Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1572 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (744 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (115 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (133 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (744 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 299)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 5)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access  
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Das österreichische Gesundheitswesen ÖKZ     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
F&S Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Neuroergonomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Public Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.609
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0008-4263 - ISSN (Online) 1920-7476
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • The year public health lost its soul: a critical view of the COVID-19
           response

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      Abstract: The COVID pandemic was an acute test of public health capacities worldwide. Many will hail the successes obtained and stress the importance of the discipline. On the contrary, this commentary defends the idea that the COVID pandemic response forced public health to enter in a Faustian bargain with governments and realpolitik that threatens the very core of the discipline’s principles.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
       
  • Re: Jenkinson et al., “Nowhere to go: exploring the social and economic
           influences on discharging people experiencing homelessness to appropriate
           destinations in Toronto, Canada”

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2021-10-13
       
  • Intimate ecosystems: the microbiome and the ecological determinants of
           health

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      Abstract: The ecological determinants of health make explicit the ways in which human health and well-being depend on the biosphere and its systems. Water, oxygen, and food are listed along with soil systems, water systems, material for shelter, energy, the ozone layer and a stable climate. Research in the sciences is uncovering the critical role that the earth microbiome, including the human microbiome, plays in human health. The relationship between commensal microbiota and the systems of the human body, as well as the ways in which these systems are interdependent with other ecosystems such as food systems, invites revisiting the ecological determinants of health. In this commentary, I argue that microbiota, including the human microbiome, should be considered ecological determinants of health. Such a characterization would recognize the importance of the microbiome to human health. It would also frame this as a public health issue and raise questions about health equity, including who benefits from the knowledge produced through biomedical research.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
       
  • Now, more than ever, the public health community needs to be pulling
           together

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2021-10-12
       
  • Perspectives on the future of occupational epidemiology in Canada

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2021-10-12
       
  • Putting the horse back in front of the cart: a critical reflection on the
           CIHR-IPPH dialogue on the future of Canada’s public health systems

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      PubDate: 2021-10-12
       
  • The Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines and self-rated physical and
           mental health among adolescents

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      Abstract: Objective The Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth recommend a minimum of 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, no more than 2 h/day of recreational screen time, and 8–11 h/night of sleep depending on age. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of meeting combinations of these recommendations with self-rated physical and mental health. Methods This study used data from the 2017 (n = 5739) and 2019 (n = 6960) cycles of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a biennially repeated cross-sectional study of Ontario students in grades 7 through 12. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were adjusted for age, gender, ethnoracial background, subjective socio-economic status, and body mass index z-scores. Results Similar patterns were seen in the 2017 and 2019 samples. Compared with meeting none of the recommendations, meeting different combinations of recommendations in the 2019 sample was associated with positive self-rated physical and mental health. A dose–response gradient between the number of recommendations met and self-rated physical (p < 0.001) and mental (p < 0.001) health was observed, with meeting one (AOR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.58–2.09), two (AOR: 3.54; 95% CI: 2.98–4.22), or three recommendations (AOR: 6.34; 95% CI: 4.46–9.02) being increasingly associated with positive self-rated physical health compared with meeting none; and meeting one (AOR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.33–1.71), two (AOR: 2.70; 95% CI: 2.31–3.17), or three recommendations (AOR: 3.58; 95% CI: 2.57–4.98) being increasingly associated with positive self-rated mental health compared with meeting none. Conclusion Meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines is associated with better self-rated physical and mental health among adolescents.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
       
  • Engaging frontline providers: an important key to eliminating tuberculosis
           in Canada, and other high-income countries

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      Abstract: The greatest human cost of the rapidly moving pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 may be due to its impact on the response to other diseases. One such other disease is tuberculosis (TB). All indications suggest that COVID-19-related diversions of healthcare resources and disruptions to public health programming will exacerbate the slower moving pandemic of TB. This is expected to set back TB elimination efforts by years. This is a prediction that is especially relevant to Canada, which has repeatedly failed to meet pre-set targets for the elimination of TB even before the COVID-19 pandemic began. A collaborative approach to achieve TB elimination, one that engages all care providers, has recently been emphasized by the STOP-TB Partnership. Among TB elimination strategies, frontline providers (e.g., family physicians, emergency room physicians, and others) are well positioned to identify candidates for the treatment of latent TB infection, and make the diagnosis of infection-spreading cases of TB in a timely manner, thereby interrupting forward-moving chains of transmission. Electronic medical records offer the promise of automating these processes. In this commentary, we promote broader engagement of the workforce across multiple sectors of medicine to reduce TB associated morbidity and mortality, interrupt transmission, and shrink the reservoir of latent TB infection.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00556-x
       
  • “They look at you like you’re contaminated”: how HIV-related stigma
           shapes access to care for incarcerated women living with HIV in a Canadian
           setting

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      Abstract: Objectives Given the gender disparities in HIV outcomes for women living with HIV (WLWH) who experience incarceration, and the impact of HIV-related stigma on HIV care, this qualitative study investigated how HIV-related stigma within prison settings shapes HIV care for WLWH. Methods Drawing from SHAWNA (Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS: Women’s Longitudinal Needs Assessment), a community-based research project with cisgender and transgender WLWH in Metro Vancouver, peer and community interviewers conducted 19 qualitative interviews (May 2017–February 2018) with recently incarcerated WLWH focused on factors that shape incarceration trajectories. Drawing on socio-ecological frameworks and using participatory analysis, this analysis sought to characterize how HIV-related stigma shapes experiences and access to care for incarcerated WLWH. Results Participants’ responses focused predominately on experiences in provincial correctional facilities and the ways through which HIV-related stigma within correctional settings was linked to access to HIV care. Experiences of HIV-related stigma within prisons led to isolation and discrimination for WLWH which was reinforced through institutional processes, compromised privacy, and uncertainty about confidentiality. Experiences of HIV-related stigma informed decisions for some participants to withhold HIV status from healthcare staff, compromising access to HIV treatment during incarceration. Conclusion Amid ongoing efforts to improve healthcare delivery within Canadian correctional facilities, these findings have important implications for the provision of HIV care for incarcerated WLWH. Culturally safe, trauma-informed programming focused on reducing HIV-related stigma, improved communication regarding medical privacy, and interventions to change processes that compromise privacy is critical to improve healthcare access in correctional facilities.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00562-z
       
  • Disparities in multimorbidity and mortality among people living with and
           without HIV across British Columbia’s health regions: a population-based
           cohort study

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      Abstract: Objectives Longer survival has increased the likelihood of antiretroviral-treated people living with HIV (PLWH) developing age-associated comorbidities. We compared the burden of multimorbidity and all-cause mortality across HIV status in British Columbia (BC), and assessed the longitudinal effect of multimorbidity on all-cause mortality among PLWH. Methods Antiretroviral-treated PLWH aged ≥19 years and 1:4 age-sex-matched HIV-negative individuals from a population-based cohort were followed for ≥1 year during 2001–2012. Diagnoses of seven age-associated comorbidities were identified from provincial administrative databases and grouped into 0, 1, 2, and ≥3 comorbidities. Multimorbidity prevalence and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) in both populations were stratified by BC’s health regions. Marginal structural models were used to estimate the effect of multimorbidity on mortality among PLWH, adjusted for time-varying confounders affected by prior multimorbidity. Results Among 8031 PLWH and 32,124 HIV-negative individuals, 25% versus 11% developed multimorbidity, and 23.53 deaths/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 22.02–25.13) versus 3.04 (2.81–3.29) were observed, respectively. PLWH in Northern region had the highest ASMR, but those in South Vancouver Island experienced the greatest difference in mortality compared with HIV-negative individuals. Among PLWH, compared with those with zero comorbidities, adjusted hazard ratios for those with 1, 2, and ≥3 comorbidities were 3.36 (95% CI: 2.86–3.95), 6.92 (5.75–8.33), and 12.87 (10.45–15.85), respectively. Conclusion PLWH across BC’s health regions experience excess multimorbidity and associated mortality. We highlight health disparities which are key when planning the distribution of healthcare resources across BC, and provide evidence for improved HIV care models integrating prevention and management of chronic diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00525-4
       
  • Ontario’s COVID-19 Modelling Consensus Table: mobilizing scientific
           expertise to support pandemic response

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      Abstract: Setting COVID-19 has highlighted the need for credible epidemiological models to inform pandemic policy. Traditional mechanisms of commissioning research are ill-suited to guide policy during a rapidly evolving pandemic. At the same time, contracting with a single centre of expertise has been criticized for failing to reflect challenges inherent in specific modelling approaches. Intervention This report describes an alternative approach to mobilizing scientific expertise. Ontario’s COVID-19 Modelling Consensus Table (MCT) was created in March 2020 to enable rapid communication of credible estimates of the impact of COVID-19 and to accelerate learning on how the disease is spreading and what could slow its transmission. The MCT is a partnership between the province and academic modellers and consists of multiple groups of experts, health system leaders, and senior decision-makers. Armed with Ministry of Health data, the MCT meets once per week to share results from modelling exercises, generate consensus judgements of the likely future impact of COVID-19, and discuss decision-makers’ priorities. Outcomes The MCT has enabled swift access to data for participants, a structure for developing consensus estimates and communicating these to decision-makers, credible models to inform health system planning, and increased transparency in public reporting of COVID-19 data. It has also facilitated the rapid publication of research findings and its incorporation into government policy. Implications The MCT approach is one way to quickly draw on scientific advice outside of government and public health agencies. Beyond speed, this approach allows for nimbleness as experts from different organizations can be added as needed. It also shows how universities and research institutes have a role to play in crisis situations, and how this expertise can be marshalled to inform policy while respecting academic freedom and confidentiality.
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00559-8
       
  • Are vaporizers a lower-risk alternative to smoking cannabis'

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      Abstract: Cannabis use is associated with various adverse physical and mental health outcomes as well as increased risk of motor vehicle collision. Many organizations and the “Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines” have recommended to use cannabis vaporizers instead of smoking to reduce the associated health risk. This commentary draws attention to the present evidence regarding harm reduction potential of cannabis vaping. Cannabis vaporizer use can reduce the emission of carbon monoxide, chronic respiratory symptoms, and exposure to several toxins while producing similar subjective effects and blood THC concentration compared with smoking cannabis, holding potential for harm reduction among habitual cannabis smokers. However, new cannabis users, regardless of method of administration of cannabis, may experience intense subjective effects and cognitive impairment with increased susceptibility to dependence. Hence, policy makers should consider limiting access to cannabis among young people and adopting strategies to reduce impaired driving under influence of cannabis. Future research should focus on impact of switching from cannabis smoking to dried herb vaping using cannabis vaporizers among chronic cannabis smokers, and long-term outcomes of medical cannabis vaping, and further explore association of vaping-associated lung injury with THC-containing e-liquids.
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00565-w
       
  • Nowhere to go: exploring the social and economic influences on discharging
           people experiencing homelessness to appropriate destinations in Toronto,
           Canada

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      Abstract: Objectives A main component of discharging patients from hospital is identifying an appropriate destination to meet their post-hospitalization needs. In Canada, meeting this goal is challenged when discharging people experiencing homelessness, who are frequently discharged to the streets or shelters. This study aimed to understand why and how the ability of hospital workers to find appropriate discharge destinations for homeless patients is influenced by dynamic social and economic contexts. Methods Guided by critical realism, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 33 participants: hospital workers on general medicine wards at three urban hospitals; shelter workers; and researchers, policy advisors, and advocates working at the intersection of homelessness and healthcare. Results Historical and contemporary social and economic contexts (e.g., shrinking financial resources) have triggered the adoption of efficiency and accountability measures in hospitals, and exclusion criteria and rules in shelters, both conceptualized as mechanisms in this article. Hospitals are pressured to move patients out as soon as they are medically stable, but they struggle to discharge patients to shelters: to prevent inappropriate discharges, shelters have adopted exclusion and eligibility rules and criteria. These mechanisms contribute to an explanation of why identifying an appropriate discharge destination for people experiencing homelessness is challenging. Conclusion Our results point to a systems gap in this discharge pathway where there is nowhere for people experiencing homelessness to go who no longer need acute care, but whose needs are too complex for shelters. Systemic changes are needed to better support hospital and shelter frontline workers to improve discharge processes.
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00561-0
       
  • The 2011 and 2016 iterations of the Ontario Marginalization Index:
           updates, consistency and a cross-sectional study of health outcome
           associations

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      Abstract: Objectives The Ontario Marginalization Index (ON-Marg) is an area-based measure used widely to measure health inequalities in Ontario. Recently, the index was updated for 2011 and 2016. The loss of the 2011 long-form census required the use of alternative data sources for the 2011 version. This paper describes the update of ON-Marg, assesses consistency in the indices across census years using Dissemination Areas, and examines associations between ON-Marg 2016 and four health and social outcomes to demonstrate its potential to measure health inequalities. Methods ON-Marg was created using factor analysis. Differences in quintile assignment was compared over time to assess whether the use of taxfiler, immigration, property assessment, and health card address data in 2011 affected consistency in measurement of marginalization. Inequalities in rates of overall mortality, gonorrhea incidence, mental health emergency department visits, and alcohol retail locations across quintiles of ON-Marg 2016 were quantified using the Relative Index of Inequality. Results Depending on the dimension, between 81% and 96% of DAs showed limited or no changes in quintiles of marginalization between 2006, 2011 and 2016. Of the 45–64% of DAs that did not change quintile between 2006 and 2016, 1.8% to 8.8% of DAs in 2011 differed by two or more quintiles. Findings showed significant differences in rates of health and social outcomes across quintiles of ON-Marg 2016, with strength and directionality varying by dimension of ON-Marg. Conclusion Alternative data sources did not substantially affect the consistency of the 2011 version of ON-Marg. The updated ON-Marg is a comprehensive tool that can be used to study health inequalities in Ontario.
      PubDate: 2021-08-25
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00552-1
       
  • Exploring the reasons for low pertussis vaccine effectiveness in Ontario,
           Canada, 2006–2008: a Canadian Immunization Research Network study

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      Abstract: Objectives Although pertussis vaccines have been widely used for many decades, a burden of illness persists. Resurgences in Ontario, Canada, have not been substantial in the past decade, but an outbreak of pertussis occurred in Toronto between 1 October 2005 and 31 March 2006. Previous Ontario studies found high vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the initial years post-immunization. In order to explore the impact of outbreaks and external factors on VE, we investigated pertussis VE during the period 2006–2008. Methods We assessed pertussis VE using a frequency-matched case-control study for the period 1 March 2006 to 31 December 2008. We used logistic regression to estimate VE by age, time since last vaccination, and vaccination status according to the Ontario recommended schedule. We compared analyses including and excluding cases from Toronto, and to two recent Ontario pertussis VE studies. Results We included 1797 confirmed cases and 7188 matched controls. Most cases were under 4 years of age during the study period. Pertussis VE was 3.8% (95% CI: − 21.0, 24.0) in the period 15–364 days following the last pertussis vaccine dose, and increased with increasing time since vaccination. Pertussis VE in the first 15–364 days excluding Toronto increased to 57.1% (95% CI: 26.0, 75.1), but the trend of increasing VE with time since vaccination persisted. Although VE was higher in older (6–11 years) than younger (0–5 years) children, it was lower at 12–13 years than after 14 years. Conclusion VE was lower in comparison with other studies conducted in Ontario, particularly in younger children. Various factors occurring during the study period may have influenced the results, including clinical testing of asymptomatic contacts, laboratory testing and methods and reporting practice, and a sensitive case definition. Further studies are needed to optimize methods for measuring VE to inform pertussis vaccine policy.
      PubDate: 2021-08-23
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00536-1
       
  • Social inequalities in protective behaviour uptake at the start of the
           COVID-19 pandemic: results from a national survey

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      Abstract: Objectives We aimed to assess social patterns of handwashing, social distancing, and working from home at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, and determine what proportions of the overall prevalence and social inequalities in handwashing and social distancing are related to inequalities in the opportunity to work from home, to guide pandemic preparedness and response. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the Canadian Perspectives Survey Series, collected between March 29 and April 3, 2020, among Canadian adults (N=4455), we assessed prevalence of not working from home, social distancing in public, or practicing frequent handwashing, according to age, sex, marital status, immigration, education, chronic disease presence, and source of COVID-19 information. Multivariate regression, population attributable fraction estimation, and generalized product mediation analysis were applied. Results Absence of frequent handwashing and distancing was more common among those working outside than within the home (prevalence differences of 7% (95% CI: 4, 10) and 7% (95% CI: 3, 10), respectively). Inequalities in handwashing and distancing were observed across education and immigration status. Over 40% of the prevalence of non-uptake of handwashing and distancing was attributable to populations not being able to work from home. If all worked from home, over 40% (95% CI: 8, 70) of education-based inequalities in handwashing and distancing could be eliminated, but differences by immigration status would likely remain. Conclusion For pandemic response, both workplace safety initiatives and mechanisms to address the inequitable distribution of health risks across socio-economic groups are needed to reduce broader inequalities in transmission risk.
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00553-0
       
  • Examining the associations between food worry and mental health during the
           early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada

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      Abstract: Objective Little is known about the association between mental health and diminished food worry during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines worry about having enough food to meet household needs and its association with mental health during the early months of the pandemic in Canada. Methods Data are drawn from the first round of a multi-round mental health monitoring survey. Online surveys were administered between May 14 and 29, 2020, to a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults (n = 3000). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between food worry and mental health indicators (anxious/worried, depressed, worse mental health compared with pre-pandemic, and suicidal thoughts/feelings), after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and pre-existing mental health conditions. Fully adjusted models explored the impact of controlling for financial worry due to the pandemic in the previous 2 weeks. Results Overall, 17.3% of the sample reported food worry due to the pandemic in the previous 2 weeks, with the highest prevalence found among those with a reported disability (29.3%), Indigenous identity (27.1%), or pre-existing mental health condition (25.3%). Compared with participants who did not report food worry, those who did had higher odds of reporting feeling anxious/worried (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.08–1.71) and suicidal thoughts/feelings (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.24–2.80) when controlling for socio-demographics, pre-existing mental health conditions, and financial worry. Conclusion This paper provides insights about the associations between food worry and mental health in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic and indicates the need for improved policies and social supports to mitigate food worry and associated mental health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00557-w
       
  • Understanding the blended impacts of COVID-19 and systemic inequalities on
           sub-Saharan African immigrants in Canada

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      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a grave health threat and has serious socio-economic implications for all. However, crises are not experienced equally; the pandemic has disproportionately affected immigrants in several countries, including Canada and the United States. The effects of COVID-19 have exposed the realities of societal and structural inequities, worsened the socio-economic status of many immigrants, and placed them at higher risks of poor health outcomes. Emerging research on COVID-19 and race in Canada addresses the structural inequities that shape the disproportionate harms of COVID-19 on immigrants. For sub-Saharan African immigrants, these inequities are worse due to the intersecting systems of race, gender, and class marginalization. They tend to be more exposed and less protected amid the pandemic. Given the lack of research on sub-Saharan African immigrants’ experiences in Canada, this paper discusses how multiple axes of inequities shape their health and livelihood during COVID-19. The objective is to provide a broader scientific understanding of issues related to systemic inequities and health for sub-Saharan African immigrants in Canada and the related implications for public health advocates, policymakers, and the public.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00558-9
       
  • Débats autour des races canines et de la santé publique à Montréal et
           au Québec (2016–2019)

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      Abstract: Résumé Objectifs Nous étudions les politiques publiques formulées pour la prévention des morsures canines, et cherchons à promouvoir les approches « une seule santé ». Méthodologie Notre travail repose sur une étude de cas, sur laquelle nous avons posé un regard ethnographique en analysant des données qualitatives : observations de terrain, documentation institutionnelle, couverture médiatique, et entretiens avec des parties-prenantes à Montréal (Québec). Résultats Suite à un décès lié à une morsure de chien, la Ville de Montréal a décidé de l’interdiction de certains chiens sur la base de leur « race ». Les débats voient cependant émerger le « modèle de Calgary » comme une alternative aux législations visant des races canines particulières. Ces discussions mènent à un changement de politique publique à Montréal et plus largement au Québec. En outre, nous portons également notre attention sur les améliorations en matière de coordination intersectorielle que nous constatons entre les acteurs responsables de la mise en œuvre de cette politique. Conclusion Le concept de « circulation des politiques publiques » permet d’éclairer les politiques de prévention des morsures canines à Montréal, en montrant notamment par quels mécanismes certaines propositions controversées polarisent l’attention publique, au détriment des discussions portant sur la mise en œuvre des politiques municipales.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00550-3
       
  • Detection of COVID-19 case clusters in Québec, May–October 2020

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      Abstract: Objectives The Quebec Public Health Institute (INSPQ) was mandated to develop an automated tool for detecting space-time COVID-19 case clusters to assist regional public health authorities in identifying situations that require public health interventions. This article aims to describe the methodology used and to document the main outcomes achieved. Methods New COVID-19 cases are supplied by the “Trajectoire de santé publique” information system, geolocated to civic addresses and then aggregated by day and dissemination area. To target community-level clusters, cases identified as residents of congregate living settings are excluded from the cluster detection analysis. Detection is performed using the space-time scan statistic and Poisson statistical model, and implemented in the SaTScan software. Information on detected clusters is disseminated daily via an online interactive mapping interface. Results The number of clusters detected tracked with the number of new cases. Slightly more than 4900 statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01) space-time clusters were detected over 14 health regions from May to October 2020. The Montréal region was the most affected. Conclusion Considering the objective of timely cluster detection, the use of near-real-time health surveillance data of varying quality over time and by region constitutes an acceptable compromise between timeliness and data quality. This tool serves to supplement the epidemiologic investigations carried out by regional public health authorities for purposes of COVID-19 management and prevention.
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.17269/s41997-021-00560-1
       
 
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