Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1556 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (728 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (115 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (133 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (728 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 299)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 5)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access  
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contact (CTC)     Open Access  
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Das österreichische Gesundheitswesen ÖKZ     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
F&S Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
FASEB BioAdvances     Open Access  
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Neuroergonomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.299
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0963-1801 - ISSN (Online) 1469-2147
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [400 journals]
  • CQH volume 30 issue 3 Cover and Front matter

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120000936
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • CQH volume 30 issue 3 Cover and Back matter

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120000948
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Combatting Covid-19. Or, “All Persons Are Equal but Some Persons Are
           More Equal than Others'”

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John Harris
      Pages: 406 - 414
      Abstract: Vaccines, when available, will prove to be crucial in the fight against Covid-19. All societies will face acute dilemmas in allocating scarce lifesaving resources in the form of vaccines for Covid-19. The author proposes The Value of Lives Principle as a just and workable plan for equitable and efficient access. After describing what the principle entails, the author contrasts the advantage of this approach with other current proposals such as the Fair Priority Model.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S096318012000095X
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Novel Beings: Moral Status and Regulation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David Lawrence; Sarah Morley
      Pages: 415 - 419
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120000961
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Regulating the Tyrell Corporation: the Emergence of Novel Beings

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      Authors: David R Lawrence; Sarah Morley
      Pages: 421 - 434
      Abstract: Emerging biotechnologies and advances in computer science promise the arrival of novel beings possessed of some degree of moral status, even potentially sentient or sapient life. Such a manifestation will constitute an epochal change, and perhaps threaten Homo sapiens’ status as the only being generally considered worthy of personhood and its contingent protections; as well as being the root of any number of social and legal issues. The law as it stands is not likely to be capable of managing or adapting to this challenge. This paper highlights the likely societal ramifications of novel beings and the gaps in the legislation which is likely to be relied upon to respond to these. In so doing, the authors make a case for the development of new regulatory structures to manage the moral issues surrounding this new technological upheaval.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120000973
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Artificial Moral Responsibility: How We Can and Cannot Hold Machines
           Responsible

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel W. Tigard
      Pages: 435 - 447
      Abstract: Our ability to locate moral responsibility is often thought to be a necessary condition for conducting morally permissible medical practice, engaging in a just war, and other high-stakes endeavors. Yet, with increasing reliance upon artificially intelligent systems, we may be facing a widening responsibility gap, which, some argue, cannot be bridged by traditional concepts of responsibility. How then, if at all, can we make use of crucial emerging technologies' According to Colin Allen and Wendell Wallach, the advent of so-called ‘artificial moral agents’ (AMAs) is inevitable. Still, this notion may seem to push back the problem, leaving those who have an interest in developing autonomous technology with a dilemma. We may need to scale-back our efforts at deploying AMAs (or at least maintain human oversight); otherwise, we must rapidly and drastically update our moral and legal norms in a way that ensures responsibility for potentially avoidable harms. This paper invokes contemporary accounts of responsibility in order to show how artificially intelligent systems might be held responsible. Although many theorists are concerned enough to develop artificial conceptions of agency or to exploit our present inability to regulate valuable innovations, the proposal here highlights the importance of—and outlines a plausible foundation for—a workable notion of artificial moral responsibility.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120000985
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • The Mandatory Ontology of Robot Responsibility

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marc Champagne
      Pages: 448 - 454
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120000997
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Artificial Agents in Natural Moral Communities: A Brief Clarification

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      Authors: Daniel W. Tigard
      Pages: 455 - 458
      Abstract: What exactly is it that makes one morally responsible' Is it a set of facts which can be objectively discerned, or is it something more subjective, a reaction to the agent or context-sensitive interaction' This debate gets raised anew when we encounter newfound examples of potentially marginal agency. Accordingly, the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) and the idea of “novel beings” represent exciting opportunities to revisit inquiries into the nature of moral responsibility. This paper expands upon my article “Artificial Moral Responsibility: How We Can and Cannot Hold Machines Responsible” and clarifies my reliance upon two competing views of responsibility. Although AI and novel beings are not close enough to us in kind to be considered candidates for the same sorts of responsibility we ascribe to our fellow human beings, contemporary theories show us the priority and adaptability of our moral attitudes and practices. This allows us to take seriously the social ontology of relationships that tie us together. In other words, moral responsibility is to be found primarily in the natural moral community, even if we admit that those communities now contain artificial agents.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120001000
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • How Could We Know When a Robot was a Moral Patient'

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      Authors: Henry Shevlin
      Pages: 459 - 471
      Abstract: There is growing interest in machine ethics in the question of whether and under what circumstances an artificial intelligence would deserve moral consideration. This paper explores a particular type of moral status that the author terms psychological moral patiency, focusing on the epistemological question of what sort of evidence might lead us to reasonably conclude that a given artificial system qualified as having this status. The paper surveys five possible criteria that might be applied: intuitive judgments, assessments of intelligence, the presence of desires and autonomous behavior, evidence of sentience, and behavioral equivalence. The author suggests that despite its limitations, the latter approach offers the best way forward, and defends a variant of that, termed the cognitive equivalence strategy. In short, this holds that an artificial system should be considered a psychological moral patient to the extent that it possesses cognitive mechanisms shared with other beings such as nonhuman animals whom we also consider to be psychological moral patients.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120001012
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • What Matters for Moral Status: Behavioral or Cognitive Equivalence'

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      Authors: John Danaher
      Pages: 472 - 478
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120001024
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • What Do We Owe to Novel Synthetic Beings and How Can We Be Sure'

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      Authors: Alex McKeown
      Pages: 479 - 491
      Abstract: Embodiment is typically given insufficient weight in debates concerning the moral status of Novel Synthetic Beings (NSBs) such as sentient or sapient Artificial Intelligences (AIs). Discussion usually turns on whether AIs are conscious or self-aware, but this does not exhaust what is morally relevant. Since moral agency encompasses what a being wants to do, the means by which it enacts choices in the world is a feature of such agency. In determining the moral status of NSBs and our obligations to them, therefore, we must consider how their corporeality shapes their options, preferences, values, and is constitutive of their moral universe. Analysing AI embodiment and the coupling between cognition and world, the paper shows why determination of moral status is only sensible in terms of the whole being, rather than mental sophistication alone, and why failure to do this leads to an impoverished account of our obligations to such NSBs.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120001036
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • The Moral Status of Cognitively Enhanced Monkeys and Other Novel Beings

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      Authors: Gardar Arnason
      Pages: 492 - 503
      Abstract: The discussion about the moral status of novel beings tends to focus on artificial intelligence, robots, and other man-made systems. We should, however, also consider a likelier kind of novel beings: animals that are genetically modified to develop human-like cognitive capabilities. This paper focuses on the possibility of conferring human characteristics on nonhuman primates (NHPs) in the context of neuroscientific research. It first discusses the use of NHPs for neuroscientific research and then, second, describes recent developments that promise to revolutionize the field and how that may lead to NHPs attaining human-like cognitive capabilities. Third, an account of moral status is developed to ground the central claim, that making the NHP brain more human-like is unproblematic as long as the NHPs do not become persons. In conclusion, this paper discusses the implications for the moral status of cognitively enhanced NHPs, as well as the implications for other novel beings.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120001048
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • The Desirability of Legal Rights for Novel Beings

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      Authors: Joshua Jowitt
      Pages: 504 - 516
      Abstract: The debate around whether novel beings should be legally recognized as legitimate rights holders is one that has produced a vast amount of commentary. This paper contributes to this discourse by shifting the normative focus of moral rights away from criteria possessed by the novel beings in question, and back toward the criterion upon which we ourselves are able to make legitimate rights claims. It draws heavily on the moral writing of Alan Gewirth’s identification of noumenal agency as the source of all legitimate rights claims. Taking Gewirthian ethical rationalism as providing a universally applicable hypothetical imperative which binds all agents to comply with its requirements, the paper argues that it is at least morally desirable that any legal system should recognize the moral rights claims of all agents as equally legitimate. By extension, it is at least morally desirable that the status of legal personhood should be granted by a legal system to all novel beings who are noumenal agents, insofar as this status is necessary for rights’ legal recognition. Having established the desirability of this extension, the paper closes with an examination of recent cases involving both biological and nonbiological novel beings in order to assess their conformity with the desirable approach outlined above. The paper demonstrates that such recognition is conceptually possible, thus requiring us to move beyond the current anthropocentricity of legal systems and recognize the legitimate moral claim for legal personhood for all novel beings who possess noumenal agency.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S096318012000105X
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Moral Status for Malware! The Difficulty of Defining Advanced Artificial
           Intelligence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Miranda Mowbray
      Pages: 517 - 528
      Abstract: The suggestion has been made that future advanced artificial intelligence (AI) that passes some consciousness-related criteria should be treated as having moral status, and therefore, humans would have an ethical obligation to consider its well-being. In this paper, the author discusses the extent to which software and robots already pass proposed criteria for consciousness; and argues against the moral status for AI on the grounds that human malware authors may design malware to fake consciousness. In fact, the article warns that malware authors have stronger incentives than do authors of legitimate software to create code that passes some of the criteria. Thus, code that appears to be benign, but is in fact malware, might become the most common form of software to be treated as having moral status.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120001061
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Patents, Governance and Control: Ethics and the Patentability of Novel
           Beings and Advanced Biotechnologies in Europe

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Aisling McMahon
      Pages: 529 - 542
      Abstract: This article focuses primarily on to what extent novel beings, and particularly, beings which display something akin to human consciousness or agency would be (or should be) patentable under current European patent law. Patents grant the patent holder a right to exclude others from using the patented invention for the period of patent grant (usually 20 years). This allows the patent holder to control how that invention can or cannot be used by others downstream, granting patent holders a governance like function over the patented technology for the duration of the patent. Accordingly, the potential for patentability of novel beings gives rise to a myriad of ethical issues including: to what extent is it appropriate for patent holders to retain and exercise patents over “novel beings”; how issues of “agency” displayed by any “novel beings” would fit within the current patent framework, if at all; and to what extent existing exclusions from patentability might exclude patents on “novel beings” or whether changes within patent law may be needed if patents in relation to “novel beings” are deemed ethically problematic. This article focuses on such issues, and in doing so, also sheds light on the role of ethical issues within the patenting of advanced biotechnologies more generally.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120001073
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Novel Beings and Assisted Nonexistence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Isra Black
      Pages: 543 - 555
      Abstract: This article engages with the legal regulation of end-of-existence decisionmaking for novel beings, specifically assisted nonexistence for such entities. The author explains the concept of a legal model for assisted death by reference to the substantive features of legal regimes in three jurisdictions in which assisted suicide or euthanasia is lawful. He considers how these models might fit novel beings who may require or prefer assistance to end their own existence by reference to the constituent features—abstract legal ingredients—that models for assisted death share. The author argues that extant models may block some novel beings’ access to end-of-existence assistance or fail to track what matters to them. He then examines the merits of adopting a universal model for assisted nonexistence, that is, a legal framework whose substantive features capture the end-of-existence concerns of both human and novel beings. Consideration of a unified legal framework may illuminate the discussion of assisted nonexistence for humans and novel beings. However, the paper proposes that whereas novel beings may have similar interests to humans, they may be relevantly different also. The prima facie case for adopting a one regime to rule us all approach to assisted nonexistence may be defeated by reasons for divergent regulation.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0963180120001085
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2021)
       
 
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