Subjects -> BIOGRAPHY (Total: 17 journals)
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a/b : Auto/Biography Studies : Journal of The Autobiography Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales Galdosianos     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Goethe Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Hemingway Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Henry James Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
History of Neuroscience in Autobiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ibsen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Žižek Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
James Joyce Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medical Biography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Niels Bohr Collected Works     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SHAW The Annual of Bernard Shaw Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Hopkins Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Tolkien Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Wallace Stevens Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Similar Journals
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Journal of Medical Biography
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.103
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0967-7720 - ISSN (Online) 1758-1087
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1141 journals]
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Dr H S Morris
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Volume 29, Issue 1, Page 1-2, February 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T05:40:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020975600
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Professor George Archibald Grant Mitchell (1906–1993): his work with
           penicillin during World War II
    • Authors: Peter D Mohr, Stephanie Seville
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      George Archibald Grant Mitchell, OBE, TD, MB, ChB, ChM, MSc, DSc, FRCS (1906–1993) was a professor of anatomy at the University of Manchester from 1946 to 1973. He is mainly remembered for his research in neuroanatomy, especially of the autonomic nervous system. He studied medicine at the Aberdeen University, and after qualifying in 1929 he held posts in surgery and anatomy and worked as a surgeon in the Highlands. In 1939, he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps. He was based in Egypt and the Middle East, where he carried out trials of sulphonamides and penicillin on wounded soldiers; in 1943, he returned to England as Adviser in Penicillin Therapy for 21 Army Group, preparing for the invasion of Europe.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T02:28:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211012184
       
  • The signs and symptoms of Ernest Shackleton
    • Authors: PG Firth, OJ Benavidez, L Fiechtner
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Ernest Shackleton, an accomplished Antarctic explorer, developed a life-threatening illness during the Discovery Antarctic expedition of 1901–4. His documented signs and symptoms included inflamed gums attributed to scurvy, severe dyspnea, and exercise intolerance, presenting in a setting of nutritional deficiency. Physical examinations at a later date, also following a prolonged diet of limited fresh food, revealed a pulmonary systolic murmur. Thiamine deficiency with cardiomyopathy, either alone or subsequently exacerbated by advanced scurvy, may have been a prominent cause of Shackleton’s condition.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:13:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211002205
       
  • Saving private W. H.: The surgical experiences of Dugald Blair Brown
           (1847–1896): Lieutenant-Colonel, FRCS, Edin., AMD
    • Authors: Charles DePaolo
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dugald Blair Brown, a military surgeon and Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, published twelve papers containing 77 case studies of gunshot wounds that he had treated in the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 and in the First Anglo-Boer War of 1880–1881. Brown devised a “conservative” method of surgery, the early development of which had been influenced by Thomas Longmore (1816–1895), Joseph Lister (1827–1912), F. J. von Esmarch (1823–1912), and Carl von Reyher (1846–1890). During these conflicts, Brown reacted to surgical practices unsuited to the battlefield and not in the interest of the wounded. One such practice was “expectant” surgery, the practitioners of which dangerously substituted natural healing for immediate wound resection. Brown also criticized “operative” surgeons who, when faced with gunshot wounds of the extremities, expeditiously amputated limbs. Viewing each case as diagnostically unique, Brown tried to salvage limbs, to preserve function, and to accelerate recovery. To achieve these objectives, he used debridement, antisepsis, drainage, nutrition, and limited post-operative intervention.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:13:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772021995175
       
  • Insulin centenary – A patient’s gift
    • Authors: Alexander Wellington, Grace ER Wellington
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:59:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211008879
       
  • Voltaire and the politicization of medicine and science
    • Authors: Curtis E Margo, Lynn E Harman
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The 17th and 18th centuries witnessed an intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment that made possible future revolutions such as the scientific. No person better characterizes the Enlightenment than Voltaire (1696–1976) who, in his book Philosophical Letters published in 1734, venerated the liberalism of English institutions while criticizing the ancien régime of France. He was convinced that the personal freedom the English enjoyed was responsible for their country's success, pointing to inoculation for smallpox and advances in science as evidence. His choice of smallpox inoculation and science as exemplars of empiricism, which maintained that knowledge is obtained through sensory experience, is revealing as it pinpoints political flashpoints that persist to this day. This paper explores how inoculation and science were employed by Voltaire to advance his political idea of liberty.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211010461
       
  • John Rattray (1707–1771), Surgeon and Golfer
    • Authors: Iain Macintyre
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:39:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211008440
       
  • Dr Hetty Brenda Ockrim (1919–2007) and her medical legacy
    • Authors: Kenneth Collins
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dr Hetty Ockrim was a general practitioner in an inner-city Glasgow district for 43 years, before retiring in 1989. This paper looks at her career and her legacy through the pioneering oral history study she undertook, on retirement, with former patients, and the ‘Letters to No-one’ written at the time of her retirement but only discovered at the time of her death.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211008404
       
  • Montagu Lomax: The background and motivation of a ‘remarkable man’ who
           spearheaded lunacy reform
    • Authors: Clare Groves, Claire Hilton
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Doctor Montagu Lomax was a retired General Practioner, whose service in English lunatic asylums during the First World War inspired him to write The experiences of an asylum doctor: with suggestions for asylum and lunacy law reform. Published in 1921, the book acted as a catalyst for lunacy reform and stimulated improvements in the mental health services in the United Kingdom. Lomax spent the remainder of his retirement campaigning for lunacy reform. He suffered financial and personal hardship following the publication of the book and was castigated by his own profession. On the centenary of the publication of Experiences, this article explores the background and motivation of a remarkable man.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211005268
       
  • Angélique Marguerite Le Boursier du Coudray (1712–1790) –
           Pioneer of simulation
    • Authors: Gurpreet Kaur Jandu, Azizah Khan
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Madame du Coudray (1712–1790) was a French midwife who educated peers in rural areas. She was seen as a pioneer of simulation as she developed the first obstetric mannequin, known as 'the machine'. Complex cases could be simulated in a safe environment, which enabled midwives to improve their abilities in managing such deliveries.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T05:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211002204
       
  • Homage to Dr med. Božidar Kostić
    • Authors: Božidar Pocevski, Prim. Predrag Pocevski, Lidija Horvat
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dr Božidar Kostić (1892–1960) – physician of noble heart – was born in Niš (Kingdom of Serbia) in a distinguished family of academically educated parents. As there were no medical faculties in Kingdom of Serbia, after high school, which he had finished with great success, in 1911 he enrolled at the Graz University of Medicine, a prestigious medical university. Soon he transferred to the Faculty of Medicine at Charles University in Prague, where he continued his studying for another ten semesters. In Prague, The Golden City, after the First World War, he finished his studies with an average grade of 10. After the Second World War, he worked as a doctor with a private medical practice in Belgrade, but soon he moved to Vranje, where he established the Town Polyclinic and contributed to the final flourishing of the most important forms of health care activities in liberated Vranje, donating his rich knowledge and skills, which led the health service to move to forms of independent work and development of new activities. For his contribution to the community, by decree of His Majesty King of Yugoslavia Alexander I Karađorđević, he received the Order of Saint Sava. Dr Božidar Kostić and his wife Pravda devoted their lives to the health and educational upbringing of the people in the south parts of Serbia (then Social Federative Republic of Yugoslavia). Until his last days he lived and worked as a true folk doctor.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T06:39:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020974583
       
  • Biographical review of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) – A physician of 12th CE
    • Authors: Azizur Rahman, Mohd Zulkifle, Aumir Rasool
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In the Islamic Golden Age, medicine flourished by the practice of Persian, Arab and Greek physicians (9th to 13th century AD). Ibn rushd (1126–1198 AD) was renowned physician in that period, influenced the progress of medicine by his writings. He was the stalwart of medical sciences and owner of many writings in various fields of science. One of his writings in medicine was “Al- Kulliyat fi Al-Tibb” (Colliget or “Generalities on Medicine”). Many of his writings were studied in every part of globe. Now a day it is need of hour to generalize his knowledge for further researches. In this paper it is trying to compile his historical aspect of life as well as writings.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T06:39:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020981310
       
  • Theodor Meynert (1833–1892): Famous brain-anatomist and poet
    • Authors: Josef Hlade
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      This paper focuses on the lesser-known side of the famous neuropathologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist Theodor Meynert (1833–1892): Meynert as a poet. Meynert decided to become a doctor late in life, a decision that required him to give up on having a career as a writer. This analysis outlines that Meynert, as a scientist, was significantly shaped by his multifaceted interests and surrounding environment. It refers to previously unknown archival materials and especially letters that gives new insights into his multifactored personality. Thus, as this paper argues, his poetic affinity is of great importance to understanding his work.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020978581
       
  • Illustrations of the heart by Arthur Keith: His work with James Mackenzie
           on the pathophysiology of the heart 1903–08
    • Authors: Peter D Mohr
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The University of Manchester Museum of Medicine and Health holds a collection of drawings of human hearts by anatomist Sir Arthur Keith (1866–1955). The specimens were provided by the cardiologist, Sir James Mackenzie (1853–1925) who was using a polygraph to investigate patients with cardiac arrhythmias. Keith’s dissections helped to establish the anatomy and pathology of the atrioventricular conduction system and assisted Mackenzie to interpret his polygraph recordings and understand the origin of cardiac arrythmias.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020980224
       
  • A collection of illustrations of the heart by Arthur Keith, and his work
           with James Mackenzie on the pathophysiology of the heart 1903–1908
    • Authors: Peter D Mohr
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The University of Manchester Museum of Medicine and Health holds of collection of drawings of human hearts by anatomist Sir Arthur Keith (1866–1955). The specimens were provided by the cardiologist, Sir James Mackenzie (1853–1925) who was using a polygraph to investigate patients with cardiac arrhythmias. Keith’s dissections helped to establish the anatomy and pathology of the atrioventricular conduction system and assisted Mackenzie to interpret his polygraph recordings and understand the origin of cardiac arrythmias.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020985053
       
  • William chambers: British army surgeon (Toulon, 1793) and his vaccination
           institution (1803) in Brighton, England
    • Authors: Maxwell J Cooper, Benjamin Whiston
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Following Edward Jenner’s research into cowpox, a wave of vaccination services emerged across England. Despite some resistance, these began to promote population prevention where variolation had failed. Sussex’s first vaccine institution has long been considered to be that of Sir Matthew Tierney (1776–1845). Founded in 1804, Tierney’s “Royal Sussex Jennerian Society for the Extermination of the Small-pox” comprised sixteen stations, including one in Kent. This article presents an earlier example: the 1803 “Brighton Royal Jennerian Institution”, founded by a “Mr Chambers” to serve “the indigent poor”. Given that both held royal and military appointments in Brighton, Tierney must have been aware of Chambers’ efforts in vaccination. It is unclear why Tierney’s 1804 plan for the Sussex Vaccine Institution makes no mention of Chambers. In 1803 Chambers also directed the establishment of Brighton’s first military hospital and is noted as “surgeon extraordinary” to the Prince Regent. Chambers is identified as William Chambers of the 10th Royal Dragoons, who served at Toulon (1793) as a surgeon’s mate. He is also documented at Corsica in 1794 where he examined Nelson’s injured eye following the siege of Calvi. Mr Chambers’ origin and more details of his biography remain unknown.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772021991818
       
  • The First Eastern General Hospital (1914–1919) of the Royal Army
           Medical Corps at Cambridge
    • Authors: Andreas K Demetriades
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The First Eastern General Hospital (1914–1919) from its inception at the Leys School, its growth and establishment at Trinity College Cambridge and then its further move to the cricket grounds of King’s College and Clare College (now the site of the University Library), exemplifies the determination and desire of Cambridge University to contribute to the humanitarian effort during World War I. It is also a prime example of the sheer sacrifice and altruism of the medical profession across its ranks to offer its services in times of need. From its day of mobilisation on 5 August and its first patient admission on 16 August 1914 through 30 June 1918, the last month for which hospital data exist, the First Eastern General Hospital admitted 62,664 patients from Home, Expeditionary, Belgian and Mediterranean Forces. In the last month alone, it admitted more than 2000 personnel. By its closure, there were only 437 deaths, a mortality rate of 0.69 per cent. It paved the way for Auxiliary Hospitals to which 2500 of its patients were transferred. Both Barnwell and Cherry Hinton Military Hospitals, set up to care for venereal disease patients, sprang from the First Eastern General and followed its organisation and staff arrangements after the parent closed.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772021989696
       
  • The contributions of James Carmichael Smyth, Archibald Menzies and Robert
           Jackson to the treatment of typhus in royal naval vessels in the late 18th
           century
    • Authors: Chelsea Chan, Andreas K Demetriades
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In late 18th century Britain, typhus fever plagued the mass mobilisation of soldiers and posed a significant challenge to physicians of the time. Epidemic typhus was spread through highly infectious faeces of infected lice and carried a high mortality in patients and healthcare staff alike. Physicians James Carmichael Smyth (1741–1821) and Archibald Menzies (1754–1842) theorized that typhus fever was caused by infection of human exhalation. They trialled the use of vapourised nitrous acid to fumigate patients, their clothes and their bedspace, with apparent success. Despite this, typhus fever continued to ravage deployments of soldiers into the early 19th century, stimulating the continuing evolution of the understanding of typhus and its treatment.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772021994560
       
  • The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) analyzed from his hidden
           signature in the Mona Lisa
    • Authors: Luciano Buso, Danielle Coutinho Rodrigues, Deivis de Campos
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T05:30:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020974581
       
  • Charles Hewitt Moore, FRCS (1821–1870): Medical innovator
    • Authors: Charles DePaolo
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Charles Hewitt Moore, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, practiced at Middlesex and St. Luke’s Hospitals and was administratively active in The Medical and Chirurgical Society. From 1851 to 1868, he demonstrated expertise in general surgery and the lymphatic system; on pelvic deformity and disease; on the vascular system and aneurisms; on the etiology of cancer; and on the neurophysiology of sleep. He subscribed to two principles of medical investigation: anomalies can reveal new information; and the propagation of untested theory inhibited medical learning and practice. Translator of the German edition of Rokitansky’s Handbook (vol. 3, 1851), Moore wrote twelve papers, three chapters for Holmes’ System of Surgery (1860-1862), and two treatises. Renowned in vascular and cancer surgery, he combined ablation with ZnCl2 against cutaneous and breast cancer. Theorizing that ganglionic nerve tissue was involved in the sleep cycle, he anticipated modern investigations into the sleep-related activity of basal ganglia, the only nerve tissue in the brain.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-12-11T10:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020975021
       
  • Carl Theodor, Duke in Bavaria (1839–1909): A royal ophthalmologist
    • Authors: Robert M Feibel, Charles E Letocha
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Carl Theodor (1839–1909), a royal Duke in the ruling house of the Kingdom of Bavaria, was born to a life of wealth, privilege, and leisure. As was usual for sons of the nobility, he trained as a military officer. He fought in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) and was decorated for his service in battle. Inspired by the tragedies he observed during the War, he decided to become a physician and received his medical degree from the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich. After working in general medicine, he embarked on an extensive post-graduate program of study in ophthalmology. Starting in 1880, he practiced ophthalmology full time and devoted his life to his patients. He performed most of his work gratis and he personally underwrote most of the costs for his practice. His wife, the Duchess Marie José (1857–1943), a princess of the royal house of Portugal, was as committed to his medical career and philanthropy as he was, and she served as his assistant in the clinic and the operating room. Her untiring support made it possible for Carl Theodor to maintain his busy schedule. After his death, she established a Foundation to administer his clinic and operating facility in Munich.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-12-11T10:36:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020974367
       
  • José Gregorio Hernández: At the crossroads of medicine and
           religion in Venezuela
    • Authors: Gabriel E Andrade
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      After being ravished by a bloody civil war in the 1860 s, Venezuela’s healthcare system was very precarious. In this context, one particularly bright medical student stood out, José Gregorio Hernández. As part of a program to modernize medicine in Venezuela, José Gregorio was sent on a scholarship to pursue medical studies in Europe. He brought back to Venezuela equipment and medical knowledge in bacteriology and pathophysiology. This was instrumental in laying the foundations for major healthcare modernization in Venezuela. Throughout his life, José Gregorio negotiated his intense Catholic faith, with his scientific leanings as a physician. His untimely tragic death in 1919 elevated him to a saintly status amongst Venezuelans. Consequently, his image became a powerful symbol for practitioners of prescientific medicine.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-12-11T10:36:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020974276
       
  • Leonard Thompson ‘ever remembered’: The first person to
           receive insulin
    • Authors: Alexander Wellington
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T06:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020974355
       
  • The role of the London Hospital in the development of the treatment of
           spinal injury
    • Authors: JR Silver
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      While the role of the London Hospital in delineating diseases of the nervous system is widely accepted, its role in developing the speciality of spinal injuries in the United Kingdom has not been acknowledged. The pioneering efforts of Henry Head and George Riddoch provided the foundation for the successful treatment of patients with spinal injuries. Julian Holland-Hibbert, a trustee of the London Hospital and himself a paraplegic, by his magnificent unselfish effort made sure that patients with a spinal injury could live independent, fulfilled lives in society.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-11-05T06:31:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020941817
       
  • Leslie Wallace Lauste MBE (1908–2001): Brighton surgeon and prisoner
           of war in occupied Europe
    • Authors: Alexander William Taylor, Benjamin Whiston, Maxwell John Cooper
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Leslie Wallace Lauste (1908–2001) was an English surgeon of French ancestry who practised in Brighton. This article used his memoirs and interviews to describe his life during the Second World War. In 1940, after declining evacuation by the Royal Navy, he was captured at Boulogne- Sur-Mer. Lauste went on to work in the following hospitals, of which most were attached to prisoner of war (POW) camps: Dannes-Camiers (France), Lille (France), Enghien (Belgium), Malines (Belgium), Dieberg (Germany), Klein-Zimmern (Germany), Stadtroda (Germany), Treysa (Germany), Kloster Haina (Germany), Lamsdorf (Poland), and Moosburg (Germany). Lauste’s memoirs indicate that most surgical work was routine rather than trauma-related. He gained considerable freedoms in camp and attended external hospitals to give a surgical opinion. Lauste witnessed the consequences of allied bombing raids on German cities and considered these a “genocide.” Lauste’s life offers insight into the Nazi mistreatment of Russian prisoners, management of a typhus outbreak, camp liberation, and extraordinary journeys within occupied Europe. His memoirs provide new insight into the life of a British POW surgeon and reveals personal courage, kindness to others, and passion for medicine. Lauste never married. He died in Brighton in 2001.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T06:03:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020939374
       
  • Pepys’s plague: How the reaction of the individual, society and the
           medical profession to the Great Plague of 1665 is similar to our
           experience of Covid-19
    • Authors: Conor Mosli-Lynch, Nicholas O'Shaughnessy
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      IntroductionThe celebrated diarist Samuel Pepys kept a detailed diary of exceptional candour throughout the years of The Great Plague of 1665, in which he recorded his own observations as well as the reactions of society and the medical profession to this unprecedented event. In this paper we examine his diaries at the time of the plague, as well as in the proceeding years and consider how the experiences of Pepys are similar to our own experiences of the 2020 Coronavirus Epidemic.MethodWe examined the entire diaries of Samuel Pepys from 1664 to 1670, as well as supplementary source material, looking for all references to The Great Plague.Results and Conclusion: Though written over 350 years ago the diaries paint a very co-orientated response of society to The Plague. Accurate official statistics were available weekly, isolation was imposed and the government made provision for ‘pest houses' to be set up. Pepys is grateful to the doctors who remain in London but critical of the majority who flee the city. Pepys's own reactions, which progress from fear of contracting the disease to fear for his business interests, mirror today's reaction to The 2020 Coronavirus Epidemic.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T06:03:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020948781
       
  • Robert Kendell: his career and contribution to psychiatric diagnosis
    • Authors: Geoffrey Lloyd
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reviews the career of Robert Kendell with emphasis on his contribution to diagnosis in psychiatry. His studies on the classification of depression showed that symptoms were distributed on a continuum and that division of depression into sub-types was not justified. Similarly he showed there was no clear-cut distinction between symptoms of schizophrenia and affective psychoses. He examined Scadding’s definition of disease as it applied to psychiatry and questioned whether some conditions such as neuroses and personality disorders would qualify as illnesses. He concluded that available evidence supported a dimensional rather than a categorical approach to diagnosis.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-10-01T04:43:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020961319
       
  • Bhagwan Din Chaurasia (1937–1985): The unsung hero of Indian anatomy
    • Authors: Ankush Jindal, Manishi Bansal
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In the era of unavailability of computers and internet platform for learning anatomy, Dr Bhagwan Din Chaurasia’s textbook on human anatomy was like a boon for the medical students. Dr Chaurasia was the great anatomist of India who published his first textbook in 1979 and since then it is widely read all over the world by the medical students pursuing MBBS. His books are unique in presenting systemic and comprehensive texts of applied anatomy in a simple language with easily reproducible line diagrams. Dr Chaurasia was a rare combination of an excellent teacher and a distinguished research worker. He was also a member of the advisory board of many national and international journals. Although he died at a young age, but his legacy continues through his contributions in the field of anatomy.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-09-22T06:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020961011
       
  • Herbert French (1875–1951) and his differential diagnosis a “work of
           reference unique in medical literature”
    • Authors: John Pearn
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In 1912, the Guy’s Hospital Assistant Physician, Dr Herbert French FRCP, published a magnum opus, An Index of Differential Diagnosis of Main Symptoms by Various
      Authors . This pioneering work was to formalise the paradigm of a six-chain sequence which underpins best-practice clinical medicine today. That chain comprises: taking a history, examination, compiling a differential diagnosis, tests and investigations, and formulating a diagnosis. Herbert French coined the term “differential diagnosis”; and formalised the earlier developments of Thomas Sydenham (1624 – 1689), Hermann Boerhaave (1668 – 1738) and later(1892), those of Sir William Osler in his The Principles and Practice of Medicine. French placed differential diagnosis formally as the pivot of the sequence of Oslerian medicine which distinguishes modern Western medicine from other healthcare systems. Herbert French was the Goulstonian Lecturer of the Royal College of Physicians (1907), a doctor-soldier in World War I and one of the Royal Physicians to H. M. Household. A prolific writer in the medical press, French updated and personally edited the first six editions of his Differential Diagnosis. The thirteenth edition (1996) was described as a work which “had no parallel” .This work, today in its sixteenth edition, remains “a reference unique in medical literature”.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T06:35:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020960975
       
  • Medical conditions of Omer Seyfettin (1884–1920), the father of Turkish
           short stories, enshrined as a mystery
    • Authors: Halil Tekiner, Steven Howard Yale, Eileen Scott Yale, Mehmet Doganay
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Born in 1884 in Balıkesir, Turkey, Ömer Seyfettin was a leading figure among modern Turkish short story writers whose death in 1920 at the age of 36 led to long-term speculations about his fatal illness. In order to pay homage to his memory in the centennial of his death and to shed light on his later medical condition, this paper seeks to reexamine his last days from a medico-historical perspective. Our findings indicate that there was a notable decline in his health occurring after 1917 when he was confined to social isolation. A carbuncle was diagnosed in his posterior neck when he was 35-years of age and not satisfactorily treated. In late February 1920, he developed progressive symptoms over two weeks consisting initially of a headache, followed by fever, delirium, hallucinations, and diplopia. These clinical signs and symptoms are clinically suggestive of a septic encephalopathy presumably caused by staphylococcus aureus infection secondary to the carbuncle, or perhaps by one of the myriad causes of viral meningoencephalitis.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-09-14T06:06:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020958966
       
  • Centenary memorabilia of Adam Politzer
    • Authors: Albert Mudry, John Riddington Young
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Adam Politzer (1835–1920) was one of the greatest otologists of all time. On the 100th Anniversary of his death, this paper pays tribute to his legacy to our specialty and examines various memorabilia made during those hundred years in his honour. Items as diverse as book plates, postage stamps and postcards stand alongside commemorative medals, busts and plaques, all bearing witness to his legendary status and contribution to our specialty.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-08-31T04:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020953069
       
  • İbtisam Lale Atahan (1946–2007): The first female Turkish physician in
           the discipline of radiation oncology
    • Authors: Eda Yirmibeşoğlu Erkal, Nermin Ersoy
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Female physicians started to earn up their deserved places as late 1970’s in the historically male predominant Radiation Oncology community. The first female physician emerging as a leading scientist in the Discipline of Radiation Oncology was Professor İbtisam Lale Atahan, who untimely passed away in 2007. This eulogy attempts to shine the light on her life, achivements and legacy.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T06:15:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020948504
       
  • The 1869 controversy of cellular theory: Goodsir versus Virchow
    • Authors: Michael T Tracy
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE) is Scotland’s national academy of science and letters and has been in existence since the eighteenth century. On 23 November 1868, a general meeting was held by the RSE at which members nominated the German academic, Professor Rudolf Virchow, as an Honorary Fellow in recognition of his key contributions to cellular theory. This nomination was opposed by the Reverend Joseph Taylor Goodsir, brother of the late Professor of Anatomy at Edinburgh University, John Goodsir. Reverend Goodsir went on to accuse the German professor of plagiarising his late brother’s pioneering work in the formulation of cell theory. The resultant furore created by the Reverend Goodsir led to an acrimonious scientific dispute in the Edinburgh medical establishment, then one of the leading centres of medical education. The current work describes the history of cellular theory as it pertains to John Goodsir and Rudolf Virchow, discusses the history behind the scientific dispute and interprets Reverend Joseph Taylor Goodsir’s role relating his actions to his continuing battle with mental illness, and the aftermath of the dispute as it affected the reputation of John Goodsir.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T05:04:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020942735
       
  • Edwin Chadwick: A biographical update
    • Authors: Hugh Small
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The civil servant Edwin Chadwick (1800–1890) dominated public health policy from 1848 until he was obliged to take early retirement in 1854. Historians have concluded that his activities after 1854 produced no lasting impact. That analysis did not evaluate his contribution to the 1875 Public Health Act. This paper describes how the coordinated activity of Chadwick, Florence Nightingale, and William Farr between 1858 and 1871 produced one of the most successful social reforms in modern history. Unaware of the intellectual capital that this group provided to political decision-makers, historical accounts have tended to attribute the reduction in mortality post-1875 to a natural organic process responding to evident social evils. The rise, fall, and rise again of Chadwick’s influence on public health policy shows how, on the contrary, difficult choices are necessary to resolve social problems.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T05:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020951083
       
  • Charles S Bryan (ed.). Sir William Osler: An Encyclopedia
    • Authors: Christopher Gardner-Thorpe
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T05:17:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020951492
       
  • Ida Belle Scudder and Ketayun Ardeshir Dinshaw: The two iconic women who
           shaped the face of radiation oncology in India
    • Authors: Manishi Bansal, Ankush Jindal, Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The early twentieth century India saw profound paucity in health care delivery and education, and the beliefs of people were ruled mainly by ignorance, superstitions and myths. Diseases like cancer and its treatment were totally unknown during that time in India. Dr Ida Belle Scudder, American woman, came to India to break all norms and sacrificed her entire life to work in a missionary hospital. Gradually she trained herself to treat cancer patients and established a fully equipped radiotherapy centre to treat such patients. Later, the field of radiation oncology was transformed and modernised by another influential woman, Dr Ketayun Ardeshir Dinshaw, who with her leadership attributes left no stone unturned to firmly establish the role of radiation in the management of cancer and bringing its benefits to the people of India.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T05:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020944698
       
  • Henry Head’s lifelong studies of cutaneous sensation
    • Authors: Michael Swash
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In 1900 research on cutaneous sensation was defined by histological techniques defining sensory receptors in skin, leading to undetermined conceptual problems when considered in relation to Brown-Séquard’s startling finding that there were two qualitatively different afferent pathways in the spinal cord. Four modalities were considered to function as the determinants of sensory input. In 1903 Rivers and Head carried out the first interventional study of human cutaneous sensation, and analysed the return of sensation following section and immediate suture of the dorsal cutaneous branch of Head’s left radial nerve. This resulted in the revolutionary idea summarised in his description of protopathic and epicritic sensory systems in peripheral sensory nerve. Although this concept was at best seen as controversial and even ridiculed by some of his many contemporaneous critics, more recently this concept has proven a fundamentally important stimulus to understanding the physiology of cutaneous sensation. His writings show him to have been capable of deeply instructive thought, based on his clinical experience and his admiration of Hughlings Jackson’s teaching concerning the hierarchical organisation of brain function. First and foremost a clinician neuroscientist, his ideas were ahead of their time and not understood.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T06:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020940553
       
  • Leonardo Botallo (1530–1587) and his pioneering contributions to
           traumatology, cardiology and deontology
    • Authors: Pamela Tozzo, Alberto Zanatta, Gabriella D’Angiolella, Luciana Caenazzo, Fabio Zampieri
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Leonardo Botallo (1530–c. 1587) is widely known for the eponymous “foramen Botalli” and “ductus Botalli”. The first, most commonly named “foramen ovale”, allows blood in the fetal heart to enter the left atrium from the right atrium. The second, named “ductus arteriosus”, consists of a blood vessel in the developing fetus connecting the trunk of the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta. However, Botallo was a multifaceted figure who studied many aspects of human anatomy and physiology, also making important contributions to clinical and surgical practices. Moreover, as we will see in the last section of this paper, Botallo wrote a book on medical deontology having significant features in relationship to the history of medical ethics. Botallo’s multidisciplinary approach is a typical characteristic of Renaissance physicians and scientists, who contributed to making this period a fundamental prelude to the scientific revolution of the 17th century.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T06:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020940976
       
  • Demetrius Zambaco Pasha (1832–1913): The first leprologist of the
           Orient
    • Authors: Halil Tekiner, Marianna Karamanou
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Démétrius Zambaco Pasha (1832–1913) was an internationally renowned Ottoman-born French dermatologist of Greek origin who is considered the first leprologist of the Orient. A graduate from the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, he practised there until he returned to Istanbul in 1872 and later served as a private physician to the Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II (1842–1918), then Abbas Hilmi Pasha (1874–1944), the last Khedive of Egypt. Dr Zambaco produced numerous publications in a variety of medical subjects including leprosy, syphilis, morphinomania, eunuchs, and medical history. Leprosy, however, was his main field of scientific interest, with nearly 40 studies published and many other communications presented at international medical congresses. Due to his outstanding scientific contributions, Dr Zambaco garnered many accolades including the Cholera Medal of Honour, the Montyon Prize, and Légion d’Honneur from France as well as the honorary title of Pasha, a higher rank in the political and military system, from the Ottoman Empire.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020936958
       
  • Lt. Cmdr. Laura M. Cobb (1892–1981): Chief navy nurse who oversaw
           medical care in WWII civilian concentration camps
    • Authors: Emilie Lucchesi
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Lt. Commander Laura M. Cobb was a chief nurse in the U.S. Navy during WWII who was imprisoned by Japan for more than three years in the Occupied Philippines. Under her direction, eleven other navy nurse POWs maintained rank and provided medical care to thousands of civilian inmates. Early in the war, Cobb courageously mislabeled quinine as baking soda in order to stop enemy medical corps from stealing the supply. She is credited with saving inmates from malaria. In 1943, she oversaw the creation of an infirmary at the Los Baños concentration camp where her nurses relied on scavenged supplies and local resources to provide medical care to more than 2,400 men, women and children. In U.S. military medical history, she is one of seventy-eight nurse POWs; and the only chief nurse in navy medical history to continue her duties while in enemy captivity. She received the Bronze Star with a gold star device and her citation honored her “dauntless determination, zealous efforts and unselfish devotion to duty in the face of unprecedented hardship.”
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020939089
       
  • Chester R. Burns (1937–2006) and the origins of the American Osler
           Society
    • Authors: Michael H Malloy
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The American Osler Society (AOS) traces its origin to a 1970 symposium on Humanism in Medicine in Galveston, Texas. Although John P. McGovern (1921–2007) receives credit for conceiving the symposium and spearheading formation of the AOS, Chester Ray Burns (1937–2006) played a key role that has not been sufficiently recognized. Burns, the first American-born physician to receive a doctorate in the history of medicine from the Johns Hopkins University, did much and perhaps most of the organizational work and brought to the symposium a perspective on the crossroads between medicine and the humanities that proved essential to the nascent organization’s success. Burns went on to a productive career at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston, became the 35th president of the AOS, and is among the relatively few physician-historians to have published scholarly articles in the history of medicine, medical biography, medical ethics, and philosophy as related to medicine.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020939548
       
  • Sir Frederick Grant Banting KBE MC FRS FRSC (c. 1891–1941)
    • Authors: Alexander Wellington
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020935014
       
  • Professor Ian Aird: Master of surgical education
    • Authors: Rao R Ivatury
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Ian Aird (1905–1962) was a Scottish surgeon renowned for his textbook: “A companion in surgical studies”, a uniquely single-author work of thousands of pages. It was an essential study for young surgeons aspiring to pass the FRCS (Edin) examination. He was appointed Chair of Surgery of the Royal Postgraduate Medical School at Hammersmith Hospital in London. Under his direction, his faculty developed a pump oxygenator, used it successfully for the first time in a patient and introduced cardiac surgery in Russia. They also pioneered kidney transplantation in Britain. Aird himself discovered the relationship of blood groups to cancer and peptic ulceration. He became famous for the surgical separation of conjoined twins from Nigeria, fame that created conflicts with medical authority on the issue of cooperating with the press. He became frustrated when the medical council refused to support and sponsor funding for research. Sadly, even his indomitable energy and brilliance could not see him through his depression. He committed suicide at the age of 57.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:06:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020934087
       
  • Pioneering orthopaedic trauma surgery in Turkey: Burhaneddin Toker
           (1890–1951), the stormy 1930s, and refugees running from Nazism
    • Authors: Erdem Bagatur
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Orthopedic surgery, the medical discipline that deals with diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system has been considered a distinct medical discipline in the west since the beginning of the twentieth century. However, in Turkey, the acceptance of musculoskeletal traumatology as an integral part of orthopedic surgery actualized as late as 1961. Previously, orthopedic trauma patients were usually treated in general surgery departments. Dr. Burhaneddin Toker, a true pioneer, changed this conduct of the time in Turkey. He transformed Cerrahpaşa Hospital, then a municipality hospital today the well-known Cerrahpaşa Medical School of Istanbul University, to a trauma center. He pioneered systematic surgery of the musculoskeletal injuries, created a separate service for musculoskeletal traumatology, trained many surgeons in this field, wrote textbooks, and reported his clinical experience in scientific publications. This study examines the biography of Burhaneddin Toker and how he was able to further medical training in Turkey with a focus on Turkey in the stormy 1930s, the way the young republican government under Atatürk’s leadership handled educational issues, and the refugee scientists who found a safe haven in Turkey fleeing Nazism.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:06:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020935016
       
  • The Tsar’s doctor: The selfless and devoted life of Dr Eugene Botkin
    • Authors: Rafael E Jimenez
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Eugene Botkin was Nicholas II’s court physician from 1908 until the abolition of the monarchy. He accompanied the royal family into exile and shared their fate at Ekaterinburg in 1918. The son of a prominent St. Petersburg physician, he trained at the Universities of St. Petersburg, Berlin, and Heidelberg. As court physician, he participated in the management of the Tsarevich Alexei’s hemophilia, but most of his time was spent taking care of the Tsarina’s multiple psychosomatic ailments. A deep sense of duty, rendered him unable to part from the royal family during the difficult months of exile and imprisonment. During this period there were several episodes of imminent threat to his life, where despite having the opportunity to leave, he voluntarily decided to stay with the Romanovs. In up to three occasions he said his goodbyes to his children, only to find out the next day that the threat had been contained. Ironically, the last time he spoke to them he did not think they would be separated for long. In this study, we will analyze his life, in particular the events of his last days, and will explore the reasoning behind his selfless actions.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:06:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020935021
       
  • The attempted murder of a surgeon (1882): Frank Algernon Hall of Lewes,
           Sussex
    • Authors: Maxwell J Cooper
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Frank Algernon Hall (1846 -1899) was an English surgeon who practised in Lewes, Sussex. He is remembered for an attempt on his life in 1882 by “feloniously shooting”. This premeditated act took place at the Lewes surgery where he practised and lived. No reason for the attack is documented and his assailant, Edwin Battersby, was removed to Broadmoor asylum. The author reflects on the value of historical accounts in promoting awareness of assaults on clinicians.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:06:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020936210
       
  • Sir William Osler and the Schorstein Memorial lectures at the London
           Hospital
    • Authors: Michael Swash
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The formal named lecture has an iconic position in British medical life, but it is less valued now than in the past. The Schorstein memorial lecture series at the London Hospital illustrates the evolving role of such lectures and their significance in medical practice, science and history, and the evolving concepts of medicine in society. The founding concept underlying the Schorstein lectures was an ideal of education, strongly supported by William Osler and other influential figures. The influence of the series of annual lectures and their subsequent publication among the wider medical community was immense. However, the formal named lecture as an educational experience is now less highly regarded. Nonetheless, with a changed focus, as has been applied recently to the Schorstein lecture series, such events can continue to play a role in contemporary medical life.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T04:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020924513
       
  • Lillias Hamilton: Personal physician to the Amir of Afghanistan
    • Authors: Christopher Timmis
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Lillias Hamilton trained as a doctor in London, qualified in 1890 and practiced in Calcutta and later in Afghanistan where she was the personal physician to the Amir and the only Western doctor. After six years abroad, she returned to England but owing partly to establishment prejudice was unsuccessful in setting up a London practice and eventually became the Principal of a Women's Agricultural College. Her career illustrates the aspects of medical practice abroad in the 1890s, as well as the difficulties encountered by women doctors in England even after the route to qualification in the UK had been opened.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T04:18:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020924520
       
  • Edward Harrison (1759–1838): An overlooked advocate of EcoHealth and One
           Health in the early 19th century
    • Authors: Neil J Morley
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Edward Harrison (1759–1838) was an English doctor best known for his ground-breaking treatments of spinal deformities and his failed attempts at medical reforms in the early 19th century. However, with the encouragement of his patient and patron Sir Joseph Banks, he also undertook comparative research on the influence of environmental factors on infectious diseases of medical and veterinary importance using approaches that were forerunners of the modern-day concepts of EcoHealth and One Health. His works in this field, particularly his study of sheep rot, are highlighted.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-04-29T02:00:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020921668
       
  • Misread and mistaken: Étienne Lancereaux’s enduring legacy in the
           classification of diabetes mellitus
    • Authors: James R Wright Jr., Lynn McIntyre
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Historians of diabetes have long claimed that physicians were aware of two distinct types of diabetes mellitus by the 1880s, and that these were the direct forerunners of type 1, juvenile-onset and type 2, adult-onset diabetes. French physician Étienne Lancereaux (1829–1910), based on autopsy and clinical studies, classified diabetes either as diabète maigre (thin, or more accurately emaciated, diabetes), which he believed to be pancreatic in origin with a poor prognosis, or diabète gras (fat diabetes), which he believed had a much better prognosis and was not pancreatic in origin. Historians citing Lancereaux have claimed that he observed the former to occur in young and the latter in middle-aged and elderly people. We review the papers of Lancereaux to clarify his clinical observations and understanding of diabetes. Lancereaux’s description of diabète maigre bores little resemblance to juvenile diabetes and all of his thin patients were middle-aged or older. On the other hand, his diabète gras is akin to type 2 diabetes and he might well deserve credit for its characterization.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-04-13T07:28:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020914797
       
  • Joseph Wright of Derby and Dr Erasmus Darwin, the artist and his physician
    • Authors: Barry I Hoffbrand
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In 1767 at the time of his great “candlelight” paintings of science and the Enlightenment, The Orrery and The Air-Pump, Wright of Derby developed the illness that plagued him for the rest of his life and became a patient and life-long friend of Dr Erasmus Darwin. Wright’s recorded complaints and the periodicity are highly suggestive of the major depressive illness, seasonal affective disorder.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-04-07T01:35:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020915105
       
  • Adrien van Trigt, and the first published ophthalmoscopic images (De
           Speculo Oculi, 1853)
    • Authors: Fraser Muirhead
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      A. C. van Trigt’s 1853 doctoral thesis, De Speculo Oculi or De Oogspiegel, is generally recognized to contain the first ever published images of the interior of living human eyes. One of its 12 images is recognized and often reproduced as the first published. Others, showing physiological processes such as retinal venous pulsations and arteriolar light reflexes, and pathological processes such as retinal detachment and retinitis pigmentosa, are scarcely ever noted in the literature. Although van Trigt is widely recognized for this accomplishment, virtually nothing has been written about him or his thesis. This article describes his life, his artistic talent and diverse interests, and his thesis with its rarely credited original ophthalmoscopic observations and illustrations.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-04-04T03:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020914795
       
  • Henry Hurry Goodeve (1807–1884), the first professor of Anatomy in
           India
    • Authors: Michael J Whitfield
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Henry Goodeve was appointed assistant surgeon to the Bengal Principality of the East India Company in 1831 and in 1835 was appointed assistant to Dr MJ Bramley, who was the newly appointed Superintendent of the Calcutta Medical School. Later that year, Goodeve was appointed Professor of Medicine and Anatomy and in 1845 accompanied four Indian students to London where they underwent further training at University College. Returning to Calcutta two years later, he was appointed Professor of Midwifery and retired in 1853, returning to England. Goodeve was appointed Senior Physician to the Rentkioi Hospital at the end of the Crimean war in 1855. After this he spent the rest of his life in Bristol. He built a large mansion and became a magistrate and was on numerous committees. He had many publications including Hints on Children in India that went to 14 editions and was the co-editor of one of the Calcutta Medical Journals.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-03-27T05:04:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020914113
       
  • The fable of “The Doctor and the Goose,” by Charles Chauvin Boisclair
           Deléry, D.M.P.
    • Authors: James R Wright, Lynn McIntyre
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Charles Chauvin Boisclair Deléry, D.M.P. – doctor of medicine of Paris, was perhaps the prototypical representative of Creole physicians, practising medicine in Louisiana in the 1800s, who were regarded as being equally proficient with pen, pills or pistols. This paper presents accounts of Deléry’s yellow fever debate with Jean-Charles Faget, D.M.P., and their near duel, and his famous duel with Joseph Rouanet. Because of the personal and professional need to maintain honor, Rouanet may have challenged Deléry to a duel, not only because of vociferous disagreements between them over blood transfusion safety and efficacy, but due to Deléry’s humiliation of Rouanet in his fable, “the Doctor and the Goose.” We recovered the poem, transcribed and translated it, and discuss it as a device of witty rhetorical persuasion—a technique of the time used to belittle one’s learned opponents. Fortunately, Deléry was not as equally proficient with pens and pistols, as both he and Rouanet survived the duel.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T06:52:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020907009
       
  • Iginio Tansini (1855–1943): An Italian surgeon and an innovator between
           the 19th and the 20th centuries
    • Authors: Paolo Zampetti, Giuseppe Merlati, Michele A Riva
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to describe the figure of the Italian surgeon Iginio Tansini (1855–1943), who was full professor of surgery and director of the Department of Surgery at the University of Pavia (1903–1931). In that period, he modernized the School of Surgery founded by Antonio Scarpa (1752–1832) in the previous century; he introduced the experimental method in the discipline. One of his major contributions was an innovative technique of mastectomy followed by plastic reconstruction with myocutaneous flap. Tansini was a pioneer in oncology, supporting the importance of an early diagnosis based on a biopsy; he was also the first in Italy to practice a gastrectomy for stomach cancer with success in 1887.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020904224
       
  • Robert Bruce Sloane and the mid-twentieth-century struggles of academic
           psychiatry
    • Authors: Jacalyn Duffin
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In 1957, British-born R Bruce Sloane became the founding head of a Canadian academic department of psychiatry in a city that had already been served by a busy asylum for more than a century. He plunged into the work with enthusiasm, but encountered blatant opposition and skepticism, prompting his departure. He went on to conduct research in the United States. Archives and oral testimony reveal the attitudes thwarting Sloane’s plans to improve teaching, research, and service—attitudes that may typify a general hostility toward psychiatry in other centers at that time.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2020-01-15T03:41:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772019896131
       
 
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