Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1540 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (724 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (387 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (108 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (724 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 268)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Journal Cover
Health & Justice
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.304
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2194-7899
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [262 journals]
  • Reducing overdose after release from incarceration (ROAR): study protocol
           for an intervention to reduce risk of fatal and non-fatal opioid overdose
           among women after release from prison

    • Abstract: Background Drug overdose is the leading cause of death after release from prison, and this risk is significantly higher among women compared to men. Within the first 2 weeks after release, the risk of death from drug overdose is 12.7 times higher than the general population, with risk of death further elevated among females. Although female inmates have higher rates of opioid use disorder and post-release overdose fatality, justice-involved women are under-represented in studies of medications for opioid use disorder. The Reducing Overdose After Release from Incarceration (ROAR) pilot intervention and evaluation (recruitment June 2019 through December 2020) aims to reduce opioid overdose among women released to the community following incarceration in state prison. The evaluation further assesses induction, acceptance and effectiveness of extended release naltrexone in a female post-prison population. Methods/design In the week prior to their release, female adults in custody with moderate to severe opioid use disorder start treatment with extended release naltrexone, an injectable opioid antagonist that blocks the effects of opioids for up to 1 month. All ROAR participants receive training to use naloxone rescue kits and are provided nasal naloxone at release. Ongoing support from a certified recovery mentor to facilitate sustained engagement with treatment for substance use disorders begins in the month prior to release from prison and continues for 6 months in community. We evaluate the association between ROAR participation and the primary outcome of opioid overdose. Using administrative data provided by the Oregon Department of Corrections and the Oregon Health Authority, we compare the odds of overdose among ROAR participants versus a comparison group of females released from prison during the study period. Evaluation activities in community includes survey and qualitative interviews for 6 months post release, as well as a review of clinic records to assess retention on medication among the pilot cohort (N = 100). Discussion ROAR is a collaboration between Oregon’s public health, criminal justice, and medical communities. The ROAR intervention and evaluation provide critical information on improving interventions to prevent opioid overdose and improve retention on treatment in community in an overlooked, high-risk population: incarcerated women re-entering the community. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov TRN: NCT03902821.
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
       
  • A call to protect patients, correctional staff and healthcare
           professionals in jails and prisons during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Abstract: Abstract This editorial describes why surge planning in the community must account for potential infection outbreaks in jails and prisons, and why incarcerated people and those in contact with them, including over 450,000 correctional officers and thousands of healthcare staff working in prisons, are at significant risk of COVID-19 exposure. We then explain how our nation’s jails and prisons will continue to serve as breeding grounds for devastating COVID-19 outcomes and offer specific guidance and a call to action for the immediate development of correctional healthcare strategies designed to protect the health and safety of patients and correctional and healthcare staff and the communities in which they are situated. Correctional officers and correctional healthcare professionals need the nation’s reassurance during this dire time that they will not be abandoned and further stigmatized for responding to the needs of incarcerated people. Our collective health depends on it.
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
       
  • Emergency department utilization by people living with HIV released from
           jail in the US South

    • Abstract: Background Incarceration is disruptive to HIV care, often resulting in poor retention in care for people living with HIV (PLWH) after jail release. This gap in HIV care might result in potentially preventable emergency department (ED) utilization. We analyzed demographic, incarceration, socioeconomic and clinical data for PLWH released from the Dallas County Jail to the community (1450 incarcerations, 1155 unique individuals) between January 2011 and November 2013. Results The study population consisted of predominantly men (77%), with a mean age of 39 years, 67% were black and 14% were Hispanic; half of the releasees visited the ED at least once during the first-year post-jail. In adjusted analyses, female gender, family awareness of HIV status, serious mental illness, and late engagement to HIV care were significantly associated with higher ED utilization. Compared to the general Dallas population, PLWH released from jail had a 5-fold higher proportion of ED visits classified as related to substance use or mental health. Conclusions Further efforts are needed to improve the transition from incarceration to community-based HIV care, substance use disorder treatment and mental health services, and to directly address re-engagement in HIV care for out-of-care PLWH who visit the ED.
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
       
  • Self-report of domestic violence and forced sex are related to sexual risk
           behaviors in a sample of juvenile detainees

    • Abstract: Background Justice-involved youth have higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and a higher prevalence of the associated sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk behaviors are also associated with alcohol and drug use. Research suggests that a history of trauma is an important predictor of alcohol and drug use in youth offenders, and therefore is a likely contributor to sexual risk behavior in this population. The objective of this analysis is to determine the association of trauma, specifically, domestic violence and forced sex, to six sexual risk behaviors and a history of chlamydia among detained youth. Methods The analysis uses data from a convenience sample of detainees assenting to HIV testing conducted December 2016 – August 2017 using the state-certified Voluntary Counseling Testing and Referral (VCTR) process. Results Of the 379 youth that received VCTR at the facility, 308 (81.3%) were used in this analysis. Report of domestic violence was significantly associated with sex under the influence of alcohol and was also significantly associated with sex under the influence of marijuana. Forced sex was associated with a sexual partner of unknown HIV status. Conclusions Traumatic experiences were related to sexual risk behaviors in this analysis, and substance use was strongly implicated in the association. Trauma is known to be a catalyst to sexual risk behaviors, substance use, and delinquency in adolescence. Results support the findings of other investigators and re-iterate the need for trauma-informed interventions that can improve the life trajectories of detained youth.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
       
  • The relationship between age and suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide
           among prisoners

    • Abstract: Background Suicide is a major problem across the lifespan, yet rates are highest among middle-aged and older adults; a trend which remains relatively stable across varying sociological settings, including prisons. Despite this understanding, there is limited knowledge on the nature of suicidal thoughts and attempts among older prisoners, especially with respect to how they compare to younger counterparts. The present study aimed to increase insight into the relationship between age and suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among prisoners, with particular focus on factors that may explain age-based variability. Results Cross-sectional data were drawn from a nationally representative sample of 18,185 prisoners housed within 326 prisons across the United States. In general, analyses revealed that: (a) attempted suicide was more commonly reported among younger prisoners, while suicidal ideation was more commonly reported among older prisoners; (b) the relationship between age and probability of reporting suicidal thoughts and behavior is curvilinear; (c) younger and older prisoners exhibit somewhat differing predictive patterns of suicidal thoughts and behavior (e.g., physical illness is directly associated with suicidal history for younger prisoners, whereas the effect of physical illness on suicidal history for older prisoners is mediated by depression). Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that suicidal thoughts and behavior may manifest differently for younger and older prisoners, with differing patterns of risk. More research is needed on age-based variability in suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among prisoners, as well as those factors that might explain this variability. Importantly, future research must continue to investigate the nature of suicidal thoughts and behavior among older prisoners.
      PubDate: 2020-06-22
       
  • Adverse childhood experiences: a retrospective study to understand their
           associations with lifetime mental health diagnosis, self-harm or suicide
           attempt, and current low mental wellbeing in a male Welsh prison
           population

    • Abstract: Background Prisoners are at increased risk of poor mental health and self-harming behaviours, with suicide being the leading cause of death in custody. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child maltreatment are strong predictors of poor mental health and wellbeing yet despite high levels of ACEs in offender populations, relatively few studies have explored the relationships between ACEs and prisoners’ mental health and wellbeing. We conducted an ACE survey with 468 male adult prisoners in a Welsh prison who were not currently considered to be at risk of self-harm and suicide and explored relationships between ACEs, lifetime mental illness diagnosis, self-harm (lifetime and lifetime in prison) or suicide attempt (lifetime and lifetime in prison), and current low mental wellbeing. Results Most participants (84.2%) had suffered at least one ACE and 45.5% had suffered ≥4 ACEs. Prevalence of lifetime mental illness diagnosis, self-harm (lifetime and lifetime in prison) or suicide attempt (lifetime and lifetime in prison), and current low mental wellbeing increased with exposure to ACEs. For example, 2.7% of those with no ACEs reported lifetime self-harm or suicide attempt in prison compared with 31.0% (self-harm in prison) and 18.3% (suicide attempt in prison) of those with ≥4 ACEs. Compared with participants with no ACEs, those with ≥4 ACEs were four times more likely to report lifetime mental illness diagnosis and suicide attempt, and over 10 times more likely to report lifetime self-harm than those with no ACEs. Independent of lifetime mental illness diagnosis, self-harm or suicide attempt, participants with ≥4 ACEs were almost three times more likely to have current low mental wellbeing than those with no ACEs. Conclusions Male prisoners that have suffered multiple ACEs are substantially more likely to have lifetime mental illness diagnosis, self-harm or suicide attempt, and to have current low mental wellbeing whilst in prison. Findings suggest that trauma-informed approaches are needed in prisons to support prisoner mental health and wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
       
  • ‘I took care of my kids’: mothering while incarcerated

    • Abstract: Background Little is known about how incarcerated mothers make meaning of their parenting role and relationship with their children prior to incarceration and during custody. The aims of this project were to explore the experiences of mothering prior to incarceration and during custody using the Gendered Pathways Perspective and to examine how mothering intersects with incarcerated women’s health and health outcomes to facilitate prevention and intervention strategies. This secondary data analysis used qualitative methods and grounded theory to identify themes related to mothering from 41 incarcerated mothers. Analyses were conducted by two independent coders, each of whom interviewed women as part of the primary study. Results Identified themes highlight how mothers sacrificed their own health and wellness in order to parent their children, sometimes foregoing substance use disorder treatment because they had no childcare options. Additionally, incarcerated mothers described the psychological distress of family separation and asked for additional parenting programs to increase mother-child connection. Finally, mothers suggested that capitalizing on the mothering role might be a potent mechanism for change, especially as related to substance use disorder treatment. Conclusions Research on incarcerated parents often focuses on their children, which obscures incarcerated mothers’ needs related to health and wellness. The prison environment offers few opportunities to foster mother-child connection; most mothers never receive even one visit from their children. Incarcerated mothers contextually framed crime as protecting and providing for children and identified community-based and in-prison service gaps. Recommendations include infusing mothering and caretaking responsibilities into the sentencing process and exploring the intersection of race, gender, class, and mothering status on criminalized behavior. Additionally, there is an urgent need to expand the availability of community-based and in-prison programs that allow women to address health concerns while mothering their children.
      PubDate: 2020-06-05
       
  • Substance use prevention services in juvenile justice and behavioral
           health: results from a national survey

    • Abstract: Background This study examined the national availability of substance use prevention (SUP) within juvenile justice (JJ) and their primary behavioral health (BH) providers, and the relationships between the availability of SUP and agency-level measures of organizational structure, staffing, and youth characteristics. A three-stage national probability sampling process was used to select participants for a national survey that included, among other facets of community supervision (CS) and BH practices, questions on agency characteristics, youth characteristics, whether the agency/provider directly provided SUP services, and whether the agency/provider directly provided substance use and/or mental health treatment. This paper focuses on SUP services along with agency/provider and youth characteristics related to providing SUP. Results The response rate for both CS agencies (n = 195) and BH providers (n = 271) was 96%. Complex samples logistic regression initially examined univariate associations of each variable and identified candidates for a final multivariate model. Overall, only one-third of CS and BH providers reported offering SUP services, with BH providers being significantly more likely than CS agencies to provide SUP services. In addition, likelihood of SUP was significantly lower among agencies where the substance use distribution of the caseload was below the median. Controlling for master’s level staff and the substance use distribution, CS agencies were about 67% less likely to offer SUP when compared to BH providers. Conclusions Given the high rates of substance use among justice-involved youth and that substance use is an established risk for several negative behaviors, outcomes, and health conditions, these findings suggest that evidence-based prevention services should likely be expanded in justice settings, and perhaps included as part of CS programs, even when youth do not initially present with SU service needs.
      PubDate: 2020-05-13
       
  • Factors associated with drug use in prison – results from the Norwegian
           offender mental health and addiction (NorMA) study

    • Abstract: Background Remarkably little is known about drug use during imprisonment, including whether it represents a continuation of pre-incarceration drug use, or whether prison is also a setting for drug use initiation. This paper aims to describe drug use among people in prison in Norway and investigate risk factors associated with in-prison drug use. Methods We used data from the Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) Study, a cross-sectional survey of 1499 individuals in Norwegian prisons. Respondents reported on drug use (narcotics and non-prescribed medications) both before and during imprisonment. We used multivariate logistic regression to investigate the associations between drug use in prison and demographics, previous drug use, mental health, and criminal activity. Results Sixty-five percent of respondents reported lifetime drug use, and about 50% reported daily use of drugs during the 6 months before incarceration. Thirty-five percent reported ever using drugs in prison, but initiation of drug used during incarceration was uncommon. In a multivariate model, factors independently associated with drug use in prison included lifetime number of drugs used (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–1.23; p <  0.001), daily drug use in the 6 months before imprisonment (aOR = 7.12; 95%CI 3.99–12.70; p <  0.001), and being intoxicated while committing the crime related to current imprisonment (aOR = 2.13; 95%CI 1.13–4.03; p = 0.020). Conclusions In-prison drug use is independently associated with high-risk drug use before imprisonment. To reduce drug use in prison, correctional services must systematically screen for pre-prison drug use and offer effective drug treatment for those in need.
      PubDate: 2020-05-12
       
  • “Pick up anything that moves”: a qualitative analysis of a police
           crackdown against people who use drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    • Abstract: Background Homeless people who use drugs (PWUD) are often displaced, detained, and/or forced into drug treatment during police crackdowns. Such operations follow a zero-tolerance approach to law enforcement and have a deleterious impact on the health of PWUD. In Mexico, municipal police officers (MPOs) conducted the largest crackdown documented at the Tijuana River Canal (Tijuana Mejora) to dismantle an open drug market. We analyzed active-duty MPOs’ attitudes on the rationale, implementation, and outcomes of the crackdown. We also included the involvement of non-governmental allies in the disguised imprisonment as drug treatment referral and potential legal consequences of having illegally detained PWUD. Methods Between February–June 2016, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted with MPOs in Tijuana. Interviews were transcribed, translated and coded using a consensus-based approach. Emergent themes, trends and frameworks were analyzed through a hermeneutic grounded theory protocol. Results Participants recognized the limitations of Tijuana Mejora in effectively controlling crime and addressing drug treatment solutions. MPOs perceived that the intent of the operation was to displace and detain homeless PWUD, not to assist or rehabilitate them. The police operation was largely justified as a public safety measure to reduce the risk of injury due to flooding, decrease drug consumption among PWUD and protect local tourism from PWUD. Some participants perceived the crackdown as a successful public health and safety measure while others highlighted occupational risks to MPOs and potential human rights violations of PWUD. Conclusions Tijuana Mejora illustrated why public and private actors align in enforcing zero-tolerance drug policy. Perceptions of care are often based on captivity of the diseased, not in health and well-being of PWUD. Officer perceptions shed light on the many limitations of this punitive policing tool in this context. A shift towards evidence-based municipal strategies to address drug use, wherein police are perceived as partners in harm reduction rather than antagonists, is warranted.
      PubDate: 2020-04-29
       
  • Linking individuals on probation to health care: a pilot randomized trial

    • Abstract: Background Probation offices represent a location where at-risk individuals in need of health care appear on a known and regular basis. We sought to study how providing linkages to health care could improve the proportion of underserved, justice-involved individuals accessing the health care system. This study tested a linkage and referral to health care intervention for individuals on probation designed by a local change team that brought together actors from multiple agencies and tasked them with increasing general practitioner physician access for probationers. The pilot trial randomized 400 individuals on probation in Delaware during 2016–2018 to determine the effectiveness of placing a health navigator in an urban probation office to refer people to an appointment with a primary care physician. The project also tested the impact of offering an incentive to probationers for attending a doctor’s appointment. Results Referral by a health navigator to a primary care physician was associated with a modest but significant increase in the proportion of individuals accessing care through a general practitioner physician. Offering an incentive had no significant impact on keeping the medical appointment above the effect of referral by the health navigator. Conclusions Probation offices represent a location where at-risk individuals in need of health care appear on a known and regular basis. This study highlights how providing linkages to health care can improve the proportion of underserved individuals accessing the health care system.
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
       
  • Medication assisted treatment (MAT) in criminal justice settings as a
           double-edged sword: balancing novel addiction treatments and voluntary
           participation

    • Abstract: Abstract Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) provides an opportunity to address opioid addiction among justice-involved individuals, an often difficult to reach population. This potential has been increasingly recognized by agencies, policymakers and pharmaceutical companies. The result has been a marked increase in the number of drug courts, prisons and agencies in which MAT, notably with long-acting injectable medications, is offered. While this is a positive development, ensuring that vulnerable individuals are in a position voluntarily participation within the complex criminal justice environment is necessary. The unequal authority and agency inherent in the nature of these environments should be recognized. Therefore, rigorous protections, mirroring the goals of the consent processes required for medical or sociobehavorial research, should be employed when MAT is offered to protect individual autonomy.
      PubDate: 2020-03-14
       
  • “It’s like I was out there by myself”: The receipt of reentry
           support among HIV-infected formerly incarcerated individuals in New York
           City

    • Abstract: Background In the U.S., approximately one in seven HIV-infected individuals experience incarceration at least once in their lifetime. While HIV-infected individuals experience positive health outcomes during periods of incarceration, they tend to experience treatment disruption as they return to their community after custody which results in poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the transitional support received from the Department of Corrections during the reentry period. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 20 HIV-infected formerly incarcerated individuals in New York City. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Three researchers performed line-by-line reading of the transcripts to identify dominant codes and themes that emerged. A mixture of deductive and inductive techniques was used to identify patterns that emerged in the data. Results Most of the participants were male and racial and ethnic minorities. There were five dominant themes that emerged during our analysis: 1) variations in the quantity of antiretroviral medication received during transition; 2) linkages to community-based physical health care providers was not well-coordinated; 3) insufficient housing and social resources; 4) structural and social challenges to post-release well-being; and 5) family as a source of resilience. Conclusions Discharge support planning should include sufficient medication to prevent treatment disruption and a more comprehensive approach to linkage to community-based healthcare services. Such planning should also include thorough pre-release assessments to identify appropriate levels of support needed, including employment and housing assistance, which will be useful for resource allocation. Broadening public health partnerships may also increase availability and promote accessibility to the most appropriate healthcare services and programs, which may provide better opportunities to receive coordinated care and ensure continuity of care. Finally, ties to family members and other loved ones should be leveraged to help facilitate the achievement of optimal health outcomes among this population.
      PubDate: 2020-03-10
       
  • “It’s like heaven over there”: medicine as discipline and the
           production of the carceral body

    • Abstract: Background Correctional systems in several U.S. states have entered into partnerships with Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) to provide healthcare for people who are incarcerated. This project was initiated to better understand medical trainee perspectives on training and providing healthcare services to prison populations at one AMC specializing in the care of incarcerated patients: The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB). We set out to characterize the attitudes and perceptions of medical trainees from the start of their training until the final year of Internal Medicine residency. Our goal was to analyze medical trainee perspectives on caring for incarcerated patients and to determine what specialized education and training is needed, if any, for the provision of ethical and appropriate healthcare to incarcerated patients. Results We found that medical trainees grapple with being beneficiaries of a state and institutional power structure that exploits the neglected health of incarcerated patients for the benefit of medical education and research. The benefits include the training opportunities afforded by the advanced pathologies suffered by persons who are incarcerated, an institutional culture that generally allowed students more freedom to practice their skills on incarcerated patients as compared to free-world patients, and an easy compliance of incarcerated patients likely conditioned by their neglect. Most trainees failed to recognize the extreme power differential between provider and patient that facilitates such freedom. Conclusions Using a critical prison studies/Foucauldian theoretical framework, we identified how the provision/withholding of healthcare to and from persons who are incarcerated plays a major role in disciplining incarcerated bodies into becoming compliant medical patients and research subjects, complacent with and even grateful for delayed care, delivered sometimes below the standard best practices. Specialized vulnerable-population training is sorely needed for both medical trainees and attending physicians in order to not further contribute to this exploitation of incarcerated patients.
      PubDate: 2020-02-08
       
  • Koori voices: self-harm, suicide attempts, arrests and substance use among
           Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents following residential
           treatment

    • Abstract: Background Complex interacting social, economic and historical factors influence the availability and uptake of alcohol and drugs, including among Indigenous communities. Self-harm and suicide as well as homelessness and incarceration, can both precede and result from drug and alcohol use. Rates of self-harm, suicide and incarceration among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia are among the highest in the world and drug and alcohol treatment programs need to address these underlying complexities. This study examines whether an ‘holistic’ residential drug and alcohol treatment program for adolescents, with over 30% of clients identifying as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, can improve outcomes post-discharge, including reducing self-harm, suicide attempts, arrests and alcohol and drug use. The program addresses substance use, mental health, employment, accommodation, social/community and family life. Program admission and 3 months’ post-discharge data from 2007 to 2016 were analysed. Results From 2007 to 2016, 619 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people were admitted to the program; 247 stayed in the program for 30 days or more; 89 were successfully followed up three months post-discharge to determine whether there was a significant improvement from baseline using the McNemar’s Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. On admission, 18 people (20%) of the study population reported attempting suicide in the last 3 months and 23 people (30%) reported self-harm. Most had been engaged in the criminal justice system, with 67 people (75%) having been to court and 62 people (70%) arrested one or more times in the past 3 months, with 35 people (41%) in unstable housing, reporting having lived in three or more places in the previous 6 months. At 3 months post-treatment, all (n = 18) who reported suicide attempts in the 3 months prior to admission reported no attempts in the prior 3 months at follow-up. There was also a significant reduction in self-harm with 23 young people out of the 27 who reported self-harm at baseline not reporting self-harm at follow up (85%) and in the proportion of adolescents who reported using cannabis, amphetamines and alcohol, as well as a reduction in the proportion who reported being arrested. Conclusions The findings provide support for an ‘holistic’ residential treatment program as an approach to improve health and related outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people. In addition to a focus on multiple aspects of a young person’s life in treatment, culturally relevant modes of treatment and support should be a future focus to further strengthen programs when Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are over-represented in the client group.
      PubDate: 2020-02-07
       
  • Drug testing on arrest–who benefits'

    • Abstract: Background Drugs and crime are linked and diversion from the criminal justice system into drug treatment is a well-established policy response. The point of arrest is a pivotal moment to initiate a drug-specific intervention. This paper assesses the impact of the introduction of drug testing on arrest (DToA) into a low crime area in England. Our mixed methods study analysed performance data collected by the National Drug Treatment Monitoring/Drug Test Recorder datasets and feedback from a series of semi-structured interviews with both clients and professionals. Results In total, 2210 people were tested 2861 times of which 42.0% (n = 928) tested positive. Of those, 3% subsequently engaged with effective treatment. However, throughout the criminal justice system, treatment engagements increased year on year from 20% (n = 77) to 26% (n = 131). Clients (n = 19) and professionals (n = 14) reported that DToA was an acceptable/tolerable addition to the treatment pathway. Interviews suggested that the point of arrest may help primary desistance from further offending. Conclusions The staggered introduction of the DToA made direct measure of impact difficult and there appears to have been a ‘displacement’ effect in response to the extra investment. However, DToA appears to have contributed towards an overall uplift in criminal justice drug treatment system performance activities (identification, assessment, referral etc.) and may have served to help strengthen care pathways. Barriers were noted about engagement with DToA by entrenched opiate users, suggesting that the effectiveness of DToA was limited within that group. This study is the first to investigate the impact of the introduction of DToA into a low crime area.
      PubDate: 2020-01-16
       
  • Comprehensive approaches to addressing mental health needs and enhancing
           school security: a hybrid type II cluster randomized trial

    • Abstract: Background School safety is fundamental to fostering positive outcomes for children. Violence remains a critical public health issue with 8.1% of elementary and 21.8% of middle school students reporting daily or weekly bullying in 2015–16. Similarly, over half of lifetime mental health concerns become evident before age 14. Thus, elementary school is a key time for comprehensive school safety interventions. Yet, interventions are rarely delivered with fidelity in community settings. Evidence-based interventions must be complemented by implementation strategies to achieve desired public health outcomes. Methods We develop and test an intervention focused on promoting a positive school climate guided by a school-based 3-person leadership team (3-PLT) using a hybrid Type II design. The 3-PLT includes a School Resource Officer, (SRO), administrator and mental health services professional as a newly appointed climate specialist (CS). The interventions to be delivered include 1) Restorative justice, 2) Mental Health First Aid and 3) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. The CS will lead the team and coordinate implementation through a process of interactive problem solving and supports, consistent with the implementation facilitation strategy. We will conduct a cluster randomized controlled trial with staged entry over two school years in Genesee County, Michigan (n = 20 elementary schools, with 10 participating per school year). We will use a combination of data sources including data collected by schools (e.g., discipline data), a student survey, and a teacher survey. We will also conduct a process evaluation and assess implementation and sustainability through focus groups with key stakeholders, teachers, and students. Finally, we will conduct a cost-benefit analysis. Discussion Results from both the behavioral outcome and implementation strategy evaluations are expected to have significant implications for school safety and student well-being. This study adopts a unique approach by integrating three evidence-based programs and incorporating implementation facilitation led by the CS as part of the 3-PLT to support intervention delivery and enhance public health impact among schools in disadvantaged communities with students at risk of poor health outcomes. This study aims to create a comprehensive, well-integrated model intervention that is sustainable and can be translated to similar high-risk settings. Trial registration Trial was retrospectively registered, registration ISRCTN1226421, May 16, 2019.
      PubDate: 2020-01-14
       
  • Corrections officers’ knowledge and perspectives of maternal and child
           health policies and programs for pregnant women in prison

    • Abstract: Background In response to the dramatic increase in the number of women incarcerated in the United States—and a growing awareness that a small proportion of women enter prison pregnant and have unique health needs—some prisons have implemented policies and programs to support pregnant women (defined here as maternal and child health [MCH] policies and programs). Corrections officers (COs) are key stakeholders in the successful implementation of prison policies and programs. Yet, little empirical research has examined prison COs’ knowledge and perspectives of MCH policies and programs, particularly the impact such policies and programs have on COs’ primary job responsibility of maintaining safety and security. The objective of this mixed-methods study was to understand COs’ knowledge and perspectives of MCH policies and programs in one state prison, with a specific emphasis on the prison’s pregnancy and birth support (doula) program. Results Thirty-eight COs at a single large, Midwestern women’s prison completed an online survey, and eight of these COs participated in an individual, in-person qualitative interview. Results indicated that COs’ perspectives on MCH policies and programs were generally positive. Most COs strongly approved of the prison’s doula program and the practice of not restraining pregnant women. COs reported that MCH policies and programs did not interfere, and in some cases helped, with their primary job task of maintaining safety and security. Conclusions Findings support expansion of MCH programs and policies in prisons, while underscoring the need to offer more CO training and to gather more CO input during program development and implementation. MCH services that provide support to pregnant women that are outside the scope of COs’ roles may help reduce CO job demands, improve facility safety, and promote maternal and child health.
      PubDate: 2020-01-04
       
  • “Service with open arms”: enhancing community healthcare experiences
           for individuals with a history of incarceration

    • Abstract: Background The criminal justice-involved population has a higher disease burden than the general population and a high risk of death post-incarceration. However, this group underutilizes healthcare, especially preventive and primary care services. Sixteen in-person, semi-structured interviews were conducted with formerly incarcerated individuals in Milwaukee to explore health impacts of incarceration, barriers and facilitators to healthcare access, and what ideal health service provision would look like following incarceration. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using an immersion/crystallization approach. Results Overall, people perceived incarceration to have a negative impact on their physical and mental health and expressed dissatisfaction with care in correctional settings. Many faced lapses in care following incarceration, frequently due to insurance challenges. Conclusions Participants offered advice for designing an ideal clinic including formal coordination with corrections and provision of additional social services. Staff demeanor that created a welcoming and caring environment was highlighted as an important component and facilitator of care.
      PubDate: 2019-12-19
       
  • Coordinating across correctional, community, and VA systems: applying the
           Collaborative Chronic Care Model to post-incarceration healthcare and
           reentry support for veterans with mental health and substance use
           disorders

    • Abstract: Background Between 12,000 and 16,000 veterans leave incarceration annually. As is known to be the case for justice-involved populations in general, mental health disorders (MHDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are highly prevalent among incarcerated veterans, and individuals with MHDs and SUDs reentering the community are at increased risk of deteriorating health and recidivism. We sought to identify opportunities to better coordinate care/services across correctional, community, and VA systems for reentry veterans with MHDs and SUDs. Methods We interviewed 16 veterans post-incarceration and 22 stakeholders from reentry-involved federal/state/community organizations. We performed a grounded thematic analysis, and recognizing consistencies between the emergent themes and the evidence-based Collaborative Chronic Care Model (CCM), we mapped findings to the CCM’s elements – work role redesign (WRR), patient self-management support (PSS), provider decision support (PDS), clinical information systems (CIS), linkages to community resources (LCR), and organizational/leadership support (OLS). Results Emergent themes included (i) WRR – coordination challenges among organizations involved in veterans’ reentry; (ii) PSS – veterans’ fear of reentering society; (iii) PDS – uneven knowledge by reentry support providers regarding available services when deciding which services to connect a reentry veteran to and whether he/she is ready and/or willing to receive services; (iv) CIS – lapses in MHD/SUD medications between release and a first scheduled health care appointment, as well as challenges in transfer of medical records; (v) LCR – inconsistent awareness of existing services and resources available across a disparate reentry system; and (vi) OLS – reentry plans designed to address only immediate transitional needs upon release, which do not always prioritize MHD/SUD needs. Conclusions Applying the CCM to coordinating cross-system health care and reentry support may contribute to reductions in mental health crises and overdoses in the precarious first weeks of the reentry period.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
       
 
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