Subjects -> BIOGRAPHY (Total: 17 journals)
Showing 1 - 1 of 1 Journals sorted alphabetically
a/b : Auto/Biography Studies : Journal of The Autobiography Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anales Galdosianos     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Goethe Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Hemingway Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Henry James Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ibsen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Žižek Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
James Joyce Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medical Biography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Risk Management in Financial Institutions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
SHAW The Annual of Bernard Shaw Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Hopkins Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Tolkien Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Wallace Stevens Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Similar Journals
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Journal of Medical Biography
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.103
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0967-7720 - ISSN (Online) 1758-1087
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Editorial

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      Authors: H S Morris
      Pages: 71 - 71
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Volume 30, Issue 2, Page 71-71, May 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T02:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221089584
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Jules Guérin and social medicine in 1848

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      Authors: Ligia Maria Vieira_da_Silva
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The significance of Social Medicine in France in 1848 as a movement led by doctor Jules Guérin is not adequately documented. Why would an orthopedist write the call to doctors in Paris proposing a union around Social Medicine' What is the meaning of the formulation on Social Medicine made by Jules Guérin in 1848' An analysis of Jules Guérin's trajectory supported by primary and bibliographic sources was made to answer these questions. The material analyzed allows us to conclude that there was no movement around Social Medicine, unlike hygiene, and closer to the revolutionary proposals of 1848. Jules Guérin was a liberal doctor who aimed to have a place in the new revolutionary government for the medical corporation. His scientific and professional work was fundamentally related to orthopedics, and the paper on Social Medicine was a circumstantial essay with liberal content.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221100211
       
  • Dr. Vladimir Fortunato (1885–1938), once lauded but now obscure
           Russian-American medical model sculptor

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      Authors: Keith C Mages, Sebastian C Galbo
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Arriving to the United States in 1921, Dr. Vladimir Fortunato (1885–1938) was a respected and celebrated figure responsible for creating striking medical models and anatomical sculptures. Although Dr. Fortunato was well connected and worked for some of the United States’ most prestigious medical institutions, his legacy, achievements, and creations have all but vanished from the annals of American medical history. In an effort to establish a more defined profile of this obscure man’s life and lifework, this article draws on scant information provided by a range of sources, including academic journal articles, obituaries, and physician autobiography. In the present-day era of digital imaging technologies, Dr. Fortunato’s lifelike sculptures represent a bygone age of medical visualization that embraced both utility and beauty.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:33:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221095842
       
  • Early history of skin preservation and transplantation; the role of Carl
           August Ljunggren

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      Authors: Bengt Uvelius, Karl-Erik Andersson
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      During the late 19th and the early 20th century there was an unprecedented development in medical research. Tissue and cell culture rapidly developed into areas with many contributing scientists. The same is true for tissue transplantation. When these achievements are described afterwards in a historical context and a mainline development is constructed, there are researchers whose pioneering work is forgotten. The present paper attempts to correct this and to present a correct description of the start of tissue preservation and transplantation. We have traced relevant original publications in international journals between 1870 and 1920. The traditional view is that Alexis Carrel was the first He received a Nobel Prize 1912 for his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs. The same year he published an article on human skin storage and transplantation. This was more than a decade later than Carl August Ljunggren (1860–1934) who 1898 published his pioneering but long forgotten work on human skin preservation and transplantation, and with a vision of tissue banks. Our article contains a brief biography of Ljunggren, and further reconstructs the processes that resulted in the lack of awareness today of his achievements. Conclusion: Carl August Ljunggren was the first to preserve human skin in vitro for prolonged periods, followed by transplantation of the specimens to other patients. He was also the first to propose the use of tissue banks.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T07:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221099007
       
  • Xavier Bichat and the renovation of the pathological anatomy

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      Authors: Hélène Perdicoyianni-Paleologou
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Xavier Bichat, who lived a short life (1771–1802), was prominent French anatomist and physiologist during the time of revolution and one of the founders of French scientific medicine. He played a key role in the creation of the science of histology. Indeed, he was the first to see the organs of the body as being formed through the specialization of simple, functional units (tissues). Bichat is also known as one of the last of the major theorists of vitalism.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T07:22:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221097795
       
  • Vittorio Maragliano (1878 −1944) in the history of European medicine:
           Grand master and pioneer of Italian radiology

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      Authors: Mariano Martini, Adelfio Elio Cardinale
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Vittorio Maragliano was born in Genoa in 1878. Fascinated since childhood by all things electric, he succeeded in installing the first radiological apparatus in 1896, only one year after the discovery of “Röntgen rays”, and immediately began to make his first radioscopy observations. Having graduated from the University of Genoa in 1901 with a thesis on high-frequency currents, he continued assiduously to frequent the Department of Electrotherapy of the Medical Clinic, where he immediately became an assistant.A teacher of special medical pathology and physical therapy in 1910, Maragliano became tenured professor of electrotherapy and radiology in 1913, occupying one of the first three chairs in the history of Italian radiology, and later directed the Institute of Radiology of the Royal University of Genoa. In the same year, he co-founded, together with Aristide Busi, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology, one of Europe's first scientific societies of radiology.As a pioneer of radiology, Maragliano suffered serious injuries due to radiodermatitis from 1901 onwards, which required amputations and repeated skin transplants. His tireless scientific activity and his great success in the international scientific sphere, together with his copious publications, make Vittorio Maragliano one of the greatest pioneers of 19th-century radiology and a source of pride for the Genoese and Ligurian School of Medicine.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:10:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221097793
       
  • “A monument to suffering and to patience”: The harrowing journey of
           Nabby Adams through breast cancer

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      Authors: Rafael E. Jimenez
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In 1813, Abigail “Nabby” Adams, the daughter of the second president of the United States, John Adams (1797–1801), passed away from metastatic breast cancer. Her ordeal began in 1810, at age 44, when she discovered a lump in her right breast She consulted with Dr Benjamin Rush, one of the most prominent physicians of the time and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, which resulted in a recommendation for an immediate mastectomy. The surgery was performed at her parent's home in Quincy, Massachusetts, by Dr John Warren. The crude and painful nature of the surgical procedure was highly traumatic to Ms. Adams and her family. After a few months, she returned to her home in rural New York. Within a few months she began feeling generalized pain. When it was evident that her symptoms were the result of disseminated breast cancer, she returned to her parents’ house, where she died on August 15, a mere 22 months after her surgery. Ms. Adams’ suffering through the stark treatment was the result of a unique historical period, when the medical community had just recently dismissed Galen's paradigms, but still lacked a basic knowledge of the disease's nature or the ability to administer painless, safe surgical treatment.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:10:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221097792
       
  • Victor Abraham Goldman (1903–1993) a pioneer of dental anaesthesia

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      Authors: David John Wilkinson
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Victor Goldman specialised in dental anaesthesia from an early age. He published his research all over the world and demonstrated how safety could be improved and how important monitoring of the anaesthetised patient should be. He made films, wrote books, created courses, and invented a myriad of apparatus to improve the speciality and to show trainees how dental anaesthesia should be performed. He was outspoken in his views and although well respected by his peers he did not receive many tangible accolades until the twilight of his career. His passing was hardly recorded, and his name is largely forgotten. He deserves wider recognition for his broad depth of contribution to his speciality.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T06:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221095844
       
  • Richard Muir: Edinburgh-based pioneer biomedical scientist and medical
           artist

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      Authors: Ken Donaldson, Christopher Henry
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Richard Muir (1862—1931) began his career as a ‘lab boy’ in the Pathology Department of the University of Edinburgh in 1876 at the age of 13. This was a newly created category of worker that eventually became today's biomedical scientist Muir rapidly gained expertise in pathological and bacteriological techniques including staining and microscopy. Exceptionally, for someone non-medical and non-university-educated individual, he was elected a member of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and appointed Demonstrator in Pathology in the University of Edinburgh Pathology Department. He authored papers on staining techniques for bacteria and on the pathology of syphilis of the ear and became a recognised diagnostic histopathologist, despite having no medical qualifications. He especially excelled as an artist, depicting the microscopic world of pathology and microbiology and produced diagrams for hundreds of publications including his own book and also large wall hangings of the microscopic world for teaching purposes. This paper describes the unique contribution of Richard Muir to pathology in Edinburgh and beyond in the early 20th century.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T06:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221095515
       
  • Trevor Mann (1916–1996): Paediatrician responsible for the development
           of hospital services for children in Brighton, England

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      Authors: Rosemarie Patterson, Sangeetha Sornalingam, Maxwell John Cooper
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Trevor Philip Mann (1916–1996) was the first consultant paediatrician at the Royal Alexandra Children's Hospital (RACH) in Brighton, since its foundation in 1881. Here, he was responsible for significant service developments, including establishing a department of paediatric surgery and the first neonatal unit in England outside of London. Mann grew up in South London, and aged 14 had a lengthy admission to hospital with tuberculosis. He studied medicine at St Mary's Hospital, London. During World War II he was a Royal Navy Surgeon-Lieutenant, aboard the Atlantic destroyer, HMS Georgetown, and with the Russian convoys, before completing paediatric training in London. Here, he was involved in treating paediatric tuberculous meningitis; clinical work that formed part of one of the earliest randomised controlled trials. In 1951 Mann moved to the RACH where he researched infantile infectious gastroenteritis and introduced (now commonplace) practices at the hospital, including barrier nursing. He lived in Rottingdean, Sussex, and enjoyed sailing, gardening and wood turning. Mann's impact on paediatric care in Brighton was recognised by the hospital, naming the Trevor Mann Baby Unit in his honour, upon his retirement in 1981. This article seeks to record his contributions and reconnect local clinicians with his memory.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T06:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221090876
       
  • Acta Anatomica: A portrait of an anatomy department, Christmas 1951

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      Authors: Peter D Mohr
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Seventy years ago, two medical art students painted a group portrait of the staff of the anatomy department in the University of Manchester Medical School. The painting is an unusual allegorical portrayal of the staff as pantomime characters. This paper asks: who were they and what were their subsequent careers' Does this picture tell us anything about the role of anatomy in medical education in the 1950s'
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T06:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221090455
       
  • Lennart Nilsson (1922-2017) – Pioneer of embryo photography and his
           work Ett barn blir till

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      Authors: Jann Lennard Scharf, Christoph Dracopoulos, Michael Gembicki, Achim Rody, Amrei Welp, Jan Weichert
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      ‘Making the invisible visible’ is a requirement of a coveted prize for scientific photography – the Lennart Nilsson Award – which is named after the pioneer of human embryo photography. There is no way of avoiding his influence if the hitherto invisible is to be made visible, the intangible almost tangible, the unimaginable made imaginable, and mysteries otherwise hidden from the human eye are to be processed in a popular-scientific way and visualized in an artistic way by means of scientific-medical imaging techniques. Whilst Lennart Nilsson used state-of-the-art imaging technology within the rapidly evolving field of endoscopy, he also created what is probably the best-selling illustrated book of all times with A Child Is Born contributing to both the further understanding of early prenatal development, as well as achieving worldwide popularity.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T07:03:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221087200
       
  • Why is William Sharp's name forgotten when his novel method for treating
           fractures of the Ankle is still used today'

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      Authors: Sean P Hughes, G Anne Davies
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In 1837 Guillaume von Dupuytren (1777–1835) wrote that the innovative method of reducing an ankle fracture by relaxing the calf muscles was due to both William Sharp (1729–1810) and Percivall Pott (1714–1788). While history records the many surgical achievements of Percivall Pott, little is known of William Sharp's contribution. He is probably best known as one of a remarkable family portrayed by Johan Zoffany (1733–1810) and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1781. We review William Sharp's career and contribution as a surgeon to the treatment of fracture/dislocations of the ankle and ask why his concept is not better known today.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T07:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221082103
       
  • Charles Bell's (1774–1842) contribution to our understanding of
           facial expression

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      Authors: Sean Hughes, Christopher Gardner-Thorpe
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The human face reflects a person's character and emotions, both in health and disease. Charles Bell, published in 1806 Essays on the Anatomy of Expression in Painting in which he stressed the importance of understanding anatomy when studying art. He concluded that emotions were revealed in facial expression and that these expressions were only to be found in humans, not in lower animals. Charles Darwin in 1872 published The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, where he acknowledged Bell’s contribution to facial expression especially the role of the nervous system, but questioned Bell’s conclusion, that animals were incapable of showing emotions through facial expression. Darwin reasoned that human facial expressions reflected emotions, some from our primeval state, some from habit but most were universal and controlled by an involuntary nervous system, described by Bell, and now known as the parasympathetic system. This paper explores Bell’s contribution to the understanding of facial expression. We conclude that his understanding of neuroanatomy along with his artistic ability enhanced our comprehension of human facial expressions, although his theological interpretation of the reason for facial expressions and emotions needs to be seen more in the context of nineteenth century Natural Theology.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T07:28:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020980233
       
  • Ulysses S. Grant: Chronic Malaria and the myth of his alcoholism

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      Authors: Robert C. Belding
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Ulysses S. Grant, Civil War general and twice-elected President of the United States, was highly respected in late-19th century America. Gradually however, it became the conventional wisdom that he was an alcoholic who had only succeeded as a general by using overwhelming force. This change began with his political enemies and those who resented his suppression of the Ku Klux Klan, his regard for the welfare of Native Americans and his support of Reconstruction. Jealous subordinates and those with an axe to grind added their voices to this and then the views of certain influential academic historians and romantic adherents of 'The Lost Cause' were unchallenged until the mid-1950s. Grant was undoubtedly an occasional binge drinker but this is not the same as being an alcoholic. Charles A. Dana is the most authoritative source for the claim that Grant was a frank alcoholic. In 1887 he wrote that Grant was drunk on a trip to Satartia, Mississippi in 1863 during the siege of Vicksburg. In this paper, the author shows that Grant was actually ill on that trip from the disease of malaria, alcohol was not involved at all, and that Grant suffered episodically from this disease both before and during the Civil War.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T11:06:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221079828
       
  • John Graunt F.R.S. (1620-74): The founding father of human demography,
           epidemiology and vital statistics

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      Authors: Henry Connor
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      John Graunt, a largely self-educated London draper, can plausibly be regarded as the founding father of demography, epidemiology and vital statistics. In his only publication, based on a pioneering analysis of the London Bills of Mortality, he replaced guesswork with reasoned estimates of population sizes and the first accurate information on male:female ratios. He quantified the extent of immigration from countryside to city and his demonstration of the ‘dying out’ of a cohort paved the way for life table analysis. His comparison of London data with rural data provided the first recognition of the ‘urban penalty’. His use of the first known tabular aggregates of health data clarified distinctions between acute diseases, which were often epidemic, and chronic illnesses which were often endemic. He quantified the high infant mortality and attempted the calculation of a case fatality rate during an epidemic of fever. He was the first to document the phenomenon of ‘excess deaths’ during epidemics. He provided a template for numerical analysis of demographic and health data and initiated the concepts of statistical association, statistical inference and population sampling. By making a novel concept intelligible to a broad audience he influenced the thinking of doctors, demographers and mathematicians.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T07:38:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221079826
       
  • Dimitrios Zambakis’ Scientific Hypothesis on the Transmission of
           Leprosy

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      Authors: Kyra Chen, Christopher Talbot, Antonios Mammis
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dimitrios Zambakis was an acclaimed physician at his time, most recognized for his work on leprosy. He theorized that leprosy was a hereditary disease, receiving many awards for his work including the Cholera Medal of Honour (1854), Château-Villard Prize from the Faculty of Medicine in Paris (1898), The Montyon Prize, and the title of Pasha. However, his theory was routinely argued against and was later proven to be invalid. Leprosy is regarded as a contagious disease spread by contact and is not hereditary. The last name appears in research to be spelled in various ways (Zambakis, Zambaco). For the duration of this paper, “Dimitrios Zambakis” will be used.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T09:33:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720221079833
       
  • Carl von Linné: The Development of the Idea of Binomial Nomenclature

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      Authors: Emrah Yucesan
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Due to binomial classification system defined by Carl von Linné, it has been shown that living things that were thought to be independent from each other are actually in a relationship. This "binomial classification" idea corresponds to a leap in the history of human thought. Carl von Linné's original idea is a product of the specific conditions of the period, particularly the renaissance and reform movements and geographical discoveries, rather than an idea he produced alone. These movements are part of a chain of ideas that stretches from antiquity to the Medieval and then to the period called the Enlightenment. The aforementioned transformations generally affected the scientist, albeit indirectly, even in geographies far from Sweden, where Carl von Linné spent most of his life. As such, the binomial classification system stands before us as a result of scientific breakthroughs in central Europe. In this study, it will be tried to be explained by taking the opus magnum of Carl von Linne as an example, taking into account the course of scientific developments, which we can attribute to the European civilization, and the philosophical and social texture.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T12:29:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211065352
       
  • The contribution of the Scottish doctor Robert Erskine to the development
           of Russian medicine in the 18th century

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      Authors: Dmitry Iskhakovich Mustafin, Maria Dmitrievna Sanatko, Iain Orr McDonald, Clive Wright
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The Scottish doctor Robert Erskine (1677–1718) became Chief Doctor of Russia and personal physician to Tsar Peter the Great. Extensive archival material documents his remarkable career. From schooling in the village of Alva and apprenticeship to an Edinburgh apothecary, he went on to study medicine in Paris and Utrecht and was admitted to the Royal Society in London. Recruited into the service of the Tsar, to whom he became a trusted friend and counsellor, Erskine played a central role in the modernisation of Russian medicine, pharmacy and natural science in the early 18th century. His untimely death at age 41 was marked with a state funeral in St Petersburg. Some historians in Russia assert that in their country, the development of medicine and the natural sciences took place without the transitional stages of iatrochemistry and iatrophysics which characterised the shift in scientific thinking throughout Europe in the early modern period. This study of archival records shows that Erskine held iatrophysical and iatrochemical views in common with his European contemporaries. His influence ensured that Russia was thoroughly involved in European developments in science and medicine in the 18th century.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-12-27T09:27:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211053243
       
  • Dr John Goodsir (1746–1816): The surgeon of Largo

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      Authors: Michael T Tracy
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The ancient fishing village of Lower Largo or the Seatoun of Largo stands quietly on Largo Bay along the north side of the Firth of Forth and is famous as being the birthplace of its famous resident, Alexander Selkirk, who inspired Daniel Defoe’s, Robinson Crusoe. However, it has another resident, Dr. John Goodsir, who, for forty-six years served as a medical practitioner and was a Minister of the Gospel at the Largo Baptist Church for twenty years. The current work describes the life of this ordinary early medical practitioner and surgeon, discusses his correspondences, and finally examines his role as serving as Largo’s Baptist minister.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T09:59:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020959260
       
  • JEH Roberts (1881–1948): Pioneer thoracic surgeon

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      Authors: Raymond Hurt
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      JEH Roberts was a leading figure in the new specialty of thoracic surgery before Second World War. His interest in this branch of surgery began during First World War when he served as a Major in a casualty clearing station and operated under local anaesthesia and without X-ray facilities. He reported a series of 199 cases of severe chest injury in which operation had been carried out in 67 patients – of whom 34 had made a complete recovery, a remarkable achievement in 1917. He was the first to use negative pressure suction drainage of the chest to encourage full expansion of the lung after thoracotomy, and he developed a plastic operation on the chest wall to treat chronic empyema. Together with HP Nelson, he described one-stage lobectomy for lung resection and developed a new lung tourniquet for use during this operation.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T09:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772014565562
       
  • Belisario Domínguez: A life and death deserving of a medal

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      Authors: Alejandro González-Abadía, Enrique O. Graue-Hernández, Carlos Viesca-Treviño, Alejandro Navas
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Belisario Domínguez was a Mexican physician, ophthalmologist, and politician. He traveled abroad to France, where he studied High School, later he entered the School of Medicine at Sorbonne University in Paris. Back in Mexico, Domínguez installed his medical office in his house. Belisario was recognized for his philanthropic attitude, he also often sought the well-being being of Chiapas and Mexico. In 1911 he became Comitán Municipal President, after the overthrown of presidente Porfirio Díaz.He witnessed the coup against President Francisco Madero by General Huerta. Belisario wrote a speech in which he expressed the shame of having a traitor and murderer as President. As consequence of the speech, he was killed. After Belisario's assassination, an outrage was incited, damaging the image of President Huerta. Belisario's civic value was honored with a medal that bears his name “ Belisario Domínguez Medal” in 1953 which is the greatest recognition that can be obtained by a Mexican.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-12-20T10:12:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211065353
       
  • On saline infusion, clonus, molecules and forgotten scientists: Who was Dr
           Julius Sander (1840–1909)'

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      Authors: Georg A Petroianu
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Zitterbewegungen des Fusses bei Dorsalflexion (shaking movements of the foot upon dorsal flexion) were observed independently from each other and described in the same issue of a German peer reviewed journal by Carl Westphal (1833–1890) at the Charité in Berlin and by Wilhelm Erb (1840–1921) in Heidelberg. While Westphal used the term Fussphaenomen, Erb is credited with coining the term clonus for the phenomenon. Both scientists are immortalized by various eponyms acknowledging their respective contributions to science. Little is known however about Julius Sander (1840–1909), in those days resident at Charité, who noticed the phenomenon and presented it to his superiors, Wilhelm Griesinger (1817 −1868) and Westphal. In addition to such observations, Sander made original contributions in resuscitation physiology while working with Hugo Kronecker (1839–1914). With Kronecker, Sander published observations on life saving transfusions with inorganic salt solutions in dogs “Bemerkung über lebensrettende Transfusion mit anorganischer Salzlösung bei Hunden” a very early work on isovolemic fluid resuscitation. The purpose of this communication is to highlight Sander's scientific contributions and to shed some light on his life, of which a German Lexicon stated that after 1870 no information on him can be ascertained anymore.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-12-16T02:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211065357
       
  • Franz Tappeiner (1816–1902): The physician who became headhunter.
           Portrait of a leading figure in 19th Century anthropology

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      Authors: Francesco Brigo, Mariano Martini
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Franz Tappeiner (1816, Laas – 1902, Merano) was an Austrian physician and anthropologist. He studied at the universities of Prague, Padua and Vienna and in 1846 he moved to Merano. Tappeiner investigated the transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis in animal models and he dealt with public health. As an anatomist, he performed thousands of craniometrics measurements, creating a huge skull collection later donated to the Natural History Museum in Vienna. In 1878, Tappeiner turned to archeology and palaeoanthropology, with the aim of clarifying the origins of the Alpine population of Tyroleans. He was also active as a botanist.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-12-15T01:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211065356
       
  • William Warwick James OBE FRCS MCh FDS FLS (1874 to 1965)

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      Authors: Stanley Gelbier
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      William Warwick James was one of the most inspiring and outstanding dental surgeons of his time, a key researcher in dentistry and zoology and a pioneer in maxillofacial surgery. Most maxillofacial departments hold sets of his dental elevators. He wrote a major wartime work with Benjamin Fickling on the treatment of jaw and facial injuries.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T12:40:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211064295
       
  • Granville Coggs (1925–2019) – WWII pilot, pioneering radiologist, and
           inspiration to minorities in medicine

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      Authors: Anish Karlapudi, Richard B. Gunderman
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Role models play an important role in firing the imagination of medical students and residents, and when it comes to attracting and sustaining under-represented minorities in fields such as medicine, the inspiring stories of minority physicians can make an especially important contribution. One such physician was Granville Coggs, an Arkansas native who overcame a stutter, served among the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II, graduated from Harvard Medical School, became the first black physician at Kaiser Hospital, established the San Antonio Breast Evaluation Center, and won gold medals as a senior track star.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-11-22T11:39:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211058314
       
  • A biography of Dr Carl Bodon: Pioneer of intracardiac injection of
           adrenaline

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      Authors: Jean Bodon, Theresa C Bodon, Christine M Ball, Eva J Bodon
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      This biographical essay will provide historical insights about Dr Carl Bodon who performed one of the first successful intracardiac injections of adrenaline to a patient and made important contributions to the understanding of cardiac diseases and women's health. Dr Bodon's biography reveals the story of a medical doctor who lived during tumultuous times between two world wars and ultimately died in the Holocaust. His story sheds light on forgotten contributors to the medical field and its practices.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-11-22T04:50:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211058313
       
  • Two statues of António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz GCSE GCIB
           (c. 1874–1955)

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      Authors: Alexander Wellington, Jack Wellington
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-11-10T02:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211054028
       
  • Sir William Osler's fatal trip to Scotland: “Mrs M” and the
           University Grants Committee

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      Authors: Graham Kyle, Charles S Bryan
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      On 23 September 1919, Sir William Osler, after a telephone call from his friend Dyson Perrins, went to Glasgow where he saw a 40-year-old woman, Bethia Fulton Martin, in consultation with three local physicians. Osler called it “one of those remarkable Erythema cases (all sorts of skin lesions and three months on and off consolidation of both lower lobes).” Mrs Martin died 114 days later; her death certificate listed “angioneurotic oedema with chronic nephritis” and “tuberculous enlargement of the mediastinal lymph nodes.” Osler died 18 days before Mrs Martin of complications from a respiratory infection acquired on his way home from Scotland. We discuss factors that possibly prompted Osler to go to Scotland, including his role with the newly formed University Grants Committee, and the differential diagnosis of the case, which is mainly between systemic lupus erythematosus and Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-11-06T03:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211052613
       
  • The cataract surgery of Empress Eugenie of France a century ago by the
           eminent Spanish ophthalmologist Ignacio Barraquer

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      Authors: Guillermo Simon Castellvi, James G Ravin, Tracy B Ravin, Anna Maria Carmona-Cornet
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Topic: Empress Eugénie (1826–1920), the widow of Emperor Napoléon III of France, developed mature cataracts late in life. In 1920, at age 94, she underwent surgery to one eye by Ignacio Barraquer (1884–1965), a member of the famous dynasty of ophthalmologists originally from Barcelona, Spain. Clinical relevance: Barraquer used his new instrument which employed a vacuum cup to hold the lens for intracapsular extraction. Methods: Research of historical documents. Results: The surgery was a success; the Empress was pleased that she could read again although she did not have long to live. She was his first famous cataract patient and his fame spread internationally. Barraquer spoke at the International Congress of Ophthalmology held in Washington, DC, in 1922 and demonstrated his technique on patients in Washington, DC, New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Richmond, VA. Conclusion: Barraquer's surgery on Éugenie, who was the most powerful woman in Europe during her husband's reign, influenced the course of development of cataract surgical technique.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T02:26:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211049700
       
  • Salomón Hakim, MD (1922–2011): A honeymoon with Neurosurgery

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      Authors: Daniel Jaramillo-Velásquez, Fernando Hakim, Andreas K Demetriades
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Salomón Hakim (1922–2011) was a Colombian neurosurgeon and brain scientist This biography examines the social and cultural background through which he emerged as an inquisitive and multi-dimensional surgeon-scientist, and his lifelong contributions to the specialty of neurosurgery. With empirical knowledge in applied medical physics, electronics, electricity and chemistry, he understood the paradoxical phenomenon of symptomatic hydrocephalus with normal cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This ultimately led Hakim to describe in exquisite detail the physics of the cranial cavity and brain hydrodynamics. His name is intertwined with the identification of the entity of a syndrome which had not previously been addressed in the medical literature: Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (Hakim's syndrome). Additionally, he designed and built various models of valved shunting devices to treat the condition (eg the Hakim programmable valve). Through his selflessness and cogent work, Hakim left a legacy and intellectual heritage that has allowed many colleagues worldwide to save thousands of lives who would be otherwise condemned to oblivion.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-10-29T12:57:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211054025
       
  • Seeking alternatives, asserting choices: Dr Mahendralal Sarkar's life in
           medicine and science

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      Authors: Dhrub Kumar Singh
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the medical life of a native physician who embraced homoeopathy despite being trained in the dominant pathy i.e. allopathy at the prestigious Calcutta Medical College in the 1860s. Mahendralal Sarkar, the physician in focus, was one of the first famous converts to homoeopathy. His seeking of an alternative option created space and legitimacy for homoeopathy. Through the journal Calcutta Journal of Medicine that Sarkar founded, he, with great ability, asserted and defended his right as a physician to decide in favour of homoeopathy. Sarkar gradually established himself as an accomplished homoeopath and was recognised as an important public figure of Calcutta. The odds and opposition he faced convinced him to embark on a great task of the cultivation of science as, in his view, the inculcation of the spirit of science was the need of the day to break the orthodoxy and mitigate prejudices of the medical profession and society at large.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-10-21T10:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211049563
       
  • The enigma of Sir William Robert Wills Wilde (1815–1876)

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      Authors: Patrick Boland, Sean P Hughes
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      William Wilde, father of Oscar Wilde, made a significant contribution to ophthalmology and otology. Qualified as a surgeon. educated in statistics and showing sympathy for the Irish population, Wilde was appointed a Commissioner for the 1851 Census, which covered the time of the Irish Famine (1845–1852). Wilde, steeped in Irish mythology, used his knowledge to develop a close rapport with the Irish peasantry. However, his life was a paradox; he supported the British Government's approach to the Famine and at the same time he showed humanity to the Irish peasantry. In his personal life he was implicated in an abortive libel case involving a young female patient who had accused him of rape. Wilde lived as though he had two separate lives: on the one hand the successful surgeon, famine Commissioner and cataloguer of Irish antiquities, and the other a countryman and disciple of Irish mythology. Wilde was highly preceptive especially in his views on the recording of medical data and outcomes in clinical practice. We argue that Wilde was probably unmatched in the variety of his talents but was also perplexing in the various actions he took during his life and that indeed Wilde was an enigma.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-10-21T10:14:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211046588
       
  • Tayādhūq (Theodocus/Théodoros) and his role in the
           formation of Islamic medicine

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      Authors: Samet Şenel, Halil İbrahim Yılmaz
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Tayādhūq, also known as Theodocus/Théodoros (d. early 8th century AD), was educated in the Gondēs̲h̲āpūr School and served the Sassanid kings. During this period, he contacted the Umayyad court and became the physician of Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf (d. 715 AD), the general governor of the Eastern regions of the caliphate. In addition to his knowledge on the Sassanid scientific tradition, Tayādhūq had a significant role in transferring this tradition to the Islamic world. His ideas were later followed by polymath physicians such as Rhazes (Abū Bakr al-Rāzī, d. 925 AD), Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, d. 1037 AD), and others who lived after him. His medical works were of great importance to the development of early Islamic medicine. Therefore, this study will attempt to illuminate this forgotten scholar's medical knowledge, the works he produced, and finally illustrate his influences on later Muslim physicians.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-10-18T12:30:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211052509
       
  • A Midsummer Night’s Gene: The familial Neurological Illness of Felix
           Mendelssohn

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      Authors: Tess EK Cersonsky, Julie Roth
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1805–1847) is widely regarded as one of the musical geniuses of the Romantic period. A prodigy akin to Mozart, Mendelssohn composed piano works, symphonies, and concertos at an early age but died young, at 38. His death has been attributed to neurological disease, but the mystery of his diagnosis is amplified by the fact that his sisters died under similar circumstances, including the renowned composer, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel. Mendelssohn died after years of suffering from headaches, earaches, and mood disturbances. In the final year of his life, his acute decline was marked by stepwise, progressive neurologic deficits: gait disturbance, loss of sensation in the hands, partial paralysis, and, finally, loss of consciousness. The similar pattern of disease within his family suggests an underlying genetic link, though this may be multifactorial in nature. We present a thorough, posthumous differential diagnosis for Mendelssohn's illness, given his medical history, the familial pattern, and hints from within his music. Possible diagnoses include ruptured cerebral aneurysm with resultant subarachnoid hemorrhage, familial cerebral cavernous malformation, and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Continued research into Mendelssohn's life may yield more information about his illness, death, and possibly true diagnosis.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T01:15:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211046584
       
  • Bernard Hart (1879–1966) and his influence on British psychiatry

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      Authors: Jonathan R.T. Davidson, Roger Hart
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Bernard Hart was among the most eminent 20th-century British psychiatrists. Following medical qualification at University College Hospital, London, he trained in psychiatry, which included two years studying in Paris and Zurich. He was appointed as the first psychiatric consultant at University College Hospital, then spent some time in Liverpool, where he specialized in treating war neurosis. Early in his career, Hart was one of the first to introduce the ideas of Freud and Janet, and the importance of unconscious processes, to the British public. After the First World War, Hart returned to University College Hospital, where he remained until 1947, building up a flourishing department. Hart was appointed to numerous senior offices and directed the psychiatric section of the British Emergency Medical Services in the Second World War. Hart is believed to be the last psychiatrist to certify someone (John Amery) as being of sufficiently sound mind to die for treason.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T01:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211044080
       
  • Peter Richard Barton BDS MBBS MA MDS FDSRCS MRCS LRCP (1921–2010) oral
           and maxillofacial surgeon and artist

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      Authors: Stanley Gelbier
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Peter Barton enjoyed a rare achievement: distinction in science and the arts. He was an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, a painter, musician and philosopher, with a sharp intellect and questioning mind. A true polymath.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211044473
       
  • Unearthing a provincial medical school and its students – A history of
           the 1834 ‘School of Practical Medicine and Surgery’ at the Sussex
           County Hospital, Brighton, England

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      Authors: Benjamin Whiston, Maxwell J Cooper
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The 19th century was a period of rapid change in English medical education. Little is known about the important contribution of smaller, hospital-based, provincial medical schools which sprang up to provide important practical training opportunities for students, typically as a foundation for further training and examination in London. One such example is the 1834 Brighton ‘School of Practical Medicine and Surgery’, which was based at the Sussex County Hospital and recognised by the Royal College of Surgeons and Worshipful Society of Apothecaries. Unlike many other 19th century medical schools, the history of the Brighton school is largely undocumented. Although it remained dependent upon London through the ‘College and Hall’ examination system, this article shows that the school's pragmatic and adaptive educational approach allowed it to play an important role in educating future doctors in Brighton from 1834 into at least the early 20th century.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T09:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211036112
       
  • Francesco Maria Fiorentini (1603–1673): An Italian physician in
           ‘The Iron Century’

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      Authors: Noemi Mantile, Valentina Giuffra, Antonio Fornaciari
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to shed light on the figure of Francesco Maria Fiorentini, a 17th-century physician from Lucca (Tuscany, Italy) and member of the Iatromechanical School, who distinguished himself for his role during the plague and the typhus epidemics that spread throughout Italy in the first half of that century. His work must be contextualized in a precise historical moment, which marked the gradual transition of Western medicine from the archaism of Galenic doctrine to that of the Iatromechanical School, when the foundations started to be laid for an experimental type of medicine that based its assumptions on the direct observation of phenomena concerning the human body. In this work, we mainly focus on the medical biography of Fiorentini and on the reasons why he enjoyed great social prestige among the most prominent figures of his time. However, Fiorentini should also be remembered as a multifaceted scholar, as evidenced by his numerous writings, which underline his erudition in disparate fields of knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-08-30T01:55:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211039156
       
  • A great inspiration for today's vaccination efforts: Biographical sketch
           of Francisco Xavier Balmis (1753–1819)

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      Authors: Gabriel E Andrade
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The management of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic will require huge worldwide vaccination efforts. In this endeavour, healthcare workers face the twofold challenge of reaching remote areas, and persuading people to take the vaccine shots. As it happens, this is nothing new in the history of medicine. Health workers can take inspiration from Francisco Xavier Balmis, a Spanish physician of the 19th century who realised the importance of Jenner's vaccine against smallpox, and led a big successful expedition to administer the vaccines in the Spanish colonial possessions of the Western hemisphere and Asia. This article presents a biographical sketch of Balmis, focusing on his expedition.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T11:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211034765
       
  • Gerald Hubert Leatherman DSc FDS FFD DOdont (1903–1991), the World
           Dental Federation, dental hygienists and the promotion of oral health

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      Authors: Stanley Gelbier
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In 1994 a ‘Dr Gerald Leatherman Award' was established by the British Dental Hygienists' Association to honour Leatherman. But who was he' And why was he associated with this named award' There are many facets to the Leatherman story: the first training of UK dental hygienists, support for their association, promotion of oral health in many ways and, perhaps especially, his work for the World Dental Federation (FDI).
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T02:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211000354
       
  • Mary Merryweather – Nursing pioneer and proto feminist

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      Authors: Chris Jones
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Mary Merryweather was the first Lady superintendent of Liverpool's first school of nursing. The school was a pioneer in nurse training at the very moment the definition of modern nursing was becoming fixed. She went on to manage the school of nursing at the Westminster hospital in London, at a time of great change and controversy. In addition to this she was very active in the fields of womens' health, womens' suffrage and the rights of women to a career. She was a friend to numerous Victorian feminist notables and was published in a variety of feminist Publications
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-07-30T06:05:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211002860
       
  • ‘To unlock the secret places of Man’s Mind’.1 Thomas
           Willis (1621–1675)

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      Authors: Penelope Hunting
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Thomas Willis was born four hundred years ago on 27 January 1621 in Wiltshire. He has been dubbed ‘the father of neurology’ and is remembered for the Circle of Willis at the base of the brain. Young Thomas was educated at Oxford as a schoolboy and undergraduate. From 1646 he practised medicine and studied chemistry; he joined the Oxford Experimental Philosophical Club, and was Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1660. He established a prosperous medical practice at The Angel on Oxford High Street, and achieved international acclaim for Cerebri anatome (1664). Lured to London in 1667, Willis lived in style but attended the sick poor on Sundays and worshipped twice daily at St Martin-in-the-Fields.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T02:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211000728
       
  • George Phillip Cammann (1804–1863): A physician's contribution to the
           modern stethoscope and auscultatory percussion

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      Authors: Richard A Reinhart
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In the middle third of the 19th century, George Phillip Cammann became known for the stethoscope improvement that came to bear his name and for the development of the then-popular diagnostic technique of auscultatory percussion. During his postgraduate training at the Paris hospitals in 1828–1830, he acquired a special interest in auscultation while attending lectures given by a friend and colleague of Laennec's, French physician Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis (1787–1872). In his New York City practice, caring primarily for the working poor, he recognized the need for a better stethoscope and developed a modification that came to bear his name. He conducted research aimed at increasing the accuracy of physical diagnosis by improving and reporting on the technique of auscultatory percussion. An examination of the medical literature, both textbooks and journals, reveals the extent of influence that Cammann had on clinical practice resulting from his contributions to the improvement of the stethoscope and auscultatory percussion.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T03:57:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211032374
       
  • Thomas Shapter (1809–1902) of Exeter: Nineteenth century epidemiologist,
           physician, psychiatrist and author

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      Authors: Peter J Selley
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Thomas Shapter spent almost all his working life in Exeter, Devon. He lived to be 93 years old. He is remembered primarily for his book describing the 1832 epidemic of cholera in Exeter in which 402 people died.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T02:00:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211001054
       
  • Pietro Pacifico Gamondi (1914-1993), tropical physician and ethnologist. A
           protagonist of medical research in the middle of the 20th century

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      Authors: Barbara Pezzoni, Omar Larentis, Jutta M Birkhoff, Ilaria Gorini
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Pietro Pacifico Gamondi was a tropical physician, who was one of the main protagonists of medical research during the 20th century. His training as a doctor first saw him in Rome following doctor Aldo Castellani. Gamondi then left for Lisbon, London, and the extra-European countries that have characterized his path as a doctor and as a man. In fact, he traveled to Indonesia and Africa, where took care of the population, combining European and local medicine. In this contribution, we wanted to remember the figure of a man who dedicates his life to tropical medicine and to the care of others.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-07-13T04:40:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211032533
       
  • Dr James Copland (1791–1870) and his Dictionary of Practical
           Medicine

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      Authors: Simon Gray
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dr James Copland (1791–1870) was born in the Orkney Islands and studied medicine at Edinburgh where he graduated in 1815. The following year was spent in Paris to acquire knowledge of the latest developments in pathology and he then travelled for a year along the coast of West Africa gaining practical experience of treating tropical diseases. After establishing his medical practice in London, which eventually became extremely successful, he contributed to medical journals and also became editor of the London Medical Repository from 1822 to 1825. His greatest work was The Dictionary of Practical Medicine written entirely by himself which was completed between 1832 and 1858. More than 10,000 copies of the dictionary were sold and its author became world famous during his lifetime. In 1833, Copland was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and from 1837 onwards he played a prominent role in the proceedings of The Royal College of Physicians. This article shows how his extensive professional and literary work was combined with an unusual private life.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-07-13T04:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211032373
       
  • Edward S Perkins, MD, PhD (1919–2015): In the vanguard of ophthalmic
           physician–scientists

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      Authors: Christopher F Blodi
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      British-American ophthalmologist Edward Perkins, MD, PhD (1919–2015) held wide-ranging research interests during his career at the Institute of Ophthalmology in London, the University of Iowa, and as a military doctor stationed in Kenya. With his PhD and a medical degree, Perkins was in the vanguard of clinician–scientists who possessed such dual credentials, enabling him to perform noteworthy experimental and clinical research. Perkins’ glaucoma research included early work on acetazolamide and prostaglandins, laser iridotomy, and large-scale glaucoma surveys such as the Bedford Glaucoma Survey. In 1957, Perkins earned a PhD with a thesis on cranial nerve influences on rabbit intraocular pressure. Perkins also invented a handheld applanation tonometer; wrote an entire volume on uveitis for Duke-Elder's system of Ophthalmology; co-founded the Association for Eye Research (the European Association for Vision and Eye Research forerunner); and was a charter member of the Glaucoma Research Society. In 1961, Perkins became the first Professor of Experimental Ophthalmology at the Institute of Ophthalmology in London. In 1979, Perkins and his family emigrated to the United States, where he became a Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of Iowa. Perkins’ understated personality masked a legacy of extensive contributions to the field of ophthalmology.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-07-06T06:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211030267
       
  • What does the biography of Duncan Forbes MBE (1873–1941), Medical
           Officer of Health for Brighton (1908–1938), reveal about managing
           pandemics'

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      Authors: Thomas Khan-White, Benjamin Whiston, Max Cooper
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the national lockdowns of 2020/2021 illustrate how modern public health systems are founded on empirical evidence and contemporary understanding of disease transmission. Duncan Forbes was one of the earliest sanitarians in Britain to propose and implement a new understanding of infectious disease control. Starting his early career in Manchester and Cambridge, his eventual tenure as Brighton's longest-serving medical officer of health (MOH) left an indelible mark by challenging the entrenched tradition of terminal disinfection and by devising his “Brighton methods” for the care of tubercular patients. Forbes led Brighton's public health responses during World War I and the 1918/1919 “Spanish” influenza pandemic. Forbes also strove to improve health and housing in Brighton. His views on limiting access to contraception on the grounds of eugenics are also significant. Analysis of Forbes' work then allowed a discussion of both his legacy and of the applicability of his experiences to our own in tackling COVID-19. Forbes undeniably had a great influence in shaping modern public health practice in Britain and his challenges as MOH bear many similarities, as well as stark differences, to today's experience of COVID-19.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T05:22:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211021575
       
  • Britain’s forgotten military medical school at Fort Pitt, Kent
           (1860–1863)

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      Authors: Melissa Bowen, Benjamin Whiston, Max Cooper
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      This article considers the history of Fort Pitt (1780-1922), its military hospital (founded 1814) and, in particular, its Army Medical School (1860–63). The museum and library were the work of the hospital’s first directors: Dr David MacLoughlin and Sir James McGrigor, the latter the renowned reformer of military medical education. Central to the foundation of the medical school was Florence Nightingale who visited the site in 1856. The school opened in 1860 with five sets of students attending before it was transferred in 1863 to the Royal Victoria hospital, Netley, Hampshire. Fort Pitt was a “practical” medical school with students attending for 4-9 months of clinical experience. This included “instruction in tropical medicine” delivered by members of the Indian Medical Service. The foundation of a military medical school fulfilled an ambition dating back to at least 1796. Nightingale’s role (exerted through Sidney Herbert) was omitted from contemporary newspaper reports. Fort Pitt continued as a military hospital until 1922 when it was converted to a school. The medical school constitutes a landmark in British military medicine, a response to the failure of British medical care in the Crimean war (1853–1856) and a forgotten legacy of Florence Nightingale.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T01:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211005130
       
  • Gladys Mary Wauchope (1889–1966): Brighton physician and second female
           medical student at the London Hospital Medical College

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      Authors: Elizabeth J Dickenson, Benjamin Whiston, Maxwell J Cooper
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Gladys Mary Wauchope was a pioneering woman physician and general practitioner in London and Brighton. Descended from an ancient Scottish family, she was the second female medical student at the London Hospital Medical College after Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, enrolling during the brief period from 1918 to 1928 in which women were permitted to study medicine in mainstream London medical schools due to shortages of doctors caused by the First World War. Unperturbed by opposition to her gender from male colleagues, she was initially house physician on the firm of Sir Robert Hutchison at ‘the London’, and went on to hold an array of posts in large London hospitals at a time when finding such work was challenging for women doctors. She settled in Hove as a general practitioner in 1924, later becoming a consultant physician at several major Brighton hospitals. Made only the eighth female fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, she also set up the first diabetic clinic in Sussex and Kent. Gladys authored several books, including her autobiography ‘The Story of a Woman Physician’, which documents life through two world wars and the introduction of the National Health Service, whilst keenly observing the changing landscape of medicine and its place in society.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T05:33:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211023502
       
  • John Goodsir (1814–1867) and his neurological illness

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      Authors: Iain Macintyre, Christopher Gardner-Thorpe, Andreas K Demetriades
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      John Goodsir, conservator and professor of anatomy at the University of Edinburgh, suffered an unidentified illness described by experts after his death as tabes. The features that led to this diagnosis, the understanding of tabes at that time and its relationship in some cases to syphilis, are discussed. It is concluded that the most likely diagnoses are subacute combined degeneration of the cord as a result of malnutrition or tabes dorsalis resulting from earlier syphilis. The presence of ‘lightning pains’ leans towards the latter diagnosis but evidence for a means of acquisition of syphilis is lacking. The disadvantages of retrospective diagnosis are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T05:30:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211021573
       
  • One Hundred years after the unveiling of the Chattri memorial, what can
           the monument tell us about remembrance and COVID-19'

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      Authors: Thomas A Khan-White, Carl Fernandes, Maxwell J Cooper
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T04:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211021574
       
  • Surgery on the battlefield: Mobile surgical units in the Second World War
           and the memoirs they produced

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      Authors: Katherine M Venables
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In the Second World War, there was a flowering of the battlefield surgery pioneered in the Spanish Civil War. There were small, mobile surgical units in all the theatres of the War, working close behind the fighting and deployed flexibly according to the nature of the conflict. With equipment transported by truck, jeep or mule, they operated in tents, bunkers and requisitioned buildings and carried out abdominal, thoracic, head and neck, and limb surgery. Their role was to save life and to ensure that wounded soldiers were stable for casualty evacuation back down the line to a base hospital. There is a handful of memoirs by British doctors who worked in these units and they make enthralling reading. Casualty evacuation by air replaced the use of mobile surgical units in later wars, throwing into doubt their future relevance in the management of battle wounds. But recent re-evaluations by military planners suggest that their mobility still gives them a place, so the wartime memoirs may have more value than simply as war stories.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T04:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211012190
       
  • The principles and practice of death: The Oslerian conflicted conception
           of dying

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      Authors: Kacper Niburski
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Sir William Osler espoused a particularly idealized medical life that included the patient in the physician's worldview. Disease is not considered a monolith, only a reflection of one's broader health. Death, too, is configured as a part of one's being, not as a thing apart from life. The wholesomeness that characterized Osler's practice is well known—however, his long discussions and thoughts on death have not been sufficiently analyzed. His clinical views have been hinted at and numerous medical historians have noted that Osler's worldview on death was avant-garde for its time, one in which he described finality not as a time of suffering and anguish, but as “singularly free from mental distress.” This essay contends with this simple view. This straightforward understanding becomes complicated when delving into such primary resources as Osler's Study on Dying cards, his writings on other medical conditions, and personal reflections following the personal losses of his sons Edward Revere Osler and Paul Revere Osler. This essay contends that the loss and the death he imagines is not one of peace, but rather, of horror and terror. Furthermore, the primary sources show Osler not as the paragon of flawless clinical acumen and reasoning, but a man of personal beliefs that were in conflict with views he espoused more publicly. The essay therefore reconceptualizes the common understanding of a stoic Osler, determines how death prefigures into Oslerian thought, and challenges the idea of an Oslerian simple death.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T03:18:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211018974
       
  • William Taylor, Peninsular War surgeon and deputy inspector of hospitals
           at Waterloo

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      Authors: Max Cooper, Ben Whiston, Carl Fernandes
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      William Taylor was a British army surgeon remembered for his role as deputy inspector of hospitals (DIH) at Waterloo serving under Sir James Grant MD (1778–1852). No biography of Taylor exists beyond his entry in Drew's records of commissioned officers in the medical services of the British Army. Taylor appears to have been a Scotsman and is first noted as a hospital mate in 1795. He joined the 10th Royal Dragoons (Hussars from 1806) as an assistant surgeon in 1797. He is recorded at Guildford (1800) and Brighton (1803). He was made surgeon in August 1803. A further reference to Taylor, deduced from the title of “regimental surgeon,” is documented at Lewes, Sussex, in 1808. Taylor served with the 10th Hussars in the Peninsular and Challis’ roll call records his service at the Battles of Sahagún (21 December 1808) and Benavente (29 December 1808). Taylor was transferred to the staff on 20 June 1811 and made DIH on 25 July 1811. He was put on half-pay before being reinstated for Waterloo. Taylor retired on half-pay in February 1816 and died at Turnham Green on 9 January 1820. His Waterloo medal was sold in 2006.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T03:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211020736
       
  • Memorials to John Snow – Pioneer in anaesthesia and epidemiology

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      Authors: Neil G Snowise
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      John Snow was an English physician and a founding father of epidemiology, whose name is inextricably linked with tracing the source of the 1854 cholera outbreak in Soho, which killed over 600 people. Despite his recommendation to remove the water pump handle and thus reduce the spread of cholera, his theory of faecal–oral transmission was not widely believed until after his death. Furthermore, he also pioneered substantial achievements in the development of anaesthesia. He studied both chloroform and ether, improving the accuracy of their delivery. In his obstetric practice, he achieved the feat of obtaining satisfactory analgesia with a safer technique and is remembered for administering chloroform to Queen Victoria, during the delivery of her last two children. There are several interesting and unusual memorials to Snow, ranging from replica water pumps, blue plaques and a public house named after him. The most recent new memorial was erected in 2017, in his home town of York, which commemorates his origins and his subsequent contribution to curbing the cholera outbreak. All the memorials commemorate his achievements, which remain relevant today. Public health and epidemiology expertise is required in the current world of the COVID-19 pandemic, where his legacy remains as important as ever.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-05-07T02:31:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211013807
       
  • Dr JA Gray (1858–1929)–Surgeon to HH The Amir of Afghanistan

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      Authors: Simon Gray
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dr Gray was an assistant medical officer at the Islington Workhouse when he was offered the dangerous but well-paid post as surgeon to the Amir of Afghanistan in August 1888. He arrived in Afghanistan in March 1889 and continued in the post until June 1893. He described his experiences in his book, My Residence at the Court of the Amir.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T12:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211013805
       
  • Professor George Archibald Grant Mitchell (1906–1993): his work with
           penicillin during World War II

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      Authors: Peter D Mohr, Stephanie Seville
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      George Archibald Grant Mitchell, OBE, TD, MB, ChB, ChM, MSc, DSc, FRCS (1906–1993) was a professor of anatomy at the University of Manchester from 1946 to 1973. He is mainly remembered for his research in neuroanatomy, especially of the autonomic nervous system. He studied medicine at the Aberdeen University, and after qualifying in 1929 he held posts in surgery and anatomy and worked as a surgeon in the Highlands. In 1939, he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps. He was based in Egypt and the Middle East, where he carried out trials of sulphonamides and penicillin on wounded soldiers; in 1943, he returned to England as Adviser in Penicillin Therapy for 21 Army Group, preparing for the invasion of Europe.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T02:28:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211012184
       
  • The signs and symptoms of Ernest Shackleton

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      Authors: PG Firth, OJ Benavidez, L Fiechtner
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Ernest Shackleton, an accomplished Antarctic explorer, developed a life-threatening illness during the Discovery Antarctic expedition of 1901–4. His documented signs and symptoms included inflamed gums attributed to scurvy, severe dyspnea, and exercise intolerance, presenting in a setting of nutritional deficiency. Physical examinations at a later date, also following a prolonged diet of limited fresh food, revealed a pulmonary systolic murmur. Thiamine deficiency with cardiomyopathy, either alone or subsequently exacerbated by advanced scurvy, may have been a prominent cause of Shackleton’s condition.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:13:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211002205
       
  • Saving private W. H.: The surgical experiences of Dugald Blair Brown
           (1847–1896): Lieutenant-Colonel, FRCS, Edin., AMD

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      Authors: Charles DePaolo
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dugald Blair Brown, a military surgeon and Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, published twelve papers containing 77 case studies of gunshot wounds that he had treated in the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 and in the First Anglo-Boer War of 1880–1881. Brown devised a “conservative” method of surgery, the early development of which had been influenced by Thomas Longmore (1816–1895), Joseph Lister (1827–1912), F. J. von Esmarch (1823–1912), and Carl von Reyher (1846–1890). During these conflicts, Brown reacted to surgical practices unsuited to the battlefield and not in the interest of the wounded. One such practice was “expectant” surgery, the practitioners of which dangerously substituted natural healing for immediate wound resection. Brown also criticized “operative” surgeons who, when faced with gunshot wounds of the extremities, expeditiously amputated limbs. Viewing each case as diagnostically unique, Brown tried to salvage limbs, to preserve function, and to accelerate recovery. To achieve these objectives, he used debridement, antisepsis, drainage, nutrition, and limited post-operative intervention.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:13:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772021995175
       
  • Voltaire and the politicization of medicine and science

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      Authors: Curtis E Margo, Lynn E Harman
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The 17th and 18th centuries witnessed an intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment that made possible future revolutions such as the scientific. No person better characterizes the Enlightenment than Voltaire (1696–1976) who, in his book Philosophical Letters published in 1734, venerated the liberalism of English institutions while criticizing the ancien régime of France. He was convinced that the personal freedom the English enjoyed was responsible for their country's success, pointing to inoculation for smallpox and advances in science as evidence. His choice of smallpox inoculation and science as exemplars of empiricism, which maintained that knowledge is obtained through sensory experience, is revealing as it pinpoints political flashpoints that persist to this day. This paper explores how inoculation and science were employed by Voltaire to advance his political idea of liberty.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211010461
       
  • John Rattray (1707–1771), Surgeon and Golfer

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      Authors: Iain Macintyre
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:39:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211008440
       
  • Dr Hetty Brenda Ockrim (1919–2007) and her medical legacy

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      Authors: Kenneth Collins
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dr Hetty Ockrim was a general practitioner in an inner-city Glasgow district for 43 years, before retiring in 1989. This paper looks at her career and her legacy through the pioneering oral history study she undertook, on retirement, with former patients, and the ‘Letters to No-one’ written at the time of her retirement but only discovered at the time of her death.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211008404
       
  • Montagu Lomax: The background and motivation of a ‘remarkable man’ who
           spearheaded lunacy reform

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      Authors: Clare Groves, Claire Hilton
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Doctor Montagu Lomax was a retired General Practioner, whose service in English lunatic asylums during the First World War inspired him to write The experiences of an asylum doctor: with suggestions for asylum and lunacy law reform. Published in 1921, the book acted as a catalyst for lunacy reform and stimulated improvements in the mental health services in the United Kingdom. Lomax spent the remainder of his retirement campaigning for lunacy reform. He suffered financial and personal hardship following the publication of the book and was castigated by his own profession. On the centenary of the publication of Experiences, this article explores the background and motivation of a remarkable man.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09677720211005268
       
  • Homage to Dr med. Božidar Kostić

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      Authors: Božidar Pocevski, Prim. Predrag Pocevski, Lidija Horvat
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Dr Božidar Kostić (1892–1960) – physician of noble heart – was born in Niš (Kingdom of Serbia) in a distinguished family of academically educated parents. As there were no medical faculties in Kingdom of Serbia, after high school, which he had finished with great success, in 1911 he enrolled at the Graz University of Medicine, a prestigious medical university. Soon he transferred to the Faculty of Medicine at Charles University in Prague, where he continued his studying for another ten semesters. In Prague, The Golden City, after the First World War, he finished his studies with an average grade of 10. After the Second World War, he worked as a doctor with a private medical practice in Belgrade, but soon he moved to Vranje, where he established the Town Polyclinic and contributed to the final flourishing of the most important forms of health care activities in liberated Vranje, donating his rich knowledge and skills, which led the health service to move to forms of independent work and development of new activities. For his contribution to the community, by decree of His Majesty King of Yugoslavia Alexander I Karađorđević, he received the Order of Saint Sava. Dr Božidar Kostić and his wife Pravda devoted their lives to the health and educational upbringing of the people in the south parts of Serbia (then Social Federative Republic of Yugoslavia). Until his last days he lived and worked as a true folk doctor.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T06:39:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020974583
       
  • Biographical review of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) – A physician of 12th CE

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      Authors: Azizur Rahman, Mohd Zulkifle, Aumir Rasool
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In the Islamic Golden Age, medicine flourished by the practice of Persian, Arab and Greek physicians (9th to 13th century AD). Ibn rushd (1126–1198 AD) was renowned physician in that period, influenced the progress of medicine by his writings. He was the stalwart of medical sciences and owner of many writings in various fields of science. One of his writings in medicine was “Al- Kulliyat fi Al-Tibb” (Colliget or “Generalities on Medicine”). Many of his writings were studied in every part of globe. Now a day it is need of hour to generalize his knowledge for further researches. In this paper it is trying to compile his historical aspect of life as well as writings.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T06:39:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020981310
       
  • Theodor Meynert (1833–1892): Famous brain-anatomist and poet

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      Authors: Josef Hlade
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      This paper focuses on the lesser-known side of the famous neuropathologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist Theodor Meynert (1833–1892): Meynert as a poet. Meynert decided to become a doctor late in life, a decision that required him to give up on having a career as a writer. This analysis outlines that Meynert, as a scientist, was significantly shaped by his multifaceted interests and surrounding environment. It refers to previously unknown archival materials and especially letters that gives new insights into his multifactored personality. Thus, as this paper argues, his poetic affinity is of great importance to understanding his work.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020978581
       
  • Illustrations of the heart by Arthur Keith: His work with James Mackenzie
           on the pathophysiology of the heart 1903–08

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      Authors: Peter D Mohr
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The University of Manchester Museum of Medicine and Health holds a collection of drawings of human hearts by anatomist Sir Arthur Keith (1866–1955). The specimens were provided by the cardiologist, Sir James Mackenzie (1853–1925) who was using a polygraph to investigate patients with cardiac arrhythmias. Keith’s dissections helped to establish the anatomy and pathology of the atrioventricular conduction system and assisted Mackenzie to interpret his polygraph recordings and understand the origin of cardiac arrythmias.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020980224
       
  • A collection of illustrations of the heart by Arthur Keith, and his work
           with James Mackenzie on the pathophysiology of the heart 1903–1908

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      Authors: Peter D Mohr
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The University of Manchester Museum of Medicine and Health holds of collection of drawings of human hearts by anatomist Sir Arthur Keith (1866–1955). The specimens were provided by the cardiologist, Sir James Mackenzie (1853–1925) who was using a polygraph to investigate patients with cardiac arrhythmias. Keith’s dissections helped to establish the anatomy and pathology of the atrioventricular conduction system and assisted Mackenzie to interpret his polygraph recordings and understand the origin of cardiac arrythmias.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772020985053
       
  • William chambers: British army surgeon (Toulon, 1793) and his vaccination
           institution (1803) in Brighton, England

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      Authors: Maxwell J Cooper, Benjamin Whiston
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      Following Edward Jenner’s research into cowpox, a wave of vaccination services emerged across England. Despite some resistance, these began to promote population prevention where variolation had failed. Sussex’s first vaccine institution has long been considered to be that of Sir Matthew Tierney (1776–1845). Founded in 1804, Tierney’s “Royal Sussex Jennerian Society for the Extermination of the Small-pox” comprised sixteen stations, including one in Kent. This article presents an earlier example: the 1803 “Brighton Royal Jennerian Institution”, founded by a “Mr Chambers” to serve “the indigent poor”. Given that both held royal and military appointments in Brighton, Tierney must have been aware of Chambers’ efforts in vaccination. It is unclear why Tierney’s 1804 plan for the Sussex Vaccine Institution makes no mention of Chambers. In 1803 Chambers also directed the establishment of Brighton’s first military hospital and is noted as “surgeon extraordinary” to the Prince Regent. Chambers is identified as William Chambers of the 10th Royal Dragoons, who served at Toulon (1793) as a surgeon’s mate. He is also documented at Corsica in 1794 where he examined Nelson’s injured eye following the siege of Calvi. Mr Chambers’ origin and more details of his biography remain unknown.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772021991818
       
  • The First Eastern General Hospital (1914–1919) of the Royal Army
           Medical Corps at Cambridge

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      Authors: Andreas K Demetriades
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      The First Eastern General Hospital (1914–1919) from its inception at the Leys School, its growth and establishment at Trinity College Cambridge and then its further move to the cricket grounds of King’s College and Clare College (now the site of the University Library), exemplifies the determination and desire of Cambridge University to contribute to the humanitarian effort during World War I. It is also a prime example of the sheer sacrifice and altruism of the medical profession across its ranks to offer its services in times of need. From its day of mobilisation on 5 August and its first patient admission on 16 August 1914 through 30 June 1918, the last month for which hospital data exist, the First Eastern General Hospital admitted 62,664 patients from Home, Expeditionary, Belgian and Mediterranean Forces. In the last month alone, it admitted more than 2000 personnel. By its closure, there were only 437 deaths, a mortality rate of 0.69 per cent. It paved the way for Auxiliary Hospitals to which 2500 of its patients were transferred. Both Barnwell and Cherry Hinton Military Hospitals, set up to care for venereal disease patients, sprang from the First Eastern General and followed its organisation and staff arrangements after the parent closed.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772021989696
       
  • The contributions of James Carmichael Smyth, Archibald Menzies and Robert
           Jackson to the treatment of typhus in royal naval vessels in the late 18th
           century

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      Authors: Chelsea Chan, Andreas K Demetriades
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In late 18th century Britain, typhus fever plagued the mass mobilisation of soldiers and posed a significant challenge to physicians of the time. Epidemic typhus was spread through highly infectious faeces of infected lice and carried a high mortality in patients and healthcare staff alike. Physicians James Carmichael Smyth (1741–1821) and Archibald Menzies (1754–1842) theorized that typhus fever was caused by infection of human exhalation. They trialled the use of vapourised nitrous acid to fumigate patients, their clothes and their bedspace, with apparent success. Despite this, typhus fever continued to ravage deployments of soldiers into the early 19th century, stimulating the continuing evolution of the understanding of typhus and its treatment.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:58:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772021994560
       
  • A letter about Jean Fernel by Charles Sherrington and the mind–brain
           connection

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      Authors: Charles T Ambrose
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Journal of Medical Biography, Ahead of Print.
      In 1940 during the early phase of the Nazi aerial assault on Britain, the English neurophysiologist, C.S. Sherrington, age 83 years, had just published a philosophical work, Man on His Nature, and was researching the writings of Jean Fernel, a 16th century French physician. Sherrington’s study of Fernel stemmed from a common interest they shared in the association between the mind and the brain. This essay was prompted by a short letter penned by Sherrington in December 1940 and bound years later in his biography, The Endeavour of Jean Fernel, published in 1946. The letter requested information about a particular medical work by Fernel but also mentioned in passing Sherrington’s recent forced evacuation from his home in Ipswich, threatened by German bombing and invasion. The letter in the book invited a reprise of his remarkable career and a study of his last neurological concern – the mind–brain mystery.
      Citation: Journal of Medical Biography
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T09:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0967772019858235
       
 
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