Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1557 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (736 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (109 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (132 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (736 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 283)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 5)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Das österreichische Gesundheitswesen ÖKZ     Hybrid Journal  
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
F&S Reports     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Galen Medical Journal
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2228-5423 - ISSN (Online) 2322-2379
Published by Shiraz University Homepage  [15 journals]
  • Antagonistic and Immunomodulant Effects of Two Probiotic Strains of
           Lactobacillus on Clinical Strains of Helicobacter pylori

    • Authors: Somayyeh Taghizadeh, Tahereh Falsafi, Rouha Kasra Kermanshahi, Reihaneh Ramezani
      Abstract: Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in situ antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus probiotic strains on clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori . Also to investigate their immunomodulation effects on a macrophage cell model. Materials and Methods: Anti-microbial effects of probiotic lactobacilli against H. pylori was assessed using the well and disk diffusion methods. Effects of lactobacilli probiotics strains, as well as their cell-free supernatant on adhesion of H. pylori to MKN-45 gastric epithelial cells, were examined in their presence and absence. Immunomodulation effects of probiotic lactobacilli were performed using the U937 macrophage cell model. Incubation of host cells with probiotics and their cell-free supernatants with cultured host cells was performed in different optimized conditions. The supernatant of host cells cultured in their presence and absence was used for cytokines measurement. Results: Two probiotics‏, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PTCC1607, could inhibit the growth of clinical H. pylori in vitro. They could also inhibit attachment of H. pylori to MKN-45 cells. Cell-free supernatant of L. acidophilus had a stimulating effect on the production of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by U937 cells. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that, L. acidophilus ATCC4356 and L. rhamnosus PTCC1607 probiotic strains can inhibit the growth of clinical H. pylori in vitro. Treatment of U937 with alive H. pylori plus cell-free supernatant of L. acidophilus, have a significantly higher capacity to stimulate IFN-γ production than H. pylori alone. So, the metabolite (s) of this probiotic may have an immunomodulatory effect in immune response versus H. pylori. [GMJ.2020;9:e1794]
      PubDate: 2020-10-14
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1794
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Nutritional Status in Intensive Care Unit: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic
           Review

    • Authors: Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mostafa Hosseini, Fadhil Ahmed Mohialdeen, Haval Othman, Khalid Anwar Hama-ghareeb, Abdolreza Norouzy
      Abstract: It is important to consider the nutritional status of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) since it is a key element in the ability to overcome and survive critical illnesses and clinical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis and systematic overview in determining the nutritional status of patients in ICU by examining other studies. All studies published during 2015-2019 on nutritional status in ICU were retrieved from Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Finally, 23 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Results obtained from these studies showed that the nutritional status of patients in ICU was inappropriate (the pooled proportion of malnutrition was 0.51 in the type of study stratified), in which many patients in this unit had different degrees of malnutrition (moderate-mild malnourished and severe malnutrition is 0.46 and 20%, respectively). According to the results of this study, the nutritional status of patients in ICU was unsatisfactory; hence, it is necessary to consider the nutritional status along with other therapeutic measures at the beginning of the patient’s admission.
      [GMJ.2020;9:e1678]
      PubDate: 2020-10-08
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1678
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • A Review on the Hypotheses about Arterial Hypertension from the Viewpoint
           of Traditional Persian Medicine

    • Authors: Davoud Hasani, Mohsen Bahrami, Hassan Ahanghar, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Soghrat Faghihzadeh, Majid Dadmehr
      First page: 1065
      Abstract: Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases in recent decades worldwide. It has been distinguished as the main risk factor of coronary artery disease, aortic dissection, heart failure, renal failure, cerebrovascular diseases, and death. In recent years, the global attention has been paid to complementary medicine to preventive, diagnostic and treatment strategies for hypertension, in previous studies, the history of hypertension from the viewpoint of traditional Persian medicine have been reviewed and several hypotheses raised. In this article, we present the concept of an Iranian physician namely Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari on hypertension, which has not been considered properly until now. He defined a state called “Hayajan al-dam” that has clinical manifestations similar to hypertension, although these are not the same, also, we reviewed the viewpoint of other Persian medicine scholars namely Rhazes, Haly Abbas, Akhawayni and Avicenna for this topic. [GMJ.2020;9:e1065] 
      PubDate: 2020-01-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1065
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • The Relationship between Left Ventricular Function Indices in Tissue
           Doppler Imaging and Exaggerated Blood Pressure Response During the
           Exercise Stress Test

    • Authors: Milad Hemati, Arash Gholoobi, Ali Eshraghi, Javad Sadeghi Allah Abadi, Fereshteh Ghaderi
      First page: 1323
      Abstract: Background: Studies have indicated that exaggerated hypertension during activity and stress can be a good predictor of the incidence of hypertension. This study tries to evaluate left ventricular (LV) function by tissue Doppler to assess early changes in ventricular compliance before the onset of Hypertension (HTN) in patients with exaggerated blood pressure response during the exercise test. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 40 patients without a history of hypertension with systolic blood pressure less than 140/90 which referred for exercise test, were included. The exercise test was performed for all patients. Patients who had exaggerated blood pressure during the stress test were considered as cases and the controls with normal blood pressure responses. Then standard echocardiography and Tissue Doppler imaging performed and indices of LV systolic and diastolic were recorded. Results: The LV mass in cases and controls were 174.9±50.78 and 152.9±33.59, respectively (P=0.114), and LV mass index in cases and controls were 127.4±13.5 and 79.8±15.75, respectively (P=0.023). Moreover, the LV Myocardial Performance Index were 0.68±0.11 and 0.48±0.06 in cases and controls, respectively (P<0.001). The heart rate, E/A, EE, E Velocity and S velocity were measuremented. Except E/A (P=0.009), there was no significant difference between the other variables measured between the cases and controls (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that using 2D conventional echocardiography as a noninvasive method if performed in prestigious centers can evaluate systolic and diastolic function Tissue Doppler parameters very well in the early stages of heart disease caused by HTN. [GMJ.2020;9:e1323]
      PubDate: 2020-01-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v0i0.1323
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Association of Serum Minerals, Vitamin D, Total Protein, and Inflammatory
           Mediators and Severity of Low Back Pain

    • Authors: Payman Dadkhah, Seyed Masoud Hashemi, Mehrdad Taheri, Habib Zakeri
      First page: 1342
      Abstract: Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a multifactorial disorder with multiple etiologies, which are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of minerals, total protein, vitamin D (vit D), and inflammatory mediators with LBP and its severity. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was derived from the study nested in the Fasa Cohort Study. Overall, 148 individuals with LBP were compared with 150 individuals without LBP. Blood samples were evaluated for serum protein, iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), phosphorus, vit D, IL-1B, IL-6, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), and TNF-alpha. Severity of pain was measured with the McGill and Oswestry questionnaires. Results: The mean age of participants in the case and control groups was 49.2 ± 6.1 and 47.57 ± 5.85 years, respectively. In the case group, 61 patients (48.8%) were male. The mean serum levels of Fe, Al, vit D, Cu, IL-1B, IL-6, HS-CRP, and TNF-alpha were significantly different between case and control groups (P≤0.05). However, there were no significant differences between studied groups in the term of sex and serum phosphorus (P>0.05). Regarding pain severity, age was correlated with McGill score (r=0.18), body mass index with Oswestry (r=0.21), Fe with McGill (r=-0.15) and Oswestry (r=-0.13), protein with McGill (r=0.32) and Oswestry (r=-0.32), Al with McGill (r=0.56) and Oswestry (r=0.45), IL-1B with McGill (r=0.19) and Oswestry (r=0.13), TNF-alpha with McGill (r=0.34) and Oswestry (r=0.26), IL-6 with Oswestry (r=0.13), HS-CRP with McGill (r=0.60) and Oswestry (r=0.46), and vit D was correlated with McGill (r=0.21) and Oswestry scores (r=0.17). Higher Fe (odds ratio [OR]: 0.99), protein (OR: 0.47), Al (OR: 0.11), and vit D levels (OR: 0.97) were protective against LBP (P<0.001). Higher IL-1B (OR: 1.01), TNF-alpha (OR: 1.03), and HS-CRP (OR: 1.0003) presented as risk factors for LBP (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our study revealed except phosphorous, all the serum levels minerals and inflammatory markers was significantly different in LBP patients compared to healthy individuals. Also, in the LBP patients, serum levels of Fe, total protein, Al, and vit D aside to inflammatory mediators (i.e., IL-1B, TNF-alpha, and HS-CRP) shows a marked association with severity of LBP. [GMJ.2020;9:e1342]
      PubDate: 2020-10-03
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1342
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • A Short Review on the Model of Government Support Programs for Special
           Patients in Iran, United Kingdom, United States of America, Italy, and
           Sweden

    • Authors: Esmaeil Hosseini, Mahmoud Mahmoudi Majd Abadi, Irvin Masoudi Asl, Behzad Karami Matin
      First page: 1403
      Abstract: Over the past few decades, caring for special patients has taken center stage in healthcare systems. Moreover, what necessitates conducting a comparative study into the conditions of special patients and designing a suitable model are as follows: high admission rates of these patients in hospitals, continual recurrence of the illness, sky-high costs of treatment and medicine, lack of coordination between the services offered by hospitals and community needs, and severe pressure of special patients on their families. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the models of government support programs for special patients in Iran, the United Kingdom, the USA, Italy and Sweden through a descriptive-documentary method. The findings revealed that the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the private sector were the major providers of health services to special patients in most of the countries under study. It was also demonstrated that the services offered to special patients are jointly mainly funded by governments, associations, and non-governmental organizations and partially by insurance premiums and so forth. The results also indicated that the bulk of healthcare provision was shouldered by non-governmental sectors and the contribution of charitable people. Finally, it can be concluded that both health-related policies and the health of special patients can be closely honed and monitored through the formation of committees on the health of special patients at the Supreme Council of Health, the establishment of an office for special patients at the Vice-chancellery for Health at the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, provision of decentralized services, and financing through taxation and contribution of charitable people and international organizations. [GMJ.2020;9:e1403] 
      PubDate: 2020-01-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v0i0.1403
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Value of Transverse Groove on the Earlobe and Hair Growth on the Ear to
           Predict the Risk for Coronary Artery Disease and Its Severity among
           Iranian Population, in Tehran City

    • Authors: Reza Arefi, Mohammad Hassan Namazi, Morteza Safi, Habiboulah Saadat, Hossein Vakili, Mehdi Pishgahi, Saeed Alipoor Parsa
      First page: 1443
      Abstract: Background: The use of phenotypic parameters along with other noninvasive diagnostic modality can lead to early diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and prevent its life-threatening outcome. Recently, the application of head and face components for assessing the risk for CAD much attention has been paid. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between ear characteristics (transverse groove on the earlobe and hair growth on the ear) and the risk for CAD and its severity among Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the study population consisted of 105 consecutive patients with suspected CAD undergoing coronary angiography. The severity of CAD was determined by the number of disease vessels as well as the presence of left main lesions assessed by coronary angiography. All patients were examined to evaluate the appearance of ear regarding the presence of transverse groove on the earlobe and hair growth on the ear. Results: Comparing cardiovascular parameters across the groups with and without transverse groove on the earlobe showed a higher rate of CAD as well as the higher number of involved coronary arteries than in the groups without transverse groove on the earlobe. Similarly, the presence of CAD and its higher severity were more revealed in patients with hair growth on the ear as compared to the group without this phenotype. According to multivariable logistic regression analysis and with the presence of baseline parameters, the presence of transverse groove on the earlobe and hair growth on the ear increased the risk for CAD by 2.4 and 4.4 fold, respectively. Conclusion: Along with classic cardiovascular risk factors, the role of growing hair on the ear and transverse groove on the ear to predict high risk for CAD should be considered. [GMJ.2020;8:e1443] 
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1443
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Preventive Efficacy of Dried Lime (Citrus aurantifulia) in Common Cold
           Among Hajj Pilgrims: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled
           Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Mehdi Pasalar, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat, Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, Mohsen Keshavarz, Maryam Mosaffa-Jahromi, Seyed Hosein Owji, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
      First page: 1462
      Abstract: Background: Dried lime (Citrus aurantifulia) is one of the herbal preparations used especially by Iranian pilgrims as a preventative agent and self-remedy for respiratory tracts symptoms in folklore medicine. Therefore, we evaluated the preventive efficacy of dried lime preparation in common cold among Iranian pilgrims. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial patients in the drug group received dried lime capsules, 500 mg in a single dose per day for four weeks. In the placebo group, the patients received placebo capsules using the same method. The primary outcome measure in this trial was the severity of cold symptoms assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the trend of cold symptoms severity during the study period. However, in the second week, the severity of all the cold symptoms in the drug group was less, compared to the placebo, but at the end of the study, comparison of the two groups revealed no significant difference in any of the investigated options. Conclusion: The findings revealed that although the severity of all the cold symptoms in the drug group was less as compared to the placebo group, the dried lime capsule showed no statistically significant effect on the control of these symptoms in Iranian pilgrims. [GMJ.2020;9:e1462] 
      PubDate: 2020-01-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v0i0.1462
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Association of Baldness with Coronary Artery Disease and Its Severity

    • Authors: Reza Arefi, Mehdi Pishgahi, Adel Joharimoghaddam, Mohammad Ali Momeni, Mehran Khoshfetrat
      First page: 1474
      Abstract: Background: The pivotal role of baldness as a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disorders remains a debate, and the small body of literature has generated inconsistent findings. We aimed to assess the association between baldness and the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and its severity in a sample of Iranian men. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 105 consecutive patients suspected to CAD and scheduled for elective coronary angiography. The severity of CAD was determined according to the number of involved coronary vessels. For assessing the severity of baldness, the Hamilton-Norwood scale for grading of androgenetic alopecia in males was used. Results: The overall frequency of CAD in the groups with and without baldness was 88.9% and 72.5%, respectively, indicating a significant difference (P=0.033). Similarly, patients with the family history of baldness suffered more from CAD as compared to those without history (93.3% vs.76.0%). However, no significant association was found between the baldness and non-baldness groups with regard to the severity of CAD (P=0.291). According to the multivariable logistic regression model, the presence of baldness could predict the increased likelihood of CAD (or=3.037, P=0.046). Conclusion: Along with traditional risk factors for CAD, the presence of baldness and positive family history of this phenotype could be considered as the primary determinant for the increasing likelihood of CAD. [GMJ.2020;9:e1474]
      PubDate: 2020-10-03
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1474
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Value of Delta Fractional Flow Reserve (ΔFFR) For Predicting Coronary
           Ischemic Lesions

    • Authors: Vahid Eslami, Morteza Safi, Mohammad hasan Namazi, Mehdi Pishgahi, Amir Eftekharzade, Sayyed Ali Eftekharzadeh
      First page: 1528
      Abstract: Background: The decrease in fractional flow reserve (FFR) after adenosine administration from baseline FFR value (termed as ΔFFR) may reflect the compensatory capacity of the microvascular circulation and thus may predict significant coronary stenotic lesions. We aimed to investigate whether baseline FFR and ΔFFR can help identify the coronary ischemic lesion and its severity. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 154 consecutive patients (Mean age 62.42 ± 9.36 years) that underwent coronary angiography and with definitive intermediate coronary lesions at any of the coronary vessels. FFR was calculated by dividing the mean distal intracoronary pressure by the mean arterial pressure. ΔFFR was also defined as the difference between baseline FFR and hyperemic FFR (considering FFR<0.75 as the criteria for ischemia). Results: The area under receiver-operating characteristic curve for baseline FFR was found as 0.933, and for ΔFFR was 0.946 indicated high values of both indices for predicting ischemic lesions. The best cut-off point for baseline FFR and ΔFFR for discriminating ischemic lesions from the normal condition was 89.5 (yielding a sensitivity of 92.2% and a specificity of 68.0%) and 9.5 (yielding a sensitivity of 96.0% and a specificity of 85.3%), respectively. Conclusion: Our study could successfully demonstrate the high value of both baseline FFR and ΔFFR for predicting coronary ischemic lesions with the cut-off values of <89.5 and >9.5, respectively. [GMJ.2020;9:e1528]
      PubDate: 2020-10-03
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1528
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Effects of Maternal Exposure to Lamotrigine during Pregnancy on Gonadal
           Toxicity in Fetus Rats

    • Authors: Hoda Aryan, Shabnam Movassaghi, Amir Ghasemi, Roksana Darabi
      First page: 1557
      Abstract: Background: Lamotrigine is one of the newest antiepileptic drugs that is used as one of the most common treatments in pregnancy. Since the investigation of the teratogenic effects of lamotrigine is very limited and there is no report of its teratogenic effects on fetal gonads, we aimed to investigate the teratogenic effects of lamotrigine on embryonic gonads. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on nine female Wistar female rats (8 weeks, weighing 180-200 mg). At first, the animals were inspected regularly by the preparation of vaginal smear and in the estrus phase in separate cages of mating, and after observing the vaginal plaque, were randomly divided into three groups (n=3). Control group did not receive any treatment.  In the lamotrigine group (20mg/kg), and the vehicle group (same volume of normal saline) were injected intraperitoneally from days 8 to 13 of pregnancy. On day 20, animals were anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg), and embryos were extracted through laparotomy. First, fetuses were weighed, and their height (crown-rump length) was measured. Then the gonads of the fetuses were removed and, stained with H & E, and examined by optical microscope. Results: Our results showed that in the lamotrigine group, the number of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cells in the male embryos and the number of oocytes in the female embryos decreased significantly compared to the control and vehicle groups (P≤0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that treatment with 20 mg/kg lamotrigine in mothers during pregnancy could cause damage to fetal gonads. [GMJ.2020;9:e1557]
      PubDate: 2020-10-03
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1557
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Fibrin Scaffold Incorporating Platelet Lysate Enhance Follicle Survival
           and Angiogenesis in Cryopreserved Preantral Follicle Transplantation

    • Authors: Alireza Rajabzadeh, Fatemeh Jahanpeyma, Ali Talebi, Faezeh Moradi, Hussein Eimani
      First page: 1558
      Abstract: Background: Transplantation of cryopreserved follicles can be regarded as a promising strategy for preserving fertility in cancer patients under chemotherapy and radiotherapy by reducing the risk of cancer recurrence. The present study aimed to evaluate whether fibrin hydrogel supplemented with platelet lysate (PL) could be applied to enhance follicular survival, growth, and angiogenesis in cryopreserved preantral follicle grafts. Materials and Methods: Preantral follicles were extracted from 15 four-week-old NMRI mice, cryopreserved by cryotop method, and encapsulated in fibrin-platelet lysate for subsequent heterotopic (subcutaneous) auto-transplantation into the neck. Transplants were assessed in three groups including fresh follicles in fibrin-15%PL, cryopreserved follicles in fibrin-15%PL, and cryopreserved follicles in fibrin-0% PL. Two weeks after transplantation, histological, and immunohistochemistry (CD31) analysis were applied to evaluate follicle morphology, survival rate, and vascular formation, respectively. Results: Based on the results, fibrin-15% PL significantly increased neovascularization and survival rate (SR) both in cryopreserved (SR=66.96%) and fresh follicle (SR=90.8%) grafts, compared to PL-less fibrin cryopreserved transplants (SR=28.46%). The grafts supplemented with PL included a significantly higher percentage of preantral and antral follicles. Also, no significant difference was observed in the percentage of preantral follicles between cryopreserved and fresh grafts of fibrin-15% PL. However, a significantly lower (P=0.03) percentage of follicles (23.37%) increased to the antral stage in cryopreserved grafts of fibrin-15%PL, compared to fresh grafts (35.01%). Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that fibrin-PL matrix could be a promising strategy to improve cryopreserved follicle transplantation and preserve fertility in cancer patients at the risk of ovarian failure. [GMJ.2020;9:e1558]
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1558
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • A Systematic Review of Screening Tests for Chronic Kidney Disease: An
           Accuracy Analysis

    • Authors: Fatemeh Keshvari-Shad, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Maria Pilar Laguna Pes, Alireza Mahboub-Ahari, Mohammad Nouri, Farshad Seyednejad, Mahmood Yousefi
      First page: 1573
      Abstract: This systematic review was conducted to assess the diagnostic accuracy of chronic kidney disease screening tests in the general population. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and ProQuest databases were searched for English-language publications up to November 2016. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted study data in standardized tables. Methodological quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Sensitivity and specificity of all available screening methods were identified through included studies. Ten out of 1349 screened records included for final analysis. Sensitivities of the dipstick test with a cutoff value of trace were ranged from 37.1% to 69.4% and specificities from 93.7% to 97.3% for the detection of ACR>30 mg/g. The diagnostic sensitivities of the UAC>10 mg/dL testing was shown to vary from 40% to 87%, and specificities ranged from 75% to 96%. While the sensitivities of ACR were fluctuating between 74% and 90%, likewise the specificities were between 77% and 88%. Sensitivities for C-G, Grubb and Larsson equations were 98.9%, 86.2%, and 70.1% respectively. In the meantime the study showed specificities of 84.8%, 84.2% and 90.5% respectively for these equations. Individual studies were highly heterogeneous in terms of target populations, type of screening tests, thresholds used to detect CKD and variations in design. Results pointed to the superiority of UAC and dipstick over the other tests in terms of all parameters involved. The diversity of methods and thresholds for detection of CKD, necessitate considering the cost parameter along with the effectiveness of tests to scale-up an efficient strategy. [GMJ.2020;9:e1573]
      PubDate: 2020-06-22
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1573
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Evaluation of Short-Term Exposure to 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency Radiation
           Emitted from Wi-Fi Routers on the Antimicrobial Susceptibility of
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: Samad Amani, Mohammad Taheri, Mohammad Mehdi Movahedi, Mohammad Mohebi, Fatemeh Nouri, Alireza Mehdizadeh
      First page: 1580
      Abstract: Background: Overuse of antibiotics is a cause of bacterial resistance. It is known that electromagnetic waves emitted from electrical devices can cause changes in biological systems. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted from common Wi-Fi routers on changes in antibiotic sensitivity to opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Standard strains of bacteria were prepared in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility test, based on the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, was carried out in Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Two different antibiotic susceptibility tests for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were conducted after exposure to 2.4-GHz radiofrequency radiation. The control group was not exposed to radiation. Results: Our findings revealed that by increasing the duration of exposure to electromagnetic waves at a frequency of 2.4 GHz, bacterial resistance increased against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, especially after 24 hours (P<0.05). Conclusion: The use of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 2.4 GHz can be a suitable method for infection control and treatment. [GMJ.2020;9:e1580]
      PubDate: 2020-03-14
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1580
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Investigation of the Dose-Enhancement Effects of Spherical and Rod-Shaped
           Gold Nanoparticles on the HeLa Cell Line

    • Authors: Samad Amani, Alireza Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Movahedi, Marzieh Keshavarz, Fereshteh Koosha
      First page: 1581
      Abstract: Background: Cervical cancer cells are known as radioresistant cells. Current treatment methods have not improved the patients’ survival efficiently; thus, new therapeutic strategies are needed to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. Gold nanomaterials with different shapes and sizes have been explored as radiosensitizers. The present study compared the radiosensitizing effects of gold nanorods (AuNRs) with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the HeLa cell line irradiated with megavoltage X-rays. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity of AuNRs and AuNPs on HeLa cells in the presence and absence of 6-MV X-ray was investigated using the MTT assay. For this aim, HeLa cells were incubated with and AuNPs and AuNRs at various concentrations (5, 10, and 15 µg/mL) for 6 hours. Afterward, HeLa cells were irradiated with 6-MV X-ray at a single dose of 2 Gy. Results: The results showed that the addition of AuNRs and AuNPs could enhance the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. Both AuNRs and AuNPs showed low toxicity on HeLa cells, while AuNRs were more toxic than AuNPs at the examined concentrations. Moreover, it was found that AuNRs could enhance the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells more than spherical-shaped AuNPs. Conclusion: This study revealed that the shape of nanoparticles is an effective factor when they are used as radiosensitizing agents during radiotherapy. [GMJ.2020;9:e1581]
      PubDate: 2020-08-04
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1581
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • The Effect of Vitamin D Replacement on Patient with Subclinical
           Hypothyroidism: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Babak Pezeshki, Ali Ahmadi, Aliasghar Karimi
      First page: 1592
      Abstract: Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by an elevated Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) with a normal T4. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in patients SCH is high. Some studies suggested that Vitamin D supplements could be reduced serum concentration of TSH so improve SCH and prevent overt hypothyroidism. This study aims to explore the effect of vitamin D replacement on subclinical hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine patients, diagnosed with both subclinical hypothyroidism and Vitamin D deficiency by the Endocrinology outpatient clinics between January 2018 and March 2019, were included in this trial. The patients with overt hypothyroidism, cardiovascular risk factors, or positive TPO antibody, abnormal T4, and pregnant women were excluded from this study. The 40 subjects were investigated who received vitamin D supplements for two months.  Analyses were conducted through paired-samples t-test and independent-samples t-test using SPSS 24 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results: The mean serum levels of TSH was decreased from 6.89 mIU/l in the pre-test to 3.34 mIU/l in the post-test, and the difference was found to be statistically significant at P<0.001. Conclusion: We found that the TSH mean level significantly dropped through the use of vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is recommended that all the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism be screened and treated with vitamin D supplements. [GMJ.2020;9:e1592]
      PubDate: 2020-05-21
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1592
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Comparison of Formulas for Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Calculation for
           Predicting the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    • Authors: Babak Pezeshki, Mojtaba Golrazeghi, Sayed Reza Hojati, Fatemeh Rostamian, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Mojtaba Farjam, Reza Homayounfar
      First page: 1607
      Abstract: Background: The correlation between serum cholesterol level and the risk of developing atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome has been well established in previous studies. Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) measurement is conducted using different methods which are generally divided into two groups, namely direct and indirect. Using indirect methods or calculations such as the Friedewald or Iranian formula for measuring LDL, particularly in developing countries, is quite common. The present study has stepped in to compare the robustness of the extant formulas in prognosticating and determining the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the target population was the community of Fasa cohort study. According to the views of the statistical advisor, 9530 people were included in the study and clinical laboratory examinations were done for each person. Their serum LDL level was measured using the existing formulas. Then, the results of the serum LDL level that was computed with different formulas, were compared with both the status of metabolic syndrome and laboratory tests of individuals. Results: The Iranian formula has the highest area under curve, the sensitivity of 0.73, and specificity of 0.77, higher positive and negative predictive values among other formulas. In Friedewald formula, for example, sensitivity and specificity equal 0.28 and 0.80, respectively. After further analysis, two new models proposed for predicting metabolic syndrome. The results revealed that these two models even outperform the Iranian formula. Conclusion: The Iranian formula for plasma LDL calculation has higher precision and application for predicting and measuring the metabolic syndrome in the Iranian population due to its considerable features. It is required to develop a new formula for each population and even for each sex, if possible. [GMJ.2020;9:e1607]
      PubDate: 2020-01-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1607
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Evaluation of Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Evidence-Based
           Practice in the  Health Services: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Ali Ayoubian, Amir Ashkan Nasiripour, Seyed Jamaledin Tabibi, Mohammadkarim Bahadori
      First page: 1645
      Abstract: Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an ambition for health service administrators. We aimed to systematically review the major relevant articles in case of barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based practice in health services. Methods and Materials: The type of study was a systematic review. We searched the libraries and online sources such as PubMed, MEDLINE, Wiley, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and Google scholar. We used keywords included “Evidence-Based Practice”, “Evidence-Based Management”, “Healthcare”, “Care Management, Evidence-Based Healthcare Management”, “Health Care”, Health”, “Barrier”, “Facilitator”, policy and “Evidence-Based Healthcare”. Results: In total, 12 studies were included. Several barriers and facilitators were recognized through the included papers, the factors such as organization support and a helpful education system improved skills, knowledge, and confidence to EBP. The outcomes of studies were identified as the employ of the internet as a highest-rated skill for increasing EBP quality. Conclusion: Generally, the results showed health service administrators should first identify barriers of EBP then transferred them to facilitators to the implementation of proper and efficient EBP. [GMJ.2020;9:e1645]
      PubDate: 2020-03-14
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1645
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Papillary Thyroid Cancer-Promoting Activities of Combined Oral
           Contraceptive Components

    • Authors: Mehdi Hedayati, Sadegh Rajabi, Abdolrahim Nikzamir
      First page: 1648
      Abstract: Background: Thyroid cancer is more common in women at reproductive age, suggesting the relationship between its high-incidence and therapeutic use of hormonal medications, such as oral contraceptives (OCPs). The aim of this study was to identify the effect of low-dose combined OCP (LD-COC) on proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) BCPAP cell line. Materials and Methods: BCPAP cells were cultured and treated with the combination of 90nM levonorgestrel (LNG) and 20nM ethinylestradiol (EE) for 48 hours. Afterward, using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, the proliferation of the cells was measured. Apoptosis was determined by using a Caspase-3 ELISA kit. Migratory properties of combined LNG and EE were studied through wound scratch assay. The expression levels of pro-apoptotic factor BAX, anti-apoptotic factor Bcl2, and proliferation marker Ki67 were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Results: Upon treatment with the combination of LNG and EE, proliferation and migration of BCPAP cells were significantly enhanced. However, LNG and EE remarkably inhibited apoptosis of these cells. Furthermore, treating PTC cells with combined LNG and EE caused a marked increase in the expression of Bcl2 and Ki67 and a considerable decrease in BAX levels (P˂ 0.05). Conclusion: Our data linked the use of COCs and the progression and aggressiveness of PTC, suggesting the role of these hormonal compounds as promoting factors for PTC tumors. Despite these observations, further investigations will be required to fully establish the pathogenic impact of these medications on PTC. [GMJ.2020;9:e1648] 
      PubDate: 2020-05-21
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1648
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Quality of Life among Iranian Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review
           and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Khadijeh Sharifi, zahra Tagharrobi, Zahra sooki
      First page: 1649
      Abstract: Menopause can cause mental, physical, vasomotor, and sexual symptoms and problems, which negatively affect the quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate QOL among Iranian postmenopausal women. This systematic review was conducted on cross-sectional studies that were published between 2000 and 2018. An online search to find studies published in English or Persian was conducted in the databases of Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Magiran, and IranMedex. Search key terms were “quality of life”, “menopause”, and “Iran”. Fourteen studies were eligible for this study. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist was used for quality appraisal. The mean and standard deviation of QOL and its domains were extracted from the selected studies. Study data were analyzed using the Review Manager (v. 5.0) and the STATA (v. 12.0) software. The mean of total QOL among 3413 postmenopausal women was 57.89±12.8 (in the possible range of 0–174). The means of its vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual domains were 7.86±2.14, 19.43±2.05, 40.58±3.33, and 6.71±1.77, respectively. The QOL among Iranian postmenopausal women is nearly higher than the moderate level. The lowest and the highest levels of QOL are related to the physical and sexual domains, respectively. Health authorities need to develop educational interventions to promote postmenopausal women’s QOL, particularly in the physical domain. [GMJ.2020;9:e1649]
      PubDate: 2020-03-04
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1649
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Identification of Aptamers that Specifically Bind to A1 Antigen by
           Performing Cell-on Human Erythrocytes

    • Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hasan Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Bassami, Alireza Haghparast, Mojtaba Sankian, Gholamreza Hashemi Tabar
      First page: 1657
      Abstract: Background: The apply of aptamers as a new generation’s way to probe diagnostic for the detection of target molecules has gained ground. Aptamers can be used as alternatives to diagnostic antibodies for detection of blood groups due to their unique features. This study was aimed to produce DNA diagnostic aptamer detecting the antigen of A1 blood group using the Cell-Selex method. Materials and Methods: DNA aptamer was isolated against A1 RBC antigen after ten stages of Cell-Selex and amplification by an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. The progress of the stages of selection was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis, which the DNA aptamer isolated from the tenth cycle with an affinity of 70% fluorescent intensity, was selected from four positive colonies followed by determination of the sequences and secondary structures. Results: The aptameric sequence obtained from C4 cloning was calculated with the highest binding affinity to A1 antigen having an apparent dissociation constant (Kd value) of at least 29.5 ± 4.3 Pmol, which was introduced as the selected aptamer-based on ΔG obtained from a colony of C4 equal to –13.13. Conclusion: The aptamer obtained from using Cell-Selex method could be used as an example for the development of diagnostic tools such as biosensors for detecting A1 blood group antigens. [GMJ.2020;9:e1657] 
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1657
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • The Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Childhood Experience
           of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA)

    • Authors: Peymaneh Shirinbayan, Mahyar Salavati, Farin Soleimani, Ahmad Saeedi, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Sahel Hemmati, Roshanak Vameghi
      First page: 1663
      Abstract: Background: The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q), a tool based on a retrospective interview with the child. Materials and Methods: To this aim, 251 adolescents from four regions of Tehran megacity completed the questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was examined, along with the face and content validity. In addition, the construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: EFA and CFA supported a 4-factor solution including mother’s role scale items, father’s role scale items, maternal behavior scale items, and paternal behavior scale items.  The total variance extracted in EFA ranged from 33.9 to 60.7. The internal consistency for mother’s role, father’s role, maternal behavior, and paternal behavior was 0.61, 0.65, 0.86, and 0.9 respectively. Thus, the questionnaire had a suitable fit, as well as reasonable reliability and validity. Conclusion:  The Persian version of the CECA.Q had adequate reliability and validity as a self-report measurement for childhood experience of care and abuse. [GMJ.2020;9:e1663]
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1663
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Tau Abnormalities and Autophagic Defects in Neurodegenerative Disorders; A
           Feed-forward Cycle

    • Authors: Nastaran Samimi, Akiko Asada, Kanae Ando
      First page: 1681
      Abstract: Abnormal deposition of misfolded proteins is a neuropathological characteristic shared by many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Generation of excessive amounts of aggregated proteins and impairment of degradation systems for misfolded proteins such as autophagy can lead to accumulation of proteins in diseased neurons. Molecules that contribute to both these effects are emerging as critical players in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, impairment of autophagy under disease conditions can be both a cause and a consequence of abnormal protein accumulation. Specifically, disease-causing proteins can impair autophagy, which further enhances the accumulation of abnormal proteins. In this short review, we focus on the relationship between the microtubule-associated protein tau and autophagy to highlight a feed-forward mechanism in disease pathogenesis. [GMJ.2020;9:e1681]
      PubDate: 2020-01-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1681
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Factors Influencing User Satisfaction with Information Systems: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Leila R Kalankesh, Zahra Nasiry, Rebecca Fein, Shahla Damanabi
      First page: 1686
      Abstract: User satisfaction has been considered as the measure of information system effectiveness success. User satisfaction is difficult to define but is considered an evaluation construct. Globally health organizations, particularly hospitals, invest a huge amount of money on information system projects. If hospital information systems (HISs) are to be successful, factors influencing or related to user satisfaction should be taken into account at the time of designing, developing or adopting such systems. The current study aimed to provide a comprehensive review of factors related to user satisfaction with information systems. The researchers systematically searched PubMed, Science Direct, and IEEE electronic databases for articles published from January 1990 to June 2016. A search strategy was developed using a combination of the following keywords:  “model,” “user satisfaction,” “information system,” “measurement,” “instrument,” and “ tool.” Reported dimensions, factors, and their possible influence on user satisfaction with information systems were extracted from the studies wherever was possible. Overall factors influencing user satisfaction with information systems can be categorized in seven dimensions: Information quality, system quality, vendor support quality, system use, perceived usefulness, user characteristics, and organizational structure& management style. If all these factors are considered properly in the process of developing, designing, implementing, or purchasing information systems, the higher user satisfaction with the system will be likely. Otherwise, it would end up with unsatisfied users that will finally contribute to the system failure. [GMJ.2020;9:e1686]
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1686
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Whey Protein (Ma’aljobon) as a Complementary Therapy for Treatment of
           Attention-deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Randomized Open-label
           Controlled Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Zeinab Mostajeran, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat, Mostafa Najafi, Majid Emtiazy, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur
      First page: 1690
      Abstract: Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, chronic, neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in childhood with symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Ma’aljobon (a kind of whey protein) that is derived from milk during cheese producing process is a popular dietary traditional product supposed to provide immune modulation and prevent neuropsychiatric disorder. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ma’aljobon in management of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and Methods: In this open-label randomized, double arm, and controlled clinical trial, sixty four patients with ADHD who referred to out-patient child and adolescent clinic of Khorshid Hospital of Isfahan, Iran, were randomly assigned in the intervention group (ma’aljobon 25 g once daily plus standard conventional treatment (SCT)) or control group (SCT only) for a period of 8 weeks. Scores of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) were set as the outcome measures. Results: Parent reported hyperactivity scale of SDQ showed a significant decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group (P=0.04). However, no significant between groups differences were observed in other scales of parent-reported SDQ. Also, according to the results of CPT, there was a significant improvement in the intervention group regarding attention and focus score (P=0.01). Conclusion: Ma’aljobon might be considered as a complementary remedy for improving hyperactivity, attention and focus of children with ADHD. However, further researches with larger sample size and longer duration should be done for achieving more reliable results. [GMJ.2020;9:e1690]
      PubDate: 2020-08-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1690
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Introducing Serine as Cardiovascular Disease Biomarker Candidate via
           Pathway Analysis

    • Authors: Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Mona Zamanian Azodi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Hamideh Morravej, Zahra Razzaghi, Farshad Okhovatian, Majid Rezaei-Tavirani
      First page: 1696
      Abstract: Background: The rate of death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) is growing. Investigations about CVD that leading to introduce varieties of metabolites is available. The monitoring of these metabolites to find effective ones in the future of clinic applications is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: Numbers of 34 metabolites for the CVD are extracted from literature and designated for interaction determinations by MetScape V 3.1.3. The compound-reaction-enzyme-gene network was constructed and the pathways were analyzed. Based on the presence of metabolites in the pathways the critical compounds were determined. Results: Pathway analysis revealed 18 disturbed pathways related to the CVD.  glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway including 27 compounds is related to the 9 queried metabolites. L-Serine which was communed between 5 pathways and also was presented in the largest pathway was identified as the critical compound. Conclusion: It can be concluded that L-Serine is a proper biomarker candidate for CVD diagnosis and also patients follow up approaches. [GMJ.2020;9:e1696]
      PubDate: 2020-02-10
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1696
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Evaluation of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Cystatin C in
           Early Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Absence of the Gold
           Standard

    • Authors: Fatemeh Masaebi, Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Zhuoyu Wang, Elaheh Zarean, Maliheh Nasiri, Faranak Kazerouni, Fatemeh Gharishvandi, Farid Zayeri
      First page: 1698
      Abstract: Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered as a gold standard of kidney function. However, using GFR as the gold standard is not common in clinical practice, because its direct measurement is usually expensive, cumbersome, and invasive. In the present study, we assessed the predictive power of two other biomarkers, Cystatin-C (Cys-C) and Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) for early detection of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in the absence of a gold standard. Materials and Methods: In this study, 72 patients who referred to the Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital of Tehran, Iran, for measuring their kidney function were studied. The ELISA method was utilized for measuring plasma NGAL (PNGAL) and serum Cys-C (SCys-C). The Bayesian latent class modeling approach was applied to asses the predictive power of these biomarkers. Results: While both the biomarkers had rather high sensitivities (PNGAL=91%, SCys-C= 89%), the specificity of SCys-C biomarker was very lower than the one of PNGAL (SCys-C=56%, PNGAL=94%). The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for SCys-C as the single biomarker for the diagnosis of CKD was about 0.76, while a similar estimate for PNGAL was 0.93. The added value of PNGAL to SCys-C for the diagnosis of CKD in terms of the ROC curve was about 0.19, while the added value of SCys-C to PNGAL was less than 0.02. Conclusion: In general, our findings suggest that PNGAL can be utilized as a single reliable biomarker for early detection of CKD. In addition, results showed that when a perfect gold standard is not available, Bayesian approaches to latent class models could lead to more precise sensitivity and specificity estimates of imperfect tests. [GMJ.2020;9:e1698] 
      PubDate: 2020-06-22
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1698
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Mizaj as an Index in Persian Traditional Medicine Index Could Associate
           with Sensitivity to the Radiation

    • Authors: Fatemeh Asghari, Kourosh Ebrahimnejad Gorji, Seyyed Ali Mozaffarpour, Ali Shabestani Monfared, Ebrahim Zabihi, Zeinab Abedian, Hoda Shirafkan, Fatemeh Niksirat, Sajad Borzoueisileh
      First page: 1705
      Abstract: Background: The sensitivity to the radiation among human population depends on various parameters. This variation could lead to dissimilar outcome of radiotherapy in similar situations. Mizaj is a well-known term in Persian medicine that present an individualized medicine viewpoint. All of the people will be categorized in cold, moderate, and warm Mizaj. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the possible association between Mizaj and radiosensitivity by comet assay. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood sample of 30 healthy volunteers (10 cold, 11 moderate and nine warm Mizaj) were taken and divided into two identical parts. The first part was exposed to 4 Gy x-rays, and the second part was regarded as the sham control. Then, DNA damages of samples were evaluated by the neutral comet assay. Results: The results showed that the mean percentage of damaged cells, in all of the irradiated groups including A (warm), B (moderate) and C (cold) was significantly higher than the controls (P<0.001). Moreover, DNA damage rate in the irradiated warm Mizaj group was higher than both cold and moderate irradiated groups, but the difference between moderate and cold irradiated groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results are indicating that warm Mizaj persons could be more radiosensitive than other groups, which their importance in radiotherapy individualization should be evaluated in more extensive studies. [GMJ.2020;9:e1705]
      PubDate: 2020-08-19
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1705
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Construction of A Synthetic Gene Encoding the Multi-Epitope of Toxoplasma
           gondii and Demonstration of the Relevant Recombinant Protein Production: A
           Vaccine Candidate

    • Authors: Maryam Karimi, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei, Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar, Fardin Fathi, Ali Jalili, Ghasem Zamini, Amirreza Javadi Mamaghani, Javad Nazari, Daem Roshani, Nooshin Bagherani, Mohammadbagher Khademerfan
      First page: 1708
      Abstract: Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a widely-distributed parasite all over the world whose attributed severe afflicting complications in human necessitate the development of serodiagnostic tests and vaccines for it. Immunological responses to monovalent vaccines and the application of diagnostic reagents including single antigens are not optimally effective. Bioinformatics approaches were used to introduce these epitopes, predict their immunogenicity and preliminarily evaluate their potential as an effective DNA vaccine and for serodiagnostic goals. Materials and Methods: A 3D structure of proteins was predicted by I-TASSER server, and linear and conformational B cell and T cell epitopes were predicted using the online servers. Then, the predicted epitopes were constructed and called Toxoeb, and their expression in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells was demonstrated using SDS-PAGE. In the next step, Western blotting with pooled sera of mice infected with T. gondii was done. Results: The current in silico analysis revealed that the B cell epitopes with high immunogenicity for GRA4 protein were located in the residues 34-71, and 230-266, for GRA14 in 308-387, for SAG1 in 182-195, 261-278, and for GRA7 in residues 101-120, 160-176. The T cell epitopes were selected in overlapping regions with the B cell epitopes. The immunogenic region for GRA4 are in the residues 245-253, 50-58, and 40-54, for GRA14 in 307-315, 351-359, and 308-322, for SAG1 261-269, and 259-267, and for GRA7 in the residues 103-112, and 167-175. The results of the western blotting showed that the expressed protein had immunogenicity. Conclusion: Our constructed multi-epitope of T. gondii could be considered as a candidate for diagnostic and vaccination purposes. [GMJ.2020;9:e1708]
      PubDate: 2020-07-20
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Prevalence of Bone Density Reduction and Its Related Factors in Hemophilia
           Patients in South Khorasan Province in 2018

    • Authors: Alireza Ehsanbakhsh, Ghodsiyeh Azarkar, Masood Ziaee, Ali Taghavieh
      First page: 1711
      Abstract: Background: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of bone density reduction and its associated factors in hemophilia patients in South Khorasan Province in 2018. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on all patients with hemophilia type A with medical records in Hemophilia center in South Khorasan province. A number of 57 eligible subjects who met the criteria were selected based on census method. Thereafter, 60 non-hemophilic individuals who were similar to hemophilic patients in terms of age and body mass index were selected by convenience sampling method. DXA device was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in two locations of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae. Data were analyzed in SPSS software (version 19), using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and independent t-test. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence rate of bone density reduction in spine bone in hemophilia patients was measured at 31.6% and 13.3% in non-hemophilia subjects (P=0.02); moreover, this rate in hip bone was reported as 7% and 5%, respectively (P=0.65). Relative frequency of bone density reduction in the spine and hip bone was not significantly different among hemophilia patients based on age, severity of hemophilia, vitamin D, hepatitis and smoking (P>0.05). However, a significant difference was detected in terms of body mass index (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, the prevalence of bone density reduction in hemophilic patients was significantly higher, as compared to that of non-hemophilia patients. This necessitates the implementation of drastic preventive measures, prompt diagnosis, timely treatment, and appropriate therapeutic measures. [GMJ.2020;9:e1711]
      PubDate: 2020-08-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1711
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • A survey of Psychiatric Disorders and Their Comorbidities in Children and
           Adolescents

    • Authors: Aazam Sadat Heydari Yazdi, Mahboubeh Eslamzadeh, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Ali Khaleghi, Zahra Hooshyari, Fatemeh Moharreri, Seyedeh Farzaneh Ebrahimpour, Simin Ashouri, Samira Ashouri
      First page: 1714
      Abstract: Background: This community-based study aimed to investigate the psychiatric disorders and their comorbidities according to the kind of psychiatric disorders. Frequency of demographic factors and the prevalence of total psychiatric disorders in term of demographic charactheristics were obtained too. Materials and Methods: The present study focused on 1028 children and adolescent aged 6 to 18 years old across the Razavi Khorasan province by random sampling. The subjects included 496 boys and 532 girls from three age groups (6-9 years, 10-14 years and 15-18 years). Eight clinical psychologists trained to complete the Persian version of K-SADS-PL (Kiddie-SADS present and life time version). This scale measures five diagnostic appendixes of psychiatric disorders. Demographic data of participants were collected too. The data were recorded into the SPSS version 16. The relationship between psychiatric disorders and demographic factors deliberate by descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval.  Results: The total rate of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescent was estimated as 20.5%, elimination disorders with a rate of 12.9% was the most prevalent disorder in the subjects. The lowest prevalence belongs to psychotic disorder and bulimia nervosa (0.1%). Of participants with mood disorders about 71.4% have behavioral disorders too. Anxiety disorders also commonly occurred in person with mood disorders. The comparison of ORs and their 95% confidence interval revealed that there is a significant difference for total psychiatric disorder among boys and girls (OR=0.6 for girls; 95% CI: 0.44-0.82). The rate of total psychiatric disorders in rural and urban areas was 14.9% and 21.1% respectively. Conclusion: With attention to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents, it’s necessary that healthcare officials pay more attention to reinforcement of mental health care.[GMJ.2020;9:e1714]
      PubDate: 2020-01-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1714
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Non-pharmacologic Treatment of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Persian
           Medicine

    • Authors: Fatemeh Yousefi, Jale Aliasl, Fataneh Hashem-Dabaghian
      First page: 1725
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1725
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Determining Core Components in Accreditation of Limited Surgery Facilities
           in Iran

    • Authors: Nader Asgari, Somayeh Hessam, Irvan Masoudi Asl, Shaghayegh Vahdat
      First page: 1729
      Abstract: Background: Limited surgery facilities, or day-care centers, have been expanding in recent years with the approach of reducing the number of patients referred to hospitals for treatment in relation to limited and ambulatory surgeries. This study was conducted to perform a comparative review of accreditation models for limited surgery facilities of selected countries and to obtain expert opinions in the field of policymaking and accreditation in Iran. Materials and Methods: This applied and qualitative study was carried out by a comparative method in 2019. The accreditation standards of limited surgery facilities in nine selected countries/states were assessed. Semi-structured interviews were then held with 25 Iranian experts in policymaking as well as accreditation authorities. Results: Evaluation of the core components of accreditation standards for limited surgery facilities in selected countries showed that the main concepts of care and treatment, human resource management, patient safety, drug management, patient education, health information management, quality improvement, service recipient rights, infection prevention and control, physical structure, management and leadership, and general facilities were among the key recurring concepts in all models. In the study of factors affecting the accreditation model of limited surgery facilities in Iran, 5 main topics and 43 subtopics were identified. Conclusion: Although the current assessment model of limited surgery facilities is an appropriate tool for evaluation, it still needs to be improved because of the uncertainty of evaluation model, training of accreditors and the content of standards. [GMJ.2020;9:e1729] 
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1729
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Fc Receptor-Like Gene Expression in Renal Transplantation Patients

    • Authors: Narges Jamshidian Tehrani, Zahra Amirghofran, Ali Reza Shamsaeefar, Aida Karachi, Mohammad Hossein Karimi
      First page: 1730
      Abstract: Background: It has been well-documented that the Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecule contributes to the pathogenesis of certain autoimmune disorders. FCRL molecules belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily produced by B cells. Also, these molecules induce activating or inhibitory signals of B cells.  According to this information and also considering the critical role of immune reactions in organ transplantation, the following experiment was performed to analyze the gene expression level of FCRLs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of kidney transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 32 renal transplant patients on days 1, 3, and 7 post-transplantations. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of rejection. Also, 24 age-matched healthy subjects were enrolled as control group. After total RNA extraction from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cDNA synthesis, the gene expression levels of FCRL1, FCRL2, and FCRL4 in each group were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Our results showed that FCRL1 expression levels in kidney transplant patients were significantly less than healthy controls. The overall FCRL2 expression level was not significantly different between them. However, at days 1 and 7, following transplantation in the non-rejected group FCRL2 level was significantly higher than the control group. Comparing the FCRL4 gene expression levels of both groups with healthy controls showed a significant decrease in the third and seventh days post-transplantation. Conclusion: It can be concluded that mononuclear cells, mainly B cells, have an essential role to play in kidney transplantation. [GMJ.2020;9:e1730]
      PubDate: 2020-09-12
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1730
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • The Optimal Cut-off Score of the Nijmegen Questionnaire for Diagnosing
           Hyperventilation Syndrome Using a Bayesian Model in the Absence of a Gold
           Standard

    • Authors: Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Fatemeh Masaebi, Mohsen Abedi, Navid Mohseni, Atefeh Fakharian
      First page: 1738
      Abstract: Background: The Nijmegen questionnaire is one of the most common tools for diagnosing hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). However, there is no precise cut-off score for differentiating patients with HVS from those without HVS. This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of Nijmegen questionnaire for detecting patients with HVS and to provide the best cut-off score for differentiating patients with HVS from normal individuals using a Bayesian model in the absence of a gold standard. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 students from a rehabilitation center in Tehran, Iran, were asked to participate in this case study of HVS from January to August 2018. Results: A total of 215 students (40% male and 60% female) completed the Nijmegen questionnaire. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.93 (male: 0.95; female: 94) for all of the cut-off scores. The optimal cut-off score of ≥20 could predict HVS with sensitivity of 0.91 (male: 0.99; female: 91) and specificity of 0.92 (male: 96; female: 89). Conclusion: Accurate differentiation of HVS patients from individuals without HVS can be accomplished by estimating the cut-off score of Nijmegen questionnaire based on a non-parametric Bayesian model. [GMJ.2020;9:e1738]
      PubDate: 2020-06-24
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1738
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Health Beneficial Effects of Moomiaii in Traditional Medicine

    • Authors: Solmaz Rahmani Barouji, Amir Saber, Mohammadali Torbati, Seyyed Mohammad Bagher Fazljou, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
      First page: 1743
      Abstract: raditional medicine (TM) that developed over the years within various societies consists of medical experimental knowledge and practices, which apply natural methods and compounds for general wellness and healing. Moomiaii as a pale-brown to blackish-brown natural exudate is one of the natural compounds in traditional medicine that has been used over 3000 years in many countries of the world especially in India, China, Russia, Iran, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Kirgizstan. We reviewed all English-language studies about Moomiaii that we accessed them. In traditional medicine, many beneficial activities have been attributed to Moomiaii and to its main constituents, Humic acid and Fulvic acid, which are widely used to prevent and treatment of different diseases. Some modern scientific investigations showed that Moomiaii as a safe dietary supplement can be beneficial in various health complications. Even though the beneficial effects of Moomiaii have been confirmed in traditional and modern medicine, it seems that additional in-vitro/in-vivo studies and comprehensive clinical trials are necessary to explain the whole mechanisms of action and to determine the effective doses in various diseases. We discuss and clarify the claimed health beneficial effects of Moomiaii in some wide-spread diseases regarding its anti-ulcerogenic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antioxidative and anticancer properties. [GMJ.2020;9:e1743]
      PubDate: 2020-08-27
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1743
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Asymmetry of Height and Width of Ethmoid Sinus and Its Association with
           Chronic Sinusitis: A Cross Sectional Study

    • Authors: Mehrnoosh Mousaviagdas, Nikzad Shahidi, Shima Majidi, Zhila Khamnian
      First page: 1748
      Abstract: Background: In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between chronic anterior sinusitis with the width and height of ethmoid sinus and also assess the ethmoid length and roof asymmetry in the Iranian adult population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 422 patients who were referred with clinical signs of rhinosinusitis to the ENT Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Study participants were divided into healthy and sinusitis groups based on the level of sinus involvement. Computed tomography images were applied to calculate ethmoid height and width. A paired t-test was used to assess the roof and width asymmetry and an independent t-test was used to investigate the association between ethmoid height and width with the incidence of rhinosinusitis. Results: The mean age of sinusitis and healthy groups was 42.5±18.9 and 38.4±17.1 years, respectively. Of a total 422 subjects, 63.4% of whom were men. The overall prevalence of rhinosinusitis was 28.0%. We observed a statistically significant difference in terms of ethmoid height, and in both healthy and sinusitis group right ethmoid roof was statistically lower (P<0.05). However, no statistical difference was observed between the left and right side regarding the ethmoid sinus width (P>0.05). We also estimated correlation coefficients for rhinosinusitis score and ethmoid sinus height and width, which were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our study shows that the right side of the ethmoid roof was lower in comparison to the left side, and it should be fully understood and regarded in rhino sinus surgery. We also observed no association between sinusitis score and height and width of the ethmoid sinus. [GMJ.2020;9:e1748]
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1748
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Does Bromelain-Cisplatin Combination Afford In-Vitro Synergistic
           Anticancer Effects on Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cell Line, PC3'

    • Authors: Fatemeh Amini Chermahini, Elham Raeisi, Mathias Hossain Aazami, Abbas Mirzaei, Esfandiar Heidarian, Yves Lemoigne
      First page: 1749
      Abstract: Background: Bromelain enhances anticancer impacts to chemotherapeutic agents. The question as to whether bromelain does promote in-vitro cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of cisplatin on human prostatic carcinoma PC3 cell line was investigated. Materials and Methods: PC3 (human prostatic carcinoma) cells were treated either single or in combination with bromelain and/or cisplatin. MTT, clonogenic assay, flow cytometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate cell viability, colony formation, proapoptotic potential and p53 gene expression, respectively. Results: Cisplatin (IC10) combined with bromelain (IC40) significantly affected PC3 cell viability, inhibited colony formation, as well increased p53 proapoptotic gene expression compared to cisplatin single treatment. Nevertheless, bromelain-cisplatin chemoherbal combination did not display any additive proapoptotic effect compared to single treatments. Conclusion: Bromelain-cisplatin chemoherbal combination demonstrated synergistic in-vitro anticancer effect on human prostatic carcinoma cell line, PC3, that drastically reduced required cisplatin dose. [GMJ.2020;9:e1749]
      PubDate: 2020-08-29
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1749
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Influences of Serotonin Hydrochloride on Adiponectin, Ghrelin and KiSS1
           Genes Expression

    • Authors: Fariba Mahmoudi, Khadijeh Haghighat Gollo
      First page: 1767
      Abstract: Background: Serotonin and kisspeptin stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) release while ghrelin and adiponectin inhibit them. In the present experimental study, the effects of central injection of serotonin were investigated on LH concentration, KiSS1, adiponectin, and ghrelin genes expression. Materials and Methods: Fifteen Wistar male rats in three groups received saline or serotonin hydrochloride via the third cerebral ventricle. Blood samples were collected via the tail vein. Serum LH concentration and relative gene expression were evaluated by radioimmunoassay and real-time polymerase chain reaction method, respectively. Results: Serotonin significantly increased the mean serum LH concentration and  KiSS1 gene expression levels compared to the saline group. Serotonin significantly decreased the mean ghrelin and adiponectin genes expression levels compared to the saline group. Conclusion: The serotonergic pathway may have stimulatory effects on hypothalamic kisspeptin synthesis, partly via inhibiting hypothalamic ghrelin and adiponectin neural activity.[GMJ.2020;9:e1767]




      PubDate: 2020-09-07
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1767
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • A Life-Changing Moment in a Patient with Type 1 Diabetes: Insulin Holiday

    • Authors: Muhammad Imran Butt, Noha Mukhtar, Muhammad Riazuddin, Lama Amer, Tarek Elsayed
      First page: 1769
      Abstract: Background: The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes can be a life-changing moment for our patients particularly having to live with the idea of taking insulin all their life and the barriers it can bring about. Case report: We report a patient with ten years of autoimmune type 1 diabetes treated with insulin. He was able to stop insulin in favour of oral diabetes agents after dynamic endocrine tests confirmed micro insulin secretion despite autoimmunity. Our case demonstrates that a detailed history and thorough investigations adopting a holistic approach can sometimes change the course of disease management and can leave a positive impact on the life of our patients. Conclusion: Patients with partial retention of beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes can temporarily stop insulin safely with ongoing surveillance. [GMJ.2020;9:e1769] 
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1769
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Association study of the beta-adrenergic receptor genetic variant
           Gly389Arg and fluoxetine response in major depression

    • Authors: Negar Firouzabadi, Roja Asadpour, Kamiar Zomorrodian
      First page: 1781
      Abstract: Background: Pharmacogenetics has proven role in the treatment of different illnesses. Patients with special genotypes may achieve a better response to a specific drug. On the other hand, genetic parameters markedly contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The significance of adrenergic system compartments in cognition and behavior, and their role in etiology of depression denote that adrenergic receptors beta gene polymorphism(s) might also have an association with drug response. Thus this study aims to evaluate the association between β1AR gene polymorphisms, G1165C, Arg389Gly and response to fluoxetine in MDD patients. Materials and Methods: Among different antidepressants, we focused on fluoxetine as it is prescribed frequently in MDD and belongs to one of the most efficient antidepressant categories with minimum side effects. MDD was diagnosed at study entry using DSM-IV criteria. One hundred and one new MDD patients were treated with fluoxetine for a period of 6 weeks. A 50% decrease in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) was considered as response to treatment. Genotyping of G1165C polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Results: Results of the study indicated no significant relationship between β1AR polymorphism and the patient’s response to fluoxetine neither at genotypic nor allelic level (P=0.568). Conclusion: Our study did not support the hypothesis of involvement of β1AR Arg389Gly polymorphism and response to fluoxetine in MDD patients. [GMJ.2020;9:e1781] 
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1781
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Lateral Epicondylitis, Lonely or in
           Combination with Topical Corticosteroid; Which Approach is Superior'

    • Authors: Babak Vahdatpour, Parisa Taheri, Fatemeh Abasi
      First page: 1791
      Abstract: Background: Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Although varieties of modalities have been proposed for its treatment, the outcomes are uncertain, and the responses would diminish early by the time passage. The current study was aimed to assess the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) merely and in combination with topical corticosteroid for the treatment of LE. Materials and Methods: In the current double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 70 patients with the diagnosis of LE were randomly allocated to two intervention groups of ESWT merely (control group) (n=35) or ESWT plus topical corticosteroid (intervention group) (n=35). The ESWT was performed weekly for three weeks. Topical clobetasol was utilized within 30 minutes before ESWT for the intervention group, while Vaseline gel was used in a similar pattern for controls. Pain based on a visual analog scale (VAS), handgrip strength (HGS) and the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) were assessed for the patients before the intervention, following the intervention cessation, and within two months post-intervention. Results: Statistically significant improvement was found following both interventions in terms of pain, HGS, and function (P-value0.05). Conclusion: The findings of our study are in favor of ESWT use either merely or in combination with topical steroids for the treatment of LE, while the comparison of the two techniques revealed insignificant differences. [GMJ.2020;9:e1791]
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1791
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Mummy Induces Apoptosis Through Inhibiting of Epithelial-Mesenchymal
           Transition (EMT) in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    • Authors: Solmaz Rahmani Barouji, Arman Shahabi, Mohammadali Torbati, Seyyed Mohammad Bagher Fazljou, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
      First page: 1812
      Abstract: Background: Mummy (Iranian pure shilajit) is a remedy with possessing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities. This study aimed to examine mummy effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasiveness of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer (BC) cell lines with underlying its mechanism. Materials and Methods: The dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the mummy on cell proliferation in vitro was determined using the MTT assay.  Flow cytometry and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining were respectively used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of cellular apoptosis, and gene expression analysis was conducted using real-time PCR. Results: MDA-MB-231 showed more sensitivity than the MCF-7 cell line to the anticancer activity of mummy, while mummy did not exhibit significant cell cytotoxicity against human normal cells (MCF-10A). The gene expression profile demonstrated a significant decrease in TGF-β1, TGF-βR1, TWIST1, NOTCH1, CTNNB1, SRC along with an increase in E-cadherin mRNA levels in mummy treated cells compared to the untreated control group (P≤0.05). Conclusion: Mummy triggers inhibition of EMT and metastasis in breast cancer cells mainly through the downregulation of TGFβ1 activity, and more studies required to find its specific anticancer activity with details. [GMJ.2020;9:e1812]
      PubDate: 2020-08-10
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1812
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Role of MicroRNAs in Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment of Acute Heart
           Failure: Ambassadors from Intracellular Zone

    • Authors: Seyyed-Reza Sadat-Ebrahimi, Naser Aslanabadi
      First page: 1818
      Abstract: Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the burdensome diseases affecting a considerable proportion of the population. Recently, it has been demonstrated that micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) can exert diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic roles in a variety of conditions including AHF. These molecules play essential roles in HF-related pathophysiology, particularly, cardiac fibrosis, and hypertrophy. Some miRNAs namely miRNA-423-5p are reported to have both diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. However, some studies suggest that combination of biomarkers is a much better way to achieve the highest accuracy such as the combination of miRNAs and N-terminal pro b-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT pro-BNP). Therefore, this review discusses different views towards various roles of miRNAs in AHF. [GMJ.2020;9:e1818]
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1818
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • The excitatory effects of microRNA- 30 in the self-renewal and
           differentiation process of neonatal mouse spermatogonial stem cells

    • Authors: Maryam Khanehzad, Farid Abolhasani, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Seyed Mehdi Nourashrafeddin, Azim Hedayatpour
      First page: 1829
      Abstract: Background: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are considered as special stem cells since they have the ability of self-renewal, differentiation, and transferring genetic information to the next generation. Also, they considered as vital players in initiating and preserving spermatogenesis. The fate decisions of SSCs are mediated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, among which microRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the most essential factors in spermatogenesis among endogenous regulators. However, the mechanisms by which individual miRNAs regulate self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs are unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of miRNA-30 mimic on fate determinations of SSCs. Materials and Methods: The obtained SSCs from neonatal mice (3-6 days old) were purified by MACS and flow cytometry with a promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger marker. Then, the cultured cells were transfected with miRNA- 30 mimic, and finally, the changes in expressing ID4 and c-kit proteins were assessed by western blot analysis. Results: According to flow cytometry findings, the percentage of SSC purity was about 98.32. The expression of ID4 protein and colonization increased significantly through the transfection of miRNA-30 mimic (P<0.05). Conclusion: The miRNA-30 controls spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, which may have significant implications for treating male infertility. [GMJ.2020;9:e1829]
      PubDate: 2020-08-19
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1829
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Evaluation of Impacts of Cellular Metabolism on the Migration of Ovarian
           Cancer Cells by Two in Vitro Assays: A Method Comparison Study

    • Authors: Hossein Ghahremani, Majid Sirati-Sabet, Siamak Salami
      First page: 1831
      Abstract: Background: Alteration of metabolic pathways in cancer cells can intensely modulate their migration as an important step in invasion and metastasis. Ketogenic diet showed some contradictory results in cancer patients. In this study the impact of metabolic reprogramming of A2780CP as a model of ovarian cancer stem-like cells on cell migration by two in vitro methods: wound healing and soft agar colony-forming assays. Materials and Methods: short term and long term metabolic reprogramming were done by restriction of glucose to 250mg/L with or without enrichment with beta-hydroxybutyrate (5 milimolar) for 48 hours and 30 days, respectively. Wound healing assay was done and the wound ratio was calculated for 24 and 48 hours. Soft agar colony formation assay was also done in treated and control cells. For method comparison, ten biological replicates were analyzed in triplicate. Results: Migration of A2780CP ovarian cancer stem-like cells were significantly alleviated by long term glucose restriction but no significant changes were observed in short term study. Beta-hydroxybutyrate enrichment did not produce significant impacts on glucose restriction in short or long term studies. Conclusion: The results of colony formation in soft agar and wound or scratch healing assay were in good correlation and convergence which could be used interchangeably in the investigation of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. [GMJ.2020;9:e1831]
      PubDate: 2020-08-16
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1831
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Complex Twisted Knots of Umbilical Cord in a Monochorionic-Diamniotic Twin
           Gestation: A Case Report

    • Authors: Behnaz Razavi, Maryam Kasraeian, Atefe Hashemi, Shaghayegh Moradi Alamdarloo, Fateme Sadat Najib
      First page: 1878
      Abstract: Background: True knots and tight loops of umbilical cord can cause serious fetal complications in monochorionic-monoamniotic twins but are usually unexpected in Monochorionic-diamniotic twins because of the presence of the intertwin membrane. This report presents a case of monochorionic-diamniotic twin gestation with a complex cord knots. Case report: A 31-year-old G2Ab1 with monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy in the gestational age of 30 weeks presented with ruptured membrane since 3weeks before delivery. At the delivery time, multiple umbilical cord knots was found. Conclusion: Premature ruptured membrane can cause septostomy of the intertwin membrane, multiple umbilical cord knots and its complications. Therefore, these cases should be considered for evaluation of the presence of intertwin membrane and umbilical cord knots in each sonography examination. [GMJ.2020;9:e1878]
      PubDate: 2020-09-16
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1878
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Ascending and Descending of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

    • Authors: Hadi Zare Marzouni, ALi Dashtgard, Esmaeil Hamounpeyma
      First page: 1880
      Abstract:   
      PubDate: 2020-04-10
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1880
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • The Current Accreditation Standards and Future Needs in Medical Education

    • Authors: Ebrahim Shirzadeh, Nematullah Shomoossi, Ali Tajabadi
      First page: 1901
      PubDate: 2020-09-09
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1901
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Delayed Infection of Occipitocervical Fixation in a Patient with
           Achondroplasia: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    • Authors: Milad Shafizadeh, Ehsan Fattahi, Sabra Rostamkhani, Mohsen Rostami, Alireza Khoshnevisan
      First page: 1906
      Abstract: Background: Infections are a major concern in fixation surgeries. Most of the infections could occur in the first three months after the operation. Case Report: We present a 45-year-old man who known case of achondroplasia who underwent craniospinal fixation and was presented to our clinic with surgical site infection after six years. His instruments were removed, and a halo vest was fixed for the patients. Accordingly, he received intravenous antibiotics, and during nine months’ follow-up, no any significant problems were found. Conclusion: Infection of instruments in spinal surgeries might be presented years after the surgery. Hence, it needs to be considered by surgeons in patients’ follow-ups. [GMJ.2020;9:e1906]
      PubDate: 2020-06-15
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1906
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • A Case of Covid-19 Respiratory Illness with Subsequent Seizure and
           Hemiparesis

    • Authors: Ava Hamidi, Behnam Sabayan, Frazaneh Sorond, Alexander J Nemeth, Afshin Borhani-haghighi
      First page: 1915
      Abstract: Background: Neurological manifestations and complications  are common in viral infections, and they are significant sources for clinical deterioration and poor clinical outcomes. Case report: The current report presents a 38year-old man with Covid-19 respiratory illness who subsequently developed neurological complications and clinical worsening leading to death. This patient sought medical attention after five days of progressive cough, fever, and dyspnea. On arrival in the emergency room, he was found to have hypoxic respiratory failure resulting in intubation and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Chest CT scan was characteristic for Covid-19 infection, and PCR test on tracheal samples confirmed the diagnosis. On day nine of admission, he developed generalized tonic colonic seizure associated with deterioration of mental status and hemiparesis. Repeated brain CT scans showed subcortical hypoattenuation with associated sulcal effacement in the left occipital and posterior parietal lobes concerning for ischemic changes. The patient passed away on day 17 despite supportive measures. Conclusion: This observation and recent evidence on Covid-19 CNS involvement highlight the need for further studies on early recognition of neurological complications in Covid-19 patients. [GMJ.2020;9:e1915]
      PubDate: 2020-07-12
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1915
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Effect of Probiotics on Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized, Controlled,
           Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Mahnaz Sadeghi-Shabestari, Yalda Jabbari Moghaddam, Hasan Rezapoor, Mojataba Sohrabpour
      First page: 1918
      Abstract: Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases in the world and affects about 10-50% of the general population. Probiotics are live microorganisms that help the normal state of the intestine, and if prescribed correctly, they can stimulate the mucosal immune system to prevent inflammatory symptoms of allergy and atopy. The present study aims to investigate the role of probiotics in the treatment of AR when added to standard therapy as adjuvant agents. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 28 patients older than 15 years with AR randomly divided into probiotics and control groups. The probiotics group received standard therapy for AR accompanied by probiotic capsules every 12 hours for eight weeks, whereas the control group received standard therapy for AR with placebo capsules as the same protocol. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 23 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) and, the P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the probiotics group, 14.3% of patients had sneezing at the baseline, which significantly decreased to 4.6% (P<0.01). Also, the necessity for nasal and oral corticosteroids after treatment with probiotics in the probiotics group was less than the control group (P<0.01). Although cough, nasal discharge, conchae hypertrophy, and night sleep disorders reduced after treatment with probiotics, this reduction was not statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this clinical trial, the use of probiotics had no significant effect on the outcome of patients with AR. [GMJ.2020;9:e1918] 
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1918
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Coronavirus disease 2019: Global Contamination and Global Cleanup

    • Authors: Amir Norouzpour, Mahmood Nejabat, Alireza Mehdizadeh
      First page: 1921
      PubDate: 2020-09-11
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1921
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • Alcohol Consumption Under the Shadow of Coronavirus Pandemic

    • Authors: Amir Adibi, Aliashraf Mozafari, Hadis Jamshidbeigi, Tayebe Jamshidbeigi, Ali Sahebi
      First page: 1922
      PubDate: 2020-09-09
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1922
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
  • The Relation of Copper and Zinc with Incidence of Neonatal Sepsis and
           Possible Prediction Biomarker Role

    • Authors: Seyed Hossein Saadat, Rakhshaneh Goodarzi
      First page: 1933
      Abstract:   
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
      DOI: 10.31661/gmj.v9i0.1933
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2020)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 100.26.179.251
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-