting mental health problems were offered counselling services. Multivariable mixed logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with mental health problems and suicidal behaviours.ResultsThere was a decline in the proportion of women reporting any mental health problem (depression and/or anxiety and/or PTSD) (baseline: 29.9%, midline: 13.3%, endline: 11.8%). There was strong evidence that any mental health problem was associated with recent hunger (aOR 1.99; 95% CI 1.37–2.88) and recent violence from non-intimate partners (2.23; 95% CI 1.55–3.19). Recent suicidal behaviour prevalence was similar across survey rounds (baseline: 10.2%; midline: 10.2%; endline: 10.4%), and was associated with recent violence from non-intimate partners (aOR 1.96; 95% CI 1.31–2.95), recent hunger (aOR 1.69; 95% CI 1.15–2.47) and having an additional employment to sex work (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 1.00–2.23).ConclusionsOur study found a decline in mental health problems but high levels of persistent suicidal behaviours among FSWs. Syndemic risk factors including food insecurity and violence were longitudinally associated with mental health problems and recent suicidal behaviours. There is a need for accessible mental health services for FSWs, alongside structural interventions addressing poverty and violence.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.44
       
  • School-based group interpersonal therapy for adolescents with depression
           in rural Nepal: a mixed methods study exploring feasibility,
           acceptability, and cost

    • Authors: Rose-Clarke, Kelly, B. K; Prakash, Magar, Jananee, Pradhan, Indira, Shrestha, Pragya, Hassan, Eliz, Abou Jaoude, Gerard J., Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan, Devakumar, Delan, Carrino, Ludovico, Floridi, Ginevra, Kohrt, Brandon A., Verdeli, Helen, Clougherty, Kathleen, Klein Rafaeli, Alexandra, Jordans, Mark, Luitel, Nagendra P.
      Pages: 416 - 428
      Abstract: BackgroundAdolescents with depression need access to culturally relevant psychological treatment. In many low- and middle-income countries treatments are only accessible to a minority. We adapted group interpersonal therapy (IPT) for adolescents to be delivered through schools in Nepal. Here we report IPT's feasibility, acceptability, and cost.MethodsWe recruited 32 boys and 30 girls (aged 13–19) who screened positive for depression. IPT comprised of two individual and 12 group sessions facilitated by nurses or lay workers. Using a pre-post design we assessed adolescents at baseline, post-treatment (0–2 weeks after IPT), and follow-up (8–10 weeks after IPT). We measured depressive symptoms with the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), and functional impairment with a local tool. To assess intervention fidelity supervisors rated facilitators' IPT skills across 27/90 sessions using a standardised checklist. We conducted qualitative interviews with 16 adolescents and six facilitators post-intervention, and an activity-based cost analysis from the provider perspective.ResultsAdolescents attended 82.3% (standard deviation 18.9) of group sessions. All were followed up. Depression and functional impairment improved between baseline and follow-up: DSRS score decreased by 81% (95% confidence interval 70–95); functional impairment decreased by 288% (249–351). In total, 95.3% of facilitator IPT skills were rated superior/satisfactory. Adolescents found the intervention useful and acceptable, although some had concerns about privacy in schools. The estimate of intervention unit cost was US $96.9 with facilitators operating at capacity.ConclusionsSchool-based group IPT is feasible and acceptable in Nepal. Findings support progression to a randomised controlled trial to assess effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.46
       
  • Costs of common perinatal mental health problems in South Africa

    • Authors: Bauer; Annette, Garman, Emily, Besada, Donela, Field, Sally, Knapp, Martin, Honikman, Simone
      Pages: 429 - 438
      Abstract: BackgroundPerinatal mental health problems, defined as mental health problems occurring from the start of pregnancy to one year after birth, substantially affect women's and children's quality of life in low- and middle-income countries. In South Africa, despite high prevalence and documented negative impacts, most women do not receive any care.MethodsA modelling study examined the costs of perinatal mental health problems, namely depression and anxiety, for a hypothetical cohort of women and their children in South Africa over part of their life course (10 years for women, 40 years for children). In sensitivity analysis, additional impacts of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and completed suicide were included. Data sources were published findings from cohort studies, as well as epidemiological and economic data from South Africa. Data from international studies were considered where no data from South Africa were available.ResultsLifetime costs of perinatal depression and anxiety in South Africa amount to USD 2.8 billion per annual cohort of births. If the impacts of PTSD and suicide are included, costs increase to USD 2.9 billion. This includes costs linked to losses in quality of life (USD 1.8 billion), losses in income (USD 1.1 billion) and public sector costs (USD 3.5 million).ConclusionsWhilst important progress has been made in South Africa with regards to mental health policies and interventions that include assessment and management of perinatal mental health problems, substantial underinvestment prevents progress. Findings from this study strengthen the economic case for investing in perinatal mental health care.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.48
       
  • Patient and provider perceptions of a peer-delivered intervention
           (‘Khanya’) to improve anti-retroviral adherence and substance use in
           South Africa: a mixed methods analysis

    • Authors: Rose; Alexandra L., Belus, Jennifer M., Hines, Abigail C., Barrie, Issmatu, Regenauer, Kristen S., Andersen, Lena S., Joska, John A., Ciya, Nonceba, Ndamase, Sibabalwe, Myers, Bronwyn, Safren, Steven A., Magidson, Jessica F.
      Pages: 439 - 447
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite a high prevalence of problematic substance use among people living with HIV in South Africa, there remains limited access to substance use services within the HIV care system. To address this gap, our team previously developed and adapted a six-session, peer-delivered problem-solving and behavioral activation-based intervention (Khanya) to improve HIV medication adherence and reduce substance use in Cape Town. This study evaluated patient and provider perspectives on the intervention to inform implementation and future adaptation.MethodsFollowing intervention completion, we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with patients (n = 23) and providers (n = 9) to understand perspectives on the feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness of Khanya and its implementation by a peer. Patients also quantitatively ranked the usefulness of individual intervention components (problem solving for medication adherence ‘Life-Steps’, behavioral activation, mindfulness training, and relapse prevention) at post-treatment and six months follow-up, which we triangulated with qualitative feedback to examine convergence and divergence across methods.ResultsPatients and providers reported high overall acceptability, feasibility, and appropriateness of Khanya, although there were several feasibility challenges. Mindfulness and Life-Steps were identified as particularly acceptable, feasible, and appropriate components by patients across methods, whereas relapse prevention strategies were less salient. Behavioral activation results were less consistent across methods.ConclusionsFindings underscore the importance of examining patients’ perspectives on specific intervention components within intervention packages. While mindfulness training and peer delivery models were positively perceived by consumers, they are rarely used within task-shared behavioral interventions in low- and middle-income countries.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.47
       
  • Supporting addiction affected families effectively: a feasibility
           randomised controlled trial of a psychosocial intervention delivered by
           lay counsellors in Goa, India

    • Authors: Bhatia; Urvita, Velleman, Richard, Velleman, Gill, Garber, Alison, Catalano, Alexander, Nadkarni, Abhijit
      Pages: 448 - 459
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite evidence of the burden of alcohol use on families, there is a lack of adequate and targeted support. We aimed to examine the feasibility, acceptability and impact of Supporting Addiction Affected Families Effectively (SAFE), a brief lay counsellor-delivered intervention for affected family members (AFMs).MethodsParallel arm feasibility randomised controlled trial [1:1 allocation to SAFE or enhanced usual care (EUC)]. The primary outcome was mean difference in symptom score assessed by the Symptom Rating Test and secondary outcomes were difference in coping, impact and social support scores measured by the Coping Questionnaire, Family Member Impact Questionnaire, and Alcohol, Drugs and the Family Social Support Scale. Process data examining feasibility and acceptability were also collected. The primary analysis was intention to treat at the 3-month endpoint.ResultsIn total, 115 AFMs were referred to the trial, and 101 (87.8%) consenting participants were randomised to the two arms (51 SAFE arm and 50 EUC arm). Seventy-eight per cent completed treatment, with the mean number of sessions being 4.25 sessions and mean duration being 53 min. Ninety-five per cent completed outcome assessment. There were no statistically significant differences between SAFE and EUC on any of the outcome measures, except for the between-group adjusted mean differences for social support scores (AMD −6.05, 95% CI −10.98 to −1.12, p = 0.02).ConclusionOur work indicates that it is possible to identify AFMs through community networking, and have high rates of participation for lay counsellor-delivered psychosocial care. Nevertheless, there is a need for further intervention development to ensure its contextual relevance and appropriateness.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.41
       
  • Comics as a body image intervention among adolescents in Indian Hindi
           medium schools: insights from an acceptability study

    • Authors: Ahuja; L., Hasan, F., Diedrichs, P. C., Lewis-Smith, H.
      Pages: 460 - 469
      Abstract: BackgroundIndian adolescents experience body dissatisfaction. However, empirically supported interventions are lacking, particularly in lower socio-economic regions of India. This paper describes the acceptability testing of a six-session teacher-led comics-based intervention, aiming to improve body image and related outcomes among adolescents in Indian Hindi medium schools.MethodsThirty-five students (50% girls; Mage, girls = 12.3 years; Mage, boys = 13 years) and nine teachers (11% women) from Hindi medium schools in Rajasthan, India, completed a quantitative acceptability questionnaire regarding comics that target body dissatisfaction and associated risk factors. They also participated in online or telephone semi-structured interviews to share in-depth feedback, with teachers providing additional feedback on an accompanying teacher guide. The quantitative data were analysed descriptively, with the interviews analysed using qualitative codebook thematic analysis.ResultsQuantitative analyses revealed that 73% of students felt the comics made them feel good about themselves. Qualitative analyses revealed four themes: (1) body dissatisfaction is a concern; (2) the comics are powerful; (3) increasing ease of understanding; (4) a teacher guide to aid delivery.ConclusionThis study demonstrates acceptability of a novel teacher-led comics-based body image intervention for adolescents in Indian Hindi medium schools from lower socio-economic settings. These findings are currently informing intervention optimizations, which will be evaluated in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. If found to be effective, this intervention will be disseminated across eight Indian states by UNICEF. Trial registration. This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov; a database of privately and publicly funded studies conducted around the world. Registration date: 2nd May 2020; Registration ID: (NCT04317755). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04317755'term=NCT04317755&draw=2&rank=1.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.50
       
  • Armed assault of Russia on Ukraine and looming danger on regional mental
           health: a call for action by psychiatrists in conflict settings

    • Authors: Shoib; Sheikh, Armiya'u, Aishatu Yusha'u, Chandradasa, Miyuru, Zharkova, Albina, Kolesnyk, Pavlo, Swed, Sarya, Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo
      Pages: 470 - 471
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.32
       
  • Stress, anxiety and depression in parents of children with autism spectrum
           disorders in Kazakhstan: prevalence and associated factors

    • Authors: Alibekova; Raushan, Kai Chan, Chee, Crape, Byron, Kadyrzhanuly, Kainar, Gusmanov, Arnur, An, Sofiya, Bulekbayeva, Sholpan, Akhmetzhanova, Zulfiya, Ainabekova, Assel, Yerubayev, Zhanibek, Yessimkulova, Fariza, Bekisheva, Aislu, Ospanova, Zarina, Rakhimova, Makhabbat
      Pages: 472 - 482
      Abstract: IntroductionStudies worldwide reported increased levels of stress among parents of children with autism due to the unique caregiving challenges. While research has shown that parents' and autistic child's demographics and behavioral characteristics are associated with psychological distress among caregivers of children with autism, very few studies have investigated the impact of the caregiver's unmet needs on various aspects of the perceived family burden.MethodsThis cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms among a wide range of 146 parents with different sociodemographic characteristics, social support and unmet needs who care for children with autism spectrum disorder. These parents were recruited from autism non-governmental organizations and the National Children's Rehabilitation Center in Astana, Kazakhstan, a post-Soviet country in Central Asia. Multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to examine the relationship of parental psychological distress variables with social support, unmet needs and parental and child sociodemographic characteristics.ResultsSignificantly higher levels of stress and depression were reported among parents who perceived their needs as being unmet or extremely unmet as addressed by societal acceptance as compared to parents who reported adequate levels of needs met by social acceptance. Employed parents and parents with a higher level of perceived friends' support had less symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression.ConclusionsIncreasing public awareness about autism and providing early detection and interventions for distressed caregivers of children with autism may be helpful in improving healthy functioning of parents and the entire family.
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.51
       
  • War-related quality of life is associated with depressive symptoms and
           hopelessness among Palestinians: sense of belonging and resilience as
           mediating variables

    • Authors: Mahamid; Fayez, Veronese, Guido, Bdier, Dana
      Pages: 483 - 490
      Abstract: BackgroundThe current study was designed to test the correlation between quality of life, depressive symptoms, and hopelessness, and whether sense of belonging and resilience mediating the correlation between quality of life, depressive symptoms, and hopelessness in a society characterized by high level of political violence and prolonged trauma.MethodsStructural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to test the conceptual model, where quality of life was identified as a predictor variable, sense of belonging and resilience as mediating variables, and depressive symptoms and hopelessness as outcome variables. The participants of the study were 437 Palestinian adults: 190 males and 247 females, they were recruited using online methods; emails, Facebook, and Twitter.FindingsResults indicated that quality of life negatively correlated with depressive symptoms (r = −0.603; p
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.52
       
  • What matters in mental health care' A co-design approach to developing
           clinical supervision tools for practitioner competency development

    • Authors: Böhm; Bettina, Keane, Gregory, Karimet, Myriam, Palma, Miguel
      Pages: 491 - 498
      Abstract: BackgroundSpecialised mental health (MH) care providers are often absent or scarcely available in low resource and humanitarian settings (LRHS), making MH training and supervision for general health care workers (using task-sharing approaches) essential to scaling up services and reducing the treatment gap for severe and common MH conditions. Yet, the diversity of settings, population types, and professional skills in crisis contexts complicate these efforts. A standardised, field tested instrument for clinical supervision would be a significant step towards attaining quality standards in MH care worldwide.MethodsA competency-based clinical supervision tool was designed by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) for use in LRHS. A systematic literature review informed its design and assured its focus on key clinical competencies. An initial pool of behavioural indicators was identified through a rational theoretical scale construction approach, tested through waves of simulation and reviewed by 12 MH supervisors in seven projects where MSF provides care for severe and common MH conditions.ResultsQualitative analysis yielded two sets of competency grids based on a supervisee's professional background: one for ‘psychological/counselling’ and another for ‘psychiatric/mhGAP’ practitioners. Each grid features 22–26 competencies, plus optional items for specific interventions. While the structure and content were assessed as logical by supervisors, there were concerns regarding the adequacy of the tool to field reality.ConclusionsHumanitarian settings have specific needs that require careful consideration when developing capacity-building strategies. Clinical supervision of key competencies through a standardised instrument represents an important step towards ensuring progress of clinical skills among MH practitioners.
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.53
       
  • Cost-effectiveness of psychological intervention within services for
           depression delivered by primary care workers in Nepal: economic evaluation
           of a randomized control trial

    • Authors: Aldridge; L. R., Luitel, N. P., Jordans, M. J. D., Bass, J. K., Patenaude, B.
      Pages: 499 - 507
      Abstract: BackgroundIntegrating services for depression into primary care is key to reducing the treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the value of providing the Healthy Activity Programme (HAP), a behavioral activation psychological intervention, within services for depression delivered by primary care workers in Chitwan, Nepal using data from the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care.MethodsPeople diagnosed with depression were randomized to receive either standard treatment (ST), comprised of psychoeducation, antidepressant medication, and home-based follow up, or standard treatment plus psychological intervention (T + P). We estimated incremental costs and health effects of T + P compared to ST, with quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and depression symptom scores over 12 months as health effects. Nonparametric uncertainty analysis provided confidence intervals around each incremental effectiveness ratio (ICER); results are presented in 2020 international dollars.ResultsSixty participants received ST and 60 received T + P. Implementation costs (ST = $329, T + P = $617) were substantially higher than service delivery costs (ST = $18.7, T + P = $22.4) per participant. ST and T + P participants accrued 46.5 and 49.4 QALYs, respectively. The ICERs for T + P relative to ST were $4422 per QALY gained (95% confidence interval: $2484 to $9550) – slightly above the highly cost-effective threshold – and −$53.21 (95% confidence interval: −$105.8 to −$30.2) per unit change on the Patient Health Questionnaire.ConclusionProviding HAP within integrated depression services in Chitwan was cost-effective, if not highly cost-effective. Efforts to scale up integrated services in Nepal and similar contexts should consider including evidence-based psychological interventions as a part of cost-effective mental healthcare for depression.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.54
       
  • The mental health and well-being of internally displaced female Yazidis in
           the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: a realist review of psychosocial
           interventions and the impact of COVID-19

    • Authors: Lobanov-Rostovsky; Sophia, Kiss, Ligia
      Pages: 508 - 520
      Abstract: BackgroundYazidis in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq have been exposed to recurrent traumatic experiences associated with genocide and gender-based violence (GBV). In 2014, ISIS perpetrated another genocide against the Yazidi community of Sinjar. Women and girls were held captive, raped and beaten. Many have been forced into displacement. Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide are high. Limited research has evaluated interventions delivered to this population.MethodsThis review explores how the global evidence on psychosocial interventions for female survivors of conflict-related sexual violence applies to the context of the female Yazidi population. We used a realist review to explore mechanisms underpinning complex psychosocial interventions delivered to internally displaced, conflict-affected females. Findings were cross-referenced with eight realist, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders who deliver interventions to female Yazidis in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Interviews also allowed us to explore the impact of COVID-19 on effectiveness of interventions.ResultsSeven mechanisms underpinned positive mental health outcomes (reduced PTSD, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation): safe spaces, a strong therapeutic relationship, social connection, mental health literacy, cultural-competency, gender-matching and empowerment. Interviews confirmed relevance and applicability of mechanisms to the displaced female Yazidi population. Interviews also reported increased PTSD, depression, suicide and flashbacks since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, with significant disruptions to interventions.ConclusionCOVID-19 is just one of many challenges in the implementation and delivery of interventions. Responding to the mental health needs of female Yazidis exposed to chronic collective violence requires recognition of their sociocultural context and everyday experiences.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.55
       
  • Development of a transdiagnostic stepped care programme for common
           adolescent mental health problems in Indian secondary schools: lessons
           from a pilot study examining acceptability and feasibility

    • Authors: Malik; Kanika, Ibrahim, Maliha, Mathur, Sonal, Jose, James E., Nair, Pooja, Sahu, Rooplata, Krishna, Madhuri, Jangra, Deepak, Mathews, Rhea, Cuijpers, Pim, Chorpita, Bruce, Fairburn, Christopher G., Patel, Vikram, Michelson, Daniel
      Pages: 521 - 525
      Abstract: BackgroundThe ‘PRemIum for aDolEscents’ (PRIDE) project has developed a school-based, transdiagnostic stepped care programme for common adolescent mental health problems in India. The programme comprises a brief problem-solving intervention (‘Step 1’) followed by a personalised cognitive-behavioural intervention (‘Step 2’) for participants who do not respond to the first step.MethodsA mixed-method design was used to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of the stepped care programme in five schools in New Delhi. Participants were N = 80 adolescents (mean age = 15.3 years, females = 55%) with elevated mental symptoms and associated distress/impairment.Results61 (76%) of the enrolled sample were assessed following Step 1, from which 33 (54%) met non-remission criteria. Among these 33 non-remitted cases, 12 (36%) opted for Step 2 and five (42%) completed the full programme. The remaining non-remitted cases (n = 21, 64%) opted out of further treatment. Perceived resolution of the primary problem (n = 9, 43%) was the most common reason for opting out. The median time to complete each step was 22 and 70 days respectively, with a gap of 31 days between steps. Qualitative feedback from adolescents and counsellors indicated requirements for a shorter delivery schedule, greater continuity across steps and more collaborative decision-making.ConclusionsThis study provides preliminary evidence for a stepped care programme aimed at common adolescent mental health problems. Modifications are recommended to enhance the acceptability and feasibility of the programme in low-resource settings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.1017/gmh.2022.7
       
 
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