Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1478 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (700 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (700 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 203 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
Health Policy OPEN     Open Access  
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access  
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Health Systems & Reform     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
Histoire, médecine et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Horizonte Medico     Open Access  
Horizonte Sanitario     Open Access  
Hua Hin Sook Jai Klai Kangwon Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
IJS Global Health     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Implementation Science Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research KLEU     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Youth and Adolescent Health     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Health Trends and Perspectives     Open Access  
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Growth and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health Economics and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Healthcare     Open Access  
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Healthcare Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Healthcare Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Indigenous Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of MCH and AIDS     Open Access  
International Journal of Medicine and Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mens Social and Community Health     Open Access  
International Journal of Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Practice-based Learning in Health and Social Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Prevention and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Public Health Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Public Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sexual Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Telerehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Research in Children's Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InterScientia     Open Access  
Investigaciones Andina     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Israel Journal of Health Policy Research     Open Access  
İzmir Katip Çelebi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
JAMA Health Forum     Open Access  
JBI Evidence Implementation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
JBI Evidence Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Jeugd en Co     Hybrid Journal  
JGZ Tijdschrift voor jeugdgezondheidszorg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
JMIR Human Factors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance     Open Access  
JMIR Serious Games     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Jornal Brasileiro de TeleSSaúde     Open Access  
Jornal de Ciências da Saúde do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Piauí     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal Health NPEPS     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal Of Allied Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Behavior, Health & Social Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Behavioral Addictions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital     Open Access  
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Communication in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Creativity in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Developing Areas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ergonomics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Evolution and Health : An Ancestral Health Society Publication     Open Access  
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Family Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Family Strengths     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fasting and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health and Social Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Health Science and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Science and Community Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Prevention     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Service Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Services and Education     Open Access  
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Healthcare Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Trafficking     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Industrial Safety Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Infection and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrated Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Law and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical and Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mental Health Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muslim Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access  
Journal of Nursing & Interprofessional Leadership in Quality & Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Occupational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Prevention and Health Promotion     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Psychosexual Health     Open Access  
Journal of Public Child Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Health Services Insights
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1178-6329
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Examining the Built Environment for Healthy Living via Virtual Street
           Audits

    • Authors: Matthew Fifolt, Stephen J Mooney, Meena Nabavi, Maryam Karimi, Ariann Nassel, Lisa C McCormick
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      During the fall 2019 and spring 2020 semesters, 156 MPH students enrolled in the Integrative Learning Experience at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health explored concepts of the built environment and health by auditing 2500 street segments in 4 urban neighborhoods in Birmingham, Alabama. In teams of 4 to 5, in-class and online students worked collaboratively to assess 63 built environment variables related to transportation, land use, advertisement, and neighborhood physical disorder. This type of “community assessment” is the first stage of the Evidence-based Public Health Framework and consistent with the applied nature of an MPH degree.
      Authors conducted secondary data analysis of final team assignments to demonstrate how students translated observations and ratings into practical recommendations for neighborhood improvements to promote physical activity. Students recommended improvements in neighborhood infrastructure and services, specifically: creating exercise space, providing outdoor exercise equipment, improving neighborhood safety, and cultivating a culture of health. The Integrative Learning Experience course encouraged students to use their knowledge and skills to prioritize recommendations to improve neighborhood conditions. Variable ratings and observations increased student awareness of the built environment and its potential to impact individual and community health. Moreover, the project helped students make connections between proximal outcomes, such as improving neighborhood walkability, and distal outcomes, such as improved health outcomes among residents. Finally, this project modeled for students the use of evidence-based strategies for making data-informed decisions, which are essential skills for new and emerging public health professionals.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T08:32:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221104653
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Occupational Injuries and Associated Factors Among Municipal Solid Waste
           Collectors in Harar Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    • Authors: Liku Muche Temesgen, Dechasa Adare Mengistu, Salie Mulat, Gutema Mulatu, Sina Temesgen Tolera, Ashenafi Berhanu, Negga Baraki, Tesfaye Gobena
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Municipal solid waste collection is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world since it exposes the workers involved to occupational hazards and predisposes them to certain occupation-related morbidities. Occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors have not been adequately addressed or reported in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of occupational injuries and associated factors among municipal solid waste collectors in Harar Town, Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia from May 25, 2021 to June 25, 2021. Three hundred eighty-nine (389) municipal solid waste collectors were selected using a simple random sampling method. A self-administered structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used to collect the data. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine the association between independent variables and the outcome variable. A P-value of
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T05:18:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221104025
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Understanding Domestic Food Safety: An Investigation into Self-Reported
           Food Safety Practice and Associated Factors in Southern Ethiopian
           Households

    • Authors: Bethlehem Yemane, Aiggan Tamene
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:According to available studies, 12%-20% of reported foodborne outbreaks start in the household. It is projected that 1 out of every 10 persons will become ill as a result of consuming tainted food. Poor food handling practices cause 600 million foodborne illnesses each year. In a given year, this leads to 420 000 deaths. In Ethiopia, there is a scarcity of studies on home-food-safety practices and the factors that affect them. This has resulted in a shortage of relevant information on the status of home-food-related illnesses in the country.Methods:A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from May to June 23, 2021. A standardized and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from 622 households. The total plate count method was used to analyze bacteria on cleaned plates. Epi data version 3.1 was used to enter data, while SPSS version 25 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression were used to characterize the data and identify factors associated with food safety practices.Result:51.1% of the study participants had a safe food handling practice. The mean total plate count was 2.34 CFU/cm2. In the multivariable regression, Household wealth (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI [1.01-3.16]), Education (AOR = 3.33, 95% CI [1.41-6.31]), Training (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: [1.31–3.19]), Knowledge of safe practices (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.23-3.08], and Attitude (AOR = 2.04, 95% CI [1.09, 3.82]) were associated with safe food handling practices.Conclusion:Although data gathering systems for food-borne diseases typically overlook a large number of home-based outbreaks of sporadic infection, it is now widely understood that many episodes of food-borne sicknesses are caused by individuals’ inappropriate food handling and preparation in their kitchens. In the current study, educational status, household wealth, food safety training, attitude, and knowledge about FBDs were found to be strongly associated with safe practices. This implies that public education is a key factor in improving food safety practices at home.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T08:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221103881
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Utilization of Personal Protective Equipment and Its Associated Factors
           Among Large Scale Factory Workers in Debre Berhan Town, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Birara Fekadie Baye, Minale Fekadie Baye, Abraham Teym, Behailu Tariku Derseh
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Personal protective equipment (PPE) is one of the safeguards to protect workers from occupational risks. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of PPE and associated factors among large-scale factory workers in Debre Berhan city administration, Ethiopia.Methods:An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted using stratified sampling among large-scale factory workers in the Debre Berhan city administration. Four hundred thirty-two employees were interviewed using a stratified sampling technique from 7 large-scale factories. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting the utilization of PPE. The strength of association between variables was measured using the odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals at a P-value of .05.Results:A total of 413 respondents were included in the study, with a response rate of 95.6%. Two hundred and eighty-two (68.3%) of the participants were males. The mean age of the respondents was 28.37 ± 7.33 years. The PPE utilization was 35.43% (95% CI: 0.31, 0.40). Accordingly on job training (AOR = 8.85; 95% CI: 5.52, 14.28), previous history of injury (AOR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.36), workplace supervision (AOR = 14.08; 95% CI: 7.87, 25.0), and availability of guideline (AOR = 4.62; 95% CI: 2.51, 8.49) were statistically significant with utilization of PPE among large scale factory workers at a P-value
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T08:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221102324
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Understanding COVID-19 Situation in Nepal and Implications for SARS-CoV-2
           Transmission and Management

    • Authors: Prabin Dawadi, Gopiram Syangtan, Bhupendra Lama, Sushil R. Kanel, Dev Raj Joshi, Lok R. Pokhrel, Rameshwar Adhikari, Hem R. Joshi, Ioana Pavel
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), one of the most infectious diseases in the modern history, is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has had a profound health and economic toll, globally. This paper identifies the overall health status associated with COVID-19 pandemic in all 7 provinces of Nepal, a developing country in South Asia, analyzing data from January 2020 to February 2022. It focuses on the SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, transmission through wastewater and other routes, diagnostics, treatment options, and alternative medicines, thereby offering key perspectives for its management.Materials and Methods:Studies regarding coronavirus spanning the 2017 to 2022 period were searched on the web, Nepalese database, and Web of Science. Refined criteria included SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater of Nepal or worldwide. Demographic data (sex, age-group, and geographic location) were also obtained from websites and relevant reports of the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) of Nepal, ranging from January 2020 to February 2022. Moreover, trends concerning lockdown, business, and border activities in Nepal between February 2020 and October 2020 were evaluated. The viral dissemination pathways, diagnosis, and available treatment options, including the Ayurvedic medicine, were also examined.Results:Aerosols generated during the hospital, industrial, recreational, and household activities were found to contribute to the propagation of SARS-CoV-2 into environmental wastewater, thereby putting the surrounding communities at risk of infection. When lockdown ended and businesses opened in October 2020, the number of active cases of COVID-19 increased exponentially. Bagmati Province had the highest number of cases (53.84%), while the remaining 6 provinces tallied 46.16%. Kathmandu district had the highest number of COVID-19 cases (138, 319 cases), while Manang district had the smallest number of infections (81 cases). The male population was found to be predominantly infected (58.7%). The most affected age groups were the 31 to 40 years old males (25.92%) and the 21 to 30 years old females (26.85%).Conclusion:The pandemic impacted the public health and economic growth in our study duration. SARS-CoV-2 was prevalent in the wastewater of Nepal. The Terai districts and the megacities were mostly affected by SARS-CoV-2 infections. Working-age groups and males were identified as the highest risk groups. More investigations on the therapeutic and alternative cures are recommended. These findings may guide the researchers and professionals with handling the COVID-19 challenges in developing countries such as Nepal and better prepare for future pandemics.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T09:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221104348
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Small Scale Enterprise Workers Require Attention: What Predicts the Level
           of Occupational Injuries'

    • Authors: Chala Daba, Amanuel Atamo, Mesfin Gebrehiwot
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Occupational injuries are among the foremost public health problems that small scale enterprise workers are encountering. Most foregoing occupational injury studies focused on construction or welding industry workers which could underestimate the real level of occupational injuries recorded in small scale enterprises. Conversely, others deal with a combined level of injuries from both small scale and large scale enterprises. Therefore, this study examined the magnitude and predictors of occupational injuries among various categories of small scale enterprise workers in Ambo town (Ethiopia).Methods:An institutional-based cross-sectional study was employed among 408 small scale enterprise workers from September to October 2021. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was computed to identify factors associated with occupational injuries. Variables with P-value less than .05 were considered as significantly associated with occupational injuries.Results:The 1-year prevalence of occupational injuries was 39.5% (95% CI: 35-44). Age greater than 40 years (AOR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.53-5.28), working for more than 8 hours per day (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.61-4.95), working during the night time (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.22-3.47), lack of workplace supervision (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.23-5.28), alcohol use (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.24-3.06), chewing khat (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27-3.2), non-utilization of personal protective equipment (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.03-2.87), and lack of health and safety training (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.26-4.37) were important predictors of occupational injuries.Conclusions:Our findings indicated a substantial proportion of small scale enterprise workers experienced occupational injuries during the last year. Provision of health and safety training, continuous workplace supervisions, and provision and utilization of personal protective equipment are recommended.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T06:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221104949
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Learning from Failure in Environmental and Public Health Research

    • Authors: Dani J Barrington, Rebecca C Sindall, Esther L Shaylor
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T05:59:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221104067
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of Transportation and Wildfires on the Spatiotemporal
           Heterogeneity of PM2.5 Mass in the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan
           Statistical Area

    • Authors: Subraham Singh, Glen Johnson, Ilias G Kavouras
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Declining ambient PM2.5 concentrations have been attributed to fuel consumption standards and emission controls of secondary sulfate and nitrate aerosol precursors from transportation and industrial sectors. As a result, the relative contribution of PM2.5 sources is modified, shifting PM2.5 trends, physicochemical characteristics, and health effects. Carbonaceous fine aerosol account for most of PM2.5 mass in the US. This study aims to examine the spatiotemporal trends of ambient PM2.5 levels and their association with primary PM2.5 emissions from anthropogenic activities and fires in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan statistical area (NYNJ MSA) airshed. PM2.5 mass concentrations were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Air Data. Ambient PM2.5 mass levels declined on average by 47%, at a rate of −0.61 ± 0.01 μg/m3/year in urban locations and −0.25 ± 0.01 μg/m3/year in upwind and peri-urban locations over the 2007 to 2017 period. The strong spatial gradient in 2007, with high PM2.5 levels in urban locations and low PM2.5 levels in peri-urban locations gradually weakened by 2013 but re-appeared in 2017. Over the same period, primary PM2.5 emissions declined by 52% from transportation, 15% from industrial, and 8% from other anthropogenic sources corresponding to a decrease of 0.8, 0.9, and 0.6 μg/m3 on ambient PM2.5 mass, respectively. Wildland and prescribed fires emissions increased more than 3 times adding 0.8 μg/m3 to ambient PM2.5 mass. These results indicate that (i) fire emissions may impede the effectiveness of existing policies to improve air quality and (ii) the chemical content of PM2.5 may be changing to an evolving mixture of aromatic and oxygenated organic species with differential toxicological responses as compared to inert ammonium sulfate and nitrate salts.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T01:34:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221104016
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Hygienic Food Handling Practices and Associated Factors Among Food
           Handlers in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Belay Negassa, Zemachu Ashuro, Negasa Eshete Soboksa
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The food handling practices of food handlers can have a significant impact on the hygienic status of the food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hygienic food handling practices among food handlers in Ethiopia.Methods:PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases were used to find articles. Only cross-sectional studies that met the criteria for inclusion were considered. STATA version 16 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. The study’s heterogeneity was determined using Cochrane Q test statistics and the I2 test. A random effect model was used to calculate the pooled prevalence of hygienic food handling practices.Results:To estimate the pooled prevalence of hygienic food handling practices in Ethiopia, 9 out of 33 reviewed studies were included. The prevalence of hygienic food handling practices was found to be 48.36% (95% CI: 39.74-56.99) in this study. Factors associated with hygienic food handling practices included; lack of food safety training (OR = 5.38; 95% CI: 1.71, 16.89), negative attitude (OR = 3.28; 95% CI: 1.50, 7.13), lack of access to handwashing facilities (OR = 4.84; 95% CI: 1.72, 13.65), lack of regular medical checkup (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 3.13, 9.23), and lack of secondary education (OR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1.46, 4.32) among food handlers.Conclusion:In this study, the prevalence of hygienic food handling practices among Ethiopian food handlers was significantly low. Unhygienic food handling practices were attributed to a lack of food safety training, regular medical checkups, handwashing facilities, an unfavorable attitude toward food hygiene practices, and a lack of formal education. As a result, food handlers should receive ongoing food safety and hygiene training.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T10:50:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221105320
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Measurement of Natural Radioactivity and Assessment of Radiological Hazard
           Indices of Soil Over the Lithologic Units in Ile-Ife Area, South-West
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Deborah T Esan, Yinka Ajiboye, Rachel I Obed, Joshua Ojo, Mary Adeola, Mynepalli K Sridhar
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The distribution of natural radioactivity levels of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in soils overlying the 3 lithologic units within Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was investigated to characterize the gamma radiation dose distribution over the lithologies and to assess the radiation hazard due to the natural radionuclides. A thallium-doped cesium iodide detector was employed to determine the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in 21 soil samples. The respective average concentrations of the 3 radionuclides are 37.7, 3.2, and 245.6 Bq kg−1 for granite gneiss, 31.9, 2.8, and 241.1 Bq kg−1 for banded gneiss, and 21.1, 1.7, and 196.7 Bq kg−1 for mica schist. The average concentration of 238U in granite gneiss lithology exceeds the world average value. The evaluated values of radiation hazard parameters including average absorbed dose rate, outdoor annual effective dose and external hazard index are below the recommended limits. The spatial distribution of the radiation hazard parameters evaluated over the lithologies has been delineated. The highest average cancer risk of 1.15 per 10 000 population was obtained for the study area within the soil overlying the banded gneiss lithology. Generally, the radiation hazard from the soils in study area poses no significant health hazard.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:08:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221100041
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Study on Bovine Trypanosomiasis and Associated Risk Factors in Benatsemay
           District, Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Haben Fesseha, Eyob Eshetu, Mesfin Mathewos, Tishine Tilante
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Trypanosomosis is an endemic livestock disease in Ethiopia that hinders livestock production and productivity, especially in fertile agricultural western and southwestern areas. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based and parasitological studies were conducted from October 2020 to July 2021 in the Benatsemay district, southern Ethiopia to assess the knowledge of livestock owners about trypanosomosis, its prevalence, and host-related risk factors associated with bovine trypanosomosis in the area. According to the questionnaire survey, trypanosomosis was the main bottleneck to cattle in two of the selected study Sites in the Benatsemay district. The parasitological survey revealed that 11.46% (44/384) of the cattle were infected with trypanosomosis. Moreover, Trypanosoma congolense (9.11%) is the leading trypanosome species in the area, followed by T. vivax (31.8%). The adult age group (16.15%), poor-conditioned cattle (22.22%), and black-skinned cattle (34.24%) were significantly associated (P 
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T06:45:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221101833
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Environmental Health Needs Among Latinas in Cleaning Occupations: A Mixed
           Methods Approach

    • Authors: Erin Speiser, Genevieve Pinto Zipp, Deborah A. DeLuca, Ana Paula Cupertino, Evelyn Arana-Chicas, Elli Gourna Paleoudis, Traci N. Bethea, Benjamin Kligler, Francisco Cartujano-Barrera
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In the U.S., approximately half of maids and housekeeping cleaners are Latino or Hispanic, while the vast majority are women (88.3%). This largely immigrant, underserved workforce faces complex factors, which may contribute to adverse health outcomes. To understand relevant barriers and challenges, this mixed-methods study explored the environmental health needs of a heterogeneous group of Latinas in New Jersey (NJ) who clean occupationally, and consisted of 3 focus groups (N = 15) with a cross-sectional survey (N = 9), both conducted in Spanish. Participants were recruited from community-based English as a Second Language classes in Hackensack, NJ. Analysis of focus group audio recordings included descriptive and in vivo coding followed by inductive coding to explore thematic analysis. The survey responses were evaluated using descriptive statistics. As per the survey results, the environmental health needs of this population include sore muscles, back problems, asthma, other respiratory issues, migraine or headache, and skin issues (rash, etc.). In the group discussions, the roles of genetics, food, and chemical exposures in cancer etiology were of great interest and a variety of opinions on the topic were explored. Both the focus group discussions and survey responses suggested that this population also faces barriers including lack of training, chemical exposures and inadequate personal protective equipment (PPE). These barriers are compounded by daily environmental exposures from personal home cleaning practices. The development of culturally- and linguistically-appropriate interventions are warranted to better protect the health of essential occupational cleaners who keep homes, businesses and schools clean.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T06:42:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221100045
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Determination of the Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater and its
           Potential Health Risk for Drinking in Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Binyam Gintamo, Mohammed Azhar Khan, Henok Gulilat, Rakesh Kumar Shukla, Zeleke Mekonnen
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study aimed to determine the physicochemical quality of groundwater and its potential health risk for drinking in Oromia, Ethiopia. The groundwater samples were collected from 17 sampling stations in the dry and wet season in the Sebeta zone, Oromia, from March to August 2020. Metals and physicochemical parameters, and selected heavy metals, such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) were monitored. The data were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods (Pearson’s Correlation and T-test). The means seasonal variations were higher in the dry season than in the wet season except for pH and Turbidity. The variation was significant for most parameters except Pb, Zn, chlorine, Total Alkaline, Magnesium Hardness, Calcium Hardness ), and Turbidity. There was a strong and positive correlation between Total dissolved solids (TDS) and Conductivity), (pH and Cr), (T.H. and Magnesium (Mg)), (bicarbonate and Calcium (Ca), (Zn and Turbidity) in the dry season; and (T.H. with Potassium (K), (Pb and Fe); (bicarbonate and T.H.); (Ca and Mg); (Na and T.A.,) in the wet season. The hazard index (H.I.) values in the dry season (HI = 1.331) were higher than in the wet season (HIadults = 0.075). Likewise, the H.I. (dry season) was higher (HIchildren = 1.861) than in the wet season (HIchildren = 0.105). Chronic groundwater exposure at drinking sources in the dry season is a potential health risk to humans in general and is relatively high for children. Urgent management and close monitoring are required for drinking groundwater sources and other nearby residents’ safety areas.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T12:42:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221096051
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Microbiological Quality of Indoor Air at Different Hospital
           Sites of Dilla University: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Zemachu Ashuro, Kuma Diriba, Abel Afework, Gose Husen Washo, Abriham Shiferaw Areba, Girum G/meskel Kanno, Habtamu Endashaw Hareru, Abdene Weya Kaso, Mehret Tesfu
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:In both residential and hospital indoor environments, humans can be exposed to airborne microorganisms. The hospital’s indoor air may contain a large number of disease-causing agents brought in by patients, staff, students, visitors, ventilation, or the outside. Hospitalized patients are at a higher risk of infection due to confined spaces, crowdedness, and poor infection prevention practices, which can accumulate and create favorable conditions for the growth and multiplication of microorganisms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the indoor air bacterial load in Dilla University Hospital, Southern Ethiopia.Methods:An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was used to assess the bacterial load in the indoor air at Dilla University Hospital. To determine the bacterial load, a passive air sampling technique was used. The settle plate method was used to collect data, which involved exposing Petri-dishes filled with blood agar media to the indoor air of the sampled rooms for 60 minutes.Result:A total of 72 indoor air samples were collected once a week for 2 weeks at 14-day intervals from 18 rooms in 8 wards, and samples were collected twice a day in the morning and afternoon. The mean bacterial concentrations ranged from 450 to 1585.83 CFU/m3 after 60 minutes of culture media exposure. The mean bacterial concentrations in the obstetrics, surgical, pediatric, gynecology, and medical wards exceeded WHO guidelines. A high indoor air bacterial load was found in 58 (80.6%) of the samples in this study. Gram-positive bacteria in the air were the most common 51 (71%) of the bacterial population measured in all indoor environments. Fungal growth was found in 65 (90.3%) of the samples. Temperatures (26.5°C-28.3°C) and relative humidity (61.1%-67.8%) in the rooms were both above WHO guidelines, creating favorable conditions for bacterial growth and multiplication.Conclusion:The majority of the wards at Dilla University Hospital had bacterial loads in the air that exceeded WHO guidelines. Overcrowding, high temperatures, inadequate ventilation, improper waste management, and a lack of traffic flow control mechanisms could all contribute to a high concentration of bacteria in the indoor air. To control the introduction of microorganisms by patients, students, caregivers, and visitors, it is critical to regularly monitor indoor air bacterial load and implement infection prevention and control measures.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T12:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221100047
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • A Global Perspective of Vibrio Species and Associated Diseases:
           Three-Decade Meta-Synthesis of Research Advancement

    • Authors: Hope Onohuean, Ezera Agwu, UU Nwodo
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Outbreaks of Vibrio infections have a long history of global public health concern and threat to the aquaculture industry. This 3-decade (1990-2019) meta-synthesis of global research progress in Vibrio species and associated disease outbreaks was undertaken to generate the knowledge needed to design effective interventions with policy implications. Using PRISMA protocol, we obtained data on the online version of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Web of Science (WOS), and Scopus from January 1990 to September 2021 by title search of the keywords “Vibrio species OR Vibrio spp. OR vibriosis.” On the 3-decade survey, the result has shown that a total of 776 publications document types were published on the subject, with an average of 24.25 ± 13.6 published documents per year with an annual growth rate of 4.71%. The year 2020 recorded the highest output of 52 published documents accounting for 6.70% of the total. The most prolific author, Blanch A., published 12 articles on the subject and has received citations of 1003 with an h-index of 10. While the most global cited paper author is the journal of J. Bacteriol (Bassler et al), receiving total citation (TC) (550) and per Year (22). The top active corresponding authors country is the United States of America with (92) articles, freq. 12.40%; TC of 3103. The observations in this study, such as the collaborations network map, and index, which have outlined a big difference between countries based on economic status, have underscored the need for a sustained research mentorship program that can define future policies.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T11:57:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221099406
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Urinary Pesticide Residual Levels and Acute Respiratory Infections in
           Children Under 5 Years of Age: Findings From the Offinso North Farm
           Health Study

    • Authors: Enoch Akyeampong, John R Bend, Isaac Luginaah, David Oscar Yawson, Samuel Jerry Cobbina, Frederick Ato Armah, Michael Osei Adu, David Kofi Essumang, Samuel Iddi, Paul K Botwe, Reginald Quansah
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Several environmental factors are associated with the risk of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) and upper respiratory infections (URIs) in children under 5 years of age (YOA). Evidence implicating chemical pesticides remains equivocal. There are also no data on this subject in these children in Ghana. This study investigated the association between urinary pesticide residual levels and the risk for ALRIs/URIs in children under 5 YOA.Methods:The participants for this study were from the Offinso North Farm Health Study, a population-based cross-sectional study. Two hundred and fifty four parents/guardians who had answered affirmatively to the question “Has your child ever accompanied you to the farm'” were interviewed on household socio-demographic and environmental factors, being breastfed, child education, age, gender, and respiratory infection. One hundred fifty children were randomly selected to provide the first void urine.Results:The proportion of children with ALRI was 22.1% and those with URI was 35.8%. We observed a statistically significant exposure-response relation of p,p′-DDE (tertile) with ALRI (1.7-3.2 µg/L urine: prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.22 [1.05-1.70], ⩾3.2 µg/L urine: 1.50 [1.07-3.53] [P-for trend = .0297]). This observation was in children older than two YOA (P-for trend = .0404). Delta-HCH and beta-HCH (2-levels) were significantly associated with ALRI but not URI. The risk of ALRI increased with deltamethrin levels in an exposure-response manner (2.5-9.5 µg/L urine: 2.10 [1.37-3.24], ⩾9.5 µg/L urine: 4.38 [1.87-10.32] [P-for trend = .0011]) and this was also observed in children older than two YOA. Similar observation was noted for URI. Bifenthrin (>0.5 µg/L urine) was positively associated with ALRI and URI whereas permethrin (⩾1.2 µg/L urine) was not associated only with URI.Conclusions:The present study supports the hypothesis that exposure to chemical pesticides is associated with respiratory infections in children under 5 YOA.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T12:39:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221094418
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Household Solid Fuel Use and Associated Factors in Ethiopia: A Multilevel
           Analysis of Data From 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

    • Authors: Mastewal Endalew, Daniel Gashayeneh Belay, Nuhamin Tesfa Tsega, Fantu Mamo Aragaw, Moges Gashaw, Melaku Hunie Asratie
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Solid fuels are types of fuel that comprise coal, biomass, charcoal, wood, or straw and are used for cooking, heating, lighting, boiling water, and generating revenue at home. Globally, 3 billion of the world’s poorest people continue to rely on inefficient solid fuels, which produce health-damaging contaminants. In Ethiopia, more than 90% of households rely on wood as their primary source of energy. The actual and potential determinants of solid fuel use have not been fully identified, particularly at the national level in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the magnitude of solid fuel use and its associated factors in Ethiopia. We used the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS), which was conducted in 2016. The data was conducted using a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling approach. A total of 16 650 weighted samples were taken. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with solid fuel use, and a cluster-level random intercept was introduced in the mixed model. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence level was reported to show the strength of the association and its significance. The goodness of fit of the model was checked using proportional change deviance (PCV). The magnitude of solid fuel use among households in Ethiopia was 94.03% (95% CI = 93.66, 94.37). Household heads completed in primary school (AOR, 3.09, 95% CI = 2.44, 3.91), outdoor cooking places (AOR, 4.13, 95% CI = 2.96, 5.76), and small peripheral regions (AOR, 14.44, 95% CI = 6.12, 34.04) were all significantly associated with solid fuel use. The intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that about 81% of the variations in the use of solid fuel were attributed to the difference at the 643 cluster level, but the remaining 19% were attributed to individual household factors. The PCV was 90%, which showed that the variation in solid fuel use among study households was explained by factors at both the individual and community levels. The deviation test of the fourth model had the lowest value (3528) and was chosen as the best-fitted model. Due to different influencing factors, the use of solid fuel is still high in Ethiopia. Promoting access to education and raising awareness toward solid fuel impact is very important.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T12:05:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221095033
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Spatio-Temporal Variation of Malaria Incidence and Risk Factors in West
           Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Eniyew Tegegne, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Awrajaw Dessie, Alebachew Shimelash, Biachew Asmare, Yikeber Argachew Deml, Yonas Lamore, Tegegne Temesgen, Biruk Demissie, Abraham Teym
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Introduction:Malaria is a life-threatening acute febrile illness which is affecting the lives of millions globally. Its distribution is characterized by spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Detection of the space-time distribution and mapping high-risk areas is useful to target hot spots for effective intervention.Methods:Time series cross sectional study was conducted using weekly malaria surveillance data obtained from Amhara Public Health Institute. Poisson model was fitted to determine the purely spatial, temporal, and space-time clusters using SaTScan™ 9.6 software. Spearman correlation, bivariate, and multivariable negative binomial regressions were used to analyze the relation of the climatic factors to count of malaria incidence.Result:Jabitenan, Quarit, Sekela, Bure, and Wonberma were high rate spatial cluster of malaria incidence hierarchically. Spatiotemporal clusters were detected. A temporal scan statistic identified 1 risk period from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2015. The adjusted incidence rate ratio showed that monthly average temperature and monthly average rainfall were independent predictors for malaria incidence at all lag-months. Monthly average relative humidity was significant at 2 months lag.Conclusion:Malaria incidence had spatial, temporal, spatiotemporal variability in West Gojjam zone. Mean monthly temperature and rainfall were directly and negatively associated to count of malaria incidence respectively. Considering these space-time variations and risk factors (temperature and rainfall) would be useful for the prevention and control and ultimately achieve elimination.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221095702
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Effect of School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene on Health Status Among
           Basic Level Students’ in Nepal

    • Authors: Mohan Kumar Sharma, Ramesh Adhikari
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Access to drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) at schools are the basic determinants of a child’s right to healthy and quality education. In Nepal, most of the schools had limited WASH facilities, including separate sanitation facilities for girls. The limited WASH facilities, unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation, and hygiene practices result in irresponsible behaviors that directly impede on students’ health. This study examines the association between WASH services and health status of basic level students’, ranging sixth to eighth grades. In Nepal, basic level education consists up to eighth standards from grade 1.Methods:The study applies causal-comparative research design within 2 groups; 1 having improved WASH and another without improved WASH services at the schools in Dhanusha and Chitwan districts of Nepal. Each group consists 2 schools, so altogether 4 schools were included in this study. Total 768, equal 384 respondents were selected from each improved and without improved WASH facilities. The study was conducted in between January and March 2021 at a single-phase time. The sample size was calculated using the standard statistical formula for the infinite population. The study applied quantitative research method, including 3 sorts of analysis; univariate, bivariate, and the multivariate. The univariate was applied to analyze the frequency and percentages of the respondents. Bivariate analysis was made applying chi2 test in order to show the association between 2 variables, whereas the multivariate logistic regression was performed through multilevel modeling to show the effects of school WASH facilities on students’ health status.Results:Out of 768 students’, 384 (50%) were from improved and 384 (50%) were from unimproved WASH facilities at schools. More than two third (64%) of respondents from the unimproved and higher than two fifth (41%) from the improved schools got sickness (P 
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T06:11:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221095030
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Household Water Treatment Practice and Associated Factors in Rural
           Households of Sodo Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia: Community-Based
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Amha Admasie, Kefelegn Abera, Fentaw Wassie Feleke
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Introduction:In Ethiopia, access to safe drinking water is very low, and even safe water at the point of distribution is subjected to frequent and substantial contamination during collection, transport, and storage. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of household water treatment practices and associated factors in rural households of the Sodo Zuria district, southern Ethiopia.Methods:A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 836 households using a multistage sampling technique. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used.Results:The household water treatment practice was 44.1%. Households having a higher estimated monthly income, AOR = 1.5 (1.23, 3.47), older age greater than 45 years, AOR = 1.69 (1.08, 2.64), fetching water twice a day, AOR = 2.8 (1.21, 9.17), weekly washing of the water storage container, AOR = 0.3 (0.11, 0.83), and using the dipping technique to draw water from the collection jar, AOR = 1.67 (1.14, 2.42) were significant factors in the practice of household water treatment in the study.Conclusions:The household water treatment practice was low. Higher estimated monthly income, older household heads, fetching water twice per day, washing the water storage container weekly, and dipping techniques to draw water from water storage containers were significant factors of household water treatment practices. Thus, proper hygiene of water storage, and engaging the community in income-generating activities were recommended.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T12:57:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221095036
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Effective Handwashing Practice in Dilla University Referral Hospital;
           Duration of Hand Rubbing and the Amount of Water as Key Enablers

    • Authors: Girum Gebremeskel Kanno, Kuma Diriba, Birtukan Getaneh, Abayneh Melaku, Negasa Eshete Soboksa, Samuel Yaw Agyemang-Badu, Belay Negassa, Awash Alembo, Miheret Tesfu Legesse, Aneley Cherenet, Belayneh Genoro Abire, Mekonnen Birhanie Aregu
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Ineffective hand hygiene in healthcare settings is a global challenge that is associated with a high rate of nosocomial infections. The study aimed to measure the effectiveness of handwashing at Dilla University referral hospital.Method:This study consisted of 2 parts; the survey work and laboratory analysis. A total of 63 participants were selected to take surveys using an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect the data regarding the socio-demographic and hand hygiene-related practices. A laboratory tests (swab test) was used to assess handwashing effectiveness from 63 participants by taking 126 swab test (63 before and after hand washing sessions). A swab test was collected from the palms of each participant before and after hand washing using a sterile technique. The cultures were then incubated aerobically overnight at 37°C, and examined for microbial growth. The bacterial load was reported as the number of colony-forming units (CFU).Result:The proportion of effective hand washing in Dilla University Referral Hospital was 82.5%. The mean colony-forming unit before and after handwashing were 55 and 2 CFU/ml, respectively with an average reduction of 94.6% in terms of CFU/ml. The mean amount of water used for effective handwashing was 336.03 (±219.46) ml. There was a significant mean difference in the amount of water used and duration of hand rubbing between effective and non-effective handwashing among the participants (P 
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T11:18:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221093481
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Seasonal Variability Influence on the Prevalence of Diarrhoea among
           Under-Five-Year-old Children in Kersa District, Eastern Ethiopia: A
           Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    • Authors: Bezatu Mengistie, Tesfaye Gobena, Desalegn Admassu, Nega Assefa, Dinku Mekbib Ayele, Dechasa Adare Mengistu, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie, Waltaji Terfa, Zerihun Bikila, Muluken Azage
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The health effects of climate change have been found to be a global concern for the last 2 centuries. However, the effect of climate variability on diarrhoea among under-five-year-old children is perhaps undocumented or otherwise unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of climate variability on diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age.Methods:A community-based longitudinal study was conducted over 8 repeated visits from June 2016 to May 2018 at the Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center. A total of 500 randomly selected households and their 48 improved water sources were included in the survey from 3 agro-ecological zones, the rural and urban areas of the study area. Data was collected on household characteristics, diarrhoea, WASH practices, water quality and quantity in households, and improved water sources. A structured pre-tested questionnaire, an observational check list and laboratory tests were used for data collection. The data was entered into Epi Data Version 3.01 and transferred to Stata Version 12 for analysis. Multilevel mixed-effect Poisson regression was used to determine the relationship between predictors and outcome variables. A P-value of less than .05 was the cut-off point for statistically significant.Results:The prevalence of diarrhoea in 2 weeks among children under 5 years of age was 17.2% (95% CI: 15.8-19.71). Rainfall, E. coli contamination of drinking water at the source and in the home, 20 L of water consumption per capita per day, sharing water sources with animals and home water treatment by residents of the mid- and lowlands were all predictors of diarrhoea. The space-time scan statistic confirmed that child diarrhoea had random variation in both space and time.Conclusion:Climate variability has influenced the prevalence of diarrhoea among under-five-year-old children. Climate-resilient measures should be taken to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in the community.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T06:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221093480
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Socio-Environmental Determinants and Human Health Exposures in Arid and
           Semi-Arid Zones of Iran—Narrative Review

    • Authors: Laleh R. Kalankesh, Susana Rodriguez-Couto, Ali Alami, Shahla Khosravan, Mehdi Meshki, Elshen Ahmadov, Ali Mohammadpour, Narges Bahri
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Lifestyle is different in arid and semi-arid zones. However, where people are born and live have a lasting influence on their social and environmental exposure. This review focuses on the, various dimensions of environmental health imbalance inequality especially in significant environmental sources such as (ie, air, water, soil) among provinces that creates a big health gap in the center, East and the Southeast of Iran. Thus, the population of the arid and semi-arid zones of Iran is facing respiratory, cardiovascular, cancer and infection diseases linked to environmental problems such as chemical and microbial pollution due to air pollution and unsafe water sources, respectively. The prevalence of certain types of cancer such as skin, stomach, bladder, prostate and colorectal cancer together with some respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in arid and semiarid zones such as Kerman, Yazd, etc., has been reported in comparison with other provinces frequently. These impacts have effects on multiple levels of health security in those zones. Based on these concerns, we propose key questions that should guide research in the context of the socio environmental science to support science-based management actions in Iran and other similar semi-arid areas worldwide.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T06:18:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221089738
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of Some Gaseous and Trace Metal Emissions With Their
           Emission Factors From Various Brands of Mosquito Coils Used in Nigeria

    • Authors: Francis B Elehinafe, Oyetunji B Okedere, Temitayo E Oladimeji, Sarah O Anabui
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Mosquito coils of various brands are frequently burnt in indoor environments to drive away mosquitoes—the vector for malaria parasite in regions where the disease is endemic. Emissions from the coils could be a source of indoor air pollution. In this study, various brands of mosquito coils obtained from retail shops in Lagos, Nigeria were burnt in an environmental test box with a view to characterizing carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the gaseous emissions as well as elemental concentrations of the ash. Emission characterization achieved with the RAS1700 bio-gas analyzer while AAS was adopted for elemental analysis of the mosquito coil ashes. The emission factor of CO, NO and NO2 from the coil samples ranged between 0.00138 to 0.26277 μg/m3, 0.0002 to 0.00454 μg/m3, and 0.000074 to 0.00714 μg/m3, respectively. These values were found to be lower than permissible indoor levels recommended by NIOSH. The range of concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Hg, Fe in the coil ashes from all the brands were 0.02 to 0.04 mg/g, 0.011 to 0.02 mg/g, 0.001 to 0.003 mg/g, 0.004 to 0.008 mg/g, 0.004 to 0.006 mg/g, 0.0001 to 0.0004 mg/g, 0.001 to 0.003 mg/g, and 0.124 to 0.14 mg/g, respectively. Although, the concentrations of the pollutants obtained in this study are within the recommended limits, prolong exposure could trigger chronic disease conditions. Adequate ventilation of indoor environments or utilization of mosquito nets in place of coils could be considered.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T12:57:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221091741
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Latrine Utilization and Its Associated Factors Among Community Led Total
           Sanitation Implemented and Non-Implemented Kebeles of Tullo District, West
           Hararge, Eastern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mohammed Murad, Dinku Mekbib Ayele, Tesfaye Gobena, Fitsum Weldegebreal
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Improper human waste management is a major health problem in most developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, the majority of the population used unimproved sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. This problem is significantly higher in the rural parts of the country.Objective:The aim of this study was to assess latrine utilization and associated factors among Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) implemented and non-implemented kebeles in Tullo District, West Hararghe, and Eastern Ethiopia.Methods:A community-based comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted in 740 households in 3 kebeles Community Led Total Sanitation implemented and 3 kebeles non-Community Lead Total Sanitation implemented for comparison. Study units were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. The data was cleaned and coded before being entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between dependent and independent variables.Result:In this study, the overall prevalence of latrine utilization in the study area was 415 (56.1%) (95% CI = 52.6%, 59.9%). Of them, 243 (65.7%) (95% CI = 60.4%, 70.3%) and 172 (46.5%) (95% CI = 41.3%, 51.7%) of participants in the CLTS and non CLTS kebeles were utilized latrine, respectively. In CLTS implemented kebeles, literate (AOR = 3.66; 95% CI: 1.53, 8.73), households being visited by health extension worker (AOR = 11.72; 95% CI: 4.01, 34.31), households being graduated as model family(AOR = 7.56, 95% CI: 2.79, 20.44), ⩾2 years by years of latrine owning (AOR = 12.10, 95% CI: 3.21, 45.64),>6 meters distance of toilet to home (AOR = 27.43, 95%CI: 8.43, 89.29),Latrine with hand washing (AOR = 2.93, 95%CI: 1.19, 7.17), latrine with superstructure (AOR = 6.54, 95% CI: 2.04, 20.98) were significantly associated with latrine utilization, while in non CLTS implemented kebeles, literate (AOR = 25.78, 95% CI: 13.35, 49.78), medium wealth status(AOR = 4.87, 95% CI: 2.10, 11.29), poor wealth status(AOR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.26, 5.01) were significantly associated with latrine utilization.Conclusion:The findings of this study revealed that more of the rural households had utilized latrines in CLTS implemented kebeles than non-CLTS implemented’ kebeles. So, it is recommended that the district health office increase the latrine utilization rate through the effective and sustainable implementation of the CLTS approach.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T12:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221091737
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Service Ladders and Childhood Diarrhea in
           Haramaya Demographic and Health Surveillance Site, Eastern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Samuel Wagari, Haileyesus Girma, Abraham Geremew
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) service ladders are worldwide indicators for monitoring drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene elements of the sustainable development goal targets. However, evidence on how the prevalence of childhood diarrhea looks across the service ladders is limited. This study aimed to assess the relationship between WASH service ladders and the prevalence of childhood diarrhea in Haramaya Demographic and Health Surveillance site, Eastern Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire, observational checklist, and water quality analysis was conducted on 535 households with children under 5 years of age. Poisson regression with a robust error variance estimator was used to investigate the relationship between dependent and independent variables.Results:The prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children in the surveillance site was 24.8% (95% CI: 22.3-27.6). The regression model revealed that water and sanitation service ladders were associated with childhood diarrhea. Childhood diarrhea was found to be 73% (APR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12-0.57) less common in families with a basic water service ladder than in households with a surface water service ladder. In addition, children in households with basic sanitation services had 83% (APR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05-0.56) lower diarrhea prevalence than children in households where open defecation was practiced.Conclusion:The present study found that childhood diarrhea differed considerably among WASH service levels and continues to be a serious health problem at the surveillance site. This study also shows that much work is needed to improve WASH services.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T12:54:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221091416
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Utilization of Latrine and Associated Factors Among Rural Households in
           Takussa District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional
           Study

    • Authors: Nuruhusan Omer, Bikes Destaw Bitew, Garedew Tadege Engdaw, Atalay Getachew
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The use of sanitation facilities is known to interrupt the transmission of fecal-oral related diseases. However, the evidence was limited about the utilization of latrines within the rural community of Takussa district. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the utilization of latrines and associated factors among households in Takussa district, northwest Ethiopia.Methods:A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed to survey 801 rural households among initially computed 812 participants from February 15 to March 15, 2019. A structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews was used to collect the data. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the completed data. A binary logistic regression model was used to process bivariate and multivariable analysis of the data. The adjusted odds ratio was used for the interpretation of the data after controlling for the confounders.Results:The proper latrine utilization rate was 41.9%, with a 95% confidence interval of (38.8, 45.3). Households with school-aged children (AOR: 2.27, 95% CI: (1.44, 3.56), a clean latrine (AOR: 3.34, 95% CI: (1.26, 4.93), the optimal distance from the living room (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: (1.09, 2.25), and perceived benefit (AOR: 3.64, 95% CI: (1.13, 11.67) were statistically associated factors.Conclusion:The Proper utilization of latrines was low among rural households in the Takussa district. School children, distance, cleanliness, and the benefit of latrines were statistically associated factors. As a result, encouraging health extension workers integrated into district schools to pay special attention to frequent follow-up in order to promote proper latrine utilization at the household level.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T05:25:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221091742
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated With Handwashing With Soap
           After Defecation in a Rural Setting of 2 Districts of the Jimma Zone,
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Negasa Eshete Soboksa
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Handwashing with soap can prevent the spread of fecal oral microbes in the home environment. Despite the lack of water and for a variety of reasons, soap-based handwashing is not practiced in developing countries after defecation.Objective:The objective of the study was to determine the environmental and behavioral factors associated with hand washing with soap after defecation of respondents with children under the age of 5 years in a rural setting.Methods:Data used were taken from 756 households with children under the age of 5 that participated in a cross-sectional study conducted from July 22 to August 9, 2018, in 2 selected districts in the Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. It included post-defecation hand washing with soap and other variables such as sociodemographic information, environmental and behavioral factors. Stata version 16 was used to analyze the data. We use binary logistic regression models. To declare statistical significance, a P-value of less than .05 with an adjusted odds ratio and a confidence interval of 95% was used.Results:The prevalence of soap-based post defecation hand washing practices among respondents was 64.4%. Hand washing practice after defecation with soap has a significant association with having more than 1 child under 5 years of age (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.05-2.45), households living with cattle (AOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.30-3.07), use of unimproved latrine (AOR = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.31-0.98), with the presence of feces in the compound of the households interviewed (AOR = 7.08; 95% CI: 4.07-12.35) and regular cleaning water containers before filling drinking water (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.13-4.15).Conclusions:Most of the study participants washed their hands with soap after defecation. The presence of feces in the compound, having more than 1 child, living with cattle, and cleaning water containers routinely before filling drinking water all enhanced post-defecation handwashing with soap. However, when using unimproved latrines, respondents’ post-defecation handwashing behavior with soap may be significantly reduced.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T05:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221091421
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Indoor Levels of Carbon Monoxide Emission from Smoldering
           Mosquito Coils Used in Nigeria

    • Authors: Francis Boluwaji Elehinafe, Oyetunji Babatunde Okedere, Adewole Johnson Adesanmi, Eniola Mistura Jimoh
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Mosquito coils are commonly burnt in indoor environments to drive away mosquitoes which are vectors for malaria parasites. The levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emitted and human health implications during smoldering of 5 different brands of mosquito coils commonly used in Nigeria were investigated in 4 microenvironments of different sizes. The experiments were done by taking a scenario of a sleeping arrangement and the farthest distance between the coil burning and an arbitrary bed position in 4 different bedrooms of different sizes in poor ventilation condition of closed doors and windows. With monitoring device, ALTAIR 5X portable gas analyzer, at the position of the bed, measurements were taking at 2 minutes interval from start to the end of burning of each coil. The emission profile was determined by making concentration-time plots of CO emission to determine its levels from the burning of each brand of the mosquito coils in each microenvironment. From the emission profile, coils A, C, and D showed that CO levels exceeded Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) and the World Health Organization (WHO) statutory limit of 9.0 ppm for indoor environments in each of the microenvironments between 3 and 7 hours after the burning commenced. It was concluded that the CO concentrations from smoldering mosquito coils is a function of the size of the microenvironment in which it is used. It was recommended that the size of a microenvironment be determined for consumption of a mosquito coil before it is released into the market.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T05:21:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221091031
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Epidemiology of occupational hazards and injuries among fishermen at Tanji
           fishing site in The Gambia: an analytical cross-sectional study design

    • Authors: Amadou Barrow, Amadou Kongira, Musa Nget, Saikou Omar Sillah, Solomon PS Jatta, Mansour Badjie, Rex A Kuye
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Fishing is a well-known industry, and there are certain risks of work-related diseases and accidents, occupational hazards and safety issues. This study aimed at examining the determinants of occupational hazards and injuries among fishermen at Tanji fishing site, a major fish-landing site in the Gambia, West Africa. An analytical cross-sectional design was conducted in August to October 2019. Structured questionnaires were administered to fishermen at Tanji fishing site. A simple random sampling method was used to select fishermen in this study. Data entry and processing for preliminary data analysis was done using Stata version 15. Descriptive and bivariate analysis using chi-square/fisher exact test as well as binary logistics regression analysis were used. The adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and confidence intervals of 95% were calculated. A P-value 
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T09:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221088699
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Handwashing Practices and Its Predictors Among Primary School Children in
           Damote Woide District, South Ethiopia: An Institution Based
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Amha Admasie, Alemu Guluma, Fentaw Wassie Feleke
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Handwashing in schools with soap could substantially reduce diarrhea and respiratory infections among school-age children; however, in low-and-middle-income countries, handwashing is still being practiced to a very low extent in particular critical moments such as before eating and after using the toilet. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the level of handwashing practice and its predictors among primary school children in South Ethiopia.Methods:A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage cluster sampling technique from 6 primary schools with 580 students in total. Schools were purposively selected and the students were random. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires administered by interviewers and trained data collectors. Data were entered using Epi Data and exported to SPSS software for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyzes were used.Result:Proper handwashing practice was reported in 28.10% (95% CI, 24.5, 31.7%) of students. Being eighth grade (AOR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.52, 8.23), urban residence (AOR = 18.84, 95% CI 14.02, 23.29], having parents (AOR = 10.74; 95% CI 8.80-12.36), role model teachers (AOR = 6.45; 95% CI 5.52-8.99), role model health professionals (AOR = 9.62; 95% CI 2.70-14.19), and school handwashing facility (AOR = 3.84, 95% CI 3.60, 4.07) were predictors of proper handwashing practice.Conclusions:Proper handwashing practice among schoolchildren was found below. Therefore, promoting and improving handwashing practices and preparing handwashing facilities in schools is mandatory to address the handwashing practice gap among primary school students in the study area.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T01:16:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221086795
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Community’s Perception Toward Single-Use Plastic Shopping
           Bags and Use of Alternative Bags in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Bikila Misgana, Gudina Terefe Tucho
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The use of plastic shopping bags increases and poses tremendous pressure on the local environment. However, little is known about its utilization among different population categories and their perception of its utilization and willingness to use other sustainable alternatives. This study aimed to assess the community’s perception toward the use of plastic shopping bags and its options in Jimma town, EthiopiaMethods:A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study design was conducted on 351 customers and retailers selected from the town’s main marketing areas. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire in a face-to-face interview and analyzed using SPSS v.21.Results:The results show that all the respondents use plastic shopping bags for different shopping services. The majority (147 (41.9%)) of the respondents said that they use 5 to 10 shopping bags, and 66 (18.8%) use more than 10 shopping bags per week. Participants responded with different reasons for the frequent use of plastic bags for shopping. Accordingly, 116 (33.0%) responded that plastic bags are cheap, 92 (26.2%) use them due to lack of alternatives, and 89 (25.4%) responded that plastic bags are light and convenient to use. However, 326 (93%) of the respondents support efforts to reduce single-use plastic bags, 284 (80.9%) support a ban on single-use plastic bags, and 319 (90%) were willing to pay for alternative shopping bags.Conclusion:Communities are aware of the environmental problems associated with the intensive use of plastic shopping bags, their wastes, and the need for alternative options. However, it will continue to pose significant environmental challenges unless low-cost and environment-friendly alternative options are available.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T10:44:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221085047
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Self Reported Hearing Impairments and Associated Risk Factors Among Metal
           and Woodwork Workers in Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia

    • Authors: Eshetu Abera Worede, Walelegn Worku Yalew, Sintayehu Daba Wami
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The global prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss ranges between 16% and 24%. The wood and metalwork industries have recently expanded in Ethiopia. This study aims to determine the level of noise exposure and the prevalence of self-reported hearing impairments and associated risk factors among metal and woodworkers in Gondar town Ethiopia.Material and Methods:An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 580 metal and woodwork workers from February10 to March 25/2020. The data were collected through an interviewer-led questioner and the noise level measurement. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used. P-values less than .05 and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95%CI were used to declare the presence and strength of an association respectively.Result:The mean (SD) average noise exposure level in the wood and metalworking industries was 96.9 ± 3.5 dBA and 96.2 ± 4 dBA, respectively. The overall prevalence of self-reported hearing impairment was 20.7% [95%CI: (17.4-24)]. In an adjusted Poisson regression, listening to music with earphones for more than 2 hours per day (PR = 2.95, 95%CI: 1.32, 6.21) and listening to music at maximum volume (PR = 2.24, 95%CI: 1.05, 4.79) were associated with hearing impairments.Conclusion:The majority of workers are exposed to noise levels that exceed OSHA’s permissible exposure limit value. A hearing conservation program should be implemented to reduce noise exposure levels in the wood and metal work industries. Workers should be aware of the duration and volume of recreational noise exposure.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T10:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221084868
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Occupational Injuries and Associated Factors Among Small-Scale Woodwork
           Industry Workers in Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Belete Girma, Amanuel Ejeso, Zemachu Ashuro, Mekonnen Birhanie Aregu
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Occupational injuries are still a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of disability, morbidity, and mortality. This study aimed to assess occupational injuries and associated factors among workers in the small-scale woodworking industry in Hawassa city, southern Ethiopia.Materials and Methods:An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 418 randomly selected small-scale woodworking industry workers. Questionnaires and an observational checklist were used to collect data. The data was entered into Epi data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% CI and P 
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T08:23:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221080829
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • A Focus on Methodology: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Conduct a
           Comprehensive Evaluation of the Need for One Health Education for Medical
           and Veterinary Students in the Context of COVID-19

    • Authors: Rohini R Roopnarine, Ellen Boeren
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The collaboration of health professionals across the interface of human, animal and environmental health, as embodied by the One Health concept (OH), is increasingly recognised as crucial for tackling diseases such as Ebola and COVID-19. This study was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, but in light of the current pandemic, the outcomes of this study highlight the need for educating Medical (MD) and Veterinary (DVM) students on the principles of OH. The purpose of this study was to determine the need for Interprofessional Education (IPE) initiatives that would familiarise MD and DVM students with the principles of OH, crucial to dissolving the siloes that have historically deterred collaboration.Method:We used a sequential explanatory Methods Research (MMR) approach design to evaluate the readiness of 428 students consisting of MD, DVM and dual degree Master of Public Health (MPH) students (MD/MPH, DVM/MPH) for IPE, as well as to obtain faculty perspectives across these disciplines, on the need for curricula inclusion of IPE and OH. Two methods of data collection were employed: A survey and 2 focus groups interviews.Results:The use of an MMR approach allowed us to comprehensively evaluate the need for OH education through the lenses of the students and faculty using a joint display that facilitated data integration and evaluation. Overall, the dual degree students had the greatest readiness for IPE, and MD students the lowest level of readiness for shared learning. The dual degree students had the most accurate understanding of OH competencies that consider the impacts of climate change, food security, antimicrobial resistance, health policy formation and zoonoses occurrence on human health. Themes derived from the focus group interviews revealed that faculty perceived OH education as crucial for preparing MD and DVM students for practice.Conclusion:The comprehensive assessment of the student and faculty perspectives, obtained using an MMR approach, illustrated that the incorporation of OH competencies within the MD and DVM curricula are crucial for preparing students for practice in the global environment. The dual degree pathway provides insight into how OH can be successfully incorporated within the curricula of these programmes.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T09:13:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221080826
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Moving Up the Sanitation Ladder: A Study of the Coverage and Utilization
           of Improved Sanitation Facilities and Associated Factors Among Households
           in Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Abel Afework, Hunachew Beyene, Adane Ermias, Aiggan Tamene
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Improved sanitation facilities offer numerous advantages, ranging from the reduction of diarrheal illnesses and helminth infections to the improvement of psychosocial well-being. At the household level, attaining universal access to improved sanitation facilities demands a thorough understanding of the factors that influence their adoption and use. As a result, the purpose of this study was to assess the availability and utilization of improved sanitation facilities, as well as the factors that influence the adoption and proper use of such a facility among households in the Gedeb district of Southern Ethiopia.Methods:A community-based cross-sectional household survey was conducted from March to April 2019. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 630 households at random. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the respondents’ self-reported data, which comprised socio-demographic, home characteristics, behavioral, and environmental elements. The factors related to the availability and utilization of improved sanitation facilities were identified using multivariable logistic regression.Result:Improved sanitation facilities were present in 172 (27.3%) of the 630 households surveyed, with 111 (64.5%) of them being used properly. The availability of improved sanitation was associated with educational status [AOR = 2.73, 95% CI (1.59, 4.67)], upper wealth quintile [AOR = 2.18, 95% CI (1.21, 3.93)], ever hearing educational messages about latrines [AOR = 3.9, 95% CI (1.86, 8.18)], favorable attitude toward latrine construction [AOR = 2.81, 95% CI (1.67, 4.74)], and receiving support during construction [AOR = 3.78, 95% CI (2.15, 6.65)]. Furthermore, utilization was associated with the absence of children under the age of 5, knowledge of sanitation-related diseases, and a positive attitude toward latrine use.Conclusion:Both the availability of improved sanitation facilities and the rate at which they were used properly fell far short of the National Hygiene and Environmental Health Strategy’s goals. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on how to improve the availability of improved sanitation in Ethiopia.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T09:12:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221080825
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Insecticide-Treated Bed Net Utilization and Associated Factors Among
           Households in Ilu Galan District, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mulugeta Mekuria, Dereje Negasa Binegde, Jirenga Derega, Elias Teferi Bala, Bikila Tesfa, Berhanu Senbeta Deriba
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Introduction:Insecticide-treated mosquito nets are often used as a physical barrier to prevent infection of malaria. In sub-Saharan Africa, one of the most important ways of lowering malaria burden is the utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). However, there is no sufficient information on ITN utilization and its associated factors in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets and its associated factors among households in Ilu Galan district, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.Methods:A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ilu Galan district to select 550 households using systematic random sampling techniques. Interviewer-administered questionnaire and observational checklists were used to collect data. The collected data was entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 23 for analysis. The results were presented by texts, tables, and graphs. Both binary and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess factors associated with ITN utilization.Results:A total of 532 study participants responded to the questionnaire making a response rate of 96.7%. About 72.2%, [95% CI: 68.4%, 75.8%] of the respondents utilized insecticide-treated nets in the night before the day data was collected. Being female [AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.81], age less than 25 years [AOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.95], monthly income>1000 ETB [AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.69], and having more than 3 beds [AOR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.51] were significantly associated with ITN utilization.Conclusions:Insecticide-treated nets utilization was found to be low in this study. There is a gap between the ownership and ITN utilization. Sex, age, monthly income, and number of beds were factors associated with ITN utilization. The provision of behavioral change communication to the community on the importance of ITN utilization is compulsory.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T09:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221078122
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Sensitivity Patterns, Plasmid Profiles and Clonal Relatedness of
           Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From the Ashanti
           Region, Ghana

    • Authors: Hayford Odoi, Vivian Etsiapa Boamah, Yaw Duah Boakye, Cornelius Cecil Dodoo, Christian Agyare
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of most opportunistic nosocomial infections in Ghana. The study sought to characterize P. aeruginosa isolates from market environments, poultry farms and clinical samples of patients from 2 district hospitals in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The genetic relatedness, plasmid profiles and antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolates were investigated. Culture based isolation and oprL gene amplification were used to confirm the identity of the isolates. Susceptibility testing was conducted using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Random whole genome typing of the P. aeruginosa strains was done using Enterobacterial repetitive-intergenic consensus based (ERIC) PCR assay. The most active agents against P. aeruginosa isolates were ceftazidime (90%), piperacillin (85%), meropenem, cefipeme and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (81.6%). The isolates were most resistant to gentamycin (69%), ciprofloxacin (62.1%), ticarcillin (56.3%) and aztreonam (25%). About 65% (n = 38) of the multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa isolates harbored 1 to 5 plasmids with sizes ranging from 2 to 116.8 kb. A total of 27 clonal patterns were identified. Two major clones were observed with a clone showing resistance to all the test antipseudomonal agents. There is therefore a need for continued intensive surveillance to control the spread and development of resistant strains.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T06:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221078117
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Evaluating the Effects of Modified Windscreens on Organic Vapor Monitor
           Performance

    • Authors: Savannah R Jones, Jacob S Shedd, Jonghwa Oh, Claudiu T Lungu
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Passive sampling using diffusive samplers has become popular as a convenient means of occupational compliance sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, diffusive samplers possess sensitivity limitations when sampling low concentrations and for short durations. To reduce these limitations, our research team has been developing a novel method of sample recovery called photothermal desorption (PTD), which uses high energy visible light pulses to desorb analytes from sampling media. Newly designed passive samplers that will use PTD will be equipped with windscreens in a similar design with the 3M OVM. In a preliminary design effort, the present work sought to find a suitable, windscreen for future use in a PTD-compatible diffusive sampler prototype that would be similar to those found in commercially available diffusive samplers. To do so, 2 stainless steel windscreens (wire diameters 0.015″ and 0.0055″ respectively) were compared to a standard windscreen by exposing modified (ie, steel mesh installed) and non-modified 3M OVM samplers to 3 analytes. To mimic in-field conditions, each sampler was exposed to analyte concentrations at their short-term and personal exposure limits (STELs and PELs). From these comparisons, it was determined that the 0.0055″ mesh was most similar to the standard windscreen in contributing to sample collection based on the uptake and concentration determinations for each analyte and concentration.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-12T06:50:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221078430
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Risk of Cancer in a Community Exposed to Per- and Poly-Fluoroalkyl
           Substances

    • Authors: Mindi F Messmer, Jeffrey Salloway, Nawar Shara, Ben Locwin, Megan W Harvey, Nora Traviss
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) emissions from a plastic coating industrial source in southern New Hampshire (NH) have contaminated at least 65 square miles of drinking water. Prior research indicates that high levels of PFAS are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes, including an increased risk of cancer. Reports indicate that mean blood serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), one type of PFAS, in residents of the exposed community are more than 2 times greater than the mean blood serum level in the US. Merrimack public water supply customers also have higher average blood levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) than the time—matched US average. A 2018 report concludes that the incidence rate of cancer in Merrimack does not exceed the incidence rate of cancer in NH in general. However, prior reporting on the risk of cancer in Merrimack is compared only to a state-wide metric influenced by the Merrimack cancer incidence.Methods:Our ecological study compared the risk in Merrimack, NH residents for 24 types of cancer between 2005 and 2014, targeted in a previous study, and all-cause cancers, to US national cancer rates and cancer rates in demographically similar towns in New England. Four New England “unexposed towns” were chosen based on demographic similarity to Merrimack, with no documented PFAS exposure in water supplies. We utilized unadjusted logistical regression to approximate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) assessing the risk of cancer in Merrimack NH to each of the 4 comparator communities, the pooled comparator variable, and national average incidence.Results:Residents of Merrimack, NH experienced a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer (RR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.12-1.93), bladder cancer (RR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.17-1.81), esophageal cancer (RR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.1-2.65), and mesothelioma (RR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.09-5.34), compared to national averages. Our work also suggests that Merrimack residents experienced a significantly higher risk of all-cause cancer (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.25-1.43), thyroid cancer (RR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.19-2.39), colon cancer (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.57), and prostate cancer (RR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.15, 1.6) compared with similarly exposed New England communities. Our results indicate that residents of Merrimack may also have a significantly lower risk of some site-specific cancers compared to national averages, including lower risk of prostate cancer (RR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.5-0.66), female breast cancer (RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.52-0.68), ovarian cancer (RR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.84) and cervical cancer (RR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.12-0.69).Conclusion:Merrimack residents experienced a significantly higher risk of at least 4 types of cancer over 10 years between 2005 and 2014. Merrimack is a community with documented PFAS contamination of drinking water in public and private water sources. Results indicate that further research is warranted to elucidate if southern NH residents experience increased risk for various types of cancer due to exposure to PFAS contamination.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-12T06:47:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221076707
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Insights into Diversity in the Environmental Health Science Workforce

    • Authors: Jo Anne G Balanay, Stephanie L Richards
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221077513
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Pesticide Use Knowledge, Attitude, Practices and Practices Associated
           Factors Among Floriculture Workers in Bahirdar City, North West, Ethiopia,
           2020

    • Authors: Mastewal Endalew, Mulat Gebrehiwot, Awrajaw Dessie
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Pesticides are substances that are used to kill, decrease, or repel pests and are used extensively to boost agricultural production. Ethiopian floriculture is one of the pesticide-intensive agricultural production centers and it provides jobs for 1000s of Ethiopians. Despite its significant contribution to the national economy, many issues are raised by the workers. The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and factors associated with the practices of workers against pesticide exposure among floriculture workers in Bahirdar city. A cross-sectional occupational study was done. The participants were recruited using a stratified sample technique. The final study participants were chosen using a simple random sampling procedure. The survey received 300 responses, 95.2% response rate from the entire sample size. The mean age of floriculture workers was 20 (SD ± 3.21) years, with a range of 17 to 48 years. The majority of workers (228) were females, and 36 (12.0%) of workers were illiterate. About 259 (86.3%) of floriculture workers did not know the name of the pesticide they were using. More than three-fourth 256 (85.3%) of respondents know at least one type of pesticide-related health problem. In this study, the most known type of pesticide routes of entry into the body were eyes (72.3%), skin (67.3%) followed by ingestion (67.0%). About 100 (33.3%) of the participants had good overall knowledge related to pesticide use and 134 (44.7%) of workers had a positive attitude on safe pesticide application. The level of good practice was 61.3% (N = 184). Knowing the impact of pesticide on environment (AOR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.96), Knowing pesticide health problems, (AOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.20-0.63), willingness to wear and invest for PPE (AOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.28-0.98) and PPE supply (AOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.16-0.51) were significantly associated with workers pesticide handling practices. Workers who didn’t know pesticide health problems were 36% less likely to have a good practice. The likelihood of having good practices among works who disagree to wear and invest on PPE 53% lower than those who agree on it. The likelihood of having good practices among workers who didn’t have any PPE supply was lower than their counterparts with (AOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.16-0.51). Floriculture workers had poor handling practices therefore continuous pesticide training programs for workers could be implemented.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:17:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221076250
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Determinants of Organic Fertilizers Utilization Among Smallholder Farmers
           in South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mitiku Wale Muluneh, Getaneh Abebe Talema, Koyachew Bitew Abebe, Belete Dejen Tsegaw, Mahider Abere Kassaw, Aschalew Teka Mebrat
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Adoption of organic fertilization is low among farmers in rural areas of Ethiopia, affecting yields and general food security in the region. This study aimed to identify the determinants of the utilization of organic fertilizers among smallholder farmers in the South Gondar Zone, Amhara National Regional State (ANRS), Northwest Ethiopia.Methods:A community-based cross-sectional study was used among smallholder farmers in the South Gondar Zone, ANRS, Northwest Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from 420 sample respondents using multistage sampling with a combination of both simple random and cluster sampling techniques. The binary logistic regression model was used to assess the use of organic fertilizers among smallholder farmers in the South Gondar Zone. The results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results:head of household age (AOR = 1.099, 95% CI 1.018-1.187), married marital status (AOR = 10.506, 95% CI 1.355-81.427), literate head of household (AOR = 3.323, 95% CI 1.571-7.029), number of laborers (AOR = 1.442, 95% CI 1.060-1.962), farming experience (AOR = 1.132, 95% CI 1.041-1.232), farm size (AOR = 1.063, 95% CI 1.008-1.121), and number of livestock (AOR = 1.368, 95% CI 1.115-1.677) were positively associated with the utilization of organic fertilizer while single marital status (AOR = 0.062, 95% CI 0.004-0.851), cost of laborer (AOR = 0.965, 95% CI 0.951-0.978), household income (AOR = 0.880, 95% CI 0.824-0.939), medium soil fertility (AOR = 0.039, 95% CI 0.007-0.229), fertile soil (AOR = 0.020, 95% CI 0.003-0.120), and home to farm distance (AOR = 0.219, 95% CI 0.067-0.717) were negatively associated with the utilization of organic fertilizer.Conclusions:This finding showed that multiple variables have an effect to determining the use of organic fertilizer by smallholder farmers. Therefore, the finding is important to adopt programs to encourage the use of organic fertilizer, implement policies in an attempt to adapt the use of organic fertilizer among the South Gondar Zone, and critically consider these factors. Furthermore, extension workers should focus on raising awareness about the importance of organic fertilizers to encourage or expand their use among smallholder farmers.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T08:08:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221075448
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Abattoir Workers Toward Abattoirs
           Waste Management in Eastern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Sina Temesgen Tolera, Fekade Ketema Alemu, Dechasa Adare Mengistu
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:During meat production, a large amount of wastes are generated that consist of feces, tissue waste, blood, fat, bone, animal trimmings, intestinal content, and urine that can be a potential risk to humans and the environment. Low knowledge, negative attitude, and poor practice can lead to poor waste management, which is more severe in developing countries like Ethiopia. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of abattoir workers toward abattoir waste management in Eastern Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Eastern Ethiopia’ abattoirs from 1st to 30th of January, 2020. Two hundred and sixty-seven (n = 267) abattoir workers in 4 selected abattoirs (Haramaya University, Haramaya town, Harar town and Dire Dawa City administration) were interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the strength between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice, and attitude and practice. A P-value of .05 was considered as a cut-off point for statistical significance.Results:This study revealed that 203 (76%) of the respondents had less knowledge, 69 (26%) had a positive attitude and 43 (16%) of them had a good practice toward abattoir waste management. There was a statistically significant difference between socio-demographic characteristics (education, work experience, and salary) and knowledge, attitudes and practices of the study participants. This study found moderate positive correlations between knowledge and attitude [r = .404, P = .013], weak positive correlations between knowledge and practice [r = .229, P = .009], and strong positive correlations between attitude and practice [r = .717, P = .023] of the abattoir workers toward waste management.Conclusion:This study concluded that more than one-quarter, less than one-quarter, and about 3-quarter of the participants had less knowledge, negative attitude, and poor practice, respectively toward abattoir waste management. Therefore, regulatory bodies and other relevant industries must implement effective control measures that can be important to increase the knowledge, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers toward waste management.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T08:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302221075450
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Healthcare Waste Management Practices and Associated Factors in Private
           Clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Berhanu Wassie, Binyam Gintamo, Zelalem Negash Mekuria, Zemichael Gizaw
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Healthcare waste management requires special attention and every healthcare teams should be involved in handling of wastes at point of generation. However, less attention is given to healthcare waste management in Ethiopia and there is no evidence about healthcare waste management practices in private clinics in Addis Ababa. Accordingly, this study was conducted to assess healthcare waste management practices and associated factors in private clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods:A health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 278 randomly selected private clinics in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using questionnaire and observational checklists. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with healthcare waste management practices on the basis of adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and P-values
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T07:05:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302211073383
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence of Pesticide Use and Occupational Exposure Among Small-Scale
           Farmers in Western Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tariku Neme Afata, Seblework Mekonen, Miftahe Shekelifa, Gudina Terefe Tucho
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Objective:This study aims to assess the prevalence of pesticide use and its occupational exposure among small-scale farmers in the Kellem Wellega Zone of western Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study design using a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 249 small-scale farmers’ households through face-to-face interviews. Statistical analysis such as descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression analysis was applied, and a P-value
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T07:02:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302211072950
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Bacteriological Quality of Locally Prepared Fresh Fruit Juice Sold in
           Juice Houses of Eastern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Dechasa Adare Mengistu, Yohannes Mulugeta, Dinku Mekbib, Negga Baraki, Tesfaye Gobena
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Currently, fresh fruit juices are widely consumed as a drink worldwide due to their nutritional values and health benefits. Fresh fruit juices are an important source of nutrients, vitamins, and fibers that are important for human health. Fruit juices are nutritious and perishable food that can serve as an ideal medium for the growth and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the bacteriological quality of locally prepared fresh fruit juices sold in juice houses of eastern Ethiopia from 4 April to 12 June 2020.Methods:A cross-sectional study was used that included administrative questionnaires and laboratory-based investigations. A total of 78 fruit juice samples that include mango, avocado, papaya, and mixed juices were collected aseptically from the juice houses. The most probable number method was used to determine the total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli. The pour plate count method was used to determine the total viable bacteria count. Finally, data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests that included analysis of variance, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. A P-value of .05 was considered as a cut-off point for statistical significance.Results:Among the 78 juice samples analyzed, 85.9% of the samples had total viable bacterial count, 64.1% had total coliform count, 60.3% had fecal coliform, and 33.3% of the samples had Escherichia coli higher than the maximum permitted level of Gulf standard 2000. The study found a significant association between bacterial contamination and educational status (χ2 = 31.663), training in food hygiene and safety (χ2 = 23.04), method of fruit preservation (χ2 = 17.98), place to keep the juice (χ2 = 13.7), action done with the juice gone bad (χ2 = 12.78), frequency of cleaning materials used to keep the juice (χ2 = 12.78), type of dish washing (χ2 = 19.75), availability of hand washing equipment (χ2 = 12.78), and types of waste receptacles (χ2 = 26.25) (P-value
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T06:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302211072949
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
  • Drinking Water Source, Chlorinated Water, and Colorectal Cancer: A Matched
           Case-Control Study in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Nebiyou Tafesse, Massimiliano Porcelli, Sirak Robele Gari, Argaw Ambelu
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 16, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:There is no study conducted on the association between disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in chlorinated drinking water and colorectal cancer (CRC) in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relation between chlorine based DBPs in drinking water and CRC in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods:A facility based matched case control study was conducted involving 224 cases and 448 population controls from June 2020 to May 2021. Cases were defined as histologically confirmed CRC cases. Cases were matched with controls by residence, age, and sex using frequency and individual matching. Geocoding of cases, health facility, and georeferencing of controls were carried out. Data was collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Pearson Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests were employed to assess associations. Stratified analysis was used to detect confounding factors and effect modification. A multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of CRC.Results:Of 214 CRC cases, 148 (69.2%) used chlorinated water whereas out of 428 controls 161 (37.6%) used chlorinated water. In the final regression model, drinking chlorinated surface water (adjusted matched odds ratio [adjusted mOR] = 2.6; 95% CI 1.7-4.0), history of swimming (adjusted mOR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1), years at the place of current residence (adjusted mOR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2), hot tap water use for showering (adjusted mOR; 3.8 = 95% CI 2.5-5.9) were significantly associated with CRC. The stratified analysis confirmed that smoking and meat ingestion were not effect modifiers and confounders.Conclusion:Drinking chlorinated water for extended years is a significant risk factor for CRC in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In addition, hot tap water use for showering, and swimming history are risk factors for CRC. This information is essential to design integrated interventions that consider chlorination by-products and exposure routes toward the prevention and control of CRC in Ethiopia. Initiating alternative methods to chlorine disinfection of drinking water is also essential.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T06:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786302211064432
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2022)
       
 
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