Subjects -> LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (Total: 2147 journals)
    - LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (954 journals)
    - LANGUAGES (276 journals)
    - LITERATURE (GENERAL) (180 journals)
    - NOVELS (13 journals)
    - PHILOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS (500 journals)
    - POETRY (23 journals)

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (954 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 801 - 127 of 127 Journals sorted alphabetically
Studia Litteraria et Historica     Open Access  
Studia Metrica et Poetica     Open Access  
Studia Neophilologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Pigoniana     Open Access  
Studia Romanica Posnaniensia     Open Access  
Studia Rossica Gedanensia     Open Access  
Studia Scandinavica     Open Access  
Studia Slavica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studia theodisca     Open Access  
Studien zur deutschen Sprache und Literatur     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Studies in African Languages and Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in American Indian Literatures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Applied Linguistics & TESOL (SALT)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Studies in Canadian Literature / Études en littérature canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Studies in ELT and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Studies in Scottish Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Studies in the Age of Chaucer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Studies in the Novel     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
SubStance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja : Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne     Open Access  
Sustainable Multilingualism     Open Access  
Swedish Journal of Romanian Studies     Open Access  
Sylloge epigraphica Barcinonensis : SEBarc     Open Access  
symploke     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sztuka Edycji     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tabuleiro de Letras     Open Access  
Teksty Drugie     Open Access  
Telar     Open Access  
Telondefondo : Revista de Teoría y Crítica Teatral     Open Access  
Temps zero     Open Access  
Tenso     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Teoliterária : Revista Brasileira de Literaturas e Teologias     Open Access  
Terminàlia     Open Access  
Territories : A Trans-Cultural Journal of Regional Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Texas Studies in Literature and Language     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Text Matters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Textual Cultures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Textual Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Texturas     Open Access  
The BARS Review     Open Access  
The CLR James Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
The Comparatist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
The Eighteenth Century     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
The Explicator     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
The F. Scott Fitzgerald Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Highlander Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Hopkins Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Lion and the Unicorn     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
The Literacy Trek     Open Access  
The Mark Twain Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The New Yorker     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
The Vernal Pool     Open Access  
Tirant : Butlletí informatiu i bibliogràfic de literatura de cavalleries     Open Access  
Tolkien Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
TradTerm     Open Access  
Traduire : Revue française de la traduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TRANS : Revista de Traductología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transalpina     Open Access  
Transfer : e-Journal on Translation and Intercultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Translation and Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Translation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Translation Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Translationes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transmotion     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Transversal     Open Access  
Trasvases Entre la Literatura y el Cine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trípodos     Open Access  
Tropelías : Revista de Teoría de la Literatura y Literatura Comparada     Open Access  
Tsafon : Revue Interdisciplinaire d'études Juives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Turkish Review of Communication Studies     Open Access  
Tutur : Cakrawala Kajian Bahasa-Bahasa Nusantara     Open Access  
Tydskrif vir Letterkunde     Open Access  
Uncommon Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Unidiversidad     Open Access  
Urdimento : Revista de Estudos em Artes Cênicas     Open Access  
US Latino & Latina Oral History Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Valenciana     Open Access  
Variants : Journal of the European Society for Textual Scholarship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Verba : Anuario Galego de Filoloxía     Full-text available via subscription  
Verba Hispanica     Open Access  
Vertimo studijos (Translation Studies)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Via Panorâmica : Revista de Estudos Anglo-Americanos     Open Access  
Victorian Literature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Victorian Poetry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Vilnius University Open Series     Open Access  
Vision : Journal for Language and Foreign Language Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vita Latina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Voice and Speech Review     Hybrid Journal  
Voix et Images     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Vox Romanica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Wacana     Open Access  
Wacana : Journal of the Humanities of Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wasafiri     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Werkwinkel : Journal of Low Countries and South African Studies     Open Access  
Western American Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Wicazo Sa Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
WikiJournal of Humanities     Open Access  
William Carlos Williams Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Word Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Writing Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Written Language & Literacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
WSQ: Women's Studies Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Year's Work in English Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Yearbook of Ancient Greek Epic Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Yearbook of Langland Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Załącznik Kulturoznawczy / Cultural Studies Appendix     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift fuer deutsches Altertum und Literatur     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Wortbildung / Journal of Word Formation     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeszyty Cyrylo-Metodiańskie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zibaldone : Estudios Italianos     Open Access  
Zutot     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Œuvres et Critiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Известия Южного федерального университета. Филологические науки     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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Journal Cover
Vilnius University Open Series
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2669-0535
Published by Vilnius University Homepage  [38 journals]
  • Editorial Board and Table of Contents

    • Authors: Inga Hilbig
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: -
      Keywords: Front Matter ; A collection of scholarly articles: In the Fields of Applied Linguistics

      • Authors: Inga Hilbig, Kristina Jakaitė-Bulbukienė, Eglė Žurauskaitė, Inga Daraškienė
        Pages: 1 - 215
        Abstract: This collection of articles in applied linguistics is dedicated to Prof. Meilutė Ramonienė‘s anniversary. The book is compiled of papers written by her students, colleagues, and friends from Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Switzerland. These texts are from various fields and subfields of applied linguistics, i.e., family language policy, national language policy, linguistic attitudes, motivation to learn a second language, linguadidactics, text linguistics, and linguistic impoliteness. In the preface, a short overview of Prof. M. Ramonienė‘s academic path and her as personality is given, and there is one more non-academic text that presents and highlights her long lasting fruitful contribution to the networking of the Baltic scholars.
        Keywords: Full Issue ; Proceedings of the Conference "Lithuanian MSc Research in Informatics
               and ICT"

        • Authors: Jolita Bernatavičienė , Gintautas Dzemyda, Olga Kurasova, Julius Žilinskas
          Pages: 1 - 5
          Abstract: The conference "Lithuanian MSc Research in Informatics and ICT" is a venue to present research of Lithuanian MSc theses in informatics and ICT. The aim of the event is to raise skills of MSc and other students, familiarize themselves with the research of other students, encourage their interest in scientific activities. Students from Vytautas Magnus University and Vilnius University gave their presentations at the conference.
          PubDate: 2023-05-11
      • Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Law (But Were Afraid to Ask

        • Authors: Jurgis Bartkus, Goda Strikaitė-Latušinskaja, Kęstutis Platūkis
          Pages: 1 - 138
          Abstract: -
          Keywords: Full Issue ; Foreword by the Organisers

          • Authors: Jurgis Bartkus, Goda Strikaitė-Latušinskaja, Kęstutis Platūkis
            Pages: 1 - 6
            Abstract: -
            Keywords: Front Matter ; TLA+ specifikacijų išskyrimas iš Elixir programos

            • Authors: Deividas Bražėnas, Karolis Petrauskas
              Pages: 5 - 14
              Abstract: Šiame tyrime yra nagrinėjamas metodas, padedantis užtikrinti Elixir programos atitikimą programinės įrangos inžinieriaus kurtai TLA+ specifikacijai. Kuriant metodą apibrėžtas vertimo taisyklių rinkinys, skirtas TLA+ specifikacijų išskyrimui iš nuosekliosios išskirstyto Elixir algoritmo dalies. Naudojant sudarytas taisykles, buvo įgyvendintas vertimo įrankis, Elixir kodą paverčiantis į TLA+ specifikaciją. Sugeneruotos specifikacijos teisingumas tikrinamas modelio tikrinimu ir tikslinimu, o teisingas vertimo įrankio veikimas užtikrinamas konvertuojant sugeneruotą specifikaciją atgal į Elixir kodą ir vykdant pirminės programos vienetų testus.
              PubDate: 2023-05-11
              DOI: 10.15388/LMITT.2023.1
          • On the effectiveness of restorative justice in the ecocide crime

            • Authors: Erfan Babakhani
              Pages: 7 - 15
              Abstract: This paper will review some concepts elaborated upon by restorative justice and reflect on how some of them can be put in with the context of the ecocide crime. It can be said that this crime, as the fifth most serious crime against global peace, is a new threat for a human’s life. The crime of ecocide, especially its governmental and corporate types, severely damages and destroys the environment, and in addition to the threat it poses to environmental security, ecocide undermines the foundations of economic and social security. The author used a descriptive-analytical approach and library resources to study the process of invention of the concept of ecocide as well as its essence in restorative justice thought. The present study tries to show that restorative justice applied to ecocide crime is a justice that provides environmental revitalisation-reparation. This novel vision will attempt to provide judicial actors insights regarding the role played by restorative policies to restore or sustain ecological functioning in the promotion of human rights, survival of environment, and the diminishment of social suffering.
              Keywords: Articles ; Adaptyvių kompiuterinių sistemų formalus modeliavimas ir verifikavimas
                     taikant statistinį modelių patikrinimo metodą

              • Authors: Daniel Daukševič
                Pages: 15 - 25
                Abstract: Šiame straipsnyje yra aprašomas tyrimas, kurio metu buvo formaliai verifikuojama adaptyvi kompiuterinė robotų sistema. Sistemos modelis buvo sukurtas ir formaliai verifikuojamas taikant statistinį modelių patikrinimo metodą naudojant UPPAAL SMC įrankį. Darbe yra siūloma apjungti du populiarius sistemos organizavimo modelius – hierarchinį bei saviorganizuojantį. Tyrime yra analizuojamas laiko aspektas – tyrinėjamas sistemos reakcijos greitis, vidutinis užduoties atlikimo laikas. Tyrimo rezultatų pagrindų yra pateikiami sukaupti pastebėjimai ir rekomendacijos verifikuojamos sistemos kūrimui ir tolimesniems tyrimams.
                PubDate: 2023-05-11
                DOI: 10.15388/LMITT.2023.2
            • The use of technology in dispute resolution; A framework for the study of

              • Authors: Rachele Beretta
                Pages: 16 - 29
                Abstract: During the Covid-19 Pandemic, the term “Online Dispute Resolution” has become a buzzword to indicate dispute resolution procedures that variously employ Information and Communication Technology. Against this backdrop, doubts arise regarding the function and degree of involvement of technology necessary to label certain dispute resolution processes as ODR. Scholars and regulators across the world have provided several definitions of ODR so as to include a wide range of dispute resolution procedures. While examining different doctrinal orientations and approaches of international ODR institutions, this contribution will propose a definition of ODR, outline a theoretical framework for the systemic study of ODR processes, and identify areas of interest for future research.
                Keywords: Articles ; Baltic Language Networking: A Personal View

                • Authors: Gabrielle Hogan-Brun
                  Pages: 21 - 27
                  Abstract: -
                  Keywords: Articles ; Neapykantos kalbos atpažinimas lietuviškuose komentaruose panaudojant
                         dirbtinį intelektą

                  • Authors: Eglė Kankevičiūtė, Milita Songailaitė, Justina Mandravickaitė
                    Pages: 27 - 34
                    Abstract: Šiame darbe pateikiame neapykantos kalbos aptikimo modelių palyginimą lietuvių kalbai. Neapykantos kalbai aptikti naudojome tris giliojo mokymosi modelius: daugiakalbį BERT, LitLat BERT ir Electra. Visi trys modeliai buvo adaptuoti lietuviškų komentarų klasifikavimui į tris klases: neapykantos, įžeidžią ir neutralią kalbą. Norint adaptuoti modelius atpažinti neapykantos kalbą, buvo parengtas anotuotas duomenų rinkinys, kuriame yra 25 219 lietuviški komentarai. Apmokyti modeliai buvo įvertinti naudojant tikslumo, atkūrimo, preciziškumo ir F1 statistikos metrikas. Geriausiai pasirodė LitLat BERT, kurio F1 statistikos reikšmė buvo 0,72. Antroje vietoje liko daugiakalbis BERT, kurio F1 statistika buvo 0,63, o trečioje vietoje liko Electra, kurio F1 statistika pasiekė 0,55.
                    PubDate: 2023-05-11
                    DOI: 10.15388/LMITT.2023.3
                • Language Attitudes of Polish Youth in Lithuania

                  • Authors: Kinga Geben
                    Pages: 29 - 41
                    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the  attitudes  of  Polish youth in Lithuania towards the Lithuanian, Russian, English, and Polish languages. The material has been drawn from qualitative research conducted through questionnaires. In order to summarize  the  results  of  the  research, 147 questionnaires completed by respondents aged 16–34, who declared Polish nationality, were selected. The survey was done between February 20 and March 3, 2023, via Google Forms. Results of the 2023 attitude survey were compared with those of the 2010 sociolinguistic survey. 98.6% (n = 145) of the young respondents consider Polish to be their mother tongue or one of their mother tongues, which is 18.4% higher than the result obtained in the 2010 survey. Preferences for the most beautiful, the necessary, the most common, and the most prestigious language were compared with the preferences that were described in my article (Geben 2013). Results of the statistical analysis show that Lithuanian is the most frequently mentioned language among the most necessary languages, but English is still the language the most in need for young respondents (63.9%, n = 94). Polish retains its position as the most beautiful language for those whose mother tongue is Polish. Polish has become the most common language for young respondents (67.3%, n = 99), with Russian still in a second place in this category (47.6%, n = 70). The aim of this study is to determine the  attitudes  of  Polish youth in Lithuania towards the Lithuanian, Russian, English, and Polish languages. The material has been drawn from qualitative research conducted through questionnaires. In order to summarize  the  results  of  the  research, 147 questionnaires completed by respondents aged 16–34, who declared Polish nationality, were selected. The survey was done between February 20 and March 3, 2023, via Google Forms. Results of the 2023 attitude survey were compared with those of the 2010 sociolinguistic survey. 98.6% (n = 145) of the young respondents consider Polish to be their mother tongue or one of their mother tongues, which is 18.4% higher than the result obtained in the 2010 survey. Preferences for the most beautiful, the necessary, the most common, and the most prestigious language were compared with the preferences that were described in my article (Geben 2013). Results of the statistical analysis show that Lithuanian is the most frequently mentioned language among the most necessary languages, but English is still the language the most in need for young respondents (63.9%, n = 94). Polish retains its position as the most beautiful language for those whose mother tongue is Polish. Polish has become the most common language for young respondents (67.3%, n = 99), with Russian still in a second place in this category (47.6%, n = 70).
                    Keywords: Articles ; Digital exhaustion of the right of distribution in the European Union
                           copyright law

                    • Authors: Justinas Drakšas
                      Pages: 30 - 45
                      Abstract: In this article, the author presents the conditions for exhaustion of the distribution right and overviews the main sources regulating exhaustion, from which the main problem related to the recognition of digital exhaustion of the distribution right - the separation of the right of communication to the public and the right of distribution - arises. In the view of the author, transmission of works or objects of related rights over computer networks for permanent use by its users is not fully attributable to distribution, due to international and EU provisions restricting the distribution right to material copies only. Therefore, the author considers that intervention of the legislator is necessary in order to implement the rule of digital exhaustion and to make a clear distinction between the rights of distribution and communication to the public. Other risks associated with the digital exhaustion of the distribution right, such as the “first copy” problem, and the inefficiency of the technical measures to ensure that works (other objects) transmitted over computer networks are not reproduced without the permission of the rightholder, are also analysed in this work. Notwithstanding the mentioned concerns, the author suggests reviewing legal provisions related to digital exhaustion in order to ensure that copyright law better meets actual social relationships and key consumer needs.
                      Keywords: Articles ; Generatyviniais besivaržančiais tinklais sukurtų 3D modelių tikslumo
                             ir tikroviškumo įvertinimas

                      • Authors: Justina Maslovaitė
                        Pages: 35 - 43
                        Abstract: Šiame straipsnyje pateikiami trimačių modelių generavimo GAN neuroniniu tinklu įvertinimo metodai. Dažnu atveju generatyviniai tinklai neturi aiškių gairių ir patarimų kaip įvertinti generuojamus modelius. Toks trūkumas apsunkina vertinimą ir reikalauja remtis vizualiu kiekvieno modelio patikrinimu. Norint iš tikrųjų įvertinti 3D modelio kokybę, modelio vertinimą reikia traktuoti kaip pastovų procesą ir apibrėžti nekintamus kriterijus. Šių kriterijų pagalba visiems tiriamiems modeliams būtų sukurtos vienodos vertinimo sąlygos, o rezultatai nepriklausytų nuo vertinančio žmogaus nešališkumo ir patirties. GAN sugeneruoto rezultato tikslumui ir realumui įvertinti pritaikomos Sørensen – Dice ir Jaccard atstumo metrikos. Iškeliami esminiai šių metrikų taikymo iššūkiai ir nagrinėjami veiksniai darantys įtaką metrikų galutiniam įverčiui. Gauti rezultatai sudaro prielaidas tolimesnių tyrimų vykdymui.
                        PubDate: 2023-05-11
                        DOI: 10.15388/LMITT.2023.4
                    • Language Attitudes of Foreigners Residing in Lithuania towards the
                             Lithuanian Language: Insights from a Qualitative Study

                      • Authors: Jogilė Teresa Ramonaitė
                        Pages: 43 - 60
                        Abstract: This paper presents a qualitative study investigating the language attitudes of foreign residents living in Lithuania. Through in-depth interviews with individuals of diverse backgrounds who have migrated to Lithuania at different times, the article explores their language-related experiences in the country and their perspectives on the Lithuanian language. The study analyzes these attitudes from a triadic model perspective, encompassing cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions. The participants vary in their level of proficiency in Lithuanian and thus their reflections help to reveal the connection between behavioral efforts to learn and use the language and the other dimensions. The study presented elaborates on the comprehended necessity (or lack thereof) to know Lithuanian when living in Lithuania, the emotional comfortability when knowing the language, the effect of the perceived attitudes of Lithuanians towards foreigners who do and who do not know the language, the character of the Lithuanian people reflected in the language, and putting effort to learn the language as a sign of respect towards the host country. While the cognitive dimension is more readily articulated, it alone is insufficient, and a more significant shift is possible when there is a breakthrough in the affective dimension. Even though the data for this study was collected before Lithuania became more economically attractive to foreign immigrants, the results are especially pertinent in the current situation with more economic migrants and war refugees coming to live in the country. Although it is possible to live in Lithuania without knowing the language, if it is not required for one’s job, in order to be an integrative part of the society the foreigner starts to feel not only the necessity but also a desire to know the language.
                        Keywords: Articles ; Assessment of Changes in Functional Brain Connectivity During Depression
                               Treatment with TMS Using Granger Causality Based Methods

                        • Authors: Gajane Mikalkeniene, Kastytis Dapsys
                          Pages: 44 - 48
                          Abstract: Directed transfer function (DTF) method was used to assess brain connectivity disturbances in depression. The results were depicted as a brain model with the electroencephalographic (EEG) registration points, through which the directions of bioelectric activity transfer are defined. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant depression and is considered to restore impaired connections. The combination of TMS and EEG allows to study changes of functional brain connectivity (FBC) in a non-invasive way. It was found that the FBC of resistant patients differed more from that of healthy subjects than in non-resistant patients. The largest changes in connectivity were identified in theta frequency.
                          PubDate: 2023-05-11
                          DOI: 10.15388/LMITT.2023.5
                      • All we need to know about the provisional measures of the international
                               court of justice in allegations of genocide (Ukraine v Russian
                               Federation), but the media reports inaccurately

                        • Authors: Miłosz Gapsa
                          Pages: 46 - 58
                          Abstract: On 27 February 2022, Ukraine filed the application instituting proceedings against Russia before the International Court of Justice to obtain provisional measures protecting its rights. It resulted from Russia‘s launch of the “special military operation” against Ukraine on 24 February 2022, in response to the alleged genocide of Donbass communities by the Kyiv regime. The Courted delivered its Order on 16 Marco 2022 and indicated provisional measures. Unfortunately, the Polish media coverage distorted the content of the Order. This article aims to present how the Order was covered and to demystify its content.
                          Keywords: Articles ; The intertemporal guarantee of freedom – a concept for international
                                 human rights to address states’ failure to combat climate change and its

                          • Authors: Matthias Gegenwart
                            Pages: 59 - 73
                            Abstract: This paper analyses, if the Intertemporal Guarantee of Freedom, that was developed by the German Federal Constitutional Court (GFCC), can be used to expand the protection of human rights against the harms of climate change. The case of the Swiss Senior Women shows that there are jurisdictions, where the Intertemporal Guarantee of Freedom could be applied to improve standing and the control standard of states’ climate change action. Within international law bodies with jurisdiction over human rights treaties there are distinctive standards of protection against the harms of climate change. A major deficit within the international human rights protection against climate change lies within the focus on the positive obligations and the corresponding wide margin of appreciation granted to the states. The Intertemporal Guarantee of Freedom could provide a protection expansion in this regard, especially in the case of the European Court of Human Rights. It could also enable and legitimise present human rights concerns focused on the future actions of states following their past inaction. One considerable hurdle that is not addressed by it are procedural hurdles like the Plaumann formula applied by the European Court of Justice. The Intertemporal Guarantee of Freedom cannot solve major problems for climate change litigation like procedural hurdles. Yet, it can provide a new approach for complaints to address unambitious mitigation legislation which will lead to future human rights infringements.
                            Keywords: Articles ; Features of Code Switching in Bilingual Children

                            • Authors: Ineta Dabašinskienė, Laura Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė
                              Pages: 61 - 81
                              Abstract: This article discusses the use of code switching for bilingual children. The aim of the study was to assess which types and functions of code switching dominate in children’s narratives collected according to the MAIN methodology. Samples of children from different language groups (LT-EN and RU-LT) were chosen as they were expected to reveal different patterns of code-switching. The study revealed that code-switching was more frequent in the RU-LT sample, whose children lived in Lithuania but grew up in Russian-speaking families and attended educational institutions for national minorities. The children lacked basic Lithuanian language skills and were more likely to use words or phrases from their mother tongue to express their thoughts. Contrary to what is reported in international studies on children’s language development, in the case of Lithuania it is evident that even in third-generation Russian-speaking families Lithuanian is rarely used. Lithuanian children living in an English-speaking country (LT-EN) had fewer difficulties in speaking Lithuanian: fewer instances of code-switching in their narratives were observed and usually they were related to narrative coherence.
                              In the RU-LT group, there was a very clear motivation for the use of code-switching – the code-switching recorded in the narratives was related to filling lexical gaps. A completely different trend emerged in the LT-EN sample, where English words or phrases helped the children to connect the narratives and to link the structural components of the story. In summary, code-switching is used as a helping strategy for the success of the task by helping the child to tell a story in a language that is inherited by some and a second language by others. Thus, even if the child inserts words in Russian or English, he/she successfully completes the task and tells the story according to the pictures that were presented to the children.
                              Keywords: Articles ; The convergence of judicial and administrative investigation techniques in
                                     French law

                              • Authors: Antonin Guillard
                                Pages: 74 - 84
                                Abstract: Unsurprisingly, some of the prerogatives of the judicial police and the intelligence services are common. This is the case of human sources. Other acts, particularly those involving deprivation of liberty or intrusion into private life, are usually the responsibility of the judicial police. The commission of an offence and the control of the judicial authority justify restrictions on fundamental rights. This pattern is now disrupted because intelligence law is copying privacy-invasive mechanisms from the criminal procedure code. The convergence of these fields also has an interactive character, since techniques specifically developed for preventive law have recently been borrowed by repressive law. The legislator therefore uses the investigative techniques of each field to improve the other. This movement has an increasingly competitive character which seems to benefit the intelligence services. At this point, they have the most complex and intrusive acts at their disposal, which erodes the distinction between preventive and repressive action.
                                Keywords: Articles ; Family Language Policy: the Maintenance of Latvian as a Heritage Language
                                       in the Diaspora

                                • Authors: Sanita Martena
                                  Pages: 83 - 100
                                  Abstract: This article explores the concept of family language policy in relation to child agency and parents’ discourse strategies in the context of the Latvian diaspora. Research is based on four interviews with parents from three countries: the United Kingdom, Norway and Greece. Respondents were recruited through Saturday/Sunday schools in the diaspora, addressing Latvian speakers who work there or whose children attend these schools. Both parents of all four families analysed in this study use Latvian at home. Data were collected using the Zoom platform during spring 2023 and are part of a larger study about family language policies in the diaspora. Currently, data are also gathered using methods such as audio recordings of interactions between parents and children and online classroom observations in Latvian (Saturday) schools. The main research questions for this article are: which language ideologies underlie language practices (language choices) at home involving parents and children, and which parental discourse strategies are used in families with regard to the multilingual language practices of their children.
                                  Keywords: Articles ; THE CONSUMER OR THE TRADER – WHO DECIDES ON HOW A PRODUCT IS USED' An
                                         analysis of the application of excise duty exemptions under Directive
                                         92/83/EEC to alcohol

                                  • Authors: Karolina Mickutė
                                    Pages: 96 - 103
                                    Abstract: Twenty-two years after adopting Directive 92/83/EEC, the European Commission initiated a review of the Directive because it did not correspond with the developments and the challenges, they pose for the alcohol sector. After six years of deliberation, amendments to Article 27.1. of the Directive entered into force this year, which, according to the study, will not address the critical problems with the Directive’s application. The research analyses the concept of ‘not for human use or consumption’, the interpretation of which had been identified by experts and the EC as problematic and detrimental not only to the interests of Member States but also to their residents and legal entities. In particular, the study found that official sources and national systems use definitions that are linguistically and substantively different, which does not ensure homogeneity in the application of the Directive, which is one of the EC’s priority objectives (harmonisation of the excise duty regime).
                                    The second part of the study asks whether the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) can resolve the problems of the article’s interpretation. The case law on classifying products for taxation purposes is inconsistent and fragmented, selectively applied, and the judgments are often diagonally opposed. In one case, the CJEU relied on the consumer behaviour argument. In contrast, in another case, the Court held that the trader alone decides on the use of the product and that consumer behaviour is entirely irrelevant. This case is unique because the court legalised fraudulent schemes in selling surrogate alcohol, which is contrary to the EU’s goals to prevent health risks.
                                    Given that neither the CJEU nor legislative review and amendment can effectively ensure that the issue of excise duty is harmonised, the study invites us to explore the possibilities of changing the methodology on how court decisions are made. In particular, whether the issue of excise duty exemptions could be addressed by applying economic science. The study explores the concept of ‘not for human use or consumption’ by using the methodologies of mainstream post-Keynesian economic theory and mainline Austrian economic theory. The study finds that an analysis of consumer behaviour would ensure an effective interpretation of Article 27.1. of the Directive.
                                    Keywords: Articles ; Conflicting Attitudes about the Place of Estonian at the University of
                                           Tartu: Interpreting Survey Data on Local and International Staff

                                    • Authors: Birute Klaas-Lang, Kerttu Rozenvalde
                                      Pages: 101 - 113
                                      Abstract: During the last decade, the universities in Estonia have internationalized their staff and student body to such an extent that the language environment in academia has undergone considerable changes. To react to the internationalization and Anglicisation of higher education and protect the use of Estonian in academia, the University of Tartu renewed its language policy in 2020 and commissioned a survey in 2021 to gain a better understanding of the implementation of the policy and its academic staff members’ attitudes towards the policy. This paper is based on the survey results. The survey was conducted by the authors in 2021 and 2022 and examines the attitudes of the local and international academic staff on acquiring Estonian and using it as the working language of the university. The results show a major difference in the attitudes of the local and international staff members. The local staff is in favour of language policies intended to advance the acquisition and use of Estonian in academia, whereas the international staff is generally interested only in acquiring introductory Estonian skills. Their motivation to continue learning Estonian is low since English is used as the common language of communication and work at the university. Based on the results, the authors present recommendations for designing inclusive institutional language policy and flexible forms of learning Estonian.
                                      Keywords: Articles ; Cases in the Constitutional Court of Latvia on Language Use in Higher
                                             Education: Lessons for Linguists and Decision-makers

                                      • Authors: Ina Druviete
                                        Pages: 115 - 129
                                        Abstract: This paper focuses on the cases related to language use in higher education in the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Latvia, specifically about the amendments of the Law on Higher Education Institutions. The ongoing legal dispute pertains to the compliance of the contested norms with several articles of the Constitution of Latvia (Satversme) and the legal norms of the European Union. From a sociolinguistic perspective, the paper analyzes the arguments of the applicants, legislators, and experts involved in the case. The paper draws conclusions about the applicability of the legal process and outcomes for developing a comprehensive theory on how languages can coexist in higher education and research. Additionally, the paper discusses some general considerations about language use in academia and beyond.
                                        Keywords: Articles ; The Motivation of the Foreign Students of Vilnius University to Learn
                                               Lithuanian as a Second Language

                                        • Authors: Justina Bružaitė-Liseckienė
                                          Pages: 131 - 151
                                          Abstract: The article analyses the motivation of students of Vilnius University to learn Lithuanian as a second language and determines which sociolinguistic factors have a significant influence on students’ motivation. The main research tool is the questionnaire on motivation to learn Lithuanian as a L2, which was created based on the theories and questionnaires of two linguistic researchers on learning motivation, Robert Gardner (2004) and Zoltán Dörnyei (2010). 89 students of Vilnius University, beginners of Lithuanian language as L2 students, participated in the study. 50 subjects were medical students, 39 were students attending Lithuanian language courses as Erasmus exchange students. The study found that motivation to learn Lithuanian is usually significantly influenced by students’ main reason for choosing to learn Lithuanian. Those who emphasised that they were learning Lithuanian because the course was mandatory for them (i.e., the majority of medical students) had, in most cases, lower motivation to learn Lithuanian. The latter students should be distinguished from those who cite living in Lithuania or the desire to communicate in Lithuanian as reasons for learning Lithuanian. The motivation of these subjects to learn Lithuanian is related to the image of the ideal self, integrative motivation, positive state of the Lithuanian language learning environment, attitude toward the Lithuanian community, interest in L2 learning, and effort to learn Lithuanian. This shows a much closer connection not only with the Lithuanian language itself, but also with the context in which it is learned and used. Significant differences in motivation to learn Lithuanian are also found between medical students and Erasmus exchange students. The motivation of medical students differed from that of Erasmus students, who scored significantly higher only on preventive motivation. Erasmus students, on the other hand, learn Lithuanian under more general cultural and educational incentives (greater interest in Lithuanian culture, motivation to learn L2).
                                          Keywords: Articles ; Teaching and Learning Lithuanian as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual
                                                 Group of Adults

                                          • Authors: Vaida Našlėnaitė Eberhardt
                                            Pages: 153 - 164
                                            Abstract: This article exposes some linguodidactic issues concerning teaching Lithuanian as a foreign language. Before discussing the study of multilingual students in section 3, the following theoretical premises are examined in sections 1 and 2: intercomprehension, language and multilingual awareness, L3 acquisition, experience with CLIL. The recordings of dialogues with the multilingual students show them to be aware language learners with a very specific and diverse theoretical motivation. One informant used a very traditional and grammar-oriented method for learning several languages. The main task for the teacher was to suggest a universal common learning plan and methods for the multilingual group in order to achieve the next language proficiency level and to improve students’ missing
                                            skills in language comprehension and speaking. 
                                            Keywords: Articles ; Dictionaries and Machine Translation: What Do Learners of Lithuanian as a
                                                   Foreign Language Choose'

                                            • Authors: Aušra Valančiauskienė
                                              Pages: 165 - 179
                                              Abstract: This article presents the results of research on using electronic dictionaries and machine translation tools when learning Lithuanian as a foreign language. The aim of this study was to indicate which dictionaries and machine translation tools are used for which purposes and what kinds of difficulties learners experience while using them. The research data were obtained by conducting an anonymous online poll in Lithuanian and English (using Google Forms). The questionnaire contained 15 questions. The participants in the study were chosen by way of availability sampling. The survey was carried out at Vilnius University in March 2023 with 67 respondents: 11 in Lithuanian and 56 in English. The study revealed that when learning Lithuanian as a foreign language, the respondents used both dictionaries and automatic translation tools. Most often, both tools were used for translation from and into Lithuanian. The types of language activities for which these tools were used were reading, writing, and partly listening. Only the respondents to English questionnaires used the mentioned tools for speaking. When learning Lithuanian, both monolingual and bilingual dictionaries were used, but monolingual dictionaries were used more than bilingual ones: 46.27% of respondents used monolingual dictionaries, and 31.34% used bilingual dictionaries.
                                              The study confirmed the researchers’ claim that monolingual dictionaries are used more by respondents with a higher level of language proficiency. Automatic translation tools were used by all respondents. The most popular of them is Google Translate, followed by DeepL. Other tools – Reverso, Bing Microsoft Translator, Systran Translate, Yandex Translate, and Lingea – are used by a few and only English questionnaire respondents. Dictionaries were consulted for the meaning of an unknown word, for synonyms, to confirm the meaning and spelling, to find usage examples, the field of the word used, and stress. Automatic translation is used for unknown words, phrases, and sentences to hear the pronunciation and find usage examples. The most common difficulties in using dictionaries were: unclear definitions of words and abbreviations; no text-to-speech function; too few usage examples; and unclear or missing examples. Weaknesses of automatic translation tools indicated by respondents: poor translation quality; lack of a search function; no examples of usage; no text-to-speech.
                                              Keywords: Articles ; Intertextual Relations of Linguistics Articles with Other Texts

                                              • Authors: Eglė Kontutytė
                                                Pages: 181 - 196
                                                Abstract: Scholarly text conventions are important when writing texts, especially in a foreign language. Intertextual relations with other texts are a characteristic feature of scientific language. As Lithuanian and foreign researchers point out, this is manifested by quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing. In examining the intertextuality of academic language, researchers also draw attention to its multilingualism. Based on the above-mentioned forms of intertextuality, this article analyses the intertextuality features of linguistics articles written in Lithuanian. The analysis shows that direct quotations in Lithuanian articles include short phrases or even full sentences from other authors’ texts imbedded in a sentence, with or without introductory phrases. In English, Polish or Russian, direct quotations can also be inserted into a sentence. Quotations from other languages are given with or without translation. Paraphrasing has been observed to be more frequently used, as the reformulated statements of other authors do not destroy the linguistic integrity and cohesion of the text. This is especially useful when quoting texts in other languages. A reference is one in which the text does not directly or indirectly reproduce the statements of other authors, but merely refers in some way to previous research. Scholarly terms from other languages, usually English, presented as equivalents of other languages together with the Lithuanian term or even without it., may be treated as a case of multilingual intertextuality. Although precision is often pointed out as a feature of academic language, the linguistics articles analyzed show many instances of paraphrasing and referential intertextuality. Such intertextual interfaces substantiate the research presented in the article or the scientific issues raised, establish their place within a wider range of sources, and convey the author’s thought in a condensed way in the language of the publication, without breaking the typographic and linguistic unity of the text. Multilingual intertextuality shows that it is important for researchers of the Lithuanian language, who publish their texts in Lithuanian, to locate their research in the international context of linguistics and to establish a scientific dialogue with researchers of other countries and languages.
                                                Keywords: Articles ; Impoliteness strategies applied in political debates in Lithuania and USA

                                                • Authors: Eglė Žurauskaitė
                                                  Pages: 197 - 212
                                                  Abstract: The aim of this study is to reveal which impoliteness strategies politicians use during electoral TV debates in Lithuania and the USA. To achieve this aim, four debates were analyzed using a quantitative analysis method. The total duration of the debates analyzed was 360 minutes. The study revealed that politicians in Lithuania and the USA primarily use indirect impoliteness strategies, directed towards positive or negative faces of their opponents. Analysis also revealed that politicians in the USA use direct impoliteness strategies 2.4 times more often than politicians in Lithuanian TV debates. The strategy of off-record impoliteness was used the least during debates in each country. Analysis of how impoliteness strategies are expressed revealed that politicians in the USA mostly express impoliteness as statements, while Lithuanian politicians express it using various language resources: presenting it as their opinion, doubt, etc.
                                                  Keywords: Articles ;
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