Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Aging and Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access  
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 208)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
ASA Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Population Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access  
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biograph-I : Journal of Biostatistics and Demographic Dynamic     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access  
Biosalud     Open Access  
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access  
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access  
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access  
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access  
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access  
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleaner and Responsible Consumption     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal  
D Y Patil Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Das österreichische Gesundheitswesen ÖKZ     Hybrid Journal  
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Discover Social Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access  
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Health Communication     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
F&S Reports     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access  
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Neuroergonomics     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Health Behavior Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Equity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Information : Jurnal Penelitian     Open Access  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Health Notions     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Journal Cover
African Health Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.446
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1680-6905
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Editorial I: So, who wins' It is still: NCDs 3; Infections 2

    • Authors: James K Tumwine
      Abstract: NIL.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • EDITORIAL COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa
           and the world

    • Authors: Lukoye Atwoli, Gregory E Erhabor, Aiah A Gbakima, Abraham Haileamlak, Jean-Marie Kayembe Ntumba, James Kigera, Laurie Laybourn-Langton, Bob Mash, Joy Muhia, Fhumulani Mavis Mulaudzi, David Ofori-Adjei, Friday Okonofua, Arash Rashidian, Maha El-Adawy, Siaka Sidibé, Abdelmadjid Snouber, James K Tumwine, Mohammad Sahar Yassien, Paul Yonga, Lilia Zakhama, Chris Zielinski
      Abstract: NIL.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction among long-distance
           commercial vehicle drivers and commercial motorcycle riders in Ibadan
           Nigeria: a comparative cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Adenkule Adesola, Martins Imhasoloeva, Adesanmi Akinsulore
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a global public health problem that affects the quality of life, interpersonal, occupational, and social functioning of sufferers. Despite being high-risk groups, there is a paucity of data on erectile dysfunction among commercial vehicle drivers and motorcycle riders. Objectives: We aimed to determine and compare the prevalence and factors associated with ED among long-distance commercial vehicle drivers (CVDs) and commercial motorcycle riders (CMRs) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: We used a comparative cross-sectional study design to enroll eligible male respondents in selected motor/motorcycle parks within Ibadan metropolis. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to elicit sociodemographic/health-related characteristics, and ED status among participants. Data was analyzed using STATA version 12. Chi-square and Binary logistic regression were conducted to explore the association between ED and other covariates. Analyses were performed at 5% significance level. Results: The prevalence of ED was significantly higher among motorcycle riders than vehicle drivers (71.4% vs 47.4%, p =0.001). Predictors of ED among CMRs were monogamous marriage type and history of perineal injury; while among CVRs were aged above 40-years, history of perineal injury, and current use of alcohol. Conclusion: There is a need for public education and awareness programmes on ED to reduce the burden and improve well-being
      in these populations. Keyword: Erectile dysfunction; commercial motorcycle riders; long-distance commercial vehicle drivers; Southwest Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Sexual coercion at sexual debut and associated factors among young females
           in rural areas of Boset District, Eastern Ethiopia: a mixed method study

    • Authors: Sileshi Garoma Abeya
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: Objectives: Assess the prevalence and associated factors of sexual coercion at sexual debut among young females in rural areas of Boset district, Oromia Region, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Cross-sectional community based study design was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. A sample of 632 young females aged 10-24 years was taken from six rural Kebeles by systematic random sampling
      for quantitative and data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 23. Principally Binary Logistic regression model was fitted. Moreover, eight focus group discussions targeting different groups were held andanalyzed thematically. Results: The prevalence of sexual coercion at sexual debut was 36.5% (95%CI: 34.6%- 38.4%) among sexually active respondents. Married young female (AOR, 0.71; 95%CI: 0.42, 0.81), living away from their parents (AOR, 5.07; 95%CI: 1.07,24.01), age group of 15- 19 years (AOR, 0.19; 95%CI: 0. 06, 0.54), alcohol consumption (AOR, 2.44; 95%CI: 1.17, 5.08) and Khat chewing (AOR, 8.30; 95%CI: 1.89, 36.38) were factors predicting the likelihood of having sexual coercion at sexual debut. Conclusion: Sexual coercion at sexual debut is a major public health problem among young females in the study community. The emerging program interventions need to take this problem into consideration. Keywords: Coercion; sexual debut; rural; Ethiopia.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.4
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Fertility desire and associated factors among people on antiretroviral
           treatment at a public health facility in Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Muche Argaw Eniyew, Yusuf Haji, Kelemu Abebe, Minchil Demelash, Yibeltal Mesfin, Aynamaw Embiale, Belay Amare
      Pages: 24 - 33
      Abstract: Background: Fertility desire is the plan of people to have a child or more children in the face of being diagnosed with HIV and plan to a commitment to implement the desire. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hawassa city public health facilities from May 09 –July 07/07/2019. Four hundred (400) study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by using interviewer-administered pre-tested structured questionnaires and chart review. The collected data were entered into EPI data version 3.1 software and then transported to SPSS version 20 for cleaning and data analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify associated factors at p<0.05 was taken as a significant value with a 95% confidence level. Results: A total of 400 clients were included in the study giving a response rate of 97 %. The overall fertility desire was 53.6 %(95%CI: 48.7%, 58.2%). Age, sexual practice in the last six months and discussing reproductive health with ART providers were significantly associated with fertility desire. Younger age was positively associated with fertility desire, age group (18-29), [Adjust odds ratio = 5.75 95%CI (2.85, 11.57)] , age group(30-39), [Adjust odds ratio= 4.71 95%CI:(2.55, 8.71)] Sexual practice in the last six
      months [Adjust odds ratio = 3.00 95%CI(1.46 , 6.16)] and counseling reproductive health with ART provider[Adjust odds ratio = 3.10 95%CI:(1.86,5.15)] Conclusion: The prevalence of fertility desire in this study was higher than previous studies while factors associated with fertility desire were age, sexual practice in the last six months, and discussing reproductive health with ART providers. Keywords: ART; Fertility desire; HIV/AIDS.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.5
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Current practice of family planning among teachers in public secondary
           school in Enugu East Senatorial District, Nigeria

    • Authors: Charles O Okafor, Nor Afiah Mohd Zulkefli, Sri Ganesh Muthiah
      Pages: 34 - 46
      Abstract: Background: The aim of this study is to determine the current practice level of family planning and the associated factors among public secondary school teachers in Enugu East Senatorial District. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among public secondary school teachers, aged 18 - 60 years, in Enugu East Senatorial District, using probability proportional to size sampling and systematic random sampling to select 1000 participants. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine association. An odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to determine the level of significance. Results: The current practice level of family planning is 26.5%. Respondents with bachelor in education were 2 times more likely to be a current user of family planning (AOR=2.39; 95% CI: 1.25-4.55). However, respondents in age group 38 years and above were less likely to be a current user of family planning (AOR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.43-0.95), likewise female respondents (AOR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Additionally, respondents who mentioned radio (AOR=0.64; 95%CI: 0.44-0.93), social media (AOR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-0.99) and healthcare (AOR=0.61; 95%CI: 0.43-0.88) as source of information were less likely to be current user of family planning. Whereas, partner who encouraged the use of family planning (AOR=2.54; 95% CI: 1.71-3.78) span style="font-family:'Times New Roman'; font-weight:bold">, partner who allow each other to decide on family planning methods (AOR=4.47; 95% CI: 2.67-7.48) and those who had good knowledge of family planning (AOR=1.96; 95% CI: 1.40-2.67) were more likely to be current user of family planning. Conclusion: The level of current practice of family planning is low and a significant number of factors predict the current practice of family planning. A family planning educational workshop among teachers is needed to improve teacher’s knowledge
      on family planning to address the issue of adolescent sexual reproduction as teachers are vessels of knowledge impartation to students. Keywords: Teachers; Family Planning; Current Practice; Predictors; Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.6
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Street youths: reproductive health risk status, reproductive health
           challenges and barriers to health services utilization in a southwestern
           City, Nigeria

    • Authors: Adenike Iyanuoluwa Olugbenga-Bello, Oluwatosin Ruth Ilori, Tokunbo Idowu
      Pages: 47 - 61
      Abstract: Background Information: According to the United Nations, about 150 million youth spent most of their time on the street, or better still, homeless. This is becoming a global phenomenon and majority of this vulnerable people live in large cities and urban areas of developing countries. Street youths are among the high risk, insecure and vulnerable groups who are often exposed to various forms of abuses and diseases, including reproductive health issues. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study carried out among street youths in Ikorodu Local Government, Lagos State using a multi staged sampling technique. Frequency tables were drawn at the univariate level, chi squared was used to test for
      association between socio-demographic characteristics and sexual risk level. Data was analyzed using SPPSS version 22, p value was set at 0.05 Results: Almost half 48(48.5%) of the respondents were between the age range 20-24years and two third 61(61.6%) of them were female and 27(27.3%) had up to senior secondary education attainments. Majority 73(73.7%) of them have been on the street for more than 3months and 32 (32.3%) professed that the reason they were on the street was to search for job while 25 (25.3%) because of family disharmony among parents. Eighty six (86.9%) of the respondents were sexually active, 31 (36.0%) of which have more than four sexual partners. Duration of stay on the street and their educational status were determinants of risky sexual behavior and polygamous setting was found to be statistically significant(p value =0.035) with reproductive health
      challenges. Conclusion: There is high risk sexual practice among street youths in Ikorodu Local Government. Strategic interventions aimed at minimizing sexual risky behaviors among street youths should focus on reducing the duration of stay on the street as
      well as increasing access to contraception. Keywords: Street; youths; reproductive health; Ikorodu.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Neisseria gonorrhea
           and Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from individuals attending STD clinics
           in Kampala, Uganda

    • Authors: Edith Nakku-Joloba, Gerald Mboowa, Willy Ssengooba, Anthony Kiyimba, Edgar Kigozi, Hannington Baluku, Lucy Alinaitwe, Ronnie Nyote, Jupiter Marina Kabahita, Paul Mutumba, Fred A Katabazi, Noah Kiwanuka, Nelson Sewankambo, David P Kateete
      Pages: 62 - 71
      Abstract: Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) management in sub-Saharan Africa is syndromic but molecular diagnostics provide quicker, sensitive diagnosis and treatment. Effective STD control hinges on identification and treatment of infected
      persons and sexual partner contact tracing. Objectives: This study assessed feasibility of using the Xpert CT/NG test to identify prevalent Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhea (NG) infections among STD clinic attendees and their sexual partners and tested for antimicrobial resistance for N. gonorrhea. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 4 outpatient STD clinics in Kampala, Uganda from February 2019 to October 2019. Participants received a syndromic diagnosis, were tested for NG and CT, as well as their sexual partners. Urine (men) and high vaginal swabs (women) were collected, examined using Xpert CT/NG assay. A total of 79 participants were enrolled at baseline of whom 25 had CT/NG. 21 partners of infected baseline participants and 7 partners of the 21 primary partners
      were enrolled. Results: The mean age of the reported sexual partners was 26 (18-43) years. The prevalence of NG was 25% at baseline and 18 % for CT. Nine (11.4%) people were dually infected. Men were more likely to have NG (p<0.001) at multivariable level. Two
      participants tested HIV-1 positive. On microbiological culture, 8 samples (2.5%) grew NG and all were resistant to penicillin, ciprofloxacin. For CT, we found a preponderance of the F-serovar in this population. Conclusion: The most prevalent organism was Neisseria gonorrhea. Generally, the prevalence of CT and NG was high. Infection proportions increased among primary partners, particularly women. Etiologic testing without partner tracing and treatment
      may underestimate burden of CT/NG in this population and contribute to re-infection. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Prevalence; Antimicrobial resistance; Genomic Analysis; Sexual partner networks.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Treponema pallidum infection among women with macerated stillbirth in
           Mwanza Tanzania: an underestimated tragedy in Tanzania

    • Authors: Rose A Malisa, Edgard Ndaboine, Elieza Chibwe, Fridolin Mujuni, Helmut Nyawale, Majigo Mtebe, Stephen E Mshana, Mariam M Mirambo
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Background: Treponema pallidum is one of the commonest cause of stillbirths world-wide. This study investigated the magnitude of T. pallidum among women with macerated stillbirth in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 301 women with macerated stillbirths attending selected health facilities in the region of Mwanza was conducted between October-2017 and March-2018. Detection of T. pallidum was done using venereal diseases research laboratory (VDRL) and T. pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA). Data were analyzed by the STATA
      version 13. Results: The median age of the enrolled women was 27 (IQR: 22 - 34) years. Eighteen (6.0%, 95% CI: 3.0-8.0) of women were T. pallidum seropositive. Seropositivity of T. pallidum was significantly higher among women residing in rural areas than urban areas (p=0.010), and among HIV seropositive than HIV seronegative women (p=0.036). By multivariable regression analysis, the odds of being T. pallidum seropositive were significantly high among women with positive HIV serostatus (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-14.1, p=0.036) and those residing in rural areas (OR: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.5-20.3, p=0.010). Conclusion: Seropositivity of T. pallidum is higher among women with macerated stillbirth than in normal pregnant women as previously reported which calls for the need to improve screening services in rural areas of Tanzania. Keywords: Treponema pallidum; macerated stillbirth; Mwanza; Tanzania.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.9
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Progression of anaemia during antenatal period among South African
           pregnant women

    • Authors: A M Hoque, M E Hoque, Guido Van Hal
      Pages: 81 - 92
      Abstract: Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a known public health problem in South Africa. Maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality are known to be associated with anaemia in pregnancy. Very little is known from literature with regards to the progression of anaemia during the antenatal period of pregnancy. Objectives: To estimate haemoglobin levels, the prevalence and determinants of anaemia at different gestational ages and to show the trend. Method: A retrospective cohort (follow-up) study was conducted using the antenatal clinic register. Prevalence rates of anaemia (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl) at different gestational ages were measured. Factors associated with anaemia were assessed using chisquare test and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 801 pregnant women were enrolled at the booking visit and followed-up during their antenatal period. The prevalence of anaemia at the booking visit was 37%. The prevalence of anaemia at 20, 26, 32 and 36 weeks of gestation were 36.6%, 39.6%, 39.8% and 29.2% respectively. Binary logistic regression at the booking visit showed that teenage women were 2.5 times more likely to have anaemia (OR=2.5, p=0.005) than older women. Women who booked during the first trimester were 60% less likely to have anaemia (OR= 0.40, P=0.005) at the booking visit and 62% less likely to be anaemic at 36 weeks of gestation (OR=0.38, p=0.013) compared to those who booked late for antenatal care. Conclusion: Prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy was high. Early booking for antenatal care was a predictor for lower rate of anaemia. Thus, health education strategy should be encouraged for early antenatal booking. Keywords: Antenatal care; Haemoglobin; Kwadabeka; Management of anaemia; Prevalence.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.10
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Determinants of male partner involvement in antenatal care services at
           Kangundo Sub-County Hospital in Kenya

    • Authors: Pauline K Muia, Grace W Mbuthia, Rosemary K Mugambi
      Pages: 93 - 99
      Abstract: Background: Male partner involvement in antenatal care services is aimed at improving maternal health outcomes since men are important persons who play great roles at the family level. Objective: To assess the level and determinants of male partner involvement in antenatal care at Kangundo Sub-County hospital in Kenya. Methods: The study used analytical cross-sectional study method and was carried out in the maternal and child health clinic of Kangundo Sub-County hospital. Two hundred pregnant women at any gestational age, accompanied or not, seeking antenatal care services during the study period formed the study population. Simple random sampling technique was used to achieve a sample size of 132 participants. The data was then analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: The study revealed a low-level male partner involvement of 34.1%. Business as male partners’ occupation (OR = 2, 95% CI (0.314 – 12.729), and distance from the health facility; living 4km from the facility (OR = 5.225, 95%CI (1.319 – 20.705) and more than 5km from the facility (OR = 3.520, 95% CI (0.941 – 13.174) were significantly associated with male partner
      involvement. Conclusion: The factors contributing to low male partner involvement included: men being busy at work and the distance covered to reach the health facility. Keywords: Antenatal care services; male partner involvement; male partner accompaniment.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.11
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Application of a modified Poisson model in identifying factors associated
           with prevalence of pregnancy termination among women aged 15 – 49 years
           in Uganda

    • Authors: Edson Mwebesa, Mary Nakafeero, David Guwatudde, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye
      Pages: 100 - 107
      Abstract: Background: Abortion in Uganda is illegal, only permitted when it places the pregnant mother at risk. This study aimed to apply the modified Poisson model in identifying factors associated with the prevalence of pregnancy termination among women of reproductive age in Uganda. Methods: The 2016 Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS) data were used in this study. More than 18,000 women of the age of 15 – 49 years participated in this study. A modified Poisson model that incorporated sampling weights was used to establish the factors associated with pregnancy termination. Results: In Uganda, 18,506 (18.1%) had ever had a pregnancy terminated. The results revealed that, the woman’s age [APR = 3.15, 95% CI: 2.72-3.63], being married [APR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.40-1.71], mass media exposure [APR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08-1.29], working status [APR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09-1.35], and having visited a health facility [APR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.10-1.31] were positively significantly associated with likelihood of pregnancy termination. Conclusion: There exists a significant proportion of women who have had their pregnancies terminated in Uganda. It is observed that woman’s age, marital status, mass media exposure, having visited a health facility in the last 12 months and working status were main predictors. Based on these results, researchers concluded that the emphasis should be put on improving access to post-abortion care, contraceptive use and media exposure. Keywords: Abortion; Pregnancy termination; maternal mortality; Poisson; Contraceptive; Radio.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.12
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Drotaverine to shorten the duration of labour in primigravidas: a
           randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    • Authors: Arinze Chidiebele Ikeotuonye, Odidika Johannes Umeora, Johnbosco Ifunanya Nwafor, Bonaventure Omuye Ojumah, Ifeoma Cecilia Ekwunife, Ikechukwu Bonaventure Dimejesi
      Pages: 108 - 116
      Abstract: Background: Drotaverine, a spasmolytic, has been found to have potential to achieve a reduction in the duration of labour and prevent prolonged labour. Objective: To compare the effects of intravenous drotaverine hydrochloride with placebo for shortening the duration of active phase of labour in primigravidas. Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of 246 primigravidas in active phase of labour at term was conducted. They were randomly (1:1 ratio) administered intravenous 2 ml (40mg) of drotaverine hydrochloride or 2 ml of Vitamin B complex as placebo. The primary outcome measure was the duration of active phase of labour. The secondary outcome measures were cervical dilatation rate, oxytocin augmentation rate, incidence of prolonged labour, labour pain scores, mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results: The mean duration of active phase of labour (hour) was significantly lower in the drotaverine group compared to the control (drotaverine; 6.22 ± 2.41 vs placebo; 8.33 ± 3.56; p <0.001). Also, the cervical dilatation rate (cm/hr) was significantly faster in the drotaverine arm (drotaverine; 1.68 ± 1.02 versus placebo; 1.06 ± 0.53, p <0.001). There was a significantly higher probability of faster delivery among women who were given drotaverine (log-rank test, p < 0.001). The oxytocin augmentation rate, incidence of prolonged labour, labour pain scores, mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes were not significantly different among the groups. Conclusions: Drotaverine hydrochloride is effective in shortening the duration of active phase of labour without adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, more evidence is needed to explore its role in active phase of labour among primigravid women. Trial registration number: PACTR201810902005232. Keywords: Drotaverine; duration of active phase of labour; primigravidas; placebo; shortening.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.13
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Effect of video-based information on preoperative State trait anxiety
           inventory scores in adult patients presenting for elective caesarean
           section: a randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Timothy Kanyeki, Vitalis Mung’ayi, Rajpreet Bal, David Odaba
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Background: Preoperative anxiety is a common occurrence in patients presenting for surgery with a reported incidence of up to 80%. Increased preoperative anxiety has been associated with increased morbidity. Provision of information relating to surgery and anaesthesia to patients has been proven to have benefit in allaying anxiety. However, the best format of information dissemination remains unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of video information in addition to the pre-anaesthetic review on the mean preoperative State anxiety inventory (STAI-S) score in adult patients presenting for elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUHN), and to determine the prevalence of preoperative anxiety in the obstetric population presenting for elective caesarean section at AKUHN. Methods: Thirty-seven adult patients booked for elective caesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the study arm; a video was shown to the participants in addition to the standard pre-anaesthetic review. In the control arm the participants only had a standard pre-anaesthetic review. Results: The mean STAI-T score in the sampled population was 45.64 (SD 5.625). The mean baseline STAI-S score was 46.32 (SD 4.911). There was no statistically significant difference in change in STAI score between the video and control arms (p>0.05). Conclusion: On the basis of this study among this population, there was no benefit demonstrated from the use of an information video about spinal anaesthesia on anxiety levels in obstetric patients presenting for a first time spinal. Keywords: Video-based information; anxiety inventory scores; elective caesarean section.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.14
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Effect of heavy cigarette and water pipe smoking on antioxidants and
           lipids in Sudanese male smokers: a case-control study

    • Authors: Ahmed M Ahmed, Amna M Ibrahim
      Pages: 125 - 132
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco smoking is a source of many toxins such as free radicals, mutagenic substances as well as cause for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD), particularly atherosclerosis. This study aims to assess the impact of smoking on antioxidants in Sudanese male smokers. Methods: Cases were 85 and 48 men who smoke cigarettes (CS) and water pipe (WPS) respectively and they were compared with matching 50 non-smoking controls. Blood samples were collected and following parameters: Glutathione peroxidase, Superoxide
      dismutase, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, HDL, Paraoxinase, and Malondialdehyde were measured. Results: There were no significant differences in biochemical parameters between light CS and WPS compared to controls. In heavy smokers of both WPS and CS, the TC, TG, LDL, and MDA were higher than controls (p>0.05), GPx, SOD, HDL, and PON were lower in smokers than controls (p>0.05). In both groups of smokers; HDL, GPx, SOD, and PON were inversely correlated with duration of smoking (p>0.05), also, HDL was positively correlated with SOD and GPx (p>0.05). Moreover, GPx and SOD were correlated with each other in both groups of smokers (p>0.05). Conclusion: In Sudanese male smokers’ biochemical profile disturbances suggest that heavy smoking was leading to developing CVD, particularly WPS. Keywords: Smoking; antioxidants; cigarette smoking; CS; water pipe smoking; WPS.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.15
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • An examination of variables associated with breast cancer early detection
           behaviors of women

    • Authors: Sultan Kayan, Ilgun Ozen Cinar
      Pages: 133 - 144
      Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is a worldwide common public health problem, and it is quite important to know the factors preventing the early detection behaviors to fight against it. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of some sociodemographic variables associated with women's breast cancer detection behaviors and their breast cancer knowledge and fear levels. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted with 363 women aged 40-69 who had presented to Cancer Early Diagnosis and Education Centers (CEDEC). Results: The average age of women is 54.8±7.1. The mean score of breast cancer knowledge (CBCKT) was found as 10.72±2.34, and the breast cancer fear score was found as 27.6±6.5. The percentage of women who regularly breast self-examination (BSE) was 17.4%, clinical breast examination (CBE) was 13.5% and mammography was 42.7%. BSE and having a higher education correlated 6.25-fold. A 6.5-fold correlation was found between BSE and having a family history of breast cancer, and a 6.24-fold correlation between BSE and having information about breast cancer. In CBE, the related variables that affected women receiving information 4.42 times and going to CEDEC 5.3 times. It was found that employment (4.58) of women affected the mammography detection behavior mostly. While women's CBCKT score affected BSE behavior 1.16 times, fear of breast cancer was a variable that affected mammography behavior 2.1 times. It was determined that high CBCKT scores of women increased BSE behaviors 1.16 times, and high breast cancer fear scores increased mammography behavior 2.1 times. Conclusions: Early detection practices of women are not sufficient in our study. An increase in the knowledge level of women and consideration of the variables determined to be effective in early detection behaviors will allow increasing detection behavior. Keywords: Breast cancer fear; breast cancer knowledge; early detection; mammography.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.16
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Association of ATM, CDH1 and TP53 genes polymorphisms with familial breast
           cancer in patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Abdur Rahim, Zakiullah, Asif Jan, Johar Ali, Fazli Khuda, Basir Muhammad, Hamayun Khan, Hussain Shah, Rani Akbar
      Pages: 145 - 154
      Abstract: Background: Genetic studies play a significant role in understanding the underlying risk factors of breast cancer. Polymorphism in the tumor suppressor gene TP 53, CDH1 and ATM genes are found to increase susceptibility for breast cancer globally. Objective: This study aimed to identify/analyze the contribution of genetic polymorphisms in the breast cancer candidate genes ATM, TP53 and CDH1 that may be associated with familial breast cancer risk in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa population. Subjects and Methods: In the present case-control study, Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) of the 100 breast cancer patients and 100 ethnic controls were performed for the selected genes in the target population. Results: Of the studied variants rs3743674 of the CDH1 gene (crude P=0.014 and adjusted p=0.000) evident significant association with breast cancer in Pakistani Pashtun population. Whereas TP53rs1042522 (crude P=0.251 and adjusted P=0.851) and ATM rs659243 (crude p=0.256 and adjusted p=0.975) showed no or negative association with breast cancer in study population.
      Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that CDH1rs3743674 polymorphism is associated with elevated breast cancer risk in the Pashtun ethic population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Keywords: Breast cancer; TP53; CDH1; ATM; Risk Allele; Genotype.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.17
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Development of a model for predicting mortality of breast cancer admitted
           to Intensive Care Unit

    • Authors: Renfeng Huang, Wanming Wu, Yan Guo, Linyang Ou, Xumeng Gong, Chuansheng Yang, Ruiwen Lei
      Pages: 155 - 165
      Abstract: Background: There is still not a mortality prediction model built for breast cancer admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Objectives: We aimed to build a prognostic model with comprehensive data achieved from eICU database. Methods: Outcome was defined as all-cause in-hospital mortality. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was conducted to select important variables which were then taken into logistic regression to build the model. Bootstrap method was
      then conducted for internal validation. Results: 448 patients were included in this study and 79 (17.6%) died in hospital. Only 5 items were included in the model and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.844 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.804-0.884). Calibration curve and Brier score (0.111, 95% CI: 0.090-0.127) showed good calibration of the model. After internal validation, corrected AUC and Brier score were 0.834 and 0.116. Decision curve analysis (DCA) also showed effective clinical use of the model. The model can be easily assessed on website of https://breastcancer123.shinyapps.io/BreastCancerICU/. Conclusions: The model derived in this study can provide an accurate prognosis for breast cancer admitted to ICU easily, which can help better clinical management. Keywords: Breast neoplasms; intensive care unit; prognosis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.18
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Comorbid anxiety and depression among women receiving care for breast
           cancer: analysis of prevalence and associated factors

    • Authors: Nuworza Kugbey
      Pages: 166 - 172
      Abstract: Background: Living with breast cancer has been associated with increased risk for common mental health problems including depression and anxiety. However, the prevalence of comorbid anxiety and depression (CAD) and their associated factors have
      received little attention especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) including Ghana. Objectives: This study examined the prevalence of CAD and its correlates in the context of breast cancer. Methods: Participants were 205 women receiving care for breast cancer at a Tertiary Hospital in Ghana. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and socio-demographic questionnaires were administered to the participants. Results: Findings from the study showed that the prevalence of CAD, anxiety and depression was 29.4%, 48.5% and 37.3% respectively. CAD was significantly predicted by patients’ English language reading ability, shared decision making and good doctor-patient relationship. Anxiety was significantly predicted by shared decision making and good doctor-patient relationship whereas depression was significantly predicted educational status, patients’ English language reading ability, shared decision making and good doctor-patient relationship. Conclusion: The findings suggest relatively high prevalence of comorbid anxiety and depression which could negatively impact breast cancer treatment outcomes and therefore, improved interpersonal relationships between doctors and their patients as well as literacy skills are warranted. Keywords: Breast cancer; depression; anxiety; doctor-patient relationship; shared decision making; Ghana.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.19
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of 13q14.3 deletion by cytogenetic analysis and FISH
           technique and miRNA-15a and miRNA-16-1 by real time PCR in chronic
           lymphocytic leukemia

    • Authors: Melike Yılmaz, R Dilhan Kuru, Isil Erdoğan, Teoman Soysal, Seniha Hacıhanefioglu, Onur Baykara
      Pages: 173 - 182
      Abstract: Background: The most frequent cytogenetic aberration is 13q14.3 deletion in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). HsamiR-15a/hsa-miR-16-1 are tumor suppressor miRNAs encoded from 13q14.3 region. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the 13q14.3 deletion using molecular and cytogenetic techniques and association with miRNA-15a/miRNA-16-1. Materials And Methods: We used peripheral blood samples of 30 CLL patients who were either induced and or non-induced with DSP30+IL-2 to determine 13q14.3 deletion by karyotyping and iFISH. Expression levels of hsa-miR-15a/miR-16-1 were measured using qRT PCR and compared with deletions. Results: 13q14.3 deletion was detected in 8.6% of cases by karyotyping and in 65% by iFISH. Mosaic forms (monoallelic+biallelic) were observed in 50% of cases. Besides determining common chromosome abnormalities such as add(2)(q37), t(2;7) (p11.2;q22), del(6)(q13q21), del(6)(q25), add(9)(q21), del(11)(q23), t(11;14)(q13;q32), del(13)(q11q12), del(13)(q12q14), add(14)(q23), del(14)(q23), t(14;19)(q32;q13.1), del(15)(q23), del(17)(p12), t(18;22)(q21;q11.2), add(21)(p13) and t(17;21)(q11.2;122), we also determined t(1;13)(q32;q34), inv(2)(p25q21), del(13)(q22q32), t(14;19) (q24;q13), dup(17)(q21q23), der(21;21)(p13;p13) which have not been reported previously. Mitotic index data was found statistically significant and DSP30+IL-2 increased mitotic index by 2.5 folds. Association between decreased miR-16-1 expression and deletions was statistically significant. Conclusion: We suggest that cytogenetic and iFISH analyses are complementary and use of DSP30+IL-2 is effective .in CLL. Decreased expression of hsa-miR-16-1 is remarkable. Keywords: CLL; miR-15a/miR-16-1; 13q14.3 deletion.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.20
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Cytogenetic profile of adult AML patients in Turkey: a single center study
           with comprehensive comparison with literature

    • Authors: Ayse Cirakoglu, Rahiye Dilhan Kuru, Sukriye Yilmaz, Ayhan Deviren, Seniz Ongoren, Fevzi Firat Yalniz, Dilek Keskin, Ahmet Emre Eskazan, Ayse Salihoglu, Muhlis Cem Ar, Serdar Sahin, Yildiz Aydin, Seniha Hacihanefioglu, Zafer Baslar, Teoman Soysal, Yelda Tarkan Arguden
      Pages: 183 - 191
      Abstract: Background: Cytogenetic findings are important prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia. Large systematic data about chromosomal characteristics of Turkish AML patients have not been reported to date. Objectives: The karyotypic profiles of 157 adult AML patients were evaluated retrospectively and compared with other reports from different populations. Methods: Cytogenetics analyses were performed on bone marrow samples using G-banding. Patients were categorized according to their cytogenetic results into four groups with the addition of a normal karyotyped group to the favorable, intermediate and adverse groups of European Leukemia Network. Results: Cytogenetic analyses were carried out successfully in 138 patients (88%). Abnormal karyotypes were found in 79 (57.2%) patients of which 13 (9.4%) were in favorable, 37 (26.8%) in intermediate and 29 (21%) in adverse groups. t(8;21) (5%) was the most common favorable abnormality while monosomal karyotypes (15.9%) in adverse group. Conclusion: This single center study is the most comprehensive study about the cytogenetic profile of acute myeloid leukemia in Turkey with comparison of other population-based studies. While there were similarities and differences with different publications, our results did not show a marked tendency to the findings of any specific geographic region. Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; cytogenetics; chromosomal abnormalities; adult.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Berberis lyceum root bark extract attenuates anticancer drugs induced
           neurotoxicityand cardiotoxicity in rats

    • Authors: Sidra Qurat-ul-Ain, Anwar Rukhsana, Sahar Isma Tariq, Ashiq Kanwal
      Pages: 192 - 210
      Abstract: Background: Traditionally, Berberis lyceum was extensively used for the treatment of several human diseases. Objective: This study was undertaken to determine in vivo effects of Berberis lyceum root bark against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: A single dose of doxorubicin (20 mg/ kg i. p) and cisplatin (4mg/kg i.p) was used to induce cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity, respectively. Berberis lyceum methanolic extract was given orally (200 and 400 mg/ kg) to toxicity-induced rats. The cardiac biomarkers i.e. serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB were analyzed in blood collected from cardiotoxic rats. The tissue oxidative stress markers included protein, glutathione s-transferase specific activity, catalase activity, total glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in cardiac and brain homogenate of the respective groups. Results: Berberis lyceum methanolic extract has the potential to reduce the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity significantly (*p<0.05) by reducing the serum markers and oxidative stress parameters. Histopathological analysis exhibited a marked improvement in the morphology of cardiac and brain tissues. Conclusion: It is concluded that methanolic extract of Berberis lyceum root bark has the potential to protect and reverse anticancer drugs induced cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Keywords: Doxorubicin; Cisplatin; Berberis lyceum; Cardiotoxicity; Neurotoxicity; Antioxidant.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.22
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Histopathological pattern of Orbito-Ocular Lesions, a retrospective
           hospital-based study spanning 15 years

    • Authors: Dumebi H Kayoma, Dele E Imasogie
      Pages: 211 - 221
      Abstract: Background: Many previous studies on orbito-ocular lesions are skewed in favour of the neoplastic lesions in general and the malignant lesions in particular. This, therefore, creates a vacuum on the spectrum of these lesions, thus may result in problematic diagnostic bias by the ophthalmologist and pathologist. Objective: To give the spectrum and relative frequencies of orbito-ocular biopsies and by extension orbito-ocular lesions/diseases at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH). Materials and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of all cases of orbito-ocular biopsies with histopathologic diagnosis. Results: There were 236 orbito-ocular biopsies. The male to female ratio was slightly in favour of the females. Orbito-ocular biopsies had a wide age range that spanned from the 1st to 10th decade, mean age in the 3rd decade (20-29years) and a peak age in the 1st decade (0-9 years). The neoplastic lesions were the prevalent indication for orbito-ocular biopsies (63.72%) while the
      conjunctiva (58.10%) was the most common site for orbito-ocular biopsies. Conclusion: This study noted a wide array of orbito-ocular lesions for which biopsies were done for histopathological diagnosis. This we hope will in no small measure increase the diagnostic precision of the ophthalmologist and the pathologists in our own environment. Keywords: Ophthalmic biopsies; ophthalmic lesions; malignant orbito-ocular tumours; benign orbito-ocular tumours; degenerative ophthalmic lesion.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.23
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Quality of life among cancer patients at Queen Elizabeth and Kamuzu
           Central Hospitals in Malawi: a cross-sectional double-center study

    • Authors: Jonathan Chiwanda Banda, Maganizo B Chagomerana, Michael Udedi, Adamson Sinjani Muula
      Pages: 222 - 232
      Abstract: Introduction: Many cancer patients experience psychosocial challenges that affect quality of life during the trajectory of their disease process. We aimed at estimating quality of life among cancer patients at two major tertiary hospitals in Malawi. Methods: The study was conducted among 398 cancer patients using semi-structured questionnaire. Quality of life was measured using EQ-5D-3L instrument. Results: Mean age was 45 years ± 12.77. Pain (44%) was the most prevalent problem experienced by cancer patients. About 23% had worst imaginable health status on the subjective visual analogues scale. Attending cancer services at QECH (AOR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.17-0.54, p<0.001) and having normal weight (AOR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.74, p = 0.012), were associated with improved quality of life. A history of ever taken alcohol (AOR= 2.36, 95% CI: 1.02-5.44, p = 0.045) and multiple disease comorbidities (AOR= 3.78, 95% CI: 1.08-13.12, p = 0.037) were associated with poor quality of life. Conclusion: Loss of earning, pain, marital strife, sexual dysfunction, were among the common psychosocial challenges experienced. History of ever taken alcohol and multiple comorbidities were associated with poor quality of life. There is need to integrate psychosocial solutions for cancer patients to improve their quality of life and outcomes. Keywords: Cancer patients; quality of life.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.24
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The Knowledge of Palliative Care among Geriatric Home Staff in Jordan

    • Authors: Ahmad M Saleh, Saud M Alrawaili, Mohamed A El-Sakhawy, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset
      Pages: 233 - 240
      Abstract: Background: Palliative care in nursing homes (NHS) is a major challenge, because it gives the demands of the knowledge and skills of nursing staff to provide high-quality care. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of palliative care among nursing home staff. Methods: A descriptive study design was used, 124 nurses, aged over 30 years and most of them were male working in the nursing home in Jordan. Around 109 participants were responded to the questionnaire. All licensed nurses were included in the study, except of that will be excluded. The knowledge of palliative care was measured via the palliative care survey. knowledge scores were ranged 0–1, with higher scores indicate greater knowledge. Results: Descriptive statistics was used. The Knowledge of palliative care issues is 0.21 in Jordan (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.24). Knowledge of physical aspects that can contribute to pain is 0.22 (95% CI 0.2-0.25), and knowledge of psychological aspects that can contribute to pain is 0.21 (95% CI 0.2-0.22). Conclusion: Education for nursing staff needs to be enhanced to address the specific knowledge gaps. Additional studies with large sample size recommended to explore the effect of educational programs in regard of palliative care in nursing homes. Keywords: Knowledge; Palliative Care; Palliative Medicine; Nursing Staff; Cross-Sectional Study; Life Support Care.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.25
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The delay in the diagnosis and treatment of newly diagnosed bladder cancer
           patients during COVID 19 pandemic

    • Authors: Cagri Dogan, Cenk Murat Yazici, Haci Murat Akgül, Onder Cinar, Hüseyin Ateş, İlyas Yaz
      Pages: 241 - 249
      Abstract: Background: To evaluate the newly diagnosed bladder cancer(BC) patients during the pandemic period and compare them with the corresponding last4 years. Objectives: To document the time schedules of BC patient evaluation and define the possible delays and investigate the reasons. Methods: Newly diagnosed BC patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumour in the last5 years were retrospectively included to study.The patients were divided into 5 groups.Group-1 was composed of patients diagnosed betweenMarch, 1,2016 -March-1,2017. The patients who were diagnosed in the further corresponding years formed group 2,3 and 4. The last group(Group-5) was composed of patients who were diagnosed during the pandemic period which was between March,1,2020 and March,1,2021. The clinicodemographic properties and diagnostic time schedules of the patients were compared between the groups. Results: There were56 patients in Group-1,60 patients in Group-2,61 patients in Group-3,68 patients in Group-4,and58 patients inGroup-5. The mean hospital admission period was 102.5±179.0days during the pandemic period which ranged between24.5±32.0 and38.3±69.1days before thepandemic.(p=0.002)The diagnosis-anesthesia period was significantly higher during the pandemic pandemic period.(p=0.034) Conclusions: The pandemic period has caused some delays in the diagnosis and treatment of BC patients. Telemonitoring systems may be useful to prevent the possible diagnostic and treatment delays for newly diagnosed BC patients. Keywords: COVİD-19; bladder cancer; pandemic; treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.26
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Association between physical exercise and all-cause and CVD mortality in
           patients with diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Xinmin Liu, Zhen Wu, Ning Li
      Pages: 250 - 266
      Abstract: Objectives: Physical activity is recommended in guidelines for treatment for diabetes, but the association between physical activity and mortality among diabetic patients has not been extensively studied. Methods: Databases were searched from inception to July 10, 2020. Prospective studies were selected to evaluate the association between physical activity and risk for total and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality among diabetic patients. Data were pooled using random-effect model to calculate the relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: We included 16 eligible studies involving with 155,203 diabetic participants and 13,821 cases of death. Our study suggested that physical activity in diabetic patients may decrease risk for all-cause (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.49-0.67) and CVD mortality (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.68). The summary RR for CVD events was 0.65 (95% CI 0.41-1.03). Furthermore, the reductions in all-cause mortality were more significant in diabetic patients with old age (> 60 years) (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29 -0.75), higher body mass index (BMI ≥ 28) (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.42-0.69) and shorter duration of diabetes (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84). Conclusion: Physical activity reduced the risk of total and CVD mortality among patients with diabetes, in particular in diabetic patients with old age (> 60 years), obesity and shorter duration of diabetes. Keywords: Physical activity; mortality; CVD; diabetes.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.27
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The effect of liraglutide on renal function in type 2 diabetes: a
           meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    • Authors: Cheng Luo, Dongjuan He, HongBin Yang, Chunyan Zhu, Jiajun Zhu, Zhaohui Hu
      Pages: 267 - 274
      Abstract: Introduction: The efficacy of liraglutide on renal function in type 2 diabetes remains controversial. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of liraglutide versus placebo on renal function in type 2 diabetes. Methods: We search PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases through March 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of liraglutide versus placebo on renal function in type 2 diabetes. This meta-analysis is performed using the random-effect model. Results: Seven RCTs are included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control group in type 2 diabetes, liraglutide treatment shows no obvious effect on GFR (SMD=0.02; 95% CI=-0.43 to 0.47; P=0.94), RBF (SMD=-0.28; 95% CI=-0.80 to 0.24; P=0.29) or death (RR=1.93; 95% CI=0.71 to 5.21; P=0.20), but is associated with significantly decreased ACR (SMD=-0.82; 95% CI=-1.39 to -0.26; P=0.004) and systolic blood pressure (MD=-9.60; 95% CI=-17.46 to -1.73; P=0.02), as well as increased heart rate (MD=5.39; 95% CI=3.26 to 7.52; P<0.00001). Conclusions: Liraglutide treatment may provide some benefits for protecting renal function in type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Liraglutide; renal function; type 2 diabetes; randomized controlled trials.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.28
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Examination of exercise benefit/barrier perceptions of individuals with
           diabetes and affecting factors

    • Authors: Fatma Ersin, Derya Tülüce, Fatih Enzin
      Pages: 275 - 285
      Abstract: Background: Exercise, which is one of the health promotion behaviors, is extremely important in healthy life. This study was conducted to examine exercise benefit/barrier perceptions of individuals with diabetes and influencing factors. Method: This descriptive study was conducted in the Endocrine Polyclinics of a University Hospital with 285 individuals with Type 2 Diabetes between January and June 2020. Results: In this study, the average score of the exercise benefits subscale was 61.69 +14.79, the barriers subscale was 35.83 + 5.99, and the total score of the exercise benefits/barriers scale was 99.79 + 12.58. The total self-efficacy scale score was reported to be 59.74 + 9.46. A significant relationship was reported between the total mean score of the exercise benefits/barriers scale and having the opportunity to exercise, exercising regularly, and having a disease that prevents exercising. A significant difference was reported between the total mean score of the self-efficacy scale and the regular exercise status. Conclusion: Because of this study, the number of individuals who regularly exercised is insufficient, the mean exercise benefits/barriers scale score is not at the desired level, and exercise benefit/barrier perceptions are positively affected by the self-efficacy level. Keywords: Individuals with diabetes; exercise benefit/barrier.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.29
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Impact of exercise on renal function, oxidative stress, and systemic
           inflammation among patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    • Authors: Mohamed H Saiem Aldahr, Shehab M Abd El-Kader
      Pages: 286 - 295
      Abstract: Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a prevalent microvascular diabetic complication all over the world. Objective: This study was designed to measure oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and kidney function response to exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetic (T2DM) nephropathy. Material and Methods: Eighty obese T2DM patients ( 50 males and 30 females), their body mass index (BMI) mean was 33.85±3.43 Kg/m2 and the mean of diabetes chronicity was 12.53±2.64 year participated in the present study and enrolled two groups; group I: received aerobic exercise training and group II: received no training intervention. Results: The mean values of creatinine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased, while the mean values of interleukin-10 (IL-10), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) were significantly increased in group (A) after the aerobic exercise training, however the results of the control group were not significant. In addition, there were significant differences between both groups at the end of the study (P<0.05). Conclusion: There is evidence that aerobic exercise training modulated oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines and improved renal function among patients with diabetic nephropathy. Keywords: Aerobic Exercise; Diabetic Nephropathy; Inflammatory Cytokines; Oxidative Stress.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.30
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of electrolytes, markers of glycaemic control and renal
           dysfunction among adult Nigerians recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes
           mellitus

    • Authors: Oloruntoba A Ekun, Oloruntoba F Fagbemi, Esther N Adejumo, Oyeronke O Ekun, Kehinde S Wojuade, Folu M Oshundun, Florence O Adefolaju, Sade R Oyegbami
      Pages: 296 - 306
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and progressive endocrine disorder that may result in macro and microvascular complications. Objective: This study assessed some biochemical analytes in Nigerians who were recently (≤ 6 months) diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: 160 T2DM and 90 non-diabetic control participated in this study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), electrolytes, lipid and renal profile parameters, glycated haemoglobin (HBA1C) and fasting blood glucose (FBG), using standard guidelines. Result: The body mass index (BMI) of the T2DM volunteers was higher than control (P <0.001). The lipid profile, potassium, glucose, HBA1C, urea and creatinine values were elevated (P <0.001) while estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was lower (P<0.05) in diabetes. The median HFABP and hs-CRP were raised (P <0.05) in T2DM. Positive associations existed between FBG and urea (P <0.001), Creatinine and HBAIC (P <0.001). A logistic regression analysis, shows that an increased BMI, HBA1C, FBG, Cholesterol, urea and creatinine were associated with higher odds (p<0.001) of cardiovascular and renal complications. Conclusion: Elevated hs-CRP, glycated haemoglobin, urea and creatinine among T2DM increase the odds of cardiovascular and renal insults in this population. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; renal disease; glycated haemoglobin; high sensitivity C-reactive protein.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.31
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Association of the IL-4R Q576R Polymorphism with Pediatric Asthma: a
           meta-analysis

    • Authors: Xiwu Chen, Jinhui Hu, Kaiwei Li, Sheng Liu, Qin Ye, Baocen Cao
      Pages: 307 - 316
      Abstract: Background: The relationship between Q576R polymorphism of IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) gene and pediatric asthma risk is still undefined. To this end, this meta-analysis was performed to explore the above controversy. Methods: In this study, we systemically retrieved CNKI, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Science direct and Pub Med to collect relevant researches, followed by calculation of odds ratio (OR) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). STATA 12.0 software was employed in this meta-analysis. Results: We found an association between IL-4R Q576R polymorphism and pediatric asthma risk (GG vs AA: OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.89-7.45; AG vs AA: OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.36-3.39; the dominant model: OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.42-3.57;the recessive model: OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.54-6.05). Moreover, there was no obvious publication bias. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that G allele of IL-4R Q576R polymorphism is associated with increased risk of pediatric asthma. Anyhow, delicately-designed, large-scale studies should be conducted to further confirm the current outcomes. Keywords: IL-4; Asthma; Meta-analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.32
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Spontaneous intrapleural rupture of mediastinal teratoma in child

    • Authors: Ines Trabelsi, Marwa Zarrad, Manel Ben Romdhane, Sadok Boudaya, Fatma Khalsi, Khedija Boussetta
      Pages: 317 - 321
      Abstract: Introduction: Mediastinal teratomas are rare in children. Nevertheless, they represent the most frequent mediastinal germ cell tumor. Most often, they are discovered incidentally in older children or adolescents on chest X-ray. There are other signs of discovery but less frequent: chest pain, hemoptysis and signs of mediastinal compression. Rupture into pleural space, pericardium or tracheobronchial tree are exceptional. Case presentation: We report the case of 7-years old girl admitted for chest pain. The chest x-ray showed a mediastinal mass with calcifications and pleural effusion. Chest CT scan revealed a well limited heterogeneous anterior mediastinal mass with calcifications and a left pleural effusion. She underwent a median sternotomy and the tumor was completely excised. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. Conclusion: Intrapleural rupture is a rare complication of mature teratoma. Calcifications on chest imaging in afebrile children with pleural effusion should be suspected of mediastinal teratoma. Keyswords: Teratoma; tumor; mediastinum; child; rupture.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.33
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Thiol–disulfide balance and trace element levels in patients with
           seasonal allergic rhinitis

    • Authors: Hasan Basri Savas, Huseyin Gunizi
      Pages: 322 - 328
      Abstract: Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases is gradually increasing worldwide. The most common such allergic disease is allergic rhinitis (AR). Objective: The present study investigated the possible relationship between seasonal AR and the thiol-disulfide balance and zinc and copper levels in adult individuals. Study Design and Methods: 130 male and female adults were included in the study. The participants’ serum thiol-disulfide balance and zinc and copper levels were measured spectrophotometrically using commercial kits. Statistical significance was accepted as p < 0.05 between the groups. Results: The serum copper (p = 0.001), native thiol (p = 0.006), reduced thiol (p < 0.001), and thiol oxidation reduction ratio (p < 0.001) levels were significantly lower in the seasonal AR group than in the control group. Conclusion: In AR patients, the low level of copper, which is an important trace element, the deterioration of the thiol-disulfide balance, which represents a unique indicator of the oxidant-antioxidant balance, the increased disulfide level caused by oxidative stress, and the decreased native thiol level can all serve as important biochemical markers. Keywords: Seasonal allergic rhinitis; native thiol; disulfide; oxidative stress; copper.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.34
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Effect of atrial septal dilation tumor and patent foramen rotundus on
           cryptogenic ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged patients

    • Authors: Tengtao Ling, Dongxing Xie
      Pages: 329 - 335
      Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) on cryptogenic ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged patients. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to select 96 young and middle-aged patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke in the Department of Neurology of our hospital from January 2015 to January 2020 (observation group). A total of 192 patients with non-ischemic stroke were selected as the control group. The clinicadata and transthoracic echocardiography (cTTE) results were compared between the two groups. Results: The ASA depth and tumor wall thickness in the observation group were 15.50 (12.40, 19.80) mm and 3.90 (2.80,4.50) mm, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P < 0.05 ). Logistic regression analysis showed that PFO, and PFO combined with ASA were the influencing factors of cryptogenic ischemic stroke in middle-aged and young people OR = 1.923 and 1.384, P < 0.05 ). Conclusion: Atrial septal aneurysm combined with PFO and PFO are independent influencing factors factor for the occurrence of cryptogenic ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged people, which is worthy of further study. Keywords: Atrial septal aneurysm; Cryptogenic ischemic stroke; Influencing factors; Patent foramen ovale; Young and middle-aged.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.35
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence of physical activity and dietary patterns as risk factors for
           cardiovascular diseases among semi-urban dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Authors: Posi Emmanuel Aduroja Emmanuel Aduroja, Yetunde Olufisayo John-Akinola, Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu, Oladimeji Oladepo
      Pages: 336 - 348
      Abstract: Background: Physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are leading risk factors for cardiovascular diseases globally. Limited studies have assessed the prevalence of these risk factors in community-based settings in Nigeria. Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of physical activity and the dietary pattern of residents in selected semi-urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 500 randomly selected residents from two semi-urban communities. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select households and participants. Data were collected using a pretested modified version of the WHO STEPS instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were determined at 5% level of significance. Results: The mean age was 35.36 ± 12.24 and a mean household size of 4.07 ± 1.85. Majority (87.2%) of the respondents engaged in low physical activity (< 150-300 min/wk). Consumption of fruits and vegetables was low among respondents at 33% and 36.4% respectively. The employment status of respondents was significantly related to expected workplace physical activity level (χ2=11.27; P=0.024). Conclusions: This study highlights the need for the development and implementation of community-driven,
      multi-layered public health promotion initiatives across different settings. Keywords: Physical activity; diet; semi-urban; community.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.36
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Plasma soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1
           acts as a new biomarker for NSTEMI and STEMI patients

    • Authors: Md Sayed Ali Sheikh
      Pages: 349 - 358
      Abstract: Objective: The diagnostic significance of plasma soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1(sLOX-1) for non-ST segment elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) were explored by this study. Methods: In this study, 107 acute NSTEMI, 223 acute STEMI and 107 healthy subjects, and hypoxic (1%02) ventricular cardiomyocytes H9c2 were used. Results: The significantly up-regulated plasma sLOX-1 levels in acute NSTEMI and STEMI patients compared to healthy subjects (p<0.001). Both male and female NSTEMI and STEMI groups had remarkably higher concentrations of plasma sLOX-1 levels than controls (p<0.001). The circulating levels of sLOX-1 expression obviously elevated in elderly aging (60-75 years) than younger aging (30-45 years) both male and female in healthy subjects as well as NSTEMI and STEMI (p<0.001). Altered levels of sLOX-1 in blood plasma revealed a significant discrimination with high sensitivity and specificity between healthy with NSTEMI and STEMI subjects with AUC= 0.916 and AUC= 0.925 respectively. Moreover, LOX-1 levls were highly released from 6hour, 12hour and 18hour hypoxic injured H9c2 cells than normoxic cell (p<0.001),reflected circulating plasma sLOX-1 in AMI patients. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma sLOX-1concentrations might be used as a clinical biomarker for early recognition of NSTEMI and STEMI patients. Multicenter larger scale studies are necessary before use in clinical practice. Keywords: Myocardial infarction; sLOX-1; biomarker; H9c2 cells.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.37
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The determination of adherence to fluid control and symptoms of patients
           undergoing hemodialysis

    • Authors: Ali Kaplan, Songül Karadağ
      Pages: 359 - 368
      Abstract: Background and aims: The aim of this study was to determine the adherence of hemodialysis (HD) patients with fluid control and the symptoms they experienced. Method: The data of the study were collected between October 2015 and January 2016 and totally 596 patients undergoing hemodialysis were included in the study. The data of the study were collected by using Patient Information Form, Fluid Control Scale on Hemodialysis Patients (FCSHP), and Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI). Results: Total mean score patients received from FCSHP was 48.68±4.43, score of the subscale information was 18.85±2.24, score of the subscale behavior was 21.28±3.23, and score of the subscale attitude was 8.54±1.56. Mean score obtained by them from DSI was calculated as 65.07±2.17.
      Symptoms that patients experience most frequently were found as feeling tired or decreased energy, pins and needles in feet, and having difficulty in falling into sleep. The patients with high adherence to fluid control were found to have less symptoms. Conclusion: It was recommended to assess periodically adherence to fluid control in individuals receiving hemodialysis treatment and symptoms they experience and to provide training and consultancy by addressing those having difficulty in adherence to fluid control. Keywords: Hemodialysis; fluid control; adherence; symptom; nursing.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.38
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Role of hypoxia inducible factor 1α/Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa
           interacting protein 3 in alleviating effect of interleukin-4 on cerebral
           ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    • Authors: Tianjing Wang, Chang Liu
      Pages: 369 - 374
      Abstract: Background: Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) is the pathophysiological basis of various cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the role of HIF-1α/BNIP3 in the alleviating effect of IL-4 on CIRI in mice. Methodology: Mice were randomly divided into sham operation (Sham), ischemia reperfusion (IR), IL-4, HIF-1α inhibitor 2ME2 and IL-4+2ME2 groups. Middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established. After 24-h reperfusion, neurologic deficit score (NDS) was given. Cerebral infarction volume and brain water content were measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and dry-wet weights, respectively. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining. SOD, MDA and ROS levels, and HIF-1α, BNIP3, LC3II and Beclin-1 expressions were detected through colorimetry and Western blotting, respectively. Results: Compared with IR group, NDS, cerebral infarction volume, brain water content, apoptosis rate, and MDA and ROS levels decreased, while SOD, HIF-1α, BNIP3, LC3-II and Beclin-1 levels increased in IL-4 group (P<0.05). 2ME2 and IL-4+2ME2 groups had decreased NDS, cerebral infarction volume, brain water content, apoptosis rate and MDA, ROS, HIF-1α, BNIP3, LC3-II and Beclin-1 levels, but increased SOD level compared with those of IL-4 group (P<0.05). Conclusion: IL-4 reduces apoptosis and oxidative stress through activating the HIF-1α/BNIP3 pathway, thereby alleviating mouse CIRI. Keywords: Hypoxia inducible factor 1α; Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3; interleukin-4; cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.39
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Influence and significance of bilateral upper-extremity training on
           recovery of upper-extremity motor function for hemiplegic patients with
           mild-moderate cerebral apoplexy: a randomised controlled study

    • Authors: Hongmei Li, Yuanyuan Han, Feng Sheng, Fanliang Kong, Jing Dong
      Pages: 375 - 382
      Abstract: Background: The recovery of coordination ability of both hands is conductive to improving the activity of daily living for hemiplegic patients. Objective: To explore the influence and significance of bilateral upper-extremity training on recovery of upper-extremity motor function for hemiplegic patients with mild-moderate cerebral apoplexy. Methods: Patients were divided into control group and experimental group. The patients in the control group only exercised the upper limbs on the affected side, while the patients in the experimental group exercised the upper limbs on both sides. The Fugl Mayer Assessment Upper Extremity Scale (FMA-UE), Upper Extermities Functional Test (UEFT), modified Barthel index (MBI) and Brunnstrom scores were evaluated in the two groups before and after treatment. Results: After four weeks, six weeks and eight weeks of treatment, scores of FMA-UE, UEFT, MBI and Brunnstrom for patients increased with the extension of training time, and FMA-UE, UEFT, MBI and Brunnstrom scores for patients of the two groups after four weeks six weeks and eight weeks of treatment showed a significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: The improvement of upper-extremity motor function can be facilitated via relatively conventional training of bilateral upper-extremity training adopted by hemiplegic patients with mild-moderate cerebral apoplexy. Keywords: Mild-Moderate Cerebral Apoplexy; Bilateral Upper-Extremity Training; Upper-Extremity Motor Function.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.40
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • 3d cranial reconstruction using titanium implant – a case report

    • Authors: Sunantha Selvaraj, Jayachandran Dorairaj, Shivasankar M
      Pages: 383 - 390
      Abstract: Cranioplasty is a neurosurgical procedure done to cover the defective or deficient skull bone. The cranial reconstruction rejuvenates the patient by protecting and restore intracranial structures and pressure thus improving the esthetic appearance. Thus improves the neurological and psychological wellbeing of the patient. The blending Advancement of computer technology in medical and dental science allowed the 3D reconstruction of several anatomical structures for various medical procedures by designing the custom-made implants. Procedure: This case report describes the methodology used to design a custom-made cranial implant for a 38-year-old patient who had traumatic injury in the right temporosagital region of the skull caused by a road traffic accident . 3D reconstruction of the cranial vault was done using CAD designing and Selective laser melting (SLM) technology printing. Discussion: The presicion of the prosthesis was good thereby the surgical time was reduced and eliminates any errors in operating theatre and successfully implanted. The patient’s esthetics was restores , allowing the patient to safely perform daily activities with full confidence. Conclusion: The use of 3D reconstruction techniques in managing exhaustive surgeries aids to reduces the possibility of errors during surgery, precise and passive fit and provides better implant stability. Thus 3D printing technology has boomed its use in various field of medicine. Keywords: Cranial implants; titanium; 3D Printing; Fused deposition modelling Printing; Selective laser melting (SLM) technology.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.41
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Empagliflozin for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a
           meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    • Authors: Xue Tang, Huaping Zhang, Xin Wang, Dan Yang
      Pages: 391 - 398
      Abstract: The efficacy of empagliflozin for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease remains controversial. This meta-analysis aims to explore the influence of empagliflozin versus placebo on the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and we have searched PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases through July 2021 for related randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Three RCTs involving 212 patients are included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control group for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, empagliflozin treatment has no improvement in controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) score, hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) score, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL) or triglyceride (TG). These indicate that empagliflozin treatment may be not effective for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Keywords: Empagliflozin; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.42
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Association between serum lipid profile, body mass index and osteoporosis
           in postmenopausal Sudanese women

    • Authors: Asgad Osman Alfahal, Abdalla Eltoum Ali, Gadallah Osman Modawe, Wael Mohialddin Doush
      Pages: 399 - 406
      Abstract: Background: Epidemiological observations suggest links between osteoporosis and the risk of acute cardiovascular events. Whether the two clinical conditions are linked by common pathogenic factors or atherosclerosis per se remains incompletely understood. The reduction of bone density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women contributes to elevated lipid parameters and body mass index (BMI). Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum lipid profile, BMI and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A prospective analytical case control-study conducted in Khartoum north hospital at Khartoum city, capital of the Sudan from April 2017 to March 2018 after ethical approval obtained from the local Research Ethics Committee of Faculty of Medical Laboratories, Alzaeim Alazhary University on the committee meeting number (109) on Wednesday 15th February 2017. A written informed consent was obtained from all participants to participate in the study.
      Two hundred postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study. The age was studied in one hundred osteoporosis postmenopausal women as a case group and one hundred non-osteoporosis postmenopausal women as control group. The serum lipid profiles were estimated using spectrophotometers (Mandry) and BMI calculated using Quetelet index formula. The data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Results: The BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL in case group respectively were (24.846±2.1647, 251.190±27.0135 mg/dl, 168.790 ±45.774 mg/dl, 50.620 ± 7.174 mg/dl, 166.868 ±28.978 mg/dl). While the BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL in control group respectively were (25.378 ±3.8115, 187.990 ± 26.611 mg/dl, 139.360±20.290 mg/dl, 49.480 ±4.659 mg/dl, 111.667 ±28.0045 mg/dl). All serum lipid profiles significantly increased (p=0.000) in the case group compared to the control
      group, except serum HDL was insignificant different between the case and control group and also BMI was insignificant different between the case and control group. There was a positive Pearson’s correlation between BMD and serum total cholesterol (r= 0.832, P<0.01), serum LDL (r = 0.782, P<0.01) and serum triglyceride (r = 0.72, P<0.01). Conclusions: Osteoporotic postmenopausal women had a significant increase in serum lipid profile and BMI. Moreover, we found a positive link between women with cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Keywords: Osteoporosis; Postmenopausal women; Serum lipid profile; Sudan.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.43
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Surgical management of camel-related craniofacial injuries

    • Authors: Korana Balac, Mohamed A Al-Ali, Ashraf F Hefny, Baraa K Mohamed, Fikri M Abu-Zidan
      Pages: 407 - 415
      Abstract: Background: There are no studies focused on the types and management of camel-related craniofacial injuries. Objectives: We aimed to analyze the pattern of injuries that required surgical management and their specific operative treatment. Methods: We prospectively collected data of all patients who were admitted to Al Ain Hospital with camel-related craniofacial injuries that were treated operatively during the period of January 2015 to January 2020. Results: Eleven patients were studied; all were males having a median (range) age of 29 (19–66) years. Falling from a camel was the most common mechanism of injury (45.5 %) followed by camel bite (36.4 %). The most common injured region was the middle third of the face, which accounted for 56.5% of the bony fractures. Zygomatico-maxillary complex fractures were present in 60% of patients who fell while riding a camel. The most common surgical procedure performed in our patients was an open reduction with internal fixation (54.5%). There was no mortality. Conclusions: camel-related craniofacial injuries are complex. The main mechanism of injury is falling from a camel on the face causing fractures of the zygomatico-maxillary complex. These fractures usually need open reduction with internal fixation. Taking safety precautions may help in injury prevention. Keywords: Camel; face injury; head injury; surgery.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.44
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Indirect serum biomarkers perform sub optimally in screening for
           significant liver fibrosis among HIV-infected and uninfected adults in
           Uganda

    • Authors: Clara Wekesa, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Gregory D Kirk, Jim Aizire, Ponsiano Ocama
      Pages: 416 - 425
      Abstract: Introduction: Indirect serum bio-markers present an acceptable noninvasive and cheap alternative for screening of significant liver fibrosis (SLF). Evaluation of their use in resource limited settings is important to determine their utility. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study among 520 HIV infected and HIV uninfected adults attending care clinics in Kampala Uganda. Presence of SLF was determined using Fibroscan® liver stiffness measurement of ≥7.2KPa. The diagostic value of indirect serum bio-markers for diagnosis of SLF was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) using Fibroscan® as gold standard. Results: Overall AUROC values for Age Platelet Index (API), Aspartate to Alanine Ratio (AAR), AST-to-Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), Fibrosis Index based on 4 Factors (FIB-4) and Gamma glutamyl transferase to Platelet Ratio Index (GPR) were 0.52, 0.49, 0.55, 0.55 and 0.54 respectively. Among HIV-infected participants AUROC values were slightly improved at predicting presence of SLF but still under 70%. Conclusion: Despite APRI and FIB-4 being more likely to identify participants with SLF, the overall diagnostic value of all serum bio-markers was poor with and without stratification by HIV status. We recommend the use of Fibroscan® technology as more accurate non-invasive diagnostic method for screening of SLF. Keywords: Liver fibrosis; serum bio-markers; Fibroscan®; HIV/AIDS; Sub Saharan Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.45
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of treatment efficacy after switching to
           dolutegravir-lamivudine dual therapy in people living with HIV

    • Authors: Pınar Ergen, Begüm Bektas, Özlem Aydın, Havva Keskin, Ayşe Canan Üçışık, Fatma Yılmaz Karadağ, Yasemin Cağ
      Pages: 426 - 435
      Abstract: Background: People living with HIV need to use antiretroviral therapy throughout their lives. Objectives: Studies on the efficacy and safety of dual therapy are limited in Turkey. We sought to evaluate the treatment efficacy and side effects among patients who were given a combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and lamivudine (3TC) as a maintenance therapy. Methods: This retrospective, single-centre study included individuals with viral suppression who were older than 18 years of age, living with HIV, switched from a combination antiretroviral therapy regimen to DTG-3TC dual therapy, and followed up for at least 6 months. Results: The study included 63 patients living with HIV. The median age was 42 years (interquartile range (IQR): 36-51 years). The median follow-up under the DTG-3TC regimen was 10.4 months (7.1-16.0 months). In the course of dual therapy, no patients developed any serious adverse effects that would necessitate a therapy switch, but virological blips were seen in two patients. Two patients lost their lives, with one dying from suicide and one dying from respiratory failure associated with the underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion: The DTG-3TC dual-therapy regimen is a promising and effective therapy that can be used as a treatment of choice for eligible patients. Keywords: Dolutegravir; lamivudine; dual; antiretroviral therapy; efficacy.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.46
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Performance of the allometric power model in scaling from adult to
           paediatric antiretroviral dose in children at a Referral Hospital in
           Windhoek, Namibia

    • Authors: Bonifasius S Singu, Prisca Akpabio, Roger K Verbeeck
      Pages: 436 - 441
      Abstract: Background: World Health Organization (WHO) advocates use of weight bands in antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines. Allometric scaling could be a more reliable method because it uses a non-linear approach in relating dose to body weight. This study evaluates performance of the allometric ¾ power model in comparison to WHO weight band method in children receiving ART. Methods: Records of children receiving (ABC/3TC) + DTG were reviewed. Paediatric ABC/3TC dose was calculated from the adult dose using the allometric ¾ power model and compared to WHO weight band dose. Results: WHO weight band strategy grouped 50.6% of the children in the 25 kg category and therefore received the adult dose of ABC/3TC (600 mg/300 mg); only 1.1% received this dose with allometric scaling. Mean dose (3.8 tablets) for the WHO weight band dosing method was found to be significantly higher (p<0.0001) than for allometric scaling (1.5 tablets). Conclusions: WHO weight bands may result in the 25 kg weight category receiving a much higher dose leading to ADRs. Using allometric scaling, we recommend a weight band strategy that could improve paediatric ABC/3TC dosing. Keywords: Dose; weight; children; antiretrovirals; BSA; allometric scaling.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.47
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • HIV/AIDS services quality in health centers of East Shoa zone, Oromia,
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Temesgen Aferu, Gebremedhin Beedemariam, Teferi Gedif
      Pages: 442 - 454
      Abstract: Background: HIV/AIDS is a major public health, social and economic problem in Ethiopia. However, little has been done on assessment of the quality of the services given to patients in this country. Objective: To assess the quality of HIV/AIDS services in health centers of East Shoa Zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Method: Cross sectional survey was undertaken in selected health centers of East Shoa Zone between February and May, 2017. Data was collected using researcher administered structured questionnaire, logistics indicators assessment tool and observation check list. SPSS for windows version 20 was utilized in the analysis of the collected data. Results: The study facilities were providing various services to HIV/AIDS patients. All (100%) and 6(75%) facilities respectively had shortage of trained human power required to give ART and TB services. Regarding ARV medicines availability, majority of the study facilities, 5 (62.50%) reported that they had the stockout of AZT300/3TC150/NVP200 in six months prior to study while 4 (66.7%) of the facilities had the stockout of NVP 240ml (50mg/5ml) syrup on day of visit. Among anti-TB medicines, E100 was out of stock in three facilities (37.5%) on day of visit and INH100 had been out of stock in 4 (50%) of the facilities in six months prior to the study. From OIs medicines, Cotrimoxazole 960mg tablet stockedout in 4 (66.70%) on day of visit and in
      5 (83.30%) health centers in six months prior to the study. Considerable number of study facilities, 4 (66.70%) had the stockout of tramadol 50mg tablet on day of visit and ibuprofen 400mg tablet in six months prior to the study, 5 (71.40%). Conclusion: The studied facilities were challenged by different factors including, scarcity of human power, stockout of various HIV/AIDS related medicines and inability to make patients adhere to the services given by the facilities. The consequences of these factors can be dangerous to the patients as well as to the wider public and hence making available the appropriate human resource and HIV/AIDS related commodities including medicines should be the priority for the health facilities and the region to improve the quality of HIV/AIDS services in the study area. Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Services quality; Health center; East Shoa Zone.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.48
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Barriers and facilitators to adherence for antiretroviral therapy: the
           perspectives of patients from a wellness center in the Mpumalanga
           Province, South Africa

    • Authors: Portia T Simelane, Maswati S Simelane, Acheampong Y Amoateng
      Pages: 455 - 462
      Abstract: Introduction: Patients’ non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment remains a public health concern in many developing countries, especially in South Africa. Objectives: The objective of the study was to explore the barriers and facilitators of patients' ART adherence in one health care facility in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive design was employed to collect data using a semi-structured interview guide through individual in-depth interviews among twenty (20) purposively selected patients. The thematic analysis approach was used to generate themes from the data. Results: A majority of the participants were female (n=12, 60%), married (n=13, 65%), and employed (n=12, 60%). Barriers to ART adherence include insufficient medical staff at the health center and waiting time being too long. Facilitators included service providers' positive attitude, clear instructions for taking medication, benefits of adhering to ART, and dangers of defaulting treatment. Conclusion: Barriers and facilitators for adherence included several factors related to the health system, health care workers, and the patients. Achievement of optimal adherence to ART requires the commitment of both patients and providers. Keywords: ART; Barriers; Facilitators; HIV/AIDS; South Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.49
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Factors influencing utilization of modern family planning services by
           persons living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus at Luwero Hospital,
           Uganda

    • Authors: Kizito Omona, Geoffrey Muhanuzi
      Pages: 463 - 476
      Abstract: Introduction: The use of modern family planning methods is key for achieving the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, in the prevention of Mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) package. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing the utilization of modern family planning services by persons living with HIV at Luwero Hospital, Uganda. Methods: The study was conducted among 210 persons living with HIV attending the ART clinic and was based on cross-sectional descriptive and analytical design. Sampling was by simple random techniques. Data was collected using researcher-administered questionnaires. Results: The uptake of Modern FP services is low (36.7%) among persons living with HIV. It was attributed to client-related factors such as being married [AOR: 2.2, 95% CI [1.123-4.140], p = 0.038]) and other factors. These are; religious views discouraging use of modern FP (p= 0.034), negative side effects (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI [0.043-1.968], p = 0.044) and services being unfriendly for persons living with HIV (p=0.000]). Conclusions: Despite the presence of modern family planning services, uptake among persons living with HIV is low. Poor utilization is a recipe for unintended pregnancy and thus jeopardizes efforts in the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Keywords: Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT); HIV; Family Planning; Unintended Pregnancy; Luwero district.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.50
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence of violence towards men living with HIV/AIDS in rural
           communities of SouthWestern Uganda

    • Authors: Javilla Kamya Kakooza, Ritah Nampijja, Faith Kwagala, Flavia Nuwabasa, Owen Mpuuga, Gomer Isiagi, Godfrey Zari Rukundo
      Pages: 477 - 485
      Abstract: Background: Violence towards HIV positive men is one of the silent barriers to utilization of HIV care services. HIV positive men are potential victims of violence from other people including women, and violence may interfere with treatment outcomes.
      This study determined the prevalence of violence towards HIV positive men in rural communities of southwestern Uganda.
      Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 307 HIV positive men at selected health centers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 23 using chi-square and multivariate regression at 95% level of significance and a precision of 0.05. Results: Of the 307 participants, 45.3% had experienced violence. Of these, 23.8% (n=73) had experienced kicking or slapping while 12.7% (39) reported sexual violence. Factors associated with violence were; using alcohol and drugs (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.76, p=0.014), knowledge of support structures (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.33-3.78, p=0.002) and owning land for farming (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10-0.70, p=0.011). Conclusion: The prevalence of violence at 45.3% is quite high especially since violence against men is rarely talked about. This should not be ignored there should be strategies to support this vulnerable group. Keywords: HIV positive men; violence; prevalence; rural communities; Uganda.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.51
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Factors associated with death among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in
           Lagos State, Nigeria: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Olusola Adedeji Adejumo, Tope Ogunniyan, Adeife Valentina Adetola, Sandra Chizoba Mba, Olakunle Ogunbayo, Oluwaseun David Oladokun, Oluwayemisi Bamidele Oluwadun, Olufemi Erinoso, Sunday Adesola, Abimbola Bowale
      Pages: 486 - 494
      Abstract: Background: Lagos State has the highest burden of COVID-19 in Nigeria. We assessed associated factors with death from COVID-19 among hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using de-identified records of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted into 15 isolation centers in Lagos State between February 27, 2020, and September 30, 2020. Results: A total of 2,858 COVID -19 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 41.9±15.5 years. A higher proportion of patients were males (65.8%), asymptomatic (55.5%), had no comorbid condition (72.2%) and had the mild disease (73.8%). The case fatality rate was 6.5%. The odds of death from COVID-19 infection increased by 4% with every increase in age (AOR 1.04, 95%CI 1.03–1.05, p<0.001). The chance of dying was 50% fold more among males (AOR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0 – 2.2, p = 0.042), 60% fold more among patients with comorbidity (AOR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 – 2.4, p = 0.037) and 9 fold more among patients with severe COVID-19 infection (AOR 9.6, 95% CI 4.9 – 19.1, p <0.001). Conclusion: The odds of dying was higher among males, the elderly, patients with comorbidity and severe COVID-19. Keywords: COVID-19; Associated factors; deaths; Lagos; Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.52
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Haematological profile abnormalities; and its relationship with severity
           and outcome of COVID-19 infection

    • Authors: Noman Ahmed Chaudhary, Muhammad Khurram, Tahira Yasmin, Abdullah Sadiq, Javaria Malik, Qaiser Aziz, Muddesir Nazar, Muhammad Shahzad Manzoor, Muhammad Mujeeb Khan
      Pages: 495 - 505
      Abstract: Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) caused by corona virus (SARS Cov-2) has affected millions of people around the world. Many diagnostic modalities have been tested but the blood complete picture remains the initial and most easily accessible investigation in Covid-19. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the haematological abnormalities in relation to Covid-19 severity and outcome. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2020 to July 2020. One--hundred and fifty polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed Covid-19 patients were inducted by random sampling. Haematological profile at admission was recorded. Data thus obtained was analyzed with respect to Covid-19 severity and outcome. The data was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19. Results: Out of a total of 150 patients included in the study, 77(51.3%) patients had mild disease at the time of admission, 42 (28%) had moderate disease while 31 (20.7%) had critical disease at the time of admission. Medians (interquartile range) of total leucocyte count (TLC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR), platelets to lymphocytes ratio (PLR), neutrophils to monocyte ratio (NMR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were 8.11 (IQR=4.88), 5.95 (IQR=4.58), 1.66 (IQR=1.10), 3.48 (IQR=4.20), 146.24 (IQR=130.75), 18.87 (IQR=14.07), 0.16 (IQR=0.13). Median NLR was higher in patients with critical illness
      11.23 (IQR=10.70) as compared to those with stable 2.51 (IQR=1.77) and moderate 3.22 (IQR=3.60) disease (p< 0.000). Similarly TLC (p< 0.000), neutrophils (p< 0.000), lymphocytes (p< 0.000), NLR (p< 0.000), PLR (p< 0.000, p=0.001), MLR (p< 0.000), NMR (p< 0.000) had significant relationship with the severity and outcome of Covid-19 infection. Conclusion: Many haematological parameters are significantly different and can be used to predict the severity and outcome of Covid-19 infection. Keywords: COVID-19; hematology; corona virus; outcome.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.53
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Aspergillus-specific IgM/IgG antibody serostatus of patients hospitalized
           with moderate-critical COVID-19 in Uganda

    • Authors: Felix Bongomin, Richard Kwizera, Emmanuel Mande, Sharley Melissa Aloyo, Beatrice Achan, Martha Namusobya, Senai Goitom Sereke, Charles Batte, Sarah Kiguli, Joseph Baruch Baluku, Moses L Joloba, Bruce J Kirenga
      Pages: 506 - 511
      Abstract: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is known to complicate the coronavirus diseases-2019 (COVID-19), especially those with critical
      illness. We investigated the baseline anti-Aspergillus antibody serostatus of patients with moderate-critical COVID-19 hospitalized
      at 3 COVID-19 Treatment Units in Uganda. All 46 tested patients, mean age 30, and 11% with underlying respiratory
      disease had a negative serum anti-Aspergillus IgM/IgG antibody immunochromatographic test on day 3 (mean) of symptom
      onset (range 1-26), but follow up specimens to assess seroconversion were not available. Keywords: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; COVID-19; critical illness; Uganda.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.54
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • A tropical tertiary neurosurgical centre response to COVID-19 pandemic and
           its effect on neurosurgical practices

    • Authors: Olufemi Idowu, Hammed Oshola, Jeuel Idowu, Ademola Omosuyi
      Pages: 512 - 519
      Abstract: Background: COVID-19 pandemic may decrease the quantum of care for patients with neurosurgical conditions. Objectives: To determine outpatient clinic (OPC) patient load, neurosurgical procedures volume and disease spectrum following the institution of a new care protocol during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and compare with previous practice data in our institution. Methods: A monocentric retrospective analysis of all patients requiring neurosurgical care over a 2-year period. Results: There was a 42.4% reduction in OPC attendance and 41.8% reduction in surgical procedures in 2020 compared to 2019. There was >60 percent reduction in the volume of surgery that was done at the onset and peak of the pandemic but this has normalized in November 2020 despite the resurgence of COVID-19, after the institution of a new care protocol. Neurotrauma procedures (29.6%) were the most common neurosurgical operation in 2020 while congenital malformation surgery (37.3%) was the most common procedure performed in 2019. Conclusions: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic initially led to significant decrease in quantum and spectra of patients who presented at the OPC and for neurosurgical procedures. Instituted local protocol and Teleclinics, if added to clinical care armamentarium, may help to improve on the low patient attendance during pandemics. Keywords: COVID-19; Neurosurgery; Protocols; SARS-CoV-2.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.55
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Physiotherapy management of a rare variant of Guillain Barre Syndrome,
           acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) along with COVID-19 in a
           35-year-old male –a case report

    • Authors: Surya Vishnuram, Kumaresan Abathsagayam, Prathap Suganthirababu
      Pages: 520 - 526
      Abstract: Introduction: COVID-19 emerged as a novel pandemic with serious illness. Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, a Guillain-Barré syndrome variant also results in ventilator support, and bed-ridden state. Presence of COVID-19 along with GBS will cause serious complications if left untreated. Objective: To report the effect of physiotherapy in acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy along with COVID-19 in Intensive care unit. Case description: A 35-year-old-male with AMSAN, alcoholic hepatitis, and hyponatremia, came with paraparesis, ventilated due to poor oxygen saturation, diagnosed to have COVID-19, reduced muscle power in right wrist extensors, hand grip and diaphragm. Method: 30 minutes physiotherapy session, thrice a day for a period of 4 weeks. The vital signs were taken as a primary outcome measure. Medical Research Council muscle power grading and Hughes functional grading scale were taken as secondary outcomes. All the outcome measures were assessed for 4 weeks. Results: The 4 weeks of physiotherapy program show significant improvements on health status, muscle power, and functional status of an AMSAN patient with COVID 19. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that physiotherapy will be beneficial in AMSAN patients with COVID-19 in Intensive care units and further studies have to declare evidence-based practice. Keywords: Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy; Intensive care unit; COVID-19; Gullian Barre syndrome.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.56
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 on non-communicable disease management services at
           selected government health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Abiyu Mekonnen, Zelalem Destaw, Dejene Derseh, Eshetu Gadissa, Solomon Ali
      Pages: 527 - 534
      Abstract: Background: The global pandemic of COVID-19 forced the world to divert resources and asked the public to shelter-in-place, so the diagnosis surveillance system and management of non-communicable diseases has become more challenging. Objective: To identify the impact of COVID-19 on non-communicable diseases management services at government health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Health facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to September, 2020. A total of 30 health centers were included in this study. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess association between the outcome and independent variables Results: The majority, 24 (80%), of the study participants perceived that the COVID-19 pandemic severely disrupted the non-communicable disease management services. There was a statistically significant association between a decrease in outpatient volume at non communicable disease (NCD) management services (25 (83.3%), P-value: 0.006), closure of population level screening programs of NCDs (22 (73.3%), P-value: 0.007), and closure of disease specific NCD clinics and the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic (23 (76.7%), P-value: 0.013). Conclusion: The most critical health-care services for non-communicable diseases management were severely disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, during public health emergencies, policymakers should ensure continuation of critical clinical services and inform the public about proper service utilization. Keywords: COVID-19; non-communicable diseases; Ethiopia.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.57
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Tool for the assessment spiritual care after the COVID-19 pandemic: a
           sequential exploratory study

    • Authors: Zahra Bostani Khalesi, Mohsen Pourmohammad
      Pages: 535 - 541
      Abstract: Background: The present study aimed to develop a tool to assess spiritual care after the COVID-19 Pandemic. Materials and methods: This study is a mixed sequential (Qualitative-Quantitative) exploratory study. In the qualitative phase, through 14 in-depth semi-structured individual interviews with clerics, specialists in Islamic jurisprudence and principles, specialists in education and health promotion, and using the content analysis approach, tool items were designed. Purposeful sampling was performed with maximum diversity of experts and enthusiasts in the field of spiritual health. Results: Content analysis of the data obtained from interviews led to explaining the concept of spiritual care after the COVID-19 Pandemic in four main themes: spiritual care needs, spiritual care characteristics, outcomes of spiritual care, and the challenge of providing spiritual care. The average content validity index of the tool was 0.94. Exploratory factor analysis showed 4 factors that explained more than 62.83% of the variance. The correlation of spiritual cares scale score for COVID-19 Pandemic with spiritual care tool was (0.86, p <0.001). Conclusion: Spiritual care tool is a valid and reliable tool, with 38 items to assess the spiritual care after the COVID-19 Pandemic. Keywords: COVID-19; Spiritual care; Factor analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.58
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Knowledge, risk-perception, and uptake of COVID-19 prevention measures in
           sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review

    • Authors: Joseph KB Matovu, Alex Mulyowa, Rogers Akorimo, Daniel Kirumira
      Pages: 542 - 560
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has almost affected the entire globe and is currently in a resurgent phase within the sub-Saharan African region. Objective: This paper presents results from a scoping review of literature on knowledge, risk-perception, conspiracy theories and uptake of COVID-19 prevention measures in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We used the following search terms: ‘COVID-19’, ‘knowledge’, ‘perceptions’, ‘perspectives’, ‘misconceptions’, ‘conspiracy theories’, ‘practices’ and ‘sub-Saharan Africa’. Basing on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines, we identified 466 articles for review; 36 articles met the inclusion criteria. We extracted data on knowledge, risk-perception, conspiracy theories and uptake of COVID-19 primary prevention measures. Results: Knowledge of COVID-19 was high (91.3-100%) and associated with age and education; risk-perception was equally high (73.3-86.9%) but varied across studies. Uptake of hand-washing with water and soap or hand-sanitizing ranged between 63-96.4%, but wearing of face masks and social distancing fared poorly (face masks: 2.7%-37%; social distancing: 19-43%). Conclusion: While knowledge of COVID-19 is nearly universal, uptake of COVID-19 prevention measures remains sub-optimal to defeat the pandemic. These findings suggest a need for continued health promotion to increase uptake of the recommended COVID-19 prevention measures in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: COVID-19; prevention; sub-Saharan Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.59
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Hepatitis B sero-prevalence among hematology patients: importance of
           Anti-HbcAb and efficiency of antiviral prophylaxis

    • Authors: Funda Ugur Kantar, Selda Kahraman, Gulfem Ece, Seckin Cagırgan
      Pages: 561 - 566
      Abstract: Objectives: Hepatitis B infection is an important problem in immune suppressed patients. Anti HbcAb is an important marker that shows past exposure to virus. In this study, we retrospectively searched HBV serology among the patients who had Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) or chemotherapies (CT) at Medicalpark Izmir Hospital Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit; changes in viral parameters throughout therapy; and tried to find the efficiency of antiviral prophylaxis . Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the viral parameters; HbsAg, Anti HbsAb, Anti Hbc IgG, HbeAg, Anti Hbe Ab, HBV DNA, HCV RNA which were carried out before BMT and CT. We grouped the patients as latent HBV infection and inactive carriers .Started antiviral treatment as prophylaxis, monitored the changes in serological parameters and defined HBV related situations. Results: A total of 584 patients were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty patients were having latent HBV infection. Ten patients were inactive carriers of HBV. In post-transplant period, the patients were screened for 11 months (1-38 months). None of the patients experienced HBV activation during follow period. Conclusion: The best approach in HbcAb positive patients with planned immunosuppressive treatment is the use of anti-viral
      agents before immune suppression and close monitoring of the patients HBV-related markers . Keywords: Hepatitis B; Hematologic Malignancy; stem cell transplantation.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.60
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Factors affecting 90-day mortality in community and hospital acquired
           pneumonia patients with or without acute kidney injury

    • Authors: Derya Hoşgün, Semih Aydemir
      Pages: 567 - 577
      Abstract: Background: AKI is a significant risk factor for mortality. Inflammatory markers are commonly used in the prediction of prognosis in pneumonia patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of AKI in hospitalized CAP and HAP patients and to investigate the role of inexpensive, practical, routinely measured serum biomarkers in predicting 90-day mortality. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study included 381 patients in CAP patients and HAP patients who were hospitalized in our Chest Diseases clinic or ICU. Results: Ninety-day mortality occurred in 115 (30.2%) patients (CAP, 28.7%; HAP, 34.7%). AKI was detected in 25.5% of the patients. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the 90-day mortality risk was 0.931, 1.05, 0.607, and 1.999 times greater in patients with an increased APACHE II score and increased WBC, 1-h creatinine, and 48-h creatinine levels, respectively. In CAP patients, the 90-day mortality risk was 0.296, 0.539, and 1.966 times greater in patients with an increased CURB-65 score and elevated 1-h and 48-h creatinine levels, respectively. In HAP patients, however, the 90-day mortality risk was 3.554 times greater
      in patients with an increased 48-h creatinine level. Conclusion: Novel practical scoring systems based on serum creatinine levels are needed for the prediction of long-term prognosis in pneumonia patients. Keywords: Community Acquired Pneumonia; Hospital Acguired Pneumonia; Acute Kidney İnjury.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.61
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Severe liver injury affects the outcomes and length of hospital stay in
           children with community-acquired pneumonia

    • Authors: Lianyu Zhang, Shuai Zhao
      Pages: 578 - 589
      Abstract: Background: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the association between liver injury and clinical parameters, outcomes and length of stay (LOS) in hospital in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: Clinical data and laboratory indicators of 2,573 children with CAP were analyzed. The association between liver injury and clinical parameters, outcomes and LOS was then analyzed. Results: Higher liver injury class was associated with higher incidence of severe CAP, comorbidities, hypoxia, requirement for mechanical ventilation, 30-day mortality and intensive care unit admission, and higher indicators of inflammation (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and white blood cell count), longer LOS, faster respiratory rate and pulse rate, and lower age, serum albumin levels, monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Severe liver injury was identified as an independent factor for 30-day mortality and prolonged LOS in children with CAP. Higher liver injury class was associated with a lower cumulative survival rate (p=0.0004), and log-rank test for trend was used to demonstrate the association of each injury class with 30-day mortality (p=0.0002). Conclusions: Several parameters were associated with liver injury in children with CAP. Severe liver injury was found to be an independent factor for 30-day mortality and LOS in children with CAP. Keywords: Community-acquired pneumonia; liver injury; children; mortality; hospital length of stay.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.62
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Frequency of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors of
           Rawalpindi District, Pakistan

    • Authors: Saqlain Ghazanfar, Sarmad Hassan, Zia Shahid, Muhammad Sheharyar Khan, Abdur Rehman Malik, Hamza Sattar Bhutta, Nadeem Ikram, Muhammad Sarfraz Khan
      Pages: 590 - 598
      Abstract: Background: Transmissible Infections (TTI’s) are a cause of significant burden on health care facilities by imposing a threat of infection transmission through disease reservoirs in asymptomatic donors. This eventually leads to a serious challenge in acquiring blood bags in a country like Pakistan where transfusion dependent disease are of high prevalence. The objective of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of TTI’s in blood donors in Rawalpindi District through a multi-center approach. Materials and Methods: This is an observational descriptive retrospective study based on 6 transfusion centers in the Rawalpindi District. The time frame of the study was from January 2015 to December 2018. A total of 223,242 donors were consecutively included and data on donor type, the purpose of transfusion, and seroprevalence (HBV, HCV, HIV, Syphilis, and Malaria) were collected through a structured questionnaire and laboratory investigation results. The collected data were entered in SPSS version 21.0 for analysis. Results: The seroprevalence of blood borne infections was 7,897 (3.537%) of which HBV, HCV, HIV, Syphilis and Malaria accounted for 2410 (1.080%), 3105(1.391%), 0(0.000%), 2017 (0.933%) and 365 (0.171%), respectively. Reactive samples reduced from 4.850% to 3.537% over 4 years, while there was a rise of 37.478% of blood donors from 2015 to 2018. The total number of voluntary donors and replacement donors was 22079 (9.890%) and 201156 (90.107%), with a rising incidence in voluntary donors from 2015 to 2018. A considerable number of donor bags were transfused to Thalassemia, Anemia, Leukemia and Hemophilia patients, 28156 (12.612%). This number also showed increasing rates from 11.654% to 14.017%. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study suggests that the risk of transmission through transfusion is still considerable. Targeting donors with a low-risk profile, a screening questionnaire, an ample supply of quality screening tests, and awareness campaigns for the diseases in question must be carried to further decrease the risk of transmission of TTIs in Pakistan. Keywords: Transfusion; Hepatitis; HIV; Syphilis; Malaria; Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.63
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Compliance of patients to DOTS tuberculosis treatment strategy in a
           South-East Nigeria Teaching Hospital

    • Authors: Chinedu A Idoko, Olufemi Adeyemi
      Pages: 599 - 606
      Abstract: Introduction: Tuberculosis ranks the second highest cause of adult mortality after HIV in the world. The Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) strategy is aimed at following up on patients’ adherence to treatment regimen. Objectives: To assess the level of compliance of patients to the DOTS strategy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of patients seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital from January, 2013 to April, 2015. Relevant information was collected from patients’ folders. Data analysis was with the SPSS and results represented in tables. Results: 111 (50%) patients were compliant with their DOTS treatment plan while 107 (41.3%) were non-compliant. Ninety-two patients (41.4%) were successfully treated and discharged home, 7 patients (3.2%) referred to other centres. The proportion of patients regarding their marital status, occupation, educational level and address that was compliant to the DOTS TB reflected varied patterns. Conclusion/ Recommendations: The study reflected poor to average compliance to DOTS. There is a need for creation of more DOTS centres; regular surveys and updates on DOTS TB strategy should be the norm rather than the exception. Keywords: Compliance; Patients; DOTS; Tuberculosis; South-East Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.64
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Ivermectin treatment response in two rural villages with a high prevalence
           of onchocerciasis and epilepsy, Mahenge Tanzania

    • Authors: Dan Bhwana, Bruno P Mmbando, Alfred Dusabimana, Athanas Mhina, Daniel P Challe, Joseph N Siewe Fodjo, Williams H Makunde, Robert Colebunders
      Pages: 607 - 616
      Abstract: Background: Despite 20 years of ivermectin mass distribution in the Mahenge area, Tanzania, the prevalence of onchocerciasis and epilepsy has remained high in rural villages. Objectives: We investigated the efficacy of ivermectin in reducing Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae and predictors for parasitic load following ivermectin treatment in persons with (PWE) and without epilepsy (PWOE). Methods: Between April and September 2019, 50 PWE and 160 randomly selected PWOE from Msogezi and Mdindo villages participated in a follow-up study. Skin snips were obtained pre (baseline) and three months post-ivermectin treatment. Results: The overall prevalence of O. volvulus positive skin snips at baseline was 49% (103/210), with no significant difference between PWE (58.0%) and PWOE (46.3%); p=0.197. The overall mean microfilarial density was significantly higher at baseline 1.45(95%CI:0.98-2.04)) than three-month post-ivermectin treatment (0.23(95%CI:0.11-0.37), p<0.001. Three months after ivermectin, the microfilarial density had decreased by ≥80% in 54 (81.8%, 95%CI: 72.3-91.4) of the 66 individuals with positive skin snips at baseline. High microfilarial density at baseline was the only significant predictor associated with higher microfilarial
      density in the post-ivermectin skin snips. Conclusion: Our study reports a decrease in microfilarial density following ivermectin treatment in most individuals. Optimizing ivermectin coverage will address the ongoing onchocerciasis transmission in Mahenge. Keywords: Onchocerciasis, ivermectin; treatment response, epilepsy; Tanzania.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.65
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • A Survey on the seroprevalence of toxocariasis and related risk factors in
           Eosinophilic Children of Northwest Iran

    • Authors: Arash Pourgholaminejad, Habib Razipour, Peyman Heydarian, Keyhan Ashrafi, Zahra Atrkar Roushan, Meysam Sharifdini
      Pages: 617 - 625
      Abstract: Background: Toxocariasis is a serious zoonotic helminthic disease caused by the nematodes; Toxocara species. Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis and related risk factors in eosinophilic children referred to the pediatrics hospital of Qazvin province northwest Iran during 2019-2020. Methods: A total of 200 blood samples were collected from eosinophilic children referred to the Qods Pediatrics Hospital. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, and dogs- and soil-contact history were collected. The presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibody was evaluated by T. canis IgG ELISA kit. Results: Anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 14 (7%) of the total eosinophilic children. The seropositive rate of toxocariasis in hyper-eosinophilic children (>1000/mm3) was 15.1%, while the seropositivity was 4.1% in children with eosinophilia status (500-999/mm3). There was a significant association between the eosinophilia rate and seropositivity (P<0.05). Also, seroprevalence in asymptomatic eosinophilic children was 4.4%, while in children with clinical symptoms it was 17.1%. Accordingly, a statistically significant difference was found between clinical symptoms and Toxocara infection (P<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of toxocariasis in eosinophilic children is a serious health problem in the study area. Therefore, serologic evaluation for the diagnosis of Toxocara infection is recommended for eosinophilic children. Keywords: Seroprevalence; Toxocariasis; anti-Toxocara antibody; Eosinophilia children; Qazvin; Iran.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.66
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Prediction of promiscuous epitopes in ORF2 of Hepatitis E virus: an
           In-Silico approach

    • Authors: Noor Samavia, Parvaiz Fahed, Waheed Yasir, Anwar Tasneem, Nasreen Syeda
      Pages: 626 - 639
      Abstract: Background: Vaccine development against emerging infections is essentially important for saving people from increasing viral infections. In developing countries, Hepatitis E (HEV) is a common infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Based on In-silico analysis, different approaches have been targeted. Objectives: Rationale of this study is to design an epitope-based vaccine candidates with the help of immunoinformatics that can predict promiscuous B-cell and T-cell epitopes of the most antigenic HEV-ORF2 capsid protein. Materials & Methods: This study suggests potential T-cell and B-cell epitopes of the highly antigenic HEV ORF2 capsid protein while using various In-silico tools such as NCBI-BLAST, Expassy, CLC workbench, Ellipro and Discotope. Results: Potential antigenic and immunogenic CD8+ T-cell epitopes were predicted from the global consensus sequence of ORF2-HEV. Furthermore, twenty-two linear B-cell epitopes were predicted. Among these, “SLGAGPV” at position 587-593 and “LEFRNLTPGNTNTRVSRYSS” at position 306-325 were most antigenic with antigenicity score 1.4206 and 1.3600 respectively. Discontinuous B-cell epitopes were found by three-dimensional capsid protein structure. Epitopes predicted in this study reveal high antigenicity and promiscuity for HLA classes. Conclusion: Collectively, our data suggests promiscuous epitopes that can potentially acts as new candidates for the design of HEV peptide vaccine. Keywords: Virology; gastrointestinal disease.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.67
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Leishmaniasis prevalence, awareness and control in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Taha A Kumosani, Turkyah J Al-Bogami, Elie K Barbour, Sharifah H Alshehri, Soonham S Yaghmoor, Nouf A Alshareef, Khalid M El-Say, Said S Moselhy
      Pages: 640 - 647
      Abstract: Background: Leishmaniasis is a widespread skin protozoan infectious disease. It is an intracellular parasitic microorganism that develops in the body of infected female phlebotomine sandflies vector, prior to its transmission to human or animal host by the vector bite. The objective of this review is to highlight the current prevalence of Leishmaniasis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the direction in research for its control. Materials: The update literature covered The infection of the host with this trypanosome starts with a skin bite from the infected sand fly, followed by penetration of the parasite into cellular structures of the skin, or its infiltration to the circulatory system, targeting the internal organs. Different research groups are experimenting on construction of recombinant Leishmania antigens, compiled from this protozoa and from antigens recovered from the saliva of sand flies, in an attempt to immunize the host for protection against this disease.
      Conclusion: The benefits behind such a review is to support the personnel involved in developing evidence-based policy guidelines, strategies and standards for disease prevention and management of their implementation; in addition, it provided a technical support to member states to collaborate on establishment of an effective systems to handle the Leishmaniasis. Keywords: Review; Leishmaniasis; prevalence; control; Saudi Arabia.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.68
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The effect of mobile-based training on maternal breastfeeding
           self-efficacy: a randomized clinical trial

    • Authors: Aazam Seddighi, Zahra Bostani Khalesi, Soheila Majidi
      Pages: 648 - 655
      Abstract: Background: The Aim of this study is to determine the effect of mobile-based training on maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted from November May to December 2020 on 198 women referring to healthcare centers in Guilan, Iran. The samples of this study were selected using the convenience sampling method, and random block sampling was used for the allocation of groups.The data collection tool was a two-part questionnaire including questions about demographic data and Dennis's self-efficacy. The questionnaires were completed
      before and 8 weeks after the intervention in both groups. Results: The mean and standard deviation of self-efficacy before the education in the experiment and control group were 48.26+ 6.49 and 49.11 + 7.36, respectively. After the education, the experimental group was 53.78 + 12.61 and control group was 41.90 + 17.98. The difference between the pretest and posttest scores indicated that the breastfeeding educational intervention increased the women’s self-efficacy in breastfeeding (p<0/001). Conclusion: The results showed that mobile-based training could improve maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. It is therefore recommended, this training program as an available and convenient method to improve breastfeeding self-efficacy. Keywords: Self-efficacy; breastfeeding; cell phone; mobile applications; education.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.69
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The profile and causes of death among medical doctors and dental surgeons
           in Uganda: 1986 to 2016

    • Authors: Jacinto Amandua, Victoria Masembe, Jackson Amone, Peter Mukasa-Kivunike, Livingstone Makanga, Jackson Orem, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Sam Kalungi, Herbert Ariaka, Margaret Mungherera, Fred Nyankori, David Mukunya, Fred Ssentongo Katumba
      Pages: 656 - 665
      Abstract: Background: The loss of health workers through death is of great importance and interest to the public, media and the medical profession as it has very profound social and professional consequences on the delivery of health services. Objective: To describe the profile, causes and patterns of death among medical doctors and dental surgeons in Uganda between 1986 and 2016. Methods: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of mortality among registered medical doctors and dental surgeons. Information on each case was collected using a standard questionnaire and analysed. Cause of death was determined using pathology reports, and if unavailable, verbal autopsies. We summarized our findings across decades using means and standard deviations, proportions and line graphs as appropriate. Cuzick’s test for trend was used to assess crude change in characteristics across the three decades. To estimate the change in deaths across decades adjusted for age and sex, we fit a logistic regression model, and used the margins command with a dy/dx option. All analyses were done in Stata version 14.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX). Results: There were 489 deaths registered between 1986 and 2016. Of these, 59 (12.1%) were female. The mean age at death was 48.8 years (Standard Deviation (SD) 15.1) among male and 40.1 years (SD 12.8) among females. We ascertained the cause of death for 468/489 (95.7%). The most common causes of death were HIV/AIDS (218/468, 46.6%), cancer (68/468, 14.5%), non-communicable diseases (62/48, 13.3%), alcohol related deaths (36, 7.7%), road traffic accidents (34, 7.3%), gunshots (11, 2.4%), among others. After adjusting for age and sex, HIV/AIDs attributable deaths decreased by 33 percentage points between the decade of 1986 to1995 and that of 2006 to 2016 –0.33 (–0.44, –0.21. During the same period, cancer attributable deaths increased by 13 percentage periods 0.13 (0.05,0.20). Conclusion: The main causes of death were HIV/AIDS, cancer, non-communicable diseases, alcohol-related diseases and road traffic accidents. There was a general downward trend in the HIV/AIDS related deaths and a general upward trend in cancer related deaths. Doctors should be targeted for preventive and support services especially for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Keywords: Profile and causes of death; medical doctors; dental surgeons; Uganda.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.70
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Evaluating the level of disaster preparedness of Tunisian University
           Hospitals using the Hospital Safety Index: a nationwide cross-sectional
           study

    • Authors: Hamdi Lamine, Naoufel Chebili, Chekib Zedini
      Pages: 666 - 673
      Abstract: Background: Mid-way through the ‘Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030’, many nations are spending time, money and effort to enhance their level of preparedness facing disasters, on the other hand communities, countries and even continents are being left behind. Objectives: This study was conducted aiming at evaluating the level of disaster preparedness and response of Tunisian University Hospitals. Methods: This is a cross-sectional nationwide study conducted in Tunisia, from November 2020 to April 2021. Including 9 Tunisian University Hospitals and using the Hospital Safety Index. The data were analysed using the 'Module and safety index calculator'. Results: This study showed that 7 out of the 9 University Hospitals were assigned the ‘B’ category of safety with overall safety indexes that ranges between 0.37 and 0.62. Also, 4 out of 9 University Hospitals had safety scores less than 0.20 regarding their emergency and disaster management. Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate disaster preparedness and response of university hospitals in Tunisia and in north Africa. It showed that the lack of knowledge, resources and willingness, are the most important issues that needs to be addressed in order to enhance the preparedness of Tunisian hospitals. Keywords: Disaster preparedness; Hospital Safety Index; Tunisian University Hospitals; Scores.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.71
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Factors motivating intent to leave amongst radiographers employed by
           public tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng Province, South Africa

    • Authors: Maureen Nokuthula Sibiya, Thandokuhle Emmanuel Khoza, Busisiwe Pauline Nkosi
      Pages: 674 - 680
      Abstract: Background: The elements of job satisfaction can be categorized into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The presence of a higher level of intrinsic factors will result in increased motivation amongst employees, whilst extrinsic factors will result in job dissatisfaction. Decreased job satisfaction levels amongst healthcare professionals are known to create an intent to leave. Hence the need to explore these factors amongst radiographers employed by tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Objective: To determine the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction on intent to leave amongst radiographers employed by public tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey guided the study, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The sampling technique used for this study was disproportional stratified sampling. Results: The study had a response rate of 62%. A significant number of the participants (50%) were between the ages of 21-33 years. Also, worth noting that 51% of the participants were newly qualified, 28% were employed for a period of 10-20 years and only 20% were employed for a period greater than 20 years. Diagnostic radiography had the most number of participants at 55%, followed by radiation therapist at 24%, nuclear medicine radiographers at 13%, mammography radiographers at 5% and only 3% were sonographers. Pearson’s correlation showed a significant negative correlation with the following extrinsic
      factors: supervision, r= -.344, p=.000; satisfaction with PMDS, r=-.302, p=.000; human resources processes, r=-.249, p=.001; infrastructure, r=-.236, p=.001; the OSD policy, r=-.233, p=.002; satisfaction with remuneration, r=-.202, p=.006; satisfaction with CPD activities, r=-.201, p=.007; and satisfaction with equipment, r=-.163, p=.029. Conclusion: Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are associated with an intent to leave amongst radiographers employed by public tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province. Keywords: Intent to leave; radiographers; public tertiary hospitals.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.72
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The association between blood, urine, respiratory, neurobehavioral
           parameters and occupational exposure to organophosphorus pesticides: a
           cross-sectional study among formulators

    • Authors: Mohammad Amin Rashidi, Hassan Asilian Mahabadi, Ali Khavanin, Leila Tajik
      Pages: 681 - 696
      Abstract: Background: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are one of the most extensively used chemical compounds all over the world. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether occupational exposure of the formulators to the OP pesticides, under normal working conditions, is associated with any hematotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, neurotoxic, and respirotoxic responses among them. Methods: 28 OP formulation plant workers and 17 office workers participated in this cross-sectional study as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure hematological, biochemical, and urinalysis parameters. American thoracic society questionnaire and spirometry tests were employed to assess the function of their respiratory system. Q16 questionnaire was also used to investigate the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms. The data were analyzed by SPSS v.22 software using Kolmogorov–Smirnov, T-test, Mann–Whitney U, Chi-square, Fisher, Pearson, and Spearman tests. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in hematological, biochemical, urinalysis (except in specific gravity), spirometry parameters, as well as respiratory and neurobehavioral symptoms between the exposed and the control groups. For the exposed group, however, the means of spirometry parameters were significantly lower among the smokers. Conclusions: In this study, the expected adverse health effects due to exposure to OP pesticides were not observed among the formulators; however, the risk of developing respiratory dysfunction was found to be more considerable among smoker subjects than the non-smoker ones. Further investigations are required to determine whether formulators’ occupational exposures to OP pesticides result in certain adverse health effects. Keywords: Pesticides; Organophosphorus Compounds; Blood; Urine; Lung.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.73
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Unusual anatomical variations of the hepatic arteries and bile ducts: What
           are the surgical implications

    • Authors: Nathalie Umugwaneza, Fidele Byiringiro, Paul Ndahimana, Andrew Ivang, Martin Nyundo, Faustin Ntirenganya, Julien Gashegu
      Pages: 697 - 702
      Abstract: Introduction: The knowledge of anatomy is essential for surgical safety and impacts positively on patients’ outcomes. Surgeons operating on the liver and bile ducts should keep in mind the normal anatomy and its variations as the latter are common. Case Presentation: We conducted a structured surgical dissection course of the supra-colic compartment of the abdominal cavity on 2nd and 3rd October 2020. While dissecting a 46years-old male cadaver, we encountered unusual anatomical variations of the hepatic arterial branching, the biliary tree, and arterial supply to the common bile duct. The common hepatic artery was dividing into two branches: a common short trunk for the left hepatic artery and the right gastric artery (hepato-gastric trunk) and a common trunk for the right hepatic artery and gastroduodenal artery (hepato-gastroduodenal trunk). The right hepatic
      duct was duplicated with a main right hepatic duct and an additional smaller duct. The bile duct was supplied by an artery coming from the abdominal aorta. Conclusion: We described three unusual anatomical variations: a variation of the hepatic arteries branching pattern, an aberrant right hepatic duct, and blood supply to the bile duct from the abdominal aorta. Surgeons should be aware of these rare variations. Keywords: (MeSH terms); Hepatic artery; Bile duct; variation; Surgical implication.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.74
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Closing the gaps in defining and conceptualising acceptability of
           healthcare: a qualitative thematic content analysis

    • Authors: Joy Blaise Bucyibaruta, Doriccah Peu, Lesley Bamford, Annatjie van der Wath
      Pages: 703 - 709
      Abstract: Introduction: Despite the importance of healthcare acceptability, the public health community has yet to agree on its explicit definition and conceptual framework. We explored different definitions and conceptual frameworks of healthcare acceptability, and identified commonalities in order to develop an integrated definition and conceptual framework of healthcare acceptability. Materials and Methods: We applied qualitative thematic content analysis on research articles that attempted to define healthcare acceptability. We searched online databases and purposefully selected relevant articles that we imported into ATLAS.ti 8.4 for deductive and inductive analysis which continued until there were no new information emerging from selected documents (data saturation). Results: Our analysis of the literature affirmed that healthcare acceptability remains poorly defined; limiting its application in public health. We proposed a practical definition attempting to fill identified gaps. We defined acceptability as a “multi-construct concept describing the nonlinear cumulative combination in parts or in whole of the fit between the expected and experienced healthcare from the patient, provider or healthcare systems and policy perspectives in a given context.” Practice Implications: We presented and described a workable definition and framework of healthcare acceptability that can be applied to different actors including patients, healthcare providers, researchers, managers or policy makers. Keywords: Defining and conceptualising acceptability; healthcare; content analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.75
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Hand hygiene practices among Jordanian nurses in Amman

    • Authors: Ahmad M Saleh, Saud M Alrawaili, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset
      Pages: 710 - 717
      Abstract: Background: Hand hygiene is a simple and effective practice that helps to reduce the spread of hospital-acquired infections. However, health care professionals' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is low. The purpose of this study is to evaluate hand hygiene practices among Jordanian nurses working in hospitals. Methodology: The standardized version of the World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire was given to Jordanian nurses from two hospitals in Amman. Result: The response rate was 76 percent, with 173 nurses contacted to enroll 226 participants. According to the study, 65.5 percent (113) of the participants have a good practice hand hygiene, while 11 percent (19) practiced poor hand hygiene. The percentage of female participants who practiced good hand hygiene was found to be significantly higher (70 percent) than the percentage of male participants (30 percent). Conclusion: To improve compliance with hand hygiene practices, male nurses and nurses working in the department of internal medicine and pediatrics need in-service educational intervention. Posters and other visual aids emphasizing the importance of hand hygiene should be displayed in all departments to raise awareness of the importance of hand hygiene among nurses. Keywords: Hand hygiene; Health care professionals; Alcohol-based hand rub; Hand washing.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.76
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Functional iron status of chronic kidney disease patients at the
           University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

    • Authors: Emmanuel O Sanni, Hannah O Olawumi, Idayat A Durotoye, Timothy O Olanrewaju, Abiola S Babatunde, Olasunkanmi A Shittu, Sikiru A Biliaminu, Khadijat O Omokanye, Mutiat Kehinde Ogunfemi, Olabisi O Akinwumi, Dapo S Oyedepo, Ayodeji M Adepoju
      Pages: 718 - 725
      Abstract: Background: Functional iron deficiency has been found to be a common cause of poor response to erythropoiesis stimulating agents in anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives: Assess the functional iron status of patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: This was a hospital based cross sectional study. The study subjects were chronic kidney disease patients with age and sex matched healthy controls. Full blood count, serum ferritin, soluble transferring receptor, C-reactive protein, serum iron and total iron binding capacity were measured in the patients and healthy controls. Data was analyzed with statistical package for the social sciences software version 22.0. And the level of statistical significance was set at p. value < 0.05. Results: The mean ± SD of the age of patient with CKD was 55.0 + 15.4 years, while that of controls was 52.7 + 13.6 years. The mean serum ferritin, serum iron, TIBC and CRP were significantly higher in patients compared with controls (p<0.001, 0.023, <0.001 and 0.001) respectively. Functional iron deficiency was seen in 19.5% of patients with CKD. Conclusion: The predominant form of iron deficiency in our study was functional iron deficiency. Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; functional iron status; anaemia.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v22i3.77
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2022)
       
 
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