Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)

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Universal Journal of Public Health
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2331-8880 - ISSN (Online) 2331-8945
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [51 journals]
  • Perceived Risk of Developing Certain Cancers in People Who Smoke Tobacco
           in Eastern Kentucky: An Opportunity for Patient Education

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Jacob Corell   and Alexandra Dailey   The associations between tobacco and many cancers, including lung cancer, have been extensively studied and reported; however, rates of these cancers in Appalachia have remained largely unchanged for years. This discrepancy could be influenced by factors like healthcare access and health literacy, defined as the extent to which individuals can find and use information to make decisions about their health. This study quantifies perceptions of personal cancer risks from smoking cigarettes among people in Eastern Kentucky. By comparing these results to predicted risks, knowledge about smoking-related health hazards in this community is described, representing an important opportunity for patient education. Adult smokers at Highlands ARH Regional Medical Center in Prestonsburg, Kentucky were approached randomly and received a 16-item validated survey tool to rate the perceived risk of developing certain cancers due to smoking. There were 183 total participants. Respondents were first screened with a verbal script explaining the study and asking if they were current everyday smokers. Predicted risk values were developed using information reported by the American Cancer Society. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to calculate statistical differences across demographic groups. The results showed that the average perceived risk of lung cancer was 3.73 and the estimated risk value was 5. The estimated risk of bladder cancer was 5, but the average perceived risk was 2.02. Gastric and pancreatic cancer replicated this trend, each scoring a perceived risk of 2.31 when the estimated risks for both were 4. Women respondents rated brain cancer significantly higher than men did (p=.019). There were no other significant differences in any demographic variables in all 12 cancers. The results of this study show that low health literacy may contribute to the disproportionately high cancer rates in Appalachia from preventable causes such as smoking. A brief educational intervention using visual tools to discuss personal risks of developing cancers from smoking may be an effective form of patient education in this population.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Breaking the Silence: Uncovering Factors Delaying Timely Initiation of
           Fertility Treatment among Infertile Couples

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Sri Raghavi Vasudevan   and Mohanraj Bhuvaneswari   Infertility is a prominent concern, particularly in patriarchal societies such as India, that imposes considerable strain on couples seeking natural conception. However, medical advancement in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) helped these couples achieve their aspirations of becoming parents through biological conception. Yet, procrastination in seeking assistance from a healthcare practitioner, particularly in women over the age of 35, amplifies the likelihood of remaining infertile. This study explores the barriers associated with timely initiation of fertility treatment among infertile couples using a qualitative approach. Employing the purposive sample technique, this study included 19 individuals from a private reproductive clinic in Chennai. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather detailed case narratives from the participants, and the data were analyzed using content analysis. Four main categories were discerned through content analysis: social challenges, accessibility challenges, psychological hurdles, and lack of work-life balance. The current study discovered that major barriers to fertility treatments include perceived stigma, lack of spouse cooperation, financial burden, geographical barriers, fatalistic approach, increased optimism, work commitments, and time constraints. This study can assist health educators, physicians, policymakers, and psychologists in recognizing and implementing appropriate measures. Additionally, it may help couples recognize the importance of prompt intervention.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Study of Spatial Unequal Distribution of Infrastructure - Health Services
           in Greece for Cancer Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Dimitrios Antonoglou   and Kostas Rontos   The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the geographical distribution of available services within the National Health System - both public and private - for the diagnosis (primary care) and treatment (secondary care) of oncology patients. The goal is to examine whether there are disparities in infrastructure among the respective Health Regions of Greece, confirming inequalities in the access of cancer patients to effective treatment. The research is based on data from the statistical database of the Ministry of Health, Presidential Decrees on the Operation of Public Hospitals and information from the Hellenic Association of Private Clinics. The study revealed that the majority of available oncology services are concentrated in the larger urban centers of the country, primarily in Athens and Thessaloniki. This reflects the fact that dynamic oncological facilities are mainly located in the regions where medical schools and corresponding university hospitals are based. It is worth noting that the geographical imbalance of available facilities is internationally recognized as a key factor contributing to disparities in access to healthcare services. Finally, the research could in the future be extended to investigate the effectiveness of the health services offered, using the appropriate effectiveness formulas to assess the inputs and outputs of the services.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Unveiling the Role of Psychological Pain within Informal Institutions in
           Addressing Intimate Partner Violence

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Soumya Thankam Varghese   Navya Gubbi Sateeshchandra   and Roopa Patavardhan   This study redefines the exploration of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) by emphasizing psychological pain as the pivotal element of trauma, shifting away from focusing solely on aftermath experiences. Psychological pain has been considered as a core area for this research through the lens of biopsychosocial model and unbearable psychache. These theoretical approaches examine psychological pain as the foundational factor in subsequent victim experiences and reactions involved in intimate partner violences (IPV). Utilizing an in-depth case study method, it rigorously analyzes a victim's narrative within the IPV realm, detailing the intricate connection between psychological pain and resulting trauma. The participant of this study is visually impaired and the perceived pain and its intensity in the context of disability have also been analyzed. This pain significantly influences victimization and exacerbates physical suffering. IPV, trauma, and visual impairment intersect, creating complex challenges for individuals and communities. The paper discusses pain and IPV in the context of informal institutions and their complementary or challenging roles. By emphasizing psychological pain as the core of trauma dynamics, this research redefines the understanding of pain involved in IPV. The insights gained can contribute to the crucial implications for interventions among survivors in the realm of intimate partner violence.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Hearing Health in Lesotho: An Investigation into Knowledge, Understanding
           and Attitude towards Hearing Loss

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Olufemi Timothy Adigun   Olumide Otekalu   Chidi Topaz Olujie   and Faisat Adekilekun Tijani   This study investigated hearing health in Lesotho based on the knowledge, understanding and attitudes of Basotho people in tertiary institutions towards hearing loss and hearing aid users. The Health Belief Model framed the study. Data generation in the study was achieved through a mixed method approach using both a closed-ended structured questionnaire administered to 272 participants and a semi-structured interview with 6 respondents who were randomly selected from the 272 participants who responded to the closed-ended questionnaire. Data generated were analysed using descriptive (frequency count, simple percentage, mean and standard deviation), and inferential statistics (Chi-square) at p 
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Effectiveness of Management Quality and Information on the Environmental
           Health Program Monitoring Application (TEMU-KL) at The Baebunta Health
           Center, North Luwu Regency

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Putri Zulaeka   Syamsuar Manyullei   Erniwati Ibrahim   Anwar Mallongi   Lalu Muhammad Saleh   Shanti Riskiyani   and Setiawan Kasim   Introduction: A Health Information System (HIS) is a system that collects data from the health sector and other related sectors in public health, analyzes the data and ensures its overall quality, relevance and timeliness. The aim of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of implementing the Environmental Health Program Monitoring Information System on management, system quality and information quality in implementing Environmental Health program monitoring (TEMU-KL) at Community Health Centers at the Baebunta Community Health Center, North Luwu Regency. Methods: The type of research used is RnD (Research and Development) and Quasy Experiment research. The population and sample in this study were Health Workers and Environmental Health cadres in villages throughout the Baebunta Community Health Center working area. The data analysis used is univariate and bivariate analysis. Results: Respondents in the intervention group after being treated with the TEMU KL information system were effective in monitoring the environmental health monitoring program with a p value of 0.000. Meanwhile, respondents in the control group after being treated with the E-Monev information system were not effective in monitoring the environmental health monitoring program with a p value of 0.810. Conclusion: The Environmental Health Program Monitoring Information System (TEMU-KL) is suitable as an effort to monitor the quality of the Environmental Health Program at the Baebunta Community Health Center based on the assessment of expert validators. The Environmental Health Program Monitoring Information System (TEMU-KL) is effective in monitoring program quality and the quality of environmental health program management.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Morbidity Pattern and Usage of Swimming Gear among Swimmers in South India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Nitin Joseph   Animesh Jain   Naila Ibrahim   Shweta Nair Jaishankar   Ashita Nallapati   Tina Mary Cherian   and Stuti Bagga   Swimming is recommended for its several health benefits. However, swimmers are at risk of acquiring several diseases. This could be both due to constant exposure to water and non-usage of swimming gear. This study was hence done to study the morbidities, the usage patterns of swimming gear and its determinant among swimming pool users. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 162 swimmers visiting eight public swimming pools in Mangalore. The minimum sample size of 122 was calculated using the formula , at 95% CI and 15% relative precisions. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview schedule. Chi-square test and Fisher's Exact test were used to test association. A p value less than 0.05 was considered a statistically significant association. Swimming caps, goggles, ear plugs, and nose clips were always worn by 121(74.7%), 104(64.2%), 19(11.7%), and 2(1.2%) participants respectively over the past year. The most common self-reported morbidities related to swimming reported in nearly half of the participants were redness and burning sensation in the eyes over the past year. These were significantly more among swimmers who did not always wear goggles, and among occasional swimmers. Burning sensation in the eyes was seen more among those who started swimming ≤1 year ago while redness of the eyes was seen more among those who were swimming for more than 5 years. There was a statistically significant association between not always wearing swimming cap and males, not always wearing goggles, swimming for more than 5 years, occasional swimmers, and swimming for half an hour or less on each occasion in a day over the past year. There was a statistically significant association between not always wearing goggles and occasional swimmers and swimming for half an hour or less on each occasion in a day over the past year. Several participants in this study did not always wear the personal protective swimming gear. This was associated with certain common morbidities and various swimming-related characteristics among the swimmers. Hence there is a need to periodically screen swimmers for various morbidities and to educate them and encourage them to wear swimming gear on every occasion.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Nurse Preparedness in CHCs: Evaluating Disaster Response Competencies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Aulia Asman   Novita Mansoben   Heriyana Amir   Henny Kaseger   Widya Astuti   Dwi Yogo Budi Prabowo   Faris   I Kadek Dwi Swarjana   Akbar Nur   Icca Presilia Anggreyanti   Ratna Sari Rumakey   Indang Dewata   and Siti Fatimah   This research aims to provide an overview of the competency of nurses in dealing with the disaster response phase at the Community Health Centers (CHCs) in Padang City. The research uses an exploratory descriptive approach with data collection techniques using a questionnaire in the form of a dichotomous scale. The sample was taken by total sampling from all nurses at two CHCs, namely Kuranji and Andalas in Padang City, totaling 40 people. The results of the analysis showed that the majority of respondents were women (80.81%), who had a Diploma III in Nursing (90.48%) and worked in General Polyclinics and Emergency Rooms (26.19%). Most respondents (78.04%) had never attended disaster training. However, 91.86% of respondents had disaster response competence at the CHC in the good category. It was concluded that the majority of respondents had good service competence in responding to disasters, both in services to individuals and families as well as in handling psychological problems and vulnerable groups. Nurses who respond quickly to disasters have an important role in reducing the impact of disasters and improving people's quality of life.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Examining the Effects of Cardio Exercises on Psychological Stress
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Ahmed K. Hassan    Khaled M. Zahran   Mohammed S. Alibrahim   Majed M. Alhumaid   Sobhi Noureldin Ata   Hussam K. Aldawsari   Mohamed Frikha   Hatem Abd Elmonem Saleh Eldiasty   Naglaa Radwan   and Badry E. Hammad   Psychological problems are the main problem for mothers who have special kids. Caring for a child with a disability is stressful, disappointing, and frustrating, as a parent may be compelled to attend to the ill child for a long period and receive regular treatment. Aims: The study aimed to ascertain how cardio exercise affected the psychological stress experienced by mothers of special needs children. Methodology: The study adopted an experimental design, choosing a sample of 40 women, aged 25 to 46, to be regular visitors of the Association for People with Special Needs (APSN) in Al-Ahsa City, the Eastern Province of the Kingdom. Two groups of participants were randomly assigned: twenty mothers in the experimental group and twenty mothers in the control group. What distinguished the experimental group was the fact that it not only took part in the association's psychological awareness sessions but also in its aerobic fitness program. A psychological stress scale was evaluated. Findings: Mothers of children with special needs who were in the experimental group had significantly lower psychological stress levels than those in the control group (P
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Patients' Perceptions Resulting from the Contact with Emergency
           Departments Using the Manchester Triage System Protocol

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Marina Sousa   Maria Nascimento Cunha   and José Rodrigues   Triage protocols are indispensable for the seamless operation of Emergency Departments (Eds). This research focused on patient experiences in EDs employing the Manchester Triage System (MTS), a widely used protocol across Europe. Use a phenomenographic approach and an in-depth qualitative analysis through semi-structured interviews. Results revealed three categories to describe the qualitatively different ways that patients experience the contact with EDs: "Healthcare Professionals Roles", "Waiting Time to be Cared" and "Triage Protocol". Patients expressed confidence in the competence of health professionals, especially nurses, in the effective application of the triage protocols. However, more studies are needed to confirm this result as part of the research on patient satisfaction. However, interviewees also expressed concern about extending waiting time, attributing not to the triage process but to delays in receiving medical attention. The outcomes emphasize the pivotal role of the MTS in managing patient flow within EDs, stressing the need for swift triage and prioritization to enhance resource distribution and patient throughput. Despite a substantial trust in healthcare workers, there's an evident demand for better communication with patients, improvements in ED infrastructure, and strategies to reduce waiting times. Additionally, the preference to bypass ED visits was also mentioned, opting instead of primary care services for non-critical needs, while acknowledging the indispensability of EDs for serious conditions. This attitude on the part of patients suggests a possible strategy to diminish ED stress by improving primary care accessibility and educating patients on the appropriate use of EDs. This research contributes to the existing literature by providing a nuanced perspective on patient experiences in EDs, especially regarding the MTS. It highlights the imperative of a patient-focused approach, an enhanced communication, and the improvement of patient waiting conditions. These findings are relevant for healthcare professionals, administrators, and policymakers dedicated to improving patient satisfaction with the services provided in an ED.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Risk Analysis to Street Vendors Due to Exposure of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2),
           Carbon Monoxide (CON), and Total Suspended Particles (TSP)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Eni Adriani Abidin   Anwar Mallongi   Hasnawati Amqam   Agus Bintara Birawida   Apik Indarty Moedjiono   Hidayanty Healthy   and Setiawan Kasim   Background: Bumi Tamalanrea Permai is a housing complex with all the dynamic problems of typical Metropolitan City residents. One of them is the activities of street vendors who sell close to the road shoulder, which makes the vendors vulnerable to exposure to emissions from passing motor vehicles. The aim of the study was to quantify the health hazards that street sellers face from being exposed to carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and total suspended particles (TSP). Method: Six ambient air sampling stations at BBLK were analyzed, and a total of 68 respondents were involved. Intake, RQ, and THQ values were calculated as part of the data analysis process. Risk management must be implemented if RQ is greater than 1. Results: The average concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide is 13.3 mg/Nm3, Carbon Monoxide 7953 mg/Nm3 and Total Suspended Particles 89.7 mg/Nm3. The morning intake values are for Nitrogen Dioxide 10.03 mg/Nm3, Carbon Monoxide 28.9 mg/Nm3 and Total Suspended Particles 10.7 mg/Nm3 while the average evening intake value for Nitrogen Dioxide is 23.7 mg/Nm3, Carbon Monoxide 28.9 mg/Nm3 and Total Suspended Particles 10.2 mg/Nm3. Quantitative data explained by calculating RQ and THQ Quotient both real time and lifetime is still safe. Conclusion: The findings indicate that street sellers in Bumi Tamalanrea Permai are not in danger of developing health issues as a result of being exposed to NO2, CO, and TSP.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • EduTB as an Effort to Improve Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Dwi Sapta Aryantiningsih   Nizwardi Jalinus   and Linda Rosalina   The success of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is significantly dependent on patient adherence. Moreover, ensuring treatment adherence is crucial for pulmonary TB patients, as it improves positive treatment outcomes and prevents drug resistance. To enhance health literacy, self-efficacy, and treatment adherence, the current use of digital media offers a distinct opportunity for disseminating information. Therefore, this research aimed to develop EduTB as an online health information application to enhance knowledge and adherence to TB treatment. The design of EduTB included the combination of the PRECEDE-PROCEED and MATCH models, serving as a health promotion model starting with the analysis stage. This was followed by designing a TB health education model, namely Partnership Online Learning (POL). In the design stage, the model and educational product have been developed. The supporting products for the education model and testing instruments for development include validity and practicality testing on small and larger groups. The results showed that the EduTB application has been successfully developed, with a validity testing of 0.84, categorized as valid, and the practicality of 83%, classified as practical. The practicality result was based on the perception of educators in the experimental group, which was 91%, categorized as highly practical.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Ensemble of XGBoost Classifiers Based on LDA Dimensionality Reduction for
           Predicting Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Mai Nhu Uyen Le   Jianlin Zhou   Dinh Phu Cuong Le   and Dong Wang   As reported by the World Health Organization, breast cancer is recognized as the most popular disease in women. Thus, the need for early and accurate detection of this cancer for effective treatment is highly demanded. In this paper, a novel machine learning-based method is proposed to improve the success of breast cancer prediction. To be specific, Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), which is an efficient machine learning algorithm to deal with large datasets, is applied with the help of the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) algorithm, which is often used for dimensionality reduction by fusing the original multidimensional data features, to create the cancer predictive model. From the experimental results, with the LDA, it is shown that the XGBoost classifier can help to improve the classification accuracy by 2.7 % compared to the classifier without using LDA. Moreover, when compared to other machine learning methods, the proposed method also shows a better classification result with the root mean squared error of 0.115, which means that its error is at least 2.6 % lower than others. The proposed method aims to support doctors in enhancing clinical application as well as improving medical quality, especially when detecting the very first moment of breast cancer.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • Post-pandemic Job Burnout in Azerbaijani Medical Doctors: The Role of
           Psychological Resilience and Hope

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  3  Elnur Rustamov   Narinj Rustamova   and Gulay Mammadzada   The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare professionals worldwide has been significant, affecting both their physical and emotional well-being. This has led to the emergence of a major concern known as occupational stress or burnout syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and feelings of reduced personal accomplishment. The present research is driven by the need to understand the specific factors contributing to post-pandemic burnout in Azerbaijani medical doctors and identify potential interventions to mitigate its adverse effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the mediating role of hope in the relationship between the psychological resilience of medical doctors and the level of job burnout. Brief Psychological Resilience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory Scale, and Dispositional Hope Scale were used to measure the outcome of interest. A total of 303 medical doctors, with a mean age of 39 years (SD 10.25), participated in our study, and a significant majority (79.5%) of them were female. Almost 80% of participants reported being married and 73.2% were working in the central hospitals. Correlation analyses showed that job burnout is negatively related to psychological resilience and hope. On the other hand, psychological resilience was positively associated with hope. In addition, structural equation modeling revealed that hope played a mediating role in the relationship between psychological resilience and burnout sub-dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment). Based on the results of this research, increasing the level of psychological resilience during the period when individuals experience burnout and become desensitized may be curative. The findings from this study may have practical implications for the development of interventions and support systems tailored to the unique needs of Azerbaijani medical doctors.
      PubDate: Jun 2024
       
  • A Structural Equation Modeling-Based Maternal Mortality Prediction Model
           with Three Levels of Determinants

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Ratna Dewi Puspita Sari   Sutyarso   Dyah Wulan Sumekar Rengganis Wardani   Samsul Bakri   Tugiyono   and Hendri Busman   Maternal mortality is an important indicator of national health. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target reducing maternal mortality to a maximum of 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030. No country can accept a doubling of the maternal mortality rate. Maternal mortality is caused by distant, intermediate, and immediate factors. Given the high rate, the Lampung Health Service prioritizes addressing maternal mortality. This study evaluates the factors that contribute to maternal mortality as variables that influence its prevalence and analyzes the equation model in Lampung, Indonesia. This study was conducted in Lampung Province, using analytical descriptive method with case-control approach. The population was divided into case and control groups, using a complete and proportional randomly selected sample from 87 community health centers in 90 sub-districts in Lampung. Each case and control group consisted of 97 samples. Distant determinants included socioeconomic and environmental health issues; intermediate determinants included maternal health status, access to health services, and use of those services; while immediate determinants were pregnancy complications. In this study, SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and PLS-SEM (Partial Least Squares - Structural Equation Modeling) were applied for data analysis. The results of the analysis identified 11 path hypotheses, with 7 of them having a significant effect on maternal mortality. In Lampung Province, socioeconomic factors, environmental health, utilization and access to health services, maternal health conditions, and pregnancy complications contributed to maternal mortality. Socioeconomic factors and access to health services contributed 97.79% to maternal mortality. The findings suggest the importance of hand hygiene promotion, job creation in the community, diversification of food choices, improved access to delivery facilities, and implementation of better health practices. In addition, prevention, health promotion and treatment of conditions such as preeclampsia/eclampsia need to be prioritized.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Health Education Model for Obesity: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Ni Made Sri Dewi Lestari   I Made Ady Wirawan   Pande Putu Januraga   I Wayan Weta   and Putu Adi Suputra   Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem. There are several ways to deal with obesity including surgery, pharmacotherapy, behavior modification, diet and increased physical activity. Physical activity, diet, and behavior modification can be changed through health education, either actively or passively. However, it is not yet clear what type of health education is effective for obese patients so that weight loss occurs, with the aim of dealing with obesity. Objective: This study aims to describe effective types of health education to deal with obesity. Method: This systematic review uses the Pubmed and Science direct search database with keywords: (health education model for obesity) OR (health education model for obese) OR (health education model for overweight). Result: There were 4 studies that used web-based program interventions, 3 studies that used health coaching studies as an intervention for weight loss in obesity and 3 studies that used education based on behavioral theory as an intervention. 7 studies found significant results from the treatment group on weight loss, increased physical activity, and diet. Only 3 studies had no significant results in weight loss between the treatment and control groups. All studies that used health education based on behavioral theory as an intervention have significant results compared to controls. Conclusions: health education based on behavioural theory has a positive influence on obese individuals. All studies that used this method had significant outcomes when compared to control. However, the intervention must at least 6 months.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Analysis of Schoolgirls' Mental Health – A Machine Learning Approach to
           Distinguish Between Academic and Abusive Stress

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Deivanai Gurusamy   Midhunchakkaravarthy Janarthanan   and Prasun Chakrabarti   The prevalence of stress and depression is rising among students. Current research acknowledges that academic burden is a source of stress for students and evaluates physiological parameters during academic activities by deliberately introducing stressors or stress. Nonetheless, schoolgirls perceive sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as the primary source of stress nowadays. This study gathered information from fifty schoolgirls via an in-house oral questionnaire to identify those concerned about academic pressure and maltreatment. This questionnaire was designed to disclose the psychological state through oral, behavioural, and physiological responses without instigating stress unnaturally. The prepared dataset was experimented with using multinomial logistic regression and decision tree using C4.8, Naive Bayes, and k-NN for three class classifications (normal, academic, and abuse stress). The weighted average F1-score of the leading models from each classifier was 89.9%, 89.2%, 89.5%, and 88.6%, respectively. The results indicate that logistic regression performs marginally better than other methods. When separating normal and academic stress samples, the same classifier achieves an F1-score of 94.9% and 69.0%, respectively. In identifying the abuse stress classes, k-NN achieved the maximum F1-score of 88.8%. In addition, the normal, academic, and abuse stress classes achieved sensitivities of 98.4%, 65.4%, and 98.4% and specificities of 71.7%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively. The categorisation models constructed from the research can identify schoolgirls with internalised conflict for earlier intervention.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Exploring the Landscape of eHealth in Promoting Physical Activity and
           Healthy Dietary Intake

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Thekra Alawamleh   and Walaa AlKasasbeh   Physical activity (PA) and healthy dietary intake (HDI) play pivotal roles in preventing noncommunicable diseases. With the growing influence of information and communication technologies, electronic health (eHealth) interventions have emerged as a promising avenue for primary prevention in healthcare. These interventions leverage digital platforms to disseminate information and foster positive behavior changes related to PA and HDI. This narrative review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current landscape of eHealth interventions targeting PA and HDI, delving into contemporary trends, identifying challenges, and presenting recommendations for future research directions. The review culminates in a synthesis of major conclusions drawn from the collective evidence, emphasizing novel or crucial aspects discovered through the research. Additionally, we highlight the contributions of eHealth interventions in the broader context of preventive healthcare, emphasizing their potential to mitigate the burden of chronic diseases. By providing a nuanced understanding of the current state of eHealth interventions for PA and HDI, this review aims to guide future research endeavors and contribute to the ongoing discourse on leveraging technology for public health advancement.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Prevalence of Multimorbidity and Its Associated Factors among Residents in
           the Coastal Region of Southern Karnataka, India: A Descriptive Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Rakshitha R Shenoy   Sneha Deepak Mallya   Deepak Sudhakaran   Akhilesh Kumar Pandey   Muralidhar M Kulkarni   and Suma Nair   Background: India is currently undergoing a rapid transition with respect to demography and lifestyle which has led to a change in magnitude and pattern of diseases across the country. There is an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with an increase in the prevalence of multimorbidity due to ageing population and longevity. Objective: The objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity and its determinants among the rural and semi-urban population in a coastal region of Karnataka. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the health and socio-demographic data available from the five peripheral health centres attached to a medical college was carried out. A total of 31,817 study participants above the age of 18 years were included in the study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to check the association between socio-demographic characteristics and multimorbidity with p60 years were at sixty times higher odds of having multimorbidity as compared to people
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Epidemiological and Evolutionary Profile of Bacterial Meningitis in
           Children Under 12 Years of Age in the Kenitra Region, Morocco

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Hassan Saidi   Zakaria Abidli   Abdessamad El hamaoui   Joumana El turk   Amri Abdeslam   Abdelmajid Soulaymani   and Abderrazzak Khadmaoui   Introduction: Bacterial meningitis in children, constitutes a serious public health problem in Morocco. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological, bacteriological and evolutionary profile of bacterial meningitis in patients admitted to the Cherif Idrissi Hospital of kenitra. Methods: This is a retrospective study of children with meningitis with an average age of less than 5.55±0.25 years (minimum= 1 year and less; maximum= 12 years), from 2010 to 2018. Results: We collected 200 cases. The median age was 6 years, with a male predominance. The main germs isolated were Neisseria meningitidis (25%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (33.5%). The case fatality rate was estimated at 8%. Conclusion: The results of our study have confirmed the important lethality of meningitis. Therefore, the health authorities must organize diagnosis and treatment campaigns especially in the environment at risk and make sure to carry out epidemiological studies around each case, and chemoprophylaxis for contacts, in order to reduce the mortality rate related to this pathology, without forgetting the fight against meningitis in an endemic country like ours.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Advancing Dental Patient Safety: A Critical Appraisal of Current Realities
           and Future Directions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Anambir Singh   Mohd Shannawaz   Karuna Nidhi Kaur   Mandeep Kaur   and Archana Koul   Oral health serves as a pivotal component of overall well-being, functioning as a gateway to the broader realm of bodily health. Yet, the field of dentistry, often marginalized within the healthcare landscape, grapples with significant challenges. On one hand, it caters to the demands of affluent individuals seeking expensive cosmetic treatments, while on the other, millions of underprivileged individuals in developing nations lack access to even basic dental care. The prevailing, costly, and unsustainable approach in dentistry, often described as "drill and fill (and bill)," calls for a fundamental shift towards a more affordable and evidence-based focus on prevention. The ultimate goal is to empower individuals to preserve their natural teeth and oral health throughout their entire lives. Patient safety, a concept inherently intertwined with healthcare, has recently evolved into a distinct and multidimensional field encompassing economic, social, cultural, and organizational dimensions. In the realm of dentistry, patient safety remains a developing area, characterized by limited comprehension of effective tools and interventions to enhance safety and mitigate adverse events. The global COVID-19 pandemic has exerted profound effects on dental education, presenting formidable challenges to scholars and educators across various clinical and non-clinical training domains. These challenges extend to adapting to accessible and informative online educational content, as well as addressing partial hands-on dental experiences. This review underscores the pressing need for dental institutions to adapt proactively to the evolving landscape of dental education, ensuring they can effectively meet the demands and uncertainties of the future.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Sexual Harassment and Its Impact on Employees

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Christian Wiradendi Wolor   Datu Razali Datu Eranza   Mahmoud Ali Rababah   Ahmad Nurkhin   and Eka Ary Wibawa   Sexual harassment remains a prevalent type of mistreatment of employees that frequently transpires within the confines of the workplace. The present study endeavors to address the lacuna in prior research and examine the effects of sexual harassment on employee depression, employee satisfaction, and turnover intention. The research employs a quantitative methodology utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM) to scrutinize the gathered data. The study's sample comprises 406 employees who have encountered incidents of sexual harassment in Indonesia. The SmartPLS 3 program was utilized to analyze questionnaires that were distributed to 406 employees via Google Forms. The results show that sexual harassment affects depression (p = 0.000), sexual harassment does not affect job satisfaction (p = 0.209), depression affects job satisfaction (p = 0.001), depression affects turnover intention (p = 0.000), and job satisfaction affects turnover intention (p = 0.001). The implication of this research is that organizations must take action to prevent sexual harassment in the work environment and reduce its negative effects by making sexual harassment prevention training and rules related to sexual harassment.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Relationship between Drinking Water Quality Source, Physical Aesthetic
           Aspects, and Nutritional Status of Toddlers Aged 6 - 24 Months in Cijeruk
           and Ciembu Villages, Sumedang Regency

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Hesri Mintawati   Ria Lubis   Tantu Usman   Jhoni Albert   Saimi Saimi   and Marhaeni Fajar   Water is very important for the whole community, including children, because it is necessary for life and cleaning. However, the increasing global issues of water pollution pose a significant risk, exposing community to various waterborne diseases such as cholera, intestinal disorders, and other infectious diseases. Stunting can be promoted by poor water sanitation and hygiene practices through various mechanisms, including recurrent diarrhea, infection pathways, and gut environment dysfunction. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of stunting among toddlers aged 0-2 years using analytical observation, with a cross-sectional design and chi-square data analysis. The population was all toddlers aged 0-2 years, with a total sample size of 41 toddlers. The result showed that 17 toddlers experienced stunting due to poor water sanitation, with 28 being. malnourished, and 7 underweight. Approximately 38.1% used refillable water, 26 (61.9%) depended on pumped water for drinking purposes, and all forty-two (100%) toddlers managed water before consumption. Based on proximity, 22 (53.4%) had toilets 10 meters away. Furthermore, 14 (33.3%) experienced good sanitation and 28 (66.7%) had poor sanitation. Based on the z score, 30 (71.4%) had an average height, while 12 (28.6%) were classified as short. The results are expected to become a reference for Indonesian society, particularly in improving water sanitation to support nutritional status of toddlers under five.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Delayed Immunization and Health of Children below 5yo during COVID-19
           Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Alfiah Hasanah   Sutyastie Remi   Bayu Kharisma   Asep Muhammad Adam   and Maman Setiawan   This research addresses two investigations regarding the impact of pandemic COVID-19 on children's health in West Java, a province with the second highest number of children registered orphaned due to COVID-19. First, this study examines the probability of delayed immunization for children under 2yo and second it observes the health conditions of children aged below 5yo during pandemic in the same survey area. This research was conducted through a telephone survey of 500 respondents spread across 14 districts and 7 municipalities in West Java, a province that ranked number five among the provinces in Indonesia with the highest number of COVID-19 cases, with Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) indicating the largest number of cases after the Jakarta Greater Area. The analysis is estimated using probit regression for both models. The result shows parents are more likely to delay their children’s immunization because they feel it is not safe to bring their children to a health facility. Increases in age of children positively contribute to probability of delayed immunization. Having a community health center close to home contributes to not delaying immunization. Investigations on the health conditions of children aged 5yo show that vaccinated toddlers were less likely to have health issues, particularly if they had regular meal frequency and had a habit of drinking milk. Mothers’ education positively contributes to low health issues of children. Pandemic disrupts children's access to health care services particularly immunization. Children are more likely to have health issues when they do not receive basic immunization as well as internal factors such as dietary habits and mothers’ education.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Bridging the Gap: Understanding Gender Disparities in Geriatric Health and
           Care

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Indhumathi S.   and Binu Sahayam D   Background: Aging is a physiological process and it is an inevitable part of life. According to the Census of India, reports from 2001 and 2011 highlight the increase in the elderly population from 70.6 million to 104 million. It will keep increasing, but that does not necessarily mean they live healthier. Gender is one of the significant factors in geriatrics, as elderly people of different genders face unique challenges related to aging, due to differences in biological, psychological, and social experiences. Objective: To understand the difficulties faced by the elderly based on gender perspectives in health care. Methodology: Qualitative case study methodology was applied in this study using an in-depth interview guide and analyzed thematically. The researcher interviewed 30 elderly people using a convenient sampling method. Descriptive design was used to describe the existing problems of elderly people such as lack of health care, mental health issues, social security issues, financial insecurity, and difficulty with everyday tasks and mobility in Chennai based on their gender. Model: A “bio-psychosocial model” was used to understand the complex interactions between the factors and their impact on gender differences in health outcomes. The current study discussed gender differences and their influence on biological, psychological, and social factors of elderly people. Findings: The findings revealed biological factors such as Cognitive function, and Longevity, psychological factors such as Mental health disorders, coping with loss, and social factors such as Social roles and expectations, and social support networks of the elderly people based on their gender. From the study, both the elderly men and women face unique challenges related to their health. Conclusion: This study focused on developing an in-depth analysis to examine relevant issues, challenges, and areas that require further attention from governments on the impact of gender norms and roles in the realities and experiences of elderly people.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • The Effect of Physical Environment (Gamma Radiation) on Changes in Enamel
           Structure in Teeth

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Elanda Fikri   Tantin Retno Dwijartini   Evan Puspitasari   Enny Chalimah   Siti Amaliyah   and Yura Witsqa Firmansyah   This research is needed to know and get clear information about the effects of radiation on enamel, in the form of density, microstructure, morphology, and element content in the tooth enamel layer. This type of research is correlated with a before-and-after with control group experimental design that is in vitro the effect of ionizing radiation on tooth enamel samples (n = 18). The samples were irradiated with doses of 20Gy, 30Gy, 40Gy, 50Gy, and 70Gy. Then the density of tooth samples, the content of calcium and phosphorus constituents, as well as surface morphological analysis and pores on the teeth were observed. The results density in enamel samples has a significant average difference with the t-paired test in the pre-irradiated and post-irradiated groups of 30 Gy radiation dose (P = 0.035), and 40 Gy (P = 0.001). The content of calcium and phosphorus constituents in molar tooth enamel samples has a significant average difference with the One-way Anova test in the control and treatment groups (P = 0.001) and (P = 0.006). Reactions that occur in water molecules and organic substances produce more significant morphological changes in the interprismatic region. These microstructural changes result in a decrease in microhardness, and teeth become more brittle and cracks develop. Patients exposed to ionizing radiation must get specialized oral care to improve oral health.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • An Investigation of the Effects of Chronic Stress on Attention in Parents
           of Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Maharishi Ranganathan   Abin Jacob   Ashifa Kariveliparambil Mohammed Ashraf   Ganesh Kumar J   Madalaimuthu Anthony   Vijay M   Rupashree Brahma Kumari   and Sadananda Reddy Annapally   Prolonged exposure to stress can cause impairments in various brain functions including cognition. Attention is one such important cognitive function that is required for our daily life and work-related activities. Chronic stress can have an impact on attention networks such as alerting, executive control, and orienting. The effects of naturalistic, persistent psychosocial stress on several attention networks were explored in this study. Parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) and parents of children with typical development (TD) were given an attention network test (ANT). Overall the stressed group (M= 564.623, SD= 75.484) was found to have a quicker reaction time in all the target and cue conditions when compared to the non-stressed group (M= 588.874, SD= 101.575). Both groups had similar accuracy in all the conditions. When comparing the three attention network scores, no significant difference was found in either group. However, in the stressed group, there was a significant beneficial relationship between the alerting and orienting networks (p=.006) and a high negative correlation between the alerting and executive control networks (p=.028). No significant correlation was found between the attention networks in the non-stressed group.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Mental Health among Secondary School Students: Predictive Factor Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Udeme Samuel Jacob   Naseem Akorede Raji   Jace Pillay   Habeeb Omoponle Adewuyi   and Ojuolape Mumud Olabode   Poor mental health impairs an individual’s functioning and cognitive processes, reducing their social role and output in society. The study investigated factors that determine mental health predictors among secondary school students in southwestern Nigeria. The study used a correlational-descriptive research approach. A total of 1000 secondary school pupils from southwestern Nigeria were chosen using a multistage sampling procedure. Three study questions were addressed at a 0.05 significance level utilizing frequency distribution, percentage, Pearson product-moment correlation, and multiple regressions. The findings of the study showed that self-esteem (r =.202, p
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Hospital at Home: A New Model of Healthcare Services Innovation – Case
           Study of Hakim Saadane Hospital, Biskra City, Algeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Reguia Cherroun   and Fateh Debla   This study aims to discuss the Hospital at Home service (HAH) as an innovative service offered by Biskra Hospital "Hakim Saadane", a public healthcare institution in Algeria. In addition to the document analysis submitted by the department of the HAH, an interview was conducted with the department head and the medical staff to analyze and describe the main requirements to implement this innovative tool to provide high-quality and less-cost healthcare services for the benefit of patients especially old people and those who have chronic diseases. It also aims at identifying the obstacles faced by the medical staff to implement the HAH in their daily program, and the way to improve it through introducing new digital tools. The study concluded the existence of an increasing interest in this service according to the enormous number of patients in need of HAH service. However, there are a remarkable shortcoming regarding the necessary tools and equipment, in addition to the lack of adequacy of the medical staff. Numerous patients have difficulties consulting their doctors in hospitals and clinics due to many reasons, such as inability to move, chronic diseases, and overcrowding in hospitals…etc. Therefore, it becomes a necessity to rethink offering alternatives to hospital care through innovating new services that allow the patient to obtain required healthcare at home to avoid complications while moving to hospitals and clinics.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Potential Benefits of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Local Wisdom and
           Online Counseling for the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorders, and
           Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in College Adolescent Girls

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  1  Zadrian Ardi   Chiedu Eseadi   Elsa Yuniarti   Frischa Meivilona Yendi   and Arina Widya Murni   Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and generalized anxiety disorders (GADs) are widespread chronic illnesses associated with a reduced quality of life, social burdens, and low treatment rates. They affect adults, adolescents, and children. The main objective of this study was to examine the literature on the potential benefits of using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), local wisdom, and online counseling approaches for the treatment of FGIDs and GADs in adolescent girls of college age. The existing research on the possible advantages of these approaches was reviewed and analyzed using a narrative–descriptive literature review methodology. The results of this review demonstrated the effectiveness of the three approaches in reducing the symptoms of GADs and FGIDs, enhancing patients' access to evidence-based care, patient self-care, and participation in therapeutic activities that improve their health. These therapeutic strategies are acceptable, possibly cost effective, and most importantly, they can help individuals, including teenage girls with GADs and FGIDs, enhancing their overall functioning and quality of life. It can also be argued that these interventions, particularly online therapy, offer comparable levels of client satisfaction to traditional face-to-face therapies while being more dependable, offering greater program fidelity, being easier to develop, and reaching a wider audience. Treatments used in the studies evaluated, especially those that included local wisdom counseling techniques, are successful in raising overall functioning levels and, to some extent, patients' quality of life by encouraging self-care. The benefits of the three approaches in the treatment and management of GADs and FGIDs are still expanding, though, and longer-term studies with more robust sample sizes are advised to draw more reliable conclusions and clinical practice implications.
      PubDate: Feb 2024
       
  • Mapping the Socio-Economic Inequalities among Children Aged 0-5 Years in
           India: A Benefit Incidence Analysis of Universal Immunization Programme

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Ankita Sharma   and Monika Mathur   Despite government efforts to achieve Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) targets in India, there is a significant disparity between targets and actual results for immunization coverage. Over two-fifths of children receive all recommended vaccinations, and the rate of complete immunization coverage remains constant. However, partial immunization has increased, reflecting wide regional and socio-economic variations in fully immunized children. The present study investigates socio-economic inequality in the UIP for children aged 0-5 years across India. The study analyzed 75th round of the NSS data conducted from July 2017 to June 2018. Expenditure incurred by households on the immunization of children was considered a dependent variable and analyzed by government and private health facilities. To investigate the extent of inequality among socio-economic groups in the distribution of government subsidies and type of government health centers, we used a Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA) approach. Also, concentration curves (CC) and concentration indices (CI) were further calculated to disclose inequalities. The study's findings show the variation in the utilization rates for healthcare facilities based on quintile class, urban and rural areas. The poorest section of households utilizes government health centers more than the richer section of households. Gender inequality was seen in terms of the utilization of private and government health centers. The mean expenditure on immunization of children aged 0-5 years in government and private health centers varies across quintile class, rural and urban areas. The CC and CI disclose inequalities in the utilization of healthcare facilities and expenditure incurred by households for immunization of children aged 0-5 years across India. The overall benefit incidence was the highest among the richer section of households in urban areas compared to the poorer section in rural areas. Inequalities in benefit incidence and subsidy impact exist due to the distribution of benefits among the richer sections of households. As a result, the government needs to launch awareness campaigns, improve rural health infrastructure, reduce financial burden through insurance coverage and subsidies and focus on states with high socio-economic inequalities. It will ensure equitable distribution of benefits among poorer socio-economic groups in both rural and urban areas.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder: A New Fuzzy and Affective Mental Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  M. El Alami   S. El khabbazi   and F. de Arriaga   Autism is defined as a group of basic behaviors, containing difficulties in social reciprocity, communication, and limitations in behavioral flexibility. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problem in understanding the minds of others, their emotions, feelings, beliefs and thoughts. Autistic children usually go through a diagnostic process, as soon as their difficulties or problems arise. The diagnosis usually agrees with any of the existing medical and psychological recommendations; it only determines that a certain level of problems are reached, and the child must be considered autistic. However, the diagnosis does not evaluate all the problems and severities that the child presents, nor its detailed individual intensity, and as it is not usually repeated, it is not able to determine the appearance of new symptoms or deficiencies with age, nor the changes of intensity. The diagnosis also does not determine the affective states associated with these deficiencies, nor the intensity of these associations. Therefore, the aid offered to the autistic child cannot achieve greater efficiency, due to ignorance of these factors. The mental representation of autistic children or mental model, as we conceive it, contains all the deficits and tasks that they cannot perform, and their intensities; it goes further than diagnostic. So far, no autism mental model has been developed, according to our knowledge. The present article proposes a fuzzy affective mental model of autism, in correspondence to DSM-V, taking into account the child's affective states. The model contains all his/her particular deficiencies, intensities or severities, frequencies, and associated affective states. This evaluation is made according to affective computation and fuzzy logic, in order to take into account affection and uncertainty. The mental model can be obtained by means of a serious games methodology we have previously developed, and it can be obtained any time, in the form of a fuzzy cognitive map or a fuzzy graph. This mental model can be used to develop new techniques to improve learning of autistic children, and to integrate them into social life. Those improvements constitute our immediate future work.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Analysis of Changes in Indicators of Physical Health of Ukrainian Students
           after the End of Quarantine Restrictions COVID-19

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Oleksandr Mozolev   Oksana Romanyshyna   Oleksandr Alieksieiev   Ihor Tomkiv   Oleksandr Binkovskyi   Valentina Miroshnichenko   Ludmila Kravchuk   and Oleksii Pidmurnyak   Quarantine restrictions of COVID-19 and the transition to distance learning have significantly affected the ability of teachers to conduct physical education classes and develop functional and motor abilities of students. Establishing the state of physical health of students allows the teacher to systematize the received information and, based on it, make a choice of forms, methods and means of physical education. 889 students aged 17-19, who studied for the 1st year at Khmelnytskyi Humanitarian-Pedagogical Academy (697 women and 192 men) took part in the research. The goal is to conduct a comparative analysis of changes in physical health indicators of students after the end of the quarantine of СОVID-19. Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological sources; survey; pedagogical observation; methods of studying the functional state of students; comparative analysis; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: women showed the following changes: increase in body weight (BW) +4.09%; increase in chest girth (ChG) +5.2%; decreased vital capacity of the lungs (VC) -4.51%; deterioration of the life index (LI) -8.77%; deterioration of the index of the reserve and the efficiency of the cardiovascular system (IR) +5.81%; increase in the rate of recovery of the cardiovascular system after physical exertion (RI) +7.93%. Men showed: increase in body weight (BW) +3.71%; increase in chest girth (ChG) +3.22%; decreased vital capacity of the lungs (VC) -3.36%; deterioration of the life index (LI) -6.84%; deterioration of the index of the reserve and the efficiency of the cardiovascular system (IR) +6.88%; increase in the rate of recovery of the cardiovascular system after physical exertion (RI) +7.31%. Conclusions: the comprehensive comparative analysis of the average statistical indicators of young people's state of health showed anthropometric, functional and morphofunctional changes in students' state of health, which indicate the appearance of excess weight, the deterioration of indicators of the work of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and as a result – decrease in the energetic potential of working capacity of girls and boys.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Efficacy of Structured Teaching Intervention on Knowledge Regarding
           Prevention of Nosocomial Infections among Nursing Students in University
           of Buraimi, Oman

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Limna Mahaboob   Hilal Alrahbi   Sabitha Sadanandan   and Gopi Suresh Vankudre   Nosocomial infections are hospital- acquired medical emergencies that have equal impacts on patients, healthcare workers (HCW), and the entire healthcare system. The current rise in health care associated infections (HAI) rates worldwide indicates a better periodic education and training of HCWs. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the current knowledge level of nursing students on prevention of nosocomial infections, and to (2) find out the efficacy of structured teaching intervention on knowledge regarding the prevention of nosocomial infections among nursing students. A one-group pretest-posttest, Quasi experimental design was adapted to determine the efficacy of structured teaching intervention for nosocomial infections. A total of 56 nursing students from the University of Buraimi were enrolled in the study using a convenient sampling approach. A self-designed structured, validated questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge of the nursing students. The impact of the intervention was evaluated after seven days of intervention using the identical questionnaire. The results revealed a statistically significant improvement after intervention from (4.68 ±1.597) to (7.11 ± 1.997), a statistically significant (p
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Pulmonary Tuberculosis
           Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Bintang Yinke Magdalena Sinaga   Diandra Angelia Az Zahra   Maria Magdalena Simatupang   and Arlinda Sari Wahyuni   Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can significantly affect a person's quality of life, but the extent varies depending on several factors. The study aimed to analyze the quality of life and related factors among pulmonary TB patients aged 18 years or older, newly diagnosed, and undergoing treatment at Prof. Dr. Chairuddin P. Lubis Universitas Sumatera Utara Hospital, Medan, Indonesia. This is a cross-sectional study of 100 pulmonary TB patients selected using consecutive sampling. Primary data were collected through in person interviews using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. The chi-square and logistic regression tests were used for data analyses. The multivariate regression test showed a significant association between intensive treatment phase and physical domain deterioration, a significant association between reduced family income and psychological domain deterioration, a significant association between males and having comorbidity with social relationship domain deterioration, in which comorbidity was the most affecting factor and a significant association between low education level and reduced family income with environmental domain deterioration, in which low education level was the most affecting factor. In conclusion, patients in the intensive phase of treatment, with reduced family income, sex of male, having comorbidity, and being less educated should be a priority for families, health workers, and the government in addressing the quality-of-life deterioration among pulmonary TB patients.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Model for Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Management
           Policy for Enhanced Performance of Construction Workers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Lendra Lendra   Jermias Tjakra   Febry Handayani   Lelo Sintani   and Vivi Friskila Angela   Construction projects still experience a high rate of work accidents despite prior research on occupational safety and health's impact on worker performance. This study aims to analyze the variables that influence Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) policies for enhanced performance of construction workers in Palangka Raya City and build a regression model of the influence of OHS policies on worker performance. Data were collected through literature studies and questionnaires, then analyzed with various statistical methods. The benefits of this research are to reduce the number of work accidents and improve the application of OHS. The literature study identified four variables: Occupational Safety, Occupational Health, OHS Regulations and Procedures, and Implementation of Health Protocols - which were broken down into 39 factors that affect worker performance. The regression model indicates that occupational safety and health policies have a positive impact on worker performance, showing that Occupational Safety, Occupational Health, OHS Regulations and Procedures, and Implementation of Health Protocols are crucial factors. Moreover, the better implementation of these policies leads to improved performance. The most influential variables on worker performance based on the Standardized Coefficient Beta value are Implementation of Health Protocols (94.8%), OHS Regulations and Procedures (18.2%), Occupational Safety (10.9%), and Occupational Health (5.9%).
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Qualitative Study of Family Preparedness of Preeclamptic Pregnant Women
           without Severe Feature in the Even Occurrence of Eclampsia in Deli Serdang
           Regency

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Dodoh Khodijah   Ida Yustina   Sarma N Lumbanraja   and Fikarwin Zuska   Eclampsia cases in North Sumatra were 3.2%, and this figure is higher than the national figure of 2.7%. Eclampsia is an obstetric emergency condition in the form of seizures. Eclampsia appears as an indicator of poor labour and complication preparedness in the community. Family involvement of preeclamptic pregnant women without severe features in preventing eclampsia is needed through preparedness. This study aims to design a model of family preparedness of preeclamptic pregnant women without severe features to prevent eclampsia in Deli Serdang Regency. The study was qualitative with a phenomenological approach. Data were collected through in-depth interviews involving 23 families of preeclamptic women without severe features. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenology analysis. A model of family preparedness of preeclamptic pregnant women without severe features in preventing eclampsia was found, consisting of 10 subcategories of 4 main categories, namely "knowledge and attitudes about preeclampsia," "utilization of health services," "preeclampsia emergency plan" and "resource mobilization". This model is an appropriate step in caring for preeclamptic pregnant women without severe features by families as the frontline in the prevention of eclampsia in the community before getting medical services in the hospital. The findings of this study serve as a guideline for the preparedness of families in the community.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • The Perilous Repercussions of Plastic Bags on Health, as well as the
           Prevailing Sentiment of the Populace towards Alternative Options

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Sheetal Barde   Sheela Upendra   Jasneet Kaur   and Ranjit Kumar   Background: Plastic bags have become a ubiquitous part of daily life, but their accessibility comes with environmental and potential health hazards. While the health concerns associated with plastic bag use are not as widely studied as their ecological influence, there are some concerns worth considering. Objective: The purpose of this study was to delve into the collective comprehension of the general populace regarding the potential health hazards associated with the utilization of plastic bags within residential premises. Additionally, it sought to explore the prevailing dispositions towards embracing substitute options within specific localities of Pune City. Methodology: The current study used a non-experimental descriptive design. The sample size of 100 adults living in the specified Pune Urban Area was determined using a simple random selection procedure. The tool included an organized knowledge survey and an attitude questionnaire about the health risks of using plastic bags in the home and attitudes regarding the usage of alternatives. Results: 65 percent had insufficient knowledge, 35 percent had enough knowledge, and none had sufficient knowledge. Regarding attitude, 44% had an adverse mindset, 53% had an unbiased viewpoint, and three percent had a good attitude about using alternatives. Conclusion: The community health nurse must continually concentrate her efforts on raising women's understanding of the health dangers associated with domestic use of plastic through health education, media coverage, education programmes, and other ways.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Using Colazzie Analysis: Experience of Mother with Premature Twins and
           Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Sheela Upendra   Jasneet Kaur   and Sheetal Barde   The most frequent, expensive, and devastating pregnancy problem is delivery occurring prior to the completion of 37 weeks of pregnancy. The major cause of infant death and a significant fraction of all birth-related short- and long-term illnesses is preterm birth. A descriptive phenomenological approach was adopted. Mothers of new-borns admitted to neonatal units, as well as having premature twins babies delivered before 37 weeks of gestation, were eligible to participate in the research. The mothers of premature children with congenital defects or severe illnesses were not included in the investigation. Up to data saturation, seven mothers were included in a purposeful sampling. Information was verified by reading the transcripts while listening to the audio after each tape was transcribed. Significant measures were made to safeguard the anonymity of participants and the information they submitted. By utilizing methods like reflexivity, triangulation, peer debriefing, and member checks, the validity and reliability of the data acquired were enhanced. The criteria of credibility, confirmability, dependability, and transferability were used to assure trustworthiness. The lived experiences of the participants are described under four themes namely: emotional state, parenting concern, need for Help and Desire. Under Emotional state – Uneasiness, Anxiety and unpreparedness, and fear of health issues of the new-born were the subthemes. Mother-baby relationship subtheme was under the parenting concern theme. Under the need for help theme, three subthemes emerged: need for help from the health team professional, need for help from family members, and spiritual support. Constantly monitoring the babies was the subtheme under the Desire theme. Mothers of premature twins reported feeling anxious, fearful, and helpless for both babies and babies' admission at the NICU. Mothers required a lot of encouragement and support from the medical team to begin caring for their infants' basic needs.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Impact of Noise Pollution on the Health of Car Drivers – A Review
           Article

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Dipali Dumbre   Ranjana Chavan   and Seeta Devi   Background of the research: The detrimental consequences of noise pollution on the health of motorists are examined in this article. Numerous health hazards associated with noise pollution, a major environmental issue in cities, can have a negative impact on people who spend a lot of time driving. In order to comprehend the potential effects of noise pollution on drivers' physical and mental health, the study evaluates pertinent literature. It also examines several research approaches used in earlier studies to examine the connection between noise pollution and driver health. Purpose: The primary goal of the study is to determine how noise pollution has increased over time to an unsettling degree due to the fast advancement of technology, industrialization, urbanization, and other communication and transportation systems. Since it is commonly known that noise affects almost every living thing on the planet negatively, reducing noise levels is a top priority for safeguarding the health of people and animals alike. Techniques: by going over the techniques used in various studies, talking about the benefits and drawbacks of each, and maybe even emphasizing the ones that are most suitable for the subject at hand. Result: The study findings show that the impact of noise pollution like high blood pressure, sleeplessness, nausea, heart attack, depression, dizziness, headache, and induced hearing loss can be seen in car drivers. A vehicular noise is the result of the vibrating body of the sound of the car's engine running. The results emphasize the necessity for efficient measures and laws to reduce noise pollution and protect the health and welfare of vehicle drivers. Conclusion: The harmful consequences of noise pollution on the health of motorists are highlighted in this article.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • A Health Literacy Initiative: Enhancing Health Behavior and Quality of
           Life for Socially Bound Aging in Northern Thailand

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Somkid Juwa   Kamollak Wongnoy   Taweewun Srisookkum   Busarin Juwa   Anukool Manoton   and Suthichai Sirinual   Background: Health literacy improves outcomes, especially for socially bound aging (SBA) who become homebound. This study aims to create novel activities to encourage SBA to adopt health behaviors (HB) that improve their quality of life. Method: This action research created and assessed the northern Thailand SBA health literacy (HL) program. Purposive and two-stage cluster sampling selected 10 supporters, 192 participants, and 8 university researchers from 210 participants. Research has three phases: look, think, and act. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, workshops, questionnaires, program evaluations, and post-action reviews. Descriptive, Friedman, and content analysis were used. Results: The look phase showed a society with 42.7% low-level aging and a decline in health literacy. SBA think phases last 6 weeks and include 6 activities. The program's brochure, handbook, and self-regulation form promote health decision-making, media literacy, and health communication and management. Implementing the program significantly increased HL, HB, and QoL scores during the act phase (p-value
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Everyday Assertiveness and Its Significance for Overall Mental Well-Being

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Shivani Jandhyala   and Navin Kumar   Background/Purpose – Every individual has an interpersonal style of communication (aggressive, passive, passive-aggressive, and assertiveness) and the skills that need to be practiced in different situations (language and body language to be maintained), the scope of assertiveness, and areas that serve assertiveness skills for a better physical, mental, and social wellbeing. Materials/Methods – A systematic search was conducted using the relevant keywords assertiveness training filtering out for Randomized Controlled trials resulting in 112 articles for the inclusion of this review. 12 articles out of 112, were considered in composing the article. The following database was searched Scopus, Psych INFO, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Research Gate. Results – The majority of the studies reported the positive effects of assertiveness training on improving lifestyle. Studies suggested that the quality and intensity of the training program varies with the impact of assertiveness improvement. Studies also showed that there is great improvement seen when assertiveness complements Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), Role-play exercises, and communication skills. Conclusions – Beyond improving or inculcating the Assertive skill, the training has a good impact on Self-esteem, Confidence levels of an individual, and interpersonal relationships with a broader impact on mental well-being.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Fluency Disorders and Maladaptive Behaviours: A Comprehensive
           Investigation and Rehabilitation Strategies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Kiruthiga E   and G. Christopher   Fluency is essential for effective and precise communication. It refers to the effortless nature of speech, encompassing language and speech functioning. Fluency disorders, like stuttering and cluttering, disrupt communication and affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, or background. Genetics and environmental factors can disrupt the development of speech and language fluency, which leads to fluency disorder. Therefore, it is crucial to identify and address these factors in order to improve speech fluency. People with fluency disorders tend to develop negative conditioning, resulting in unhelpful thinking and avoidance behaviours. This research follows a qualitative methodology and draws on various secondary sources, including current medical research publications, psychology research papers, case studies, and medical blogs. The article focuses on fluency disorders such as stuttering and cluttering, discussing available treatment options and strategies for managing these disorders. Stuttering is a fluency disorder that disrupts speech flow and rhythm, causing repetitions or blocks. It is the most common type and affects social, emotional, and academic functioning of an individual. There are three primary forms: developmental, neurogenic, and psychogenic. Genetic factors, neurophysiological differences, and neurochemical imbalances contribute to stuttering. Cluttering is characterized by a fast or irregular speech rate, leading to disorganized speech that is difficult to understand. This condition may also impair word finding and thought organization. Treatment options include fluency-shaping therapy, stuttering modification therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based approaches, and pharmacotherapy. Mobile applications are becoming popular tools for managing fluency disorders. The study's findings indicate that early intervention, recovery therapies, and rehabilitation strategies remain crucial in treating fluency disorders, and they can significantly improve an individual's quality of life. This article contributes a comprehensive analysis of fluency disorders and its psychological aspects in the field of human healthcare and development.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Experiences and Barriers Related to Breastfeeding among Nigeria Immigrant
           Mothers Living in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia - A Qualitative Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Bolarinwa Balikis Omoyemi   Ong Swee Leong   Khatijah Lim Abdullah   Intan Suhana Munira Binti Mat Azmi   Soh Kim Lam   Soh Kim Geok   and Zakariyah Ummulkhair Omolabake   Background: Breastfeeding plays a crucial role in promoting optimal health and development for infants. However, immigrant populations often encounter unique challenges that can hinder successful breastfeeding practices, such as language barriers, lack of social support, and unfamiliarity with healthcare systems. Despite this pressing issue, limited research has been conducted on the specific experiences and barriers faced by immigrant mothers in Malaysia, particularly those originating from Nigeria. Objectives: In this research, we conducted a qualitative study to explore the experiences and barriers related to breastfeeding among Nigerian immigrant mothers residing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: A descriptive qualitative approach was used to explore the in-depth experiences of mothers using semi-structured interview guide through purposive sampling. Face to face interview was conducted at the home of the participant (n=12). The interview was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using induced content analysis. Results: Our study sample comprised 12 mothers aged between 17 and 45 years. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed 2 primary themes: breastfeeding practices and barriers to breastfeeding. Within these themes, we identified 11 sub-themes, encompassing aspects such as importance of breastfeeding initiation, duration, exclusivity, socio-economic factors, language barriers, lack of support, limited knowledge, postpartum stress, feelings of embarrassment, and misconceptions. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the significant impact of breastfeeding barriers on the practices of Nigerian immigrant mothers in Malaysia. We recommend that healthcare professionals and relevant stakeholders extend support to this population, including the provision of affordable and accessible healthcare services, as well as the availability of trained interpreters to overcome language barriers. These insights can guide the development of targeted interventions aimed at improving breastfeeding rates and fostering the overall well-being of immigrant mothers and their infants.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Territorial Analysis of the Nosoecological Situation and the Health of the
           Population of the Syrdarya Region

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Nilufar Komilova   Lolakhon Karshibaeva   Umriniso Egamberdiyeva   and Khusniddin Egamkulov   This article discusses the nosoecological situation in the Syrdarya region and territorial aspects of public health. Natural conditions, economic-social and historical-geographical aspects of the territory were analyzed from a nosoecological point of view. The geographical position of the region, natural conditions, population, economy, and indicators of morbidity of the population are highlighted. The incidence rates of certain species and groups of the population in the Syrdarya region were identified by districts. The study provides a brief overview of the function of medical demography, and its role in the system of sciences. The main attention is paid to the medical and demographic state of the Syrdarya region. Separate demographic processes of the population of the republic and the Syrdarya region, including maternal and infant mortality, and general mortality rates, are considered. In this regard, in particular, scientific research is important to identify and analyze the relationship between the morbidity of the population of the Syrdarya region and the ecological situation on the territory. Monitoring the water and soil composition, as well as identifying the influence of winds blowing on its territory on certain types and groups of diseases of certain areas (Khavast, Bayaut), developing a prognosis, improving health becomes important.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Impact of ODD and ADHD on Conduct Problems among Juvenile Delinquents

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Poonam Garg   Gargi Sharma   Himani Sharma   and Chirmi Acharya   In the realm of child psychology and juvenile delinquency, conduct problems have been consistently linked to delinquent behavior. The goal of this study was to find out how juvenile offenders' conduct issues were affected by oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). According to statistical data, juvenile offenders with and without ADHD and ODD have significantly different levels of conduct issues. These findings suggest that both ADHD and ODD may contribute to the development of conduct issues among young offenders. Therefore, early identification and management of these disorders are crucial for preventing the onset of delinquent behavior. This study emphasises the need of early detection and treatment of ADHD and ODD symptoms in children at risk of behavioural issues and criminal behaviour. The results of this study have important ramifications for the prevention and treatment of behaviour issues and criminal activity in children at risk. By addressing ADHD and ODD early on, professionals can work towards reducing the likelihood of conduct problems and promoting positive outcomes for juvenile delinquents.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Assessment of the Relationship between the Family Socio-Economic Status
           and Adolescent Health Behaviour

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Marzhan Myrzaly   Teenagers living in dysfunctional families face difficulties in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Understanding the relationship between the social status of the family and the healthy lifestyle of the younger generation is important in the context of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the relationship between the social status of the family and the healthy lifestyle of the younger generation in the Republic of Kazakhstan. A survey and questionnaire of 1,200 adolescents from disadvantaged families in the Mangystau Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan were conducted and a thorough statistical analysis of the results was carried out. The analysis showed that the level of self-assessment of adolescent health does not depend on the social status of the family or other factors considered that affect their healthy behavior. However, family affluence has an impact on life satisfaction in boys, and in girls, a link was found between the frequency of brushing teeth and family affluence. The boys also found a link between injuries requiring medical intervention and family wealth. However, the level of family wealth does not significantly affect other aspects of a healthy lifestyle, such as the frequency of breakfast consumption, consumption of sugary soft drinks, fruit consumption, smoking, and physical activity. The results of this study have practical significance for the development of social support for adolescents living in dysfunctional families. They can be used to develop protocols and programs aimed at improving the health and well-being of the population according to the economic stratification of the population in the Republic of Kazakhstan with an emphasis on clusters of people with below-average income.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
  • Teeth Fluorosis and Osteofluorosis in Adults – A Cross Sectional Study
           in Rural YSR Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2024
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  12  Number  2  Sirigala Lavanya   and Prathiba Ramani   Background: YSR Kadapa district is identified as one of the districts in Andhra Pradesh having high fluoride levels in groundwater by the central government of India. Fluorosis is an endemic disease that mainly affects the mineralized tissues of the human body, the teeth, and the bone. This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic toxicity of fluoride in consumable water on teeth and skeletal system in adults in rural YSR Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the villages in YSR Kadapa district in adults over the age of 21. A general physical examination was done for skeletal fluorosis and an oral examination for tooth fluorosis. Tooth fluorosis was assessed as per Dean's Fluorosis Index and skeletal fluorosis was assessed as per the guidelines given in the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Fluorosis in India (2014). Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient tests, and the Chi-square test of independence were used for the statistical analysis of data. Results: Study results revealed a prevalence of 55.08% of teeth fluorosis and 23.82% of osteofluorosis in the adults in rural YSR district. Prevalence of both dental fluorosis and osteofluorosis was more in males than females. There was a negative correlation between water fluoride levels in water samples and urinary fluoride levels in urine samples from the subjects in the study areas. There was a positive correlation between fluoride levels in water and prevalence of teeth fluorosis and osteofluorosis. The prevalence of osteofluorosis increased with age. Osteofluorosis was also observed in individuals without dental fluorosis. Conclusion: This study observed the presence of dental fluorosis and osteofluorosis in adults in the YSR Kadapa district. These observations provide the evidence for the chronic fluoride toxicity on teeth and the skeletal system in adults, even in areas where the mean level of fluoride in consumable water was 1.5 mg/l. Precautionary measures are needed for the supply of Defluoridated water in the community to prevent the fluoride toxicity in humans in the YSR district by the local administration. District health departments need to take measures to treat fluorosis affected adults.
      PubDate: Apr 2024
       
 
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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)

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Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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