Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1478 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (700 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (700 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 203 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
Saúde Coletiva     Open Access  
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Saúde em Redes     Open Access  
Saúde.com     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
School Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Medica     Open Access  
Scire Salutis     Open Access  
Serviço Social e Saúde     Open Access  
Sextant : Revue de recherche interdisciplinaire sur le genre et la sexualité     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexual Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sexual Medicine Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Sleep and Vigilance : An International Journal of Basic, Translational and Clinical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sleep Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sleep Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SMAD, Revista Electronica en Salud Mental, Alcohol y Drogas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Smart Health     Hybrid Journal  
Social Determinants of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social Theory & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Work in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Social Work in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Social Work in Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Society, Health & Vulnerability     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sosiaalilääketieteellinen Aikakauslehti     Open Access  
South African Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Child Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Communication Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South East Asia Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South Eastern European Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Journal of Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Southern African Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Southwest Respiratory and Critical Care Chronicles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 51)
Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health     Open Access  
SSM - Population Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
SSM - Qualitative Research in Health     Open Access  
Stigma and Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sundhedsprofessionelle studier     Open Access  
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustinere : Revista de Saúde e Educação     Open Access  
System Safety : Human - Technical Facility - Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Tanzania Journal of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Technology and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tempus Actas de Saúde Coletiva     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The Journal of Aquatic Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Journal of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Lancet Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
The Lancet Planetary Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Lancet Regional Health : Americas     Open Access  
The Lancet Regional Health : Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Lancet Regional Health : Western Pacific     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Meducator     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Therapeutic Communities : The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Tidsskrift for Forskning i Sygdom og Samfund     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for psykisk helsearbeid     Full-text available via subscription  
Tobacco Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Tobacco Control and Public Health in Eastern Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Journal of Health Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Tropical Medicine and Health     Open Access  
TÜBAV Bilim Dergisi     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Universidad y Salud     Open Access  
Unnes Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Value in Health Regional Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Vascular Health and Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Vigilância Sanitária em Debate     Open Access  
Violence and Gender     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Water Quality, Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response     Open Access  
Women & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
World Health & Population     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
World Medical & Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Електромагнітна сумісність та безпека на залізничному транспорті     Open Access  
مجله بهداشت و توسعه     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Journal Cover
Tobacco Control
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0964-4563 - ISSN (Online) 1468-3318
Published by BMJ Publishing Group Homepage  [62 journals]
  • What more evidence is needed' Remove menthol cigarettes from the
           marketplace--now

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      Authors: Yerger; V.
      Pages: 493 - 494
      Abstract: Tobacco remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the USA and many other countries. However, among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.1 Every year, 45 000 African Americans prematurely and unnecessarily die from tobacco-caused diseases. An estimated 85% of them smoked menthol cigarettes.2 Menthol’s sensory properties reinforce smoking, increase uptake of nicotine and toxic smoke components, and discourage cessation. Menthol’s cooling, anaesthetic and analgesic effects ease initiation among new smokers by masking the harshness and irritation of tobacco smoke, reducing pain sensations in the mouth and throat, and enabling deeper inhalation that facilitates greater exposure to nicotine.3 On 3 March 2009, Representative Henry Waxman and 124 congressional cosponsors introduced H.R. 1256—the ‘Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.’4 Representative Waxman’s Committee Report expressed concerns about...
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2021-056988
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Worldwide news and comment

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      Authors: Evans-Reeves, K; Baker, J.
      Pages: 495 - 497
      Abstract: All articles written by Karen Evans-Reeves and John Baker unless otherwise attributed. Ideas and items for News Analysis should be sent to k.a.evans-reeves@bath.ac.uk Canada implements "slide and shell" packaging for cigarettes On 7 February 2022, Canada implemented the final phase of its plain packaging regulations by requiring that all cigarettes be sold at retail in the "slide and shell" format, something that no other country has done. Through the Tobacco Products Regulations (Plain and Standardised Appearance), the result is that the surface area for warnings on the package front and back increases substantially compared with flip top packages, even though the 75% warning minimum size has not changed. With the slide and shell package, the customer pushes up from the bottom an interior sliding compartment to open the package and remove cigarettes. While for flip top packages much of the warning at...
      Keywords: TC News analysis
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2022-057547
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Awareness and prevalence of e-cigarette use among Chinese adults: policy
           implications

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      Authors: Xiao, L; Yin, X, Di, X, Nan, Y, Lyu, T, Wu, Y, Li, X.
      Pages: 498 - 504
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo assess the awareness and prevalence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and associated factors among Chinese adults (15 years and older).MethodThis study examined data from Global Adults Tobacco Survey China Project, which was nationally representative and used stratified multiphase cluster randomised sampling design. Data were collected in 2018 through a household survey with in-person interviews using tablet computers. Complex sampling weighted analysis method was used.Results48.5% of Chinese adults had heard of e-cigarettes. The proportions of Chinese adults who had ever used, had used in the last 12 months, and currently used e-cigarettes were 5.0%, 2.2% and 0.9%, respectively; people in the 15–24 years group showed the highest rates of ever use, last 12-month use and current use at 7.6%, 4.4%, and 1.5%, respectively. Among males, higher e-cigarette use was associated with 15–24 years age group, college/university or above education, and daily use of combustible cigarettes. Among all e-cigarette users, 90.6% also used combustible cigarettes. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was smoking cessation (46.2%) while among ever smokers, 9.5% of ever e-cigarette users had quit smoking and 21.8% of never e-cigarette users had quit smoking (adjusted OR 0.454, 95% CI 0.290 to 0.712).ConclusionPrevalence of e-cigarettes among Chinese adults had increased since 2015, especially among young people aged 15–24. The high level of dual use and lower quit rate among e-cigarette users indicated e-cigarettes had not shown cessation utility at the population level in China. Regulation of e-cigarettes is needed to protect youth and minimise health risks.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056114
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Do health halos and conspicuous consumption influence the appeal and risk
           perceptions of e-cigarettes among young Cambodian men'

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      Authors: Stubbs, T; Thomas, S, Pitt, H, Daube, M.
      Pages: 505 - 510
      Abstract: IntroductionReduced risk perceptions influence young people’s consumption behaviours of e-cigarettes, suggesting that a health halo effect may be associated with these devices. Product, performative, and social factors contribute to the appeal of e-cigarettes, with young people using e-cigarettes with friends as part of social interactions. This study explored the factors that influence the appeal and risk perceptions associated with e-cigarettes among young Cambodian men.MethodsA mixed-method, interviewer-administered survey with 147 young men in Cambodia, who were aged between 18 and 24 years and identified as cigarette smokers. Participants described their attitudes and consumption behaviours surrounding e-cigarettes, recalled e-cigarette promotions, and described their risk perceptions towards e-cigarettes. Descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative data, and thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative data.ResultsSome participants associated e-cigarettes with affluence and exclusivity, describing these devices as products that rich and/or younger people use. Participants also described product attributes that were appealing about e-cigarettes, such as variety of flavours, vapour, and performing smoke ‘styles’ with friends, which differentiated the product from combustible cigarettes. Participants also had reduced risk perceptions towards e-cigarettes, with some commenting that e-cigarettes were not harmful or might be health-enhancing.ConclusionSome young people may perceive e-cigarettes as a form of conspicuous consumption, which they associated with social status and identity. A health halo effect appears to be associated with e-cigarettes among some young people. This may influence young people to underestimate the potential health risks associated with these devices.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056110
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Understanding commercial actors engagement in policy debates on proposed
           e-cigarette regulation in Scotland

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      Authors: Ikegwuonu, T; Hilton, S, Smith, K. E, Buckton, C. H, Wong, M, Weishaar, H. B.
      Pages: 511 - 519
      Abstract: IntroductionThere is growing concern about transnational tobacco corporations’ (TTCs) and other commercial actors’ involvement in e-cigarette policy development. Previous analyses suggest that TTCs used e-cigarette debates to demonstrate alignment with public health and re-gain policy influence. Less is known about the engagement of other types of commercial actors in e-cigarette policy debates.MethodsThis paper is the first to empirically analyse commercial actors’ engagement in an e-cigarette policy consultation process and to examine their views on proposed regulation. It applies mixed methods, drawing on policy consultation submissions (n=32), semi-structured interviews (n=9) and a social network analysis of website links among 32 commercial actors.ResultsThe results show that commercial actors’ positions on e-cigarette regulation aligned with business interests. TTCs, independent e-cigarette manufacturers and other non-licensed commercial actors were opposed to most aspects of potential e-cigarette regulation (except for age of sale restrictions), whereas licensed commercial actors, including pharmaceutical companies, supported more stringent regulation. While collaboration was viewed as strategically important to gain policy influence, distinct commercial interests and concerns about TTC credibility led to strategic distancing and to collaboration being largely confined to sector boundaries. In addition to reiterating arguments employed by TTCs in previous regulatory debates, commercial actors focused on highlighting the technical complexity and harm reduction potential of e-cigarettes.ConclusionAwareness of the various commercial interests and strategic positioning of commercial actors in e-cigarette policy should inform public health advocacy and policy development, including managing conflicts of interest in the context of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056084
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Heated tobacco product use and combustible cigarette smoking
           relapse/initiation among former/never smokers in Japan: the JASTIS 2019
           study with 1-year follow-up

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      Authors: Matsuyama, Y; Tabuchi, T.
      Pages: 520 - 526
      Abstract: BackgroundUse of heated tobacco products (HTPs), which were first launched in Japan, has been rapidly spreading worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate whether HTP use was associated with combustible cigarette smoking relapse/initiation among former/never combustible cigarette smokers.MethodsA prospective cohort study was conducted by analysing two waves of data from the Japan ‘Society and New Tobacco’ Internet Survey. Among the 7766 never/former combustible cigarette smokers who answered the baseline survey in 2019, 5947 (follow-up rate: 76.6%) responded to the follow-up survey in 2020 (age range 18–73 years old; 50.5% men). The association between HTP use and combustible smoking after 1 year was investigated by multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders.ResultsOf the respondents, 308 (5.2%) used HTPs at baseline. One year later, 97 (1.7%) non-HTP users and 39 (12.7%) HTP users were smoking combustible cigarettes. Among former smokers who had quit for 1 year or more and among never smokers, HTP use was significantly associated with combustible cigarette smoking 1 year later (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.42 to 5.52 and OR=9.95, 95% CI 3.39 to 29.16, respectively), while the association was not significant among former smokers who recently quit.ConclusionHTP use was associated with relapse/initiation of combustible cigarette smoking after 1 year. The risks of HTP use, including subsequent combustible smoking, should be carefully monitored.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056168
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Effects of flavourants and humectants on waterpipe tobacco puffing
           behaviour, biomarkers of exposure and subjective effects among adults with
           high versus low nicotine dependence

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      Authors: Keller-Hamilton, B; Mehta, T, Hale, J. J, Leavens, E. L. S, Shihadeh, A, Eissenberg, T, Brinkman, M. C, Wagener, T. L.
      Pages: 527 - 533
      Abstract: IntroductionFlavourants and humectants in waterpipe tobacco (WT) increase product appeal. Removal of these constituents, however, is associated with increased intensity of WT puffing, likely due to reduced nicotine delivery efficiency. To clarify the potential public health outcomes of restrictions on flavourants or humectants in WT, we evaluated the effects of these constituents on puffing behaviours, biomarkers of exposure and subjective effects among adults with high versus low WT dependence.MethodsN=39 high dependence and N=49 low dependence WT smokers (Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale scores >10 = high dependence) completed four smoking sessions in a cross-over experiment. Conditions were preferred flavour with humectant (+F+H), preferred flavour without humectant (+F-H), unflavoured with humectant (–F+H) and unflavoured without humectant (–F–H). Measures of puff topography, plasma nicotine and expired carbon monoxide (eCO) boost, and subjective effects were assessed.ResultsLevel of WT dependence modified the effect of WT condition on average flow rate, average puff volume and eCO boost. Although, overall, participants puffed the +F+H WT least intensely and –F–H WT most intensely, this association was strongest among WT smokers with high dependence. Participants preferred smoking the +F+H WT and achieved the largest plasma nicotine boost in that condition.DiscussionFindings underscore the complexity of setting product standards related to flavourants and humectants in WT. Future research evaluating whether WT smokers with high dependence would quit or reduce their WT smoking in response to removal of flavourants or humectants from WT is necessary to appreciate the full public health effects of such policies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056062
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of on-pack messages for e-liquids: a discrete choice study

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      Authors: Hoek, J; Gendall, P, Eckert, C, Louviere, J, Ling, P, Popova, L.
      Pages: 534 - 542
      Abstract: BackgroundPolicymakers wishing to encourage smokers unable to quit to switch to using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) also need to consider how to deter ENDS use among non-smokers. We examined whether reduced-risk messages could increase ENDS’ appeal among smokers and if increased-risk messages could decrease appeal among susceptible non-smokers, occasional and former smokers.MethodologyAn online discrete choice experiment tested three attributes: information message, nicotine content (0 mg or 3 mg) and flavour (tobacco, menthol or fruit). The sample comprised 352 current smokers, 118 occasional and former smokers, and 216 ENDS-susceptible never smokers. Smokers viewed reduced-risk messages that encouraged switching to ENDS, while other groups viewed increased-risk messages that discouraged ENDS use. All groups saw a typical addiction warning. We analysed the data by estimating multinomial logit regression and adjusted latent class analysis models.ResultsRelative to no message, reduced risk-messages increased the appeal of ENDS uptake among one class of smokers (33.5%) but decreased appeal among other smokers. However, among all smokers, reduced-risk messages increased preference more than a dissuasive addiction warning. By contrast, among occasional or former smokers, and susceptible non-smokers, all information messages discouraging ENDS use, including an addiction warning, decreased preference relative to no message.ConclusionsOn-pack relative-risk messages about ENDS could make transition more attractive to smokers while increased-risk messages could deter ENDS uptake among susceptible non-smokers, occasional and former smokers. Communicating diverse messages via discrete channels could recognise heterogeneity among and between smokers and non-smokers.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056033
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Identifying tobacco retailers in the absence of a licensing system:
           lessons from Australia

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      Authors: Baker, J; Masood, M, Rahman, M. A, Thornton, L, Begg, S.
      Pages: 543 - 548
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo estimate the proportion of retailers that sell tobacco in the absence of appropriate local government oversight, and to describe the characteristics by which they differ from those that can expect to receive such oversight.MethodsA database of listed tobacco retailers was obtained from a regional Victorian local government. Potential unlisted tobacco retailers were added using online searches, and attempts to visit all retailers were undertaken. GPS coordinates and sales type information of retailers that sold tobacco were recorded and attached to neighbourhood-level data on socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking prevalence using ArcMap. Logistic regression analyses, 2 tests and t-tests were undertaken to explore differences in numbers of listed and unlisted retailers by business and neighbourhood-level characteristics.ResultsOf 125 confirmed tobacco retailers, 43.2% were trading potentially without government oversight. Significant differences were found between listed and unlisted retailers by primary business type (p
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-055977
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Treatment use patterns in a large extended-treatment tobacco cessation
           program: predictors and cost implications

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      Authors: Veldhuizen, S; Zawertailo, L, Noormohamed, A, Hussain, S, Selby, P.
      Pages: 549 - 555
      Abstract: BackgroundTobacco dependence follows a chronic and relapsing course, but most treatment programmes are short. Extended care has been shown to improve outcomes. Examining use patterns for longer term programmes can quantify resource requirements and identify opportunities for improving retention.MethodsWe analyse 38 094 primary care treatment episodes from a multisite smoking cessation programme in Ontario, Canada that provides free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and counselling. We calculate distributional measures of weeks of NRT used, clinical visits attended and total length of care. We then divide treatment courses into four exclusive categories and fit a multinomial logistic regression model to measure associations with participant characteristics, using multiple imputation to address missing data.ResultsTime in treatment (median=50 days), visits (median=3) and weeks NRT used (median=8) were well below the maximum available. Of all programme enrolments, 28.8% (95% CI=28.3% to 29.3%) were single contacts, 31.3% (30.8% to 31.8%) lasted
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056203
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Evaluating the impact of menthol cigarette bans on cessation and smoking
           behaviours in Canada: longitudinal findings from the Canadian arm of the
           2016-2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys

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      Authors: Chung-Hall, J; Fong, G. T, Meng, G, Cummings, K. M, Hyland, A, O'Connor, R. J, Quah, A. C. K, Craig, L. V.
      Pages: 556 - 563
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo evaluate the impact of menthol cigarette bans in seven Canadian provinces between 2016 and 2018.MethodsLongitudinal data from the Canadian arm of the 2016 and 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. 1098 non-menthol and 138 menthol smokers were surveyed pre-menthol and post-menthol cigarette bans. Multivariate logistic regression models examined associations between pre-post ban changes in smoking behaviour, including differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers in quit attempts and quitting.ResultsAt follow-up, 59.1% of pre-ban menthol smokers switched to non-menthol cigarettes; 21.5% quit smoking and 19.5% still smoked menthols, primarily purchased from First Nations reserves. Menthol smokers were more likely than non-menthol smokers to make a quit attempt (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.61, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.51), and to remain quit (aOR=2.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.01). Menthol smokers did not differ significantly from non-menthol smokers in quit success (aOR=1.72, 95% CI 0.98 to 3.01); however, daily menthol smokers were more likely than daily non-menthol smokers to quit (aOR=2.21, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.24), and daily menthol smokers who quit before the ban were more likely than daily non-menthol smokers to remain quit (aOR=2.81, 95% CI 1.15 to 6.85).ConclusionsAlthough menthol smokers were most likely to switch to non-menthol cigarettes, the menthol ban was also significantly associated with higher rates of quit attempts and quit success among menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers, and may have helped to prevent relapse among menthol smokers who had quit smoking before the ban. Results confirm and extend evaluation of Ontario’s menthol ban across provinces covering 83% of the Canadian population.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056259
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • An estimation of the harm of menthol cigarettes in the United States from
           1980 to 2018

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      Authors: Le, T. T; Mendez, D.
      Pages: 564 - 568
      Abstract: BackgroundMenthol cigarettes are thought to encourage smoking initiation among youths and young adults and make it more difficult for smokers to quit, thus increasing cigarette harm. However, no study to date has quantified the damage that menthol cigarettes have caused the US population.ObjectiveTo estimate the excess smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and mortality in the US from 1980 through 2018 that can be attributed to menthol cigarettes.MethodsUsing a well-established simulation model of smoking prevalence and health effects and data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we first reproduced the overall US adult smoking prevalence between 1980 and 2018 (pseudo-R2=0.98) and associated mortality. Then we re-ran the model, assuming that menthol cigarettes were not present in the market over the same period. Finally, we compared both scenarios to quantify the public health harm attributable to menthol over the 1980–2018 period.ResultsFrom 1980 to 2018, we found that menthol cigarettes were responsible for slowing down the decline in smoking prevalence by 2.6 percentage points (13.7% vs 11.1% in 2018). Our results also show that menthol cigarettes were responsible for 10.1 million extra smokers, 3 million life years lost and 378 000 premature deaths during that period.ConclusionsWith millions of excess smoking initiators and thousands of smoking-related deaths due to mentholated cigarettes from 1980 through 2018, our results indicate that these products have had a significant detrimental impact on the public’s health and could continue to pose a substantial health risk. Our findings can assist the Food and Drug Administration in evaluating potential regulatory actions for mentholated tobacco products.
      Keywords: Editor's choice, Press releases
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056256
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Consequences of a match made in hell: the harm caused by menthol smoking
           to the African American population over 1980-2018

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      Authors: Mendez, D; Le, T. T. T.
      Pages: 569 - 571
      Abstract: BackgroundFor many years, national surveys have shown a consistently disproportionately high prevalence of menthol smokers among African Americans compared with the general population. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has quantified the harm that menthol smoking has caused on that population. In this work, we estimate the public health harm that menthol cigarettes have caused to the African American community over the last four decades.MethodsUsing National Health Interview Survey data, we employed a well-established simulation model to reproduce the observed smoking trajectory over 1980–2018 in the African American population. Then, we repeat the experiment, removing the effects of menthol on the smoking initiation and cessation rates over that period, obtaining a new hypothetical smoking trajectory. Finally, we compared both scenarios to calculate the public health harm attributable to menthol cigarettes over 1980–2018.ResultsOur results show that menthol cigarettes were responsible for 1.5 million new smokers, 157 000 smoking-related premature deaths and 1.5 million life-years lost among African Americans over 1980–2018. While African Americans constitute 12% of the total US population, these figures represent, respectively, a staggering 15%, 41% and 50% of the total menthol-related harm.DiscussionOur results show that menthol cigarettes disproportionally harmed African Americans significantly over the last 38 years and are responsible for exacerbating health disparities among that population. Removing menthol cigarettes from the market would benefit the overall US population but, particularly, the African American community.
      Keywords: Editor's choice
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2021-056748
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Herbal smoking products: a systematic content analysis and mapping of the
           e-retail market

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      Authors: Gupta, A; Sharda, S, Yogitha, P, Goel, S, Goyal, A, Gauba, K.
      Pages: 572 - 575
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo assess the online availability and e-marketing strategies of herbal smoking products (HSPs).MethodologyGoogle, Yahoo and Bing were searched using relevant keywords related to HSPs. The first 50 records were retrieved and duplicates were removed. Two trained and calibrated authors screened the records according to the eligibility criteria and extracted data from each selected retail-webpage as per the pre-tested data extraction form.ResultsOut of the initial 1044 records obtained, 73 retail webpages were finally included. Most of the webpages about HSPs hailed from India followed by the USA. The results showed 24 brands with about 189 flavour variants that are readily available online to all age groups including minors, with price per pack (20 sticks) of herbal cigarettes ranging from INR () 51 to 1830 (median 588). There are no regulations regarding the sale and marketing of HSPs concerning age restrictions and display of health warnings.ConclusionHSPs are readily available online at affordable prices and attractive variants for customers of all ages. The flavour appeal and the health benefit appeal is being used to target minors and young women. There is an urgent need for some regulations on the sale and e-marketing of such products that have an enormous potential to be used as a gateway to tobacco smoking.
      Keywords: Press releases
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056340
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Flavoured tobacco product restrictions in Massachusetts associated with
           reductions in adolescent cigarette and e-cigarette use

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      Authors: Hawkins, S. S; Kruzik, C, O'Brien, M, Levine Coley, R.
      Pages: 576 - 579
      Abstract: BackgroundIn the USA, many states do not pre-empt municipalities from enacting stricter tobacco-control policies than state or federal laws. Several municipalities in Massachusetts have passed progressive local laws aimed at reducing adolescent tobacco use. We exploited this variability to examine the associations between county-level flavoured tobacco product restrictions, tobacco 21 policies and smoke-free laws prohibiting e-cigarettes with adolescent cigarette and e-cigarette use in Massachusetts, and to assess whether policy effects varied by age.MethodsWe conducted difference-in-differences models to link changes in county-level tobacco-control policies to changes in adolescents’ use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes using 2011–2017 biennial Massachusetts Youth Health Surveys.ResultsCounties with greater implementation of flavoured tobacco product restrictions were associated with a decrease in the level of cigarette use among users (Coefficient –1.56; 95% CI –2.54 to –0.58). A significant interaction (p=0.03) revealed the largest reductions among 14 and 18 year olds. Increasing flavoured tobacco product restrictions were also associated with reductions in the likelihood of e-cigarette use (Coefficient –0.87; 95% CI –1.68 to –0.06). Increasing tobacco 21 restrictions were associated with decreases in cigarette use only among 18 year olds, while there was no evidence of associations between smoke-free laws with use of either tobacco product.ConclusionsAdolescents in Massachusetts decreased their use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes in response to local restrictions that limited the sale of flavoured tobacco products to adult-only retail tobacco stores. Local legislation can reduce adolescent tobacco use and municipalities should enact stricter tobacco-control policies when not pre-empted by state law.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056159
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Measuring the illicit cigarette market in the absence of pack security
           features: a case study of South Africa

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      Authors: Vellios, N; van Walbeek, C, Ross, H.
      Pages: 580 - 585
      Abstract: There are several ways to measure the illicit cigarette market. In South Africa, different methods were used to triangulate results. The aim of this paper is to assist researchers to decide which method is most suitable to their context, especially for countries that do not have security features on cigarette packs (eg, tax stamps). We analysed the methods and results from three published articles that used various approaches to measure cigarette illicit trade in South Africa: (1) gap analysis, (2) price threshold method using secondary data from a national survey, and (3) price threshold method using primary data collected in low socioeconomic areas. We provide methodological insights and background information. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The method chosen by researchers will depend on data availability, the existence or absence of security features on cigarette packs and funding. Researchers investigating illicit trade should use more than one method to increase confidence in the obtained results.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056117
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Innovative promotional strategies and diversification of flavoured mass
           merchandise cigar products: a case study of Swedish match

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      Authors: Ganz, O; Hrywna, M, Schroth, K. R. J, Delnevo, C. D.
      Pages: 586 - 592
      Abstract: In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (TCA) granted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over tobacco products, although initially this only included cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco. In 2016, the deeming rule extended regulatory authority to include all tobacco products, including cigars. The deeming rule prohibited the introduction of new tobacco products into the marketplace without proper marketing authorisation and laid out pathways for tobacco companies to follow. The deeming rule should have frozen the cigar marketplace in 2016. In this paper, we describe how the cigarillo marketplace, nevertheless, continues to diversify with new brands, flavors, styles and packaging sizes entering the market regularly. As an example, we highlight recent promotional efforts by Swedish Match North America (Swedish Match) for their popular cigarillo brands, including White Owl, Night Owl and Garcia y Vega’s Game brand. We argue that ambiguities in the TCA make it unclear whether Swedish Match’s seemingly new cigarillos fit the definition of new tobacco products and, if so, whether they are on the market legally. Swedish Match and other cigarillo companies may be taking advantage of these ambiguities to promote a variety of cigarillo flavors and styles in innovative ways. Given that cigars are combustible tobacco products that pose many of the same risks as cigarettes, this business practice raises significant concerns regarding the protection of public health, particularly among young people.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:38:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056145
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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