Subjects -> LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (Total: 2147 journals)
    - LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (954 journals)
    - LANGUAGES (276 journals)
    - LITERARY AND POLITICAL REVIEWS (201 journals)
    - LITERATURE (GENERAL) (180 journals)
    - NOVELS (13 journals)
    - PHILOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS (500 journals)
    - POETRY (23 journals)

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (954 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 127 of 127 Journals sorted alphabetically
Discursos Contemporâneos em Estudo     Open Access  
Dix-Neuf     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dixit     Open Access  
Diyalog Interkulturelle Zeitschrift Für Germanistik     Open Access  
Doblele : Revista de lengua y literatura     Open Access  
Drammaturgia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dublin James Joyce Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dutch Crossing : Journal of Low Countries Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
e-Journal of Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
E-rea     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
e-Scripta Romanica     Open Access  
e-Spania     Open Access  
E-Structural     Open Access  
Early American Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
East-West Cultural Passage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Ecotone     Full-text available via subscription  
Ecozon@ : European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Écrire l'histoire     Open Access  
EDGE - A Graduate Journal for German and Scandinavian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Educação & Linguagem     Open Access  
Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad     Open Access  
Éducation francophone en milieu minoritaire     Open Access  
EID&A : Revista Eletrônica de Estudos Integrados em Discurso e Argumentação     Open Access  
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
El Hilo de la Fabula     Open Access  
El Matadero     Open Access  
El Taco en la Brea     Open Access  
ELH     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ELOPE : English Language Overseas Perspectives and Enquiries     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Elos : Revista de Literatura Infantil e Xuvenil     Open Access  
Eltin Journal : Journal of English Language Teaching in Indonesia     Open Access  
Emily Dickinson Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
En Líneas Generales     Open Access  
Encyclopedia     Open Access  
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
English Literature in Transition 1880-1920     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
English Studies at NBU     Open Access  
English Studies in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
English Text Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
English Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
English: Journal of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Englisia Journal     Open Access  
Enjeux et société : Approches transdisciplinaires     Open Access  
Enletawa Journal     Open Access  
Enthymema     Open Access  
Entreculturas : Revista de Traducción y Comunicación Intercultural     Open Access  
Entrelaces     Open Access  
Entrevous : Littérature organique     Full-text available via subscription  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eralingua : Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Asing dan Sastra     Open Access  
Erudition and the Republic of Letters     Hybrid Journal  
ES Review : Spanish Journal of English Studies     Open Access  
ESC: English Studies in Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Escritura e Imagen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eslavística Complutense     Open Access  
ESQ: A Journal of the American Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ESTETIK : Jurnal Bahasa Indonesia     Open Access  
Estudios de Literatura Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios de Teoría Literaria - Revista digital: artes, letras y humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Ingleses de la Universidad Complutense     Open Access  
Estudis de Literatura Oral Popular / Studies in Oral Folk Literature     Open Access  
Estudos Linguísticos e Literários     Open Access  
Eternal (English, Teaching, Learning & Research Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Etnolingual     Open Access  
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études de stylistique anglaise     Open Access  
Études Épistémè     Open Access  
Études françaises     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Études littéraires     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eugene O’Neill Review     Full-text available via subscription  
EuroCALL Review     Open Access  
European Romantic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Science Editing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExELL. Explorations in English Language and Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exercices de Rhétorique     Open Access  
Extravío : Revista electrónica de Literatura Comparada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fawawi : English Education Journal     Open Access  
Feminist German Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Finno-Ugric World     Open Access  
Folklor/edebiyat journal     Open Access  
Foro de Profesores de E/LE     Open Access  
FORUM : University of Edinburgh Postgraduate Journal of Culture & the Arts     Open Access  
Fourth Genre: Explorations in Nonfiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
French Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Funes. Journal of Narratives and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Galatasaray Üniversitesi Iletişim Dergisi / Galatasaray University Journal of Communication     Open Access  
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
George Herbert Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Germanistische Beiträge     Open Access  
Globe : A Journal of Language, Culture and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Glotta : Zeitschrift für Griechische und Lateinische Sprache     Open Access  
Goethe Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Gogoa     Open Access  
Göttinger Predigtmeditationen     Hybrid Journal  
Green Letters : Studies in Ecocriticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Hardy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HeLix - Dossiers zur romanischen Literaturwissenschaft     Open Access  
Hemingway Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Henry James Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Hermēneus : Revista de Traducción e Interpretación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heterotopías     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hikmet-akademik Edebiyat Dergisi     Open Access  
Hispania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Hispanic Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Hispanic Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
HispanismeS : Revue de la Société des Hispanistes Français     Open Access  
Histoire Épistémologie Langage     Open Access  
Homiletische Monatshefte     Hybrid Journal  
Hon no Mushi - Estudos Multidisciplinares Japoneses     Open Access  
Humanidades : Revista de la Universidad de Montevideo     Open Access  
Humanist Studies & the Digital Age     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hungarian Studies Yearbook     Open Access  
Huntington Library Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Iberoamericana : Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education)     Open Access  
IJLRES : International Journal on Language Research and Education Studies     Open Access  
IJOLTL : Indonesian Journal of Language Teaching and Linguistics     Open Access  
İletişim Kuram ve Araştırma Dergisi     Open Access  
Image & Text     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
INDONESIA : Jurnal Pembelajaran Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of English Language Studies     Open Access  
Infinitum: Revista Multidisciplinar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Instructed Second Language Acquisition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intercâmbio : Revue d’Études Françaises=French Studies Journal     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interference : Journal of Language, Literature, and Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural and Social Studies (IntJCSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of English Language Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of English Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Francophone Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Humanity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Korean Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Language Teaching and Education     Open Access  
International Journal of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Welsh Writing in English     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Linguistics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intertexts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Inti : Revista de literatura hispánica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Investigaciones Sobre Lectura     Open Access  
Iran : Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Irish Journal of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Islas : Revista de la Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas     Open Access  
ISLLAC : Journal of Intensive Studies on Language, Literature, Art, and Culture     Open Access  
Italienisch – Zeitschrift für italienische Sprache und Literatur     Full-text available via subscription  
Italique     Open Access  
Itinéraires. Littérature, Textes, Cultures     Open Access  
Izdihar : Journal of Arabic Language Teaching, Linguistics, and Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Izvestia. Ural Federal University Journal. Series 2: Humanities and Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J-SHMIC : Journal of English for Academic     Open Access  
J19 : The Journal of Nineteenth-Century Americanists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch for Internationale Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
JALIE : Journal of Applied Linguistics and Islamic Education     Open Access  
James Joyce Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Jangada : Crítica, Literatura, Artes     Open Access  
Japanese Research on Linguistics, Literature, and Culture     Open Access  
Japanese Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAWS : Journal of Arts Writing by Students     Hybrid Journal  
Jednak Książki : Gdańskie Czasopismo Humanistyczne     Open Access  
Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Język - Szkoła - Religia     Open Access  
Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Al-Qadisiya in Arts and Educational Sciense     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Language and Culture Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Arabic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Awareness     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Belarusian Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Biblical Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Chinese Language and Culture, Huachiew Chalermprakiet University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Commonwealth Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computer-Assisted Linguistic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Critical Studies in Language and Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cultural Cognitive Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Dutch Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of English and Arabic Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of English and Germanic Philology (JEGP)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of European Periodical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of European Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Historical Syntax     Open Access  
Journal of International and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Japonisme     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Language and Discrimination     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 102)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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Encyclopedia
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2309-3366
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 646-656: Entomopathogenic Fungi: Interactions
           and Applications

    • Authors: Spiridon Mantzoukas, Foteini Kitsiou, Dimitrios Natsiopoulos, Panagiotis A. Eliopoulos
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Entomopathogenic fungi are a special group of soil-dwelling microorganisms that infects and kills insects and other arthropods through cuticle penetration. They are currently used as biocontrol agents against insect plant pests and play a vital role in their management. Regardless that entomopathogenic fungi are currently on the agriculture market, their full potential has not yet been utterly explored. Up to date substantial research has covered the topic revealing numerous uses in pest management but also on their ability as endophytes, assisting the plant host on growth and pathogen resistance. This article addresses the literature on entomopathogenic fungi through the years, noting their mode of action, advantages, potential applications, and prospects.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020044
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 657-668: Korean Division Films

    • Authors: Eunjin Choi
      First page: 657
      Abstract: As one half of what is currently the only divided country in the world, the phenomenon of the so-called “division film” in South Korea has developed as a reflection of the social changes associated with its divided national background. The divided Korean Peninsula, the cause of military confrontation between the two Koreas, the Korean War, and espionage activities, is the background for Korean division films. As a result, the divided state serves as a narrative element and can be explored as a theme. Since the release of the first division films in 1949, a year after the Korean Peninsula was split into two countries, division films have been produced constantly. This entry analyzes major political changes, focusing on the regime changes represented in division films and, based on this approach, explores the cinematic illustrations of modern Korean history in three distinct periods. In a bid to reflect the characteristics of the times, division films portray historical elements while acting successfully as an advanced form of art. Herein, I will examine the definition and the range of these division films. This entry thus aims to discuss, in depth, the origin and history of Korea’s division films.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020045
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 669-678: John II Komnenos
           (1118–1143)

    • Authors: Maximilian Christopher George Lau
      First page: 669
      Abstract: John II Komnenos was the son of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Eirene Doukaina, and brother of Princess Anna Komnene, the author of the Alexiad. Born in 1087, he was crowned soon after his fifth birthday as co-emperor with his father, and in 1105, he was married to Piroska Árpád, daughter of King Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Rheinfelden. He is principally known for continuing his father’s work of stabilising Byzantium after the crises of the eleventh century. This included major wars of defence and conquest in both the Balkans and Anatolia, and especially a major eastern expedition in 1137–1139. During this campaign, he conquered Cilicia, but he was recalled to defend his borders against the Turks before he could make further conquests in Syria and bring the crusader states under his aegis. He died in a hunting accident just before he returned to Syria, with intentions to go to Jerusalem as well. His best-known iconographic representation is a mosaic of him and his wife in the Great Church of Sophia. Whilst there is also an image of him in a contemporary ornate gospel book, his most common representations are found on his many coin issues and seals.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020046
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 679-689: Simple Formulae, Deep Learning and
           Elaborate Modelling for the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Athanassios S. Fokas, Nikolaos Dikaios, Sotirios Tsiodras, George A. Kastis
      First page: 679
      Abstract: Predictive modelling of infectious diseases is very important in planning public health policies, particularly during outbreaks. This work reviews the forecasting and mechanistic models published earlier. It is emphasized that researchers’ forecasting models exhibit, for large t, algebraic behavior, as opposed to the exponential behavior of the classical logistic-type models used usually in epidemics. Remarkably, a newly introduced mechanistic model also exhibits, for large t, algebraic behavior in contrast to the usual Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) models, which exhibit exponential behavior. The unexpected success of researchers’ simple forecasting models provides a strong support for the validity of this novel mechanistic model. It is also shown that the mathematical tools used for the analysis of the first wave may also be useful for the analysis of subsequent waves of the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020047
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 690-704: Clinical Applications of Isothermal
           Diagnosis for Human Schistosomiasis

    • Authors: Ursula Panzner
      First page: 690
      Abstract: About 250 million people affected, 779 million people at risk of infection, and 440 million people with residual morbidity are globally attributable to schistosomiasis. Highly sensitive and specific, simple, and fast to perform diagnostics are required for detecting trace infections, and applications in resource-poor settings and large-scale assessments. Research assessing isothermal diagnoses of S. japonicum, S. haematobium, S. mansoni, mixed infections, and schistosomal hybrids among clinical human specimens was investigated. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and combined techniques were identified. Both LAMP and RPA reached species-dependent 100% sensitivity, and detection levels within femtogram and nanogram amounts for pure and hybridale breeds. Cross-reactivity among Schistosoma species and co-endemic pathogens was rare, though research on diagnostic markers and primer optimization should continue. Operating with ready-to-use lyophilized reagents, simplified and inexpensive nucleic acid extraction, tolerability to likely inhibitors, and enzyme stability at ambient temperature is advantageous. RPA performed optimal at 35–39 °C within 5–10 min. while LAMP operated at 61–65 °C for up to 120 min.; properties are preferable over assays requiring expensive laboratory equipment. DNA degradation could be prevented by stabilizing substances. A limitation throughout warranting future research is the small sample size reaching a few hundred participants at the maximum. Isothermal diagnostics are highly valuable in detecting trace infections seen subsequent to chemotherapeutic treatment, and among apparently healthy individuals, both constituting likely sources of ongoing pathogen transmission. Its expansion to the vaccine field for assessing parasitological trial endpoints could be considered.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020048
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 705-716: Cottage Culture in Finland:
           Development and Perspectives

    • Authors: Lotta Häkkänen, Hüseyin Emre Ilgın, Markku Karjalainen
      First page: 705
      Abstract: This entry provides an understanding of the past, present, and future of the Finnish cottage culture to create an overall picture of its development trajectory and its terminology, e.g., villa, in this context denoting a second home. Convenient, ready-made solutions, easy maintenance, a high level of equipment, year-round use, location, and modern and simple architectural styles are important selection criteria for (summer) cottages that belonged only to the wealthy bourgeois class in the 19th century and have taken their present form with a major transformation in Finland since then. Additionally, municipal regulations and increased attention to ecological concerns are other important issues regarding the cottage today. Cottage inheritance has changed over the generations, and the tightening of building regulations and increased environmental awareness are key drivers of the future transformation of cottage culture. Moreover, the increasing demand for single-family and outdoor spaces created by social changes such as remote working, which has become widespread with the COVID-19 pandemic, will make the summer cottage lifestyle even more popular in Finland. It is thought that this entry will contribute to the continuance of the Finnish cottage culture, which is essential for the vitality of countryside municipalities, local development, national culture, and the well-being of Finnish people.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020049
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 717-728: COVID-19 in the Construction Sector

    • Authors: Ruben Rodríguez Elizalde
      First page: 717
      Abstract: This section analyzes the influence of COVID-19 in the construction sector. Construction workers’ high vulnerability to the spread of the virus motivated this entry. The construction sector’s peculiarities and some work procedure characteristics in this sector make telecommuting impossible in most activities. In addition, most of the states and national governments declared the construction sector essential activity due to its high economic impact. The working conditions in this sector are very special: constant trips to work in groups, work group execution with little interpersonal distance, group travel, stays and accommodations away from home, meals in restaurants or work canteens, lunch in restaurants or work canteens, etc. Due to all of this, the contagion rate was very high during the pandemic months. Even today, it is still considered one of the most dangerous sectors for these purposes. With all this in mind, here we discuss why it is difficult to minimize the spread of the virus for construction workers, summarize how to assess exposure risk grades for construction job tasks, and provide possible protection requirements for the different exposure risk grades.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020050
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 729-751: Unveiling Neuromarketing and Its
           Research Methodology

    • Authors: Marcelo Royo-Vela, Ákos Varga
      First page: 729
      Abstract: Neuromarketing is the union of cognitive psychology, which studies mental processes, neurology and neurophysiology, which study the functioning and responses of the brain and body physiology to external stimuli, and marketing, which studies valuable exchanges, to explain marketing effects on customers’ and consumers’ behaviours and on buying and decision processes. It includes a set of research techniques that, by observing and evaluating how the brain and other body parts respond, avoids possible biases and provides truthful and objective information on consumer subconscious. The term “consumer neuroscience” covers academic approaches using techniques such as fMRI, Eye Tracking, or EED. The objectives of this entry are to show what neuromarketing is and what added value it brings to the study of consumer behaviour and purchase decision processes. The conclusions show a favourable future and positive attitudes towards neuromarketing.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020051
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 752-760: Cyclodextrin-Based Nanosponges and
           Proteins

    • Authors: Silvia Lucia Appleton, Yousef Khazaei Monfared, Francisco José Vidal-Sánchez, Fabrizio Caldera, Roberta Cavalli, Francesco Trotta, Adrián Matencio
      First page: 752
      Abstract: Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NSs) have gained importance in drug delivery in the last years due to their easy synthesis and versatility. However, their use as carriers for the delivery of macromolecules such as proteins is less known and sometimes difficult to consider. In this entry, the authors summarize and highlight the multiple possibilities of CD-NSs to deliver active proteins, improving their activity or stability. Starting with a brief description of CD-NSs and their characteristics, the entry will be focused on several proteins, such as (1) Lipase, (2) Insulin and (3) Nisin, for chemical or pharmaceutical applications. The revised results demonstrated that CD-NSs can generate different and interesting applications with proteins. These results could be added to their uses with small drugs, being an interesting alternative for protein delivery and applicability.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020052
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 761-777: Mediterranean Diet, a Sustainable
           Cultural Asset

    • Authors: Vitor C. Barros, Amélia M. Delgado
      First page: 761
      Abstract: The Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern and associated lifestyle that adopts mainly plant foods. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been acknowledged by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity since 2013, a candidacy involving seven countries in the area, including Portugal, aiming to safeguard the MD in its multiple dimensions. The corresponding food system is recognized as healthy and sustainable by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and by the World Health Organization (WHO), inspiring dietary guidelines around the world. The current entry examines the sustainability and resilience of the Mediterranean dietary food pattern, using the Portuguese as a case study to examine the feasibility of prospective composite indicators in assessing the sustainability of diets and food systems. Information extracted from reports and official statistics was used to assess a set of proposed metrics. Although information to fulfil most metrics was found, some data gaps were identified, highlighting the need to improve existing metrics. The current work highlights the role of science and policy in transforming four key areas of human–nature interaction: use of natural resources, food systems, production and consumption, and cities’ sustainability. Since sustainable production and consumption (SGD 12) is key to the UN’s 2030 agenda, it is important to analyze to what extent the dissemination of the Mediterranean diet among the population can be a way to achieve this goal.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020053
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 778-839: Formulation in Surfactant Systems:
           From-Winsor-to-HLDN

    • Authors: Jean-Louis Salager, Ronald Marquez, Johnny Bullon, Ana Forgiarini
      First page: 778
      Abstract: Formulation is an ancient concept, although the word has been used only recently. The first formulations made our civilization advance by inventing bronze, steel, and gunpowder; then, it was used in medieval alchemy. When chemistry became a science and with the golden age of organic synthesis, the second formulation period began. This made it possible to create new chemical species and new combinations “à la carte.” However, the research and developments were still carried out by trial and error. Finally, the third period of formulation history began after World War II, when the properties of a system were associated with its ingredients and the way they were assembled or combined. Therefore, the formulation and the systems’ phenomenology were related to the generation of some synergy to obtain a commercial product. Winsor’s formulation studies in the 1950s were enlightening for academy and industries that were studying empirically surfactant-oil-water (SOW) systems. One of its key characteristics was how the interfacial interaction of the adsorbed surfactant with oil and water phases could be equal by varying the physicochemical formulation of the system. Then, Hansen’s solubility parameter in the 1960s helped to reach a further understanding of the affinity of some substances to make them suitable to oil and water phases. In the 1970s, researchers such as Shinoda and Kunieda, and different groups working in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), among them Schechter and Wade’s group at the University of Texas, made formulation become a science by using semiempirical correlations to attain specific characteristics in a system (e.g., low oil-water interfacial tension, formulation of a stable O/W or W/O emulsion, or high-performance solubilization in a bicontinuous microemulsion system at the so-called optimum formulation). Nowadays, over 40 years of studies with the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation equation (HLD) have made it feasible for formulators to improve products in many different applications using surfactants to attain a target system using HLD in its original or its normalized form, i.e., HLDN. Thus, it can be said that there is still current progress being made towards an interdisciplinary applied science with numerical guidelines. In the present work, the state-of-the-art of formulation in multiphase systems containing two immiscible phases like oil and water, and therefore systems with heterogeneous or micro-heterogeneous interfaces, is discussed. Surfactants, from simple to complex or polymeric, are generally present in such systems to solve a wide variety of problems in many areas. Some significant cases are presented here as examples dealing with petroleum, foods, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, detergency, and other products occurring as dispersions, emulsions, or foams that we find in our everyday lives.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020054
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 840-863: Recent Advances in Research on
           Molecular Mechanisms of Fungal Signaling

    • Authors: Stefan Jacob, Sri Bühring, Katharina Bersching
      First page: 840
      Abstract: Biochemical signaling is one of the key mechanisms to coordinate a living organism in all aspects of its life. It is still enigmatic how exactly cells and organisms deal with environmental signals and irritations precisely because of the limited number of signaling proteins and a multitude of transitions inside and outside the cell. Many components of signaling pathways are functionally pleiotropic, which means they have several functions. A single stimulus often results in multiple responses, a distinct response can be triggered by numerous stimuli and signals initiated by different stimuli are often transduced via commonly used network components. This review sheds light on the most important molecular mechanisms of cellular signaling in fungi and consequently provides a comprehensive overview about the current state of research on the road to understand the impact of signal transduction in eukaryotic microorganisms.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020055
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 864-872: COVID-19: Gender and Outcomes

    • Authors: Alfonso Ilardi
      First page: 864
      Abstract: The existence of differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection between males and females in both incidence and outcomes is well documented in the scientific literature. These differences, which are still underestimated, may have important implications in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19, with significant prognostic consequences. The greater severity of the infection observed in males, even more so if they are elderly, would seem, according to current knowledge, to be due to multiple influences: immunological and endocrinological, but also genetic and behavioral.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020056
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 873-881: Extracellular Vesicles and
           Immunomodulation in Mosquitoes and Ticks

    • Authors: Brenda Leal-Galvan, Charluz Arocho Rosario, Adela Oliva Chávez
      First page: 873
      Abstract: Extracellular vesicles are small blebs that are secreted by cells, which are lipid-rich and contain proteomic and genomic material (including small RNAs, mRNA, and plasmid DNA). These materials are delivered into recipient cells leading to a phenotypic change. Recent studies have demonstrated the secretion of extracellular vesicles by mosquito and tick cells, as well as tick salivary glands. Further, these studies suggest vesicles play a role in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens, including viruses and bacteria, and are involved in the manipulation of wound healing and immune responses. Both of these processes are key in the host response to hematophagous arthropods’ feeding. The role of mosquito and tick EVs in the modulation of immune responses and pathogen transmission is discussed in this entry.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020057
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 882-892: Bagnoli Urban Regeneration through
           Phytoremediation

    • Authors: Clelia Cirillo, Barbara Bertoli, Giovanna Acampora, Loredana Marcolongo
      First page: 882
      Abstract: The Bagnolidistrict in Naples has needed urban redevelopmentfor many years. The area is not only affected by pollution caused by many industries but also by environmental pollutants, according togeognostic surveys that have found numerous contaminantsin the subsoil and water.Currently, the combination of an urban rehabilitation processwith the phytodepuration technique may represent a successful idea for obtaining bothurban regenerationand environmental remediation. Phytoremediation, a biologically based technology, has attracted the attention of both thepublic and scientists as a low-cost alternative for soil requalification. The use of plants as well as the microorganisms present in their root systems plays an important role in the ecological engineering field in controlling and reducing pollutants present in theair, water and soil.The result is efficient, sustainable and cost-effective environmental recovery compared to conventional chemical–physical techniques. In this way, not only the environmental recovery of SIN Bagnoli-Corogliocan be obtained, but also the regeneration of its landscape.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020058
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 893-911: Dual-Modular Stems for Primary Total
           Hip Arthroplasty

    • Authors: Jan Zajc, Samo Karel Fokter
      First page: 893
      Abstract: In primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), dual-modular stems were introduced to better restore hip stability, femoral offset, and leg length. This entry highlights the gathered knowledge about dual-modular stems and related complications in combinations with titanium (Ti) and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) exchangeable necks. The reasons for a modular neck failure are multifactorial. Some of the dual-modular stems are still on the market despite the fact th these designs have neither been proven for durability nor have shown any clinical benefits for the patients as compared to monolithic stems. Apart from very limited indications, orthopaedic surgeons should not use dual-modular stem designs for primary THA.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020059
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 912-927: Anxiety, Depression, and Other
           Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of
           the Risk Factors and Risk Groups

    • Authors: Polina Kassaeva, Elena Belova, Ekaterina Shashina, Denis Shcherbakov, Valentina Makarova, Boris Ershov, Vitaly Sukhov, Nadezhda Zabroda, Natarajan Sriraam, Oleg Mitrokhin, Yury Zhernov
      First page: 912
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many aspects of our lives, including mental health. Identifying risk factors and risk groups associated with anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders for reasons related to the COVID-19 pandemic is highly relevant. This narrative review aims to summarize the evidence to date on risk factors for emotional disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to identify the risk groups of people in need of early psychiatric and psychological assistance, point out the controversial data on the influence of risk factors on emotional disorders in COVID-19, and finally offer recommendations for alleviating symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders in such people. According to the current literature, being under the age of 40, being female, having contact with a COVID-infected person, and watching the news about COVID-19 for more than 3 h a day all increase the likelihood of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Healthcare workers, particularly nurses, working in the COVID-19 hot zone suffer more from sleep disorders, anxiety, and depression. It is also noted that people with a previous psychiatric history, in addition to increased risks of anxiety and depression, have an increased risk of relapse during the COVID-19 pandemic. The same is true for people who have had episodes of substance abuse in the past. Aside from socioeconomic factors, the mental wellbeing of those who have had COVID-19 is also impacted by biological factors (using anti-COVID-19 drugs, COVID-19-associated immunothrombosis and venous thromboembolism, interferon-gamma-related cytokine storm, etc.), resulting in a wide range of acute and long-term cognitive disorders. During the restricted resource time, the aforementioned risk groups should be prioritized for prevention, early identification, and proper treatment of potential emotional disorders. The risk factors that were found in this narrative review, as well as how they interact and change over time, will help understand why some studies of at-risk groups do not agree with each other, justify new preventive measures, and strengthen existing programs to keep people’s mental health in check during this pandemic and other emergencies.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020060
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 928-936: CRISPR/Cas9 in Chronic Lymphocytic
           Leukemia

    • Authors: María Hernández-Sánchez
      First page: 928
      Abstract: Genome-editing systems such as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology have uncovered new opportunities to model diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CRISPR/Cas9 is an important means of advancing functional studies of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) through the incorporation, elimination and modification of somatic mutations in CLL models.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020061
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 937-951: Khosrow II (590–628 CE)

    • Authors: Mahdi Motamedmanesh, Samira Royan
      First page: 937
      Abstract: Khosrow II (r. 590–628 CE) was the last great Sasanian king who took the throne with the help of the Romans and broke with dynastic religious preferences as he became married to a Christian empress. It was under his rule that the Sasanian Empire reached its greatest expansion. From the standpoint of iconographic studies, Khosrow II is among the most influential Persian kings. Although he was literally occupied by rebels and wars within the borders of the Sasanian territories and beyond, Khosrow managed to create a powerful image of himself that emphasized the legitimacy of his monarchy. Indeed, Khosrow Parviz (the Victorious) drew upon royal iconography as a propaganda tool on a wide range of materials such as rock and stucco reliefs, coins, seals, and metal plates. His image (created both visually and verbally) not only revived the traditional iconography of the Persian kings but also evolved it in a way that transcended his time and was passed on to the early Islamic Caliphates after him. Khosrow II imitated and manipulated the traditional royal iconography of his predecessors in order to display his legitimacy, piety, and valor.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020062
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 952-973: Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Thi-Thao-Linh Nguyen, Van-An Duong
      First page: 952
      Abstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are produced from physiologically biocompatible lipids. They have been proven to improve solubility, cellular uptake, and stability, reduce enzyme degradation, and prolong the circulation time of various drugs. SLNs have been applied in the oral, parenteral, transdermal, intranasal, ocular, and pulmonary drug delivery of different drugs, with enhanced safety, bioavailability, and overall therapeutic effects. In this entry, the authors summarize the primary features of SLNs, methods to prepare SLNs, and recent applications of SLNs in drug delivery. Owing to their advantages, SLNs are potential drug delivery systems to improve the management of various diseases and will, soon, be available for clinical use.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020063
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 974-989: Oxidation of Antipsychotics

    • Authors: Natalia A. Shnayder, Aiperi K. Abdyrakhmanova, Regina F. Nasyrova
      First page: 974
      Abstract: Antipsychotics (APs) are psychotropic drugs that generally have a psycholeptic effect, capable of reducing psychotic symptoms and psychomotor agitation. This class of drugs is widely used in psychiatric practice, especially for the treatment of psychosis in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Most APs pass through a biotransformation process, or metabolism, after they enter the body before being eliminated. There are three phases of AP metabolism. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase (mixed-function oxidase) plays a central role in most AP biotransformation. CYP’s functional activity depends on gene–drug and drug–drug interaction and influences on the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). So, it is extremely important for a practicing psychiatrist to know the oxidation pathway of APs, since most of them are metabolized in the liver. This is important both to prevent ADRs and to avoid unwanted drug–drug interactions, which will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and safety of AP therapy.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020064
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 990-1003: The Potential for Cellulose
           Deconstruction in Fungal Genomes

    • Authors: Renaud Berlemont
      First page: 990
      Abstract: Fungal cellulolytic enzymes are carbohydrate active enzymes (CAzymes) essential for the deconstruction of the plant cell wall. Cellulolytic activity is described in some glycoside hydrolases (GH-cellulases) and in auxiliary activities (AA-cellulases) families. Across environments, these enzymes are mostly produced by some fungi and some bacteria. Cellulolytic fungi secrete these enzymes to deconstruct polysaccharides into simple and easy to metabolize oligo- and mono-saccharides. The fungal ability to degrade cellulose result from their repertoire of CAZymes-encoding genes targeting many substrates (e.g., xylan, arabinose). Over the past decade, the increased number of sequenced fungal genomes allowed the sequence-based identification of many new CAZyme-encoding genes. Together, the predicted cellulolytic enzymes constitute the fungal potential for cellulose deconstruction. As not all fungi have the same genetic makeup, identifying the potential for cellulose deconstruction across different lineages can help identify the various fungal strategies to access and degrade cellulose (conserved vs. variable genomic features) and highlight the evolution of cellulase-encoding genes. Here, the potential for cellulose deconstruction identified across publicly accessible, and published, fungal genomes is discussed.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020065
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1004-1018: Social Entrepreneurship Conceptual
           Approaches

    • Authors: Alcides Almeida Monteiro, José Carlos Sánchez-García, Brizeida Raquel Hernández-Sánchez, Giuseppina Maria Cardella
      First page: 1004
      Abstract: Social entrepreneurship defines organizations or initiatives that, by producing and/or transacting goods or services, seek new solutions to persistent social problems, thus generating high social value. In other words, that deliberately subject their economic strategy to social priorities and place the social mission at the center of their concerns. Such social priorities include poverty, unemployment, education, health, local development, or the environment. Outside this common base, the aggregation of other characteristics or delimitations has given rise to conceptual fuzziness, namely, as to the organizational forms to be adopted (restricted to non-profit organizations or open to for-profit businesses with clear social purposes) and the weight of the social dimension in SE. Another manifestation of conceptual malleability emerges from the coexistence of different schools of thought. On the opposite side, one notes the narrowing of the concept, which mainly derives from a Westernized vision and still pays little attention to the contributions from developing countries. In addition to analyzing these topics, the current entry points out some recommendations regarding the deepening of scientific research in this field.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020066
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1019-1035: Conductive Heat Transfer in Thermal
           Bridges

    • Authors: Mathias Fuchs
      First page: 1019
      Abstract: A thermal bridge is a component of a building that is characterized by a higher thermal loss compared with its surroundings. Their accurate modeling is a key step in energy performance analysis due to the increased awareness of the importance of sustainable design. Thermal modeling in architecture and engineering is often not carried out volumetrically, thereby sacrificing accuracy for complex geometries, whereas numerical textbooks often give the finite element method in much higher generality than required, or only treat the case of uniform materials. Despite thermal modeling traditionally belonging exclusively to the engineer’s toolbox, computational and parametric design can often benefit from understanding the key steps of finite element thermal modeling, in order to inform a real-time design feedback loop. In this entry, these gaps are filled and the reader is introduced to all relevant physical and computational notions and methods necessary to understand and compute the stationary energy dissipation and thermal conductance of thermal bridges composed of materials in complex geometries. The overview is a self-contained and coherent expository, and both physically and mathematically as correct as possible, but intuitive and accessible to all audiences. Details for a typical example of an insulated I-beam thermal bridge are provided.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020067
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1036-1058: Numerical Solution of Desiccation
           Cracks in Clayey Soils

    • Authors: Hector U. Levatti
      First page: 1036
      Abstract: This entry presents the theoretical fundamentals, the mathematical formulation, and the numerical solution for the problem of desiccation cracks in clayey soils. The formulation uses two stress state variables (total stress and suction) and results in a non-symmetric and nonlinear system of transient partial differential equations. A release node algorithm technique is proposed to simulate cracking, and the strategy to implement it in the hydromechanical framework is explained in detail. This general framework was validated with experimental results, and several numerical examples were published at international conferences and in journal papers.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020068
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1059-1068: Louis XI of Valois
           (1461–1483)

    • Authors: Julia Faiers
      First page: 1059
      Abstract: Louis XI (1461–1483) was the sixth king of the Valois branch of the Capetian dynasty in France; he ruled from 1463 until his death in 1483. Louis was the son of Charles VII (1403–1461) and Marie of Anjou (1404–1463). While Dauphin, he married first Margaret of Scotland (1424–1445) and then Charlotte of Savoie (c.1441–1483), who bore him four surviving children: Anne de France, Jeanne de France, François de France, and the future Charles VIII. Louis’ key challenge as monarch was to pick up the pieces of a kingdom ravaged by the Hundred Years War between England and France (1337–1453). His legacy was to have repaired the kingdom’s depleted coffers through a combination of frugality and territorial expansion. His historiography paints him as a paranoid, manipulative, and obsessively pious ruler, a simplistic portrait that is undermined by a close examination of his artistic patronage. This entry will focus on the iconography he employed across a variety of media to promote the sacred legitimacy of his rule and to unify the peoples of France’s newly acquired territories.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020069
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1069-1081: Geographic Information System and
           Atomized Transportation Modes

    • Authors: Mohammad Anwar Alattar, Mark Beecroft, Caitlin Cottrill
      First page: 1069
      Abstract: Transportation is a spatial activity. The geographic Information System (GIS) is the process of capturing, managing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. GIS techniques are essential to the study of various aspects of transportation. In this entry, the state of knowledge regarding atomized transportation modes is presented. Atomized transportation modes are defined as transportation modes which deal with low passenger numbers.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020070
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1082-1090: Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

    • Authors: Salim Yasmineh
      First page: 1082
      Abstract: Quantum mechanics is a mathematical formalism that models the dynamics of physical objects. It deals with the elementary constituents of matter (atoms, subatomic and elementary particles) and of radiation. It is very accurate in predicting observable physical phenomena, but has many puzzling properties. The foundations of quantum mechanics are a domain in which physics and philosophy concur in attempting to find a fundamental physical theory that explains the puzzling features of quantum mechanics, while remaining consistent with its mathematical formalism. Several theories have been proposed for different interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, there is no consensus regarding any of these theories.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020071
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1091-1102: Homogenization Methods of Lattice
           Materials

    • Authors: Jacobs Somnic, Bruce W. Jo
      First page: 1091
      Abstract: The existing methods for analyzing the behaviors of lattice materials require high computational power. The homogenization method is the alternative way to overcome this issue. Homogenization is an analysis to understand the behavior of an area of lattice material from a small portion for rapid analysis and precise approximation. This paper provides a summary of some representative methodologies in homogenization.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020072
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1103-1118: A General Description of Karst
           Types

    • Authors: Márton Veress
      First page: 1103
      Abstract: This study includes a general description of the Earth’s karst types based on literary data and field observations. An improved classification of karst types distinguishes the main group, group, and subgroup; and, a division of karst types involves a main karst type, karst type, subtype, variety, and non-individual karst type. The relation between karst type and karst area is described. The role of various characteristics of karsts in the development of primary, secondary, and tertiary karst types is analyzed. Their structure is studied, which includes a geomorphic agent, process, feature, feature assemblage, karst system and the characteristics of the bearing karst area. Dominant, tributary, and accessory features are distinguished. The conditions of the stability and the development of types are studied, transformation ways are classified, and the effect of climate on types is described.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020073
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1119-1127: The Human Passion for Music

    • Authors: Bjørn Grinde
      First page: 1119
      Abstract: Music is a universal feature of human societies, which suggests that an evolutionary perspective should help us understand our appreciation. The reward (pleasure) system of the brain offers a suitable framework. The question is why we evolved rewards for listening to and producing sounds with particular qualities. The primary evolutionary advantage is probably related to the importance of language; features of sound, such as purity, harmony, complexity, and rhythmicity, are useful for facilitating oral communication. One would expect evolution to associate rewards with these qualities in order to stimulate the development of brain regions involved in interpreting and producing relevant sounds. There are additional adaptive aspects of music, such as relaxation, social coherence, and sexual selection. Music can be regarded as a superstimulus that accentuates and exploits rewards associated with hearing. As such, music is not necessarily adaptive in a biological sense, but serves the purpose of improving quality of life.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020074
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1128-1137: The Applications of
           Microphysiological Systems in Biomedicine: Impact on Urologic and
           Orthopaedic Research

    • Authors: Pedro Caetano-Pinto, Janosch Schoon
      First page: 1128
      Abstract: Microphysiological systems (MPSs) are in vitro models that can incorporate dynamic stimuli such as flow, pressure and contraction in cell culture, enabling the formation of cellular architectures and retrieving physiological function often absent in conventional 2D-cell culture. MPS applications saw a substantial growth in recent years, drawing attention from industry as a strategy to optimize pre-clinical drug-development purposes, as well as from biomedical research, to fill a gap between in vivo and in vitro models. Several MPS platforms are now available and are employed in the development of bone and kidney complex systems for urologic and orthopaedic research. These advances have enabled, for example, the in vitro modelling of bone regeneration and renal drug secretion, and have dramatic potential to improve research into both orthopaedic and urology cancers.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020075
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1138-1154: Effect of Probiotics on
           Host-Microbial Crosstalk: A Review on Strategies to Combat Diversified
           Strain of Coronavirus

    • Authors: Sahoo, Mohapatra, Dalai, Misra, Suar
      First page: 1138
      Abstract: The scare of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), does not seem to fade away, while there is a constant emergence of novel deadly variants including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. Until now, it has claimed approximately 276,436,619 infections, and the number of deaths surpluses to 5,374,744 all over the world. While saving the life has been a priority during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the post-infection healing and getting back to normalcy has been undermined. Improving general health conditions and immunity with nutritional adequacy is currently of precedence for the government as well as frontline health workers to prevent and assuage infections. Exploring the role of probiotics and prebiotics in managing the after-effects of a viral outbreak could be of great significance, considering the emergence of new variants every now and then. To enhance human immunity, the recent evidence on the connection between gut microbiota and the broad spectrum of the clinical COVID-19 disease is the reason to look at the benefits of probiotics in improving health conditions. This review aims to sketch out the prospective role of probiotics and prebiotics in improving the standard of health in common people.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020076
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1154-1167: Sustainable
           Fashion—Rationale and Policies

    • Authors: Meital Peleg Mizrachi, Alon Tal
      First page: 1154
      Abstract: Sustainable fashion refers to efforts to minimize the fashion industry’s adverse environmental and social impacts. This entry describes the industry’s entire production chain: from polyester production, cotton growth and wasteful fashion consumption patterns to landfilling, where so many clothes end up. The entry characterizes the drivers behind the industry’s poor record regarding sustainability and employee exploitation, as well as new policies around the world designed to improve the industry’s performance These include the Australian Modern Slavery law, the French law prohibiting the destruction of textile surpluses and the New York Fashion Sustainability and Social Accountability Act.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020077
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 1168-1182: Characteristics, Impacts and Trends
           of Urban Transportation

    • Authors: Yuan Gao, Jiaxing Zhu
      First page: 1168
      Abstract: Economic growth, urban development and the prosperity of the automobile industry have driven a huge shift in global urban transportation from walking to public transportation and then to automobiles. Private mobility has become an important part of residents’ daily trips. Cities, especially automobile-dependent cities, face a variety of negative impacts such as increased commuting distances, higher congestion costs, traffic accidents, traffic pollution including climate change, etc. Therefore, how to balance the relationship between people’s growing demand for private motorization with the development of urbanization, modernization and motorization and the huge economic, social and environmental costs brought about by them, so as to realize the sustainable development of cities and transportation, is the main problem facing cities around the world. The entry focuses on trends in the sustainable development of urban transportation such as restrictions in private car ownership and use, electrification of urban transportation, intelligent transportation systems (including shared mobility, customized buses and Mobility as a Service/MaaS) and transit-oriented development (TOD). China, as the largest global automobile producer and consumer, represents and leads the growth and evolution of other emerging countries.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2020078
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 56-69: Aircraft Icing Severity Evaluation

    • Authors: Sibo Li, Roberto Paoli
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Aircraft icing refers to the ice buildup on the surface of an aircraft flying in icing conditions. The ice accretion on the aircraft alters the original aerodynamic configuration and degrades the aerodynamic performances and may lead to unsafe flight conditions. Evaluating the flow structure, icing mechanism and consequences is of great importance to the development of an anti/deicing technique. Studies have shown computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and machine learning (ML) to be effective in predicting the ice shape and icing severity under different flight conditions. CFD solves a set of partial differential equations to obtain the air flow fields, water droplets trajectories and ice shape. ML is a branch of artificial intelligence and, based on the data, the self-improved computer algorithms can be effective in finding the nonlinear mapping relationship between the input flight conditions and the output aircraft icing severity features.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 70-95: Prefabricated Building
           Systems—Design and Construction

    • Authors: Tharaka Gunawardena, Priyan Mendis
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Modern Methods of Construction with Offsite Manufacturing is an advancement from prefabricated technologies that existed for decades in the construction industry, and is a platform to integrate various disciplines into providing a more holistic solution. Due to the rapid speed of construction, reduced requirement of labour and minimised work on site, offsite manufacturing and prefabricated building systems are becoming more popular, and perhaps a necessity for the future of the global construction industry. The approach to the design and construction of prefab building systems demands a thorough understanding of their unique characteristics.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 96-108: Molecular Aspects of
           Spike–ACE2 Interaction

    • Authors: Luigi De Masi, Maria Antonia Argenio, Deborah Giordano, Angelo Facchiano
      First page: 96
      Abstract: A new betacoronavirus (CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that began in China at the end of 2019, today known as COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Subsequent studies confirmed the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as the main cell receptor of spike trimeric glycoprotein, located on the viral envelope, mediating the CoV-2 invasion into the host cells through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike. Computational analysis of the known experimental 3D structures of spike–ACE2 complexes evidenced distinguishing features in the molecular interactions at the RBD-cell receptor binding interface between CoV-2 and previous CoV-1. The spike represents a key target for drug design as well as an optimal antigen for RNA/viral vector vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in order to maximize prevention and therapy of COVID-19.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 109-126: Asymptomatic Patients and Immune
           Subjects

    • Authors: Sheila Veronese, Andrea Sbarbati
      First page: 109
      Abstract: An asymptomatic patient is someone who contracts a disease but shows no symptoms. An immune subject is a person who is free from virus infection. Both of these categories of people experience the limitations of government imposed by a pandemic situation, with one important difference. Probably only the first subjects contribute, in spite of themselves, to the spread of the disease and to the contagion of the people most susceptible to the virus. This implies that their detection is essential to limit infections. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of these people and those immune to the virus can be extremely useful in mitigating the effects of the disease and/or defeating it.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 127-139: Stefan Uroš II Milutin
           Nemanjić (1282–1321)

    • Authors: Čedomila Marinković
      First page: 127
      Abstract: King Stefan Uroš II Milutin Nemanjić (1282—Donje Nerodimlje, October 29, 1321) was a Serbian medieval king, the seventh ruler of the Serbian Nemanide dynasty, the son of King Stefan Uroš I (r. 1243–1276) and Queen Helen Nemanjić (see), the brother of the King Stefan Dragutin (r. 1276–1282) and the father of King Stefan Dečanski (r. 1322–1331). Together with his great grandfather Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanide dynasty, and his grandson, Emperor Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, King Milutin is considered the most powerful ruler of the Nemanide dynasty. The long and successful military breach of King Milutin, down the Vardar River Valley and deep into the Byzantine territories, represents the beginning of Serbian expansion into southeastern Europe, making it the dominant political power in the Balkan region in the 14th century. During that period, Serbian economic power grew rapidly, mostly because of the development of trading and mining. King Milutin founded Novo Brdo, an internationally important silver mining site. He started minting his own money, producing imitations of Venetian coins (grosso), which gradually diminished in value. This led to the ban of these coins by the Republic of Venice and provided King Milutin a place in Dante’s Divina Commedia. King Milutin had a specific philoktesia fervor: He built or renovated over three dozen Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries not only in Serbia but also in Thessaloniki, Mt. Athos, Constantinople and The Holy Land. Over fifteen of his portraits can be found in the monumental painting ensembles of Serbian medieval monasteries as well as on two icons.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 140-150: Mechanics and Mathematics in Ancient
           Greece

    • Authors: Danilo Capecchi, Giuseppe Ruta
      First page: 140
      Abstract: This entry presents an overview on how mechanics in Greece was linked to geometry. In ancient Greece, mechanics was about lifting heavy bodies, and mathematics almost coincided with geometry. Mathematics interconnected with mechanics at least from the 5th century BCE and became dominant in the Hellenistic period. The contributions by thinkers such as Aristotle, Euclid, and Archytas on fundamental problems such as that of the lever are sketched. This entry can be the starting point for a deeper investigation on the connections of the two disciplines through the ages until our present day.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010010
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 151-188: Enantiomers and Their Resolution

    • Authors: Rodrigo Santos, Karen V. Pontes, Idelfonso B. R. Nogueira
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Enantiomers share the same chemical formula but have different chemical structures, i.e., type of isomers. Enantiomers are present in several drugs, perfumes, food, and are a fundamental part of biomolecules. This subject is highly important for pharmaceutical companies. Enantiomeric drugs present different actuation in the human body; depending on the compound, one might combat the symptom, whereas its pair might cause damage. The separation of pairs of enantiomers requires a chiral environment that provokes a structural imbalance that conventional methods cannot provide. Enantioresolution is one of the most promissory studies that benefit several areas, such as pharmaceutical, biotechnology, food industry, and fine chemistry. Its resolution is of great importance, therefore, its main mechanisms of resolution will be explained herein.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 189-211: The Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma
           gondii

    • Authors: Inês L. S. Delgado, Sara Zúquete, Dulce Santos, Afonso P. Basto, Alexandre Leitão, Sofia Nolasco
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous zoonotic parasite with an obligatory intracellular lifestyle. It relies on a specialized set of cytoskeletal and secretory organelles for host cell invasion. When infecting its felid definitive host, T. gondii undergoes sexual reproduction in the intestinal epithelium, producing oocysts that are excreted with the feces and sporulate in the environment. In other hosts and/or tissues, T. gondii multiplies by asexual reproduction. Rapidly dividing tachyzoites expand through multiple tissues, particularly nervous and muscular tissues, and eventually convert to slowly dividing bradyzoites which produce tissue cysts, structures that evade the immune system and remain infective within the host. Infection normally occurs through ingestion of sporulated oocysts or tissue cysts. While T. gondii is able to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals, most infections in humans are asymptomatic, with clinical disease occurring most often in immunocompromised hosts or fetuses carried by seronegative mothers that are infected during pregnancy.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010012
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 212-229: Black Fungi Research:
           Out-of-This-World Implications

    • Authors: Donatella Tesei
      First page: 212
      Abstract: Black fungi are an ecological group of melanized fungi specialized in extremotolerance and assumed to be among the most stress-resistant eukaryotes on Earth. Multi-omics studies have provided significant evidence that they have a peculiar response to stress that differs considerably from that of common mesophilic hyphomycetes. Survival strategies displayed by these organisms have situated them as attractive models for astrobiology and, in general, for studies directed towards the definition of the actual limits for life. Moreover, the ascertained aptitude of black fungi for degradation of hazardous volatile pollutants and for plastic breakdown suggests prospective application of several species.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010013
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 230-236: Role of Happiness When Evaluating
           Society

    • Authors: Bjørn Grinde
      First page: 230
      Abstract: Happiness, or life satisfaction, has become an important factor when considering what should be the objective of a society. Understanding the nature of happiness is thus important. The text offers a biological—specifically evolutionary—framework, which suggests that happiness can be described as the net impact of positive and negative feelings. It follows that a key issue is to explain what these feelings are about. The present situation and options for improving the score of happiness are discussed.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010014
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 237-246: Henry II of Trastámara
           (1366–1367, 1369–1379)

    • Authors: María Ángeles Jordano Barbudo
      First page: 237
      Abstract: Henry II of Castile, also known as Henry of Trastámara, from the Latin “Tras Tamaris” (or beyond the Tambre River), King of Castile and León (1366–1367, 1369–1379) was the first king of the Trastámara Dynasty. In summary, it was a minor branch of the house of Burgundy (or an “Iberian extension” of it), with presence in the kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, Navarre, and Naples. Most notably, it began playing an essential role in the kingdom of Castile, but after the Compromise of Caspe, its power extended decisively to the kingdom of Aragon (1412). Henry II was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI and his lover Leonor de Guzmán. He waged a civil war against his stepbrother, Peter I, legitimate heir to the throne, as the son of Alfonso XI and Maria of Portugal, Queen of Castile. Henry’s determination to be recognized as king led him to employ the arts in a campaign to discredit his stepbrother and tarnish his image, portraying himself as a defender of the faith with the right to rule. He built the Royal Chapel (1371) in the main church of Córdoba (today’s Mosque/Cathedral) for the burial of his father and grandfather, Ferdinand IV, in order to underscore his connection to the royal line, and refurbished the Puerta del Perdón (Gate of Forgiveness) in 1377, the main entrance to the church, for use as a dramatic stage for public events.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010015
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 247-255: Mucormycosis—Emerging
           Fungal Threats

    • Authors: Gianmarco Troiano, Nicola Nante
      First page: 247
      Abstract: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection due to organisms of the Zygomycetes class and the order of Mucorales that can cause various types of infections. In recent years, an increasing phenomenon has been observed—invasive fungal infections especially in the healthcare setting. Among immucompromised patients, an important clinical emergency could be represented by mucormycosis. The epidemiology of mucormycosis has shown an alarming trend and its incidence is rising globally. Four elements are fundamental for a successful treatment: rapid diagnosis, reduction of predisposing factors (if possible), surgical debridement of infected tissues, and appropriate antifungal therapy.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010016
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 256-263: Challenges in Ramularia collo-cygni
           Control

    • Authors: Andres Mäe, Riinu Kiiker
      First page: 256
      Abstract: Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, has recently become widespread in Europe. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) and demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides are mainly applied for disease control on barley fields, but pathogen isolates with a reduced sensitivity can cause difficulties. There is an urgent need for new spring barley cultivars that are more resistant to RLS development and can inhibit R. collo-cygni epidemics.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010017
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 264-300: Entropy

    • Authors: Constantino Tsallis
      First page: 264
      Abstract: The concept of entropy constitutes, together with energy, a cornerstone of contemporary physics and related areas. It was originally introduced by Clausius in 1865 along abstract lines focusing on thermodynamical irreversibility of macroscopic physical processes. In the next decade, Boltzmann made the genius connection—further developed by Gibbs—of the entropy with the microscopic world, which led to the formulation of a new and impressively successful physical theory, thereafter named statistical mechanics. The extension to quantum mechanical systems was formalized by von Neumann in 1927, and the connections with the theory of communications and, more widely, with the theory of information were respectively introduced by Shannon in 1948 and Jaynes in 1957. Since then, over fifty new entropic functionals emerged in the scientific and technological literature. The most popular among them are the additive Renyi one introduced in 1961, and the nonadditive one introduced in 1988 as a basis for the generalization of the Boltzmann–Gibbs and related equilibrium and nonequilibrium theories, focusing on natural, artificial and social complex systems. Along such lines, theoretical, experimental, observational and computational efforts, and their connections to nonlinear dynamical systems and the theory of probabilities, are currently under progress. Illustrative applications, in physics and elsewhere, of these recent developments are briefly described in the present synopsis.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010018
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 301-324: Energy Storage Flywheel
           Rotors—Mechanical Design

    • Authors: Miles Skinner, Pierre Mertiny
      First page: 301
      Abstract: Energy storage flywheel systems are mechanical devices that typically utilize an electrical machine (motor/generator unit) to convert electrical energy in mechanical energy and vice versa. Energy is stored in a fast-rotating mass known as the flywheel rotor. The rotor is subject to high centripetal forces requiring careful design, analysis, and fabrication to ensure the safe operation of the storage device.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010019
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 325-335: Painful Legs and Moving Toes

    • Authors: Songjin Ri
      First page: 325
      Abstract: Painful Legs and Moving Toes syndrome (PLMT) is a rare neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary and irregular movements of one or more toes, often together, with moderate to severe diffuse pain at the foot and leg. It can appear on one or both sides and in the upper limbs as well as lower limbs. The etiology of PLMT is still unclear; therefore, the main symptoms of PLMT, including pain in limbs as well as involuntary movements of toes, can be treated only symptomatically, and the outcomes are often unsatisfactory. Central or peripheral nerve injuries have been assumed to be the possible causes of irregular involuntary movements, often accompanied by chronic pain; however, its etiology is unknown in most cases. The management of PLMT is very difficult because of its rare prevalence and obscure pathogenesis, and there have been no clear guidelines for the treatment of PLMT. Oral medications (e.g., GABAergic agents, benzodiazepines, antiepileptics, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, beta-blockers, corticosteroids, cannabis, calcitonin, and analgesics) and several therapeutic interventions (e.g., local botulinum neurotoxin-A injection, spinal cord stimulation, anesthetic, and surgical interventions) have been recommended, based on individual experiences from several cases. Its etiology, pathogenesis, and effective treatments should be further discussed.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010020
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 336-364: Biotechnology and Cytotherapeutics:
           The Swiss Progenitor-Cell Transplantation Program

    • Authors: Alexis Laurent, Corinne Scaletta, Philippe Abdel-Sayed, Murielle Michetti, Anthony de Buys Roessingh, Wassim Raffoul, Nathalie Hirt-Burri, Lee Ann Applegate
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Historically, primary human progenitor cells (e.g., WI-38 and MRC-5 diploid-cell sources) have been industrially applied in research and in manufacturing processes for vaccines and for biologicals. Furthermore, tissue-specific primary progenitor-cell banks have recently been developed and exploited for the provision of safe, consistent, and effective cellular active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in homologous allogeneic regenerative medicine applications. Notably, the modern legal and regulatory frameworks for novel therapeutic products and for progenitor-cell therapy development have been iteratively optimized to guarantee utmost product safety, quality, and efficacy. Over 50 years of global technical hindsight around progenitor-cell biotechnological substrates and over 30 years of in-house clinical experience around the therapeutic uses of standardized progenitor-cell sources in Switzerland have demonstrated the importance of such biological materials for public health. The aim of this entry work was to summarize the evolution of the industrial applications of selected primary progenitor-cell sources, ranging from the use as robust biotechnological substrates to standardized cellular API manufacture and their clinical uses in highly specialized regenerative medicine.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 365-382: Dental Patients’ Perspective on
           COVID-19: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Stefano Salgarello, Elisabetta Audino, Paolo Bertoletti, Matteo Salvadori, Maria Luisa Garo
      First page: 365
      Abstract: The COVID-19 epidemic has changed patients’ approach to dental treatments. While dentists worldwide have shown an excellent level of adaptability to face the new challenges presented by the unprecedented situation due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, dental patients have witnessed a sudden suspension of elective treatments and a slow resumption of dental care activities after several national lockdowns. In addition, the general climate of anxiety and fear due to the high COVID-19 risk and the high level of mortality has influenced the perception and attitudes of people towards dental activity, inducing many dental patients to avoid appointments to the dentist if not highly urgent. We present an overview of the current state of knowledge about dental patients’ perception, perspective, attitude, and expectations towards a full resumption of regular dental treatments.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 383-399: Tsunami Alert Efficiency

    • Authors: Amir Yahav, Amos Salamon
      First page: 383
      Abstract: “Tsunami Alert Efficiency” is the rapid, accurate and reliable conduct of tsunami warning messaging, from the detection of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes to dissemination to all people under threat, and the successful survival of every person at risk on the basis of prior awareness and preparedness.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010023
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 400-408: COVID-19 and Psychological Impact

    • Authors: Nereida Bueno-Guerra
      First page: 400
      Abstract: The worldwide mental health burden associated to COVID-19. The psychological symptoms associated to COVID-19 can originate from three different sources: lockdowns, pandemic life and virus infection (both COVID-19 and post COVID-19 condition). Within the psychological symptoms it can be found: anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, fatigue and cognitive impairment (i.e., ’brain fog’, mental slowness, deficits in attention, executive functioning, working memory, learning, articulation, and/or psychomotor coordination). Plus, two psychological conditions associated to the COVID-19 pandemic have been coined so far by the World Health Organization: pandemic fatigue and post COVID-19 condition. The increase of psychological symptoms both in the general population and in frontline workers (especially health-care workers) generates an unprecedented number of psychological patients and it challenges national mental health systems.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010024
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 409-427: Secondary Education and COVID-19

    • Authors: Michailina Siakalli, Marilena Mousoulidou, Andri Christodoulou, Angela Savvidou, Kyriaki Kouppa
      First page: 409
      Abstract: Secondary education is the second stage of formal education and traditionally begins after primary school, usually about age 11 to 13. The COVID-19 pandemic caused immeasurable changes to the educational system which inevitably greatly impacted secondary education. The current entry describes the changes in secondary education imposed by the pandemic and explores the accompanying challenges.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010025
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 428-440: Substance Release from
           Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules

    • Authors: Egor V. Musin, Aleksandr L. Kim, Sergey A. Tikhonenko
      First page: 428
      Abstract: Controlled release of substance from polyelectrolyte microcapsules is a triggered degradation of the microcapsule membrane that is extensive enough to release the contained substances out into the environment. Membrane degradation can be a result of enzymatic digestion, ultrasound or light exposure, heating, application of a magnetic field, pH or ionic strength changes in the solution or bacteria-mediated processes. This technology can be used for the targeted release of drugs, and for the development of self-healing materials and new generation pesticides.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010026
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 441-456: Domestic Violence against Women and
           COVID-19

    • Authors: Constantina Zamba, Marilena Mousoulidou, Andri Christodoulou
      First page: 441
      Abstract: Domestic violence against women is defined as harmful behavior that occurs within a home and it involves aggressive and violent conduct towards women. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and following the restrictions imposed to combat the pandemic (lockdowns, staying at home, isolation), domestic violence against women has increased worldwide. The current entry presents existing knowledge and discusses issues important for public awareness.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010027
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 457-465: Adverse Events Profile of COVID-19
           Preventative Strategies

    • Authors: Kunal M. Ajmera
      First page: 457
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and has affected most people across the world, either directly or indirectly. Many preventative and therapeutic strategies have been employed since the beginning of the pandemic. With the development of the mRNA vaccine within a year of the start of the pandemic, we are entering a new era of vaccinology, and the adverse event profile of the COVID-19 vaccine is also becoming more apparent with time. While the benefits of the vaccines and other preventative strategies certainly outweigh the risk of adverse events, prospective clinical trials are urgently needed to determine whether specific populations, including those with a personal or family history of autoimmune disease, are at higher risk of developing certain adverse events, in order to minimize risk further.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010028
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 466-472: Degrowth Perspective for
           Sustainability in Built Environments

    • Authors: Iana Nesterova
      First page: 466
      Abstract: Degrowth, as a social movement, a political project, and an academic paradigm, aims to find ways that can lead to harmonious co-existence between humanity and nature, between humans and non-humans, and within humanity, including oneself. Seen through the lens of degrowth, everything becomes subject to reflection, critique, re-evaluation, and re-imagining. This concerns environments created by humans in a long process of interaction with nature, i.e., built environments. Built environments are always in becoming. This entry contemplates the implications of degrowth for intentionally directing this becoming towards genuine sustainability.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010029
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 473-485: Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames

    • Authors: Matteo Bagnoli, Ernesto Grande, Gabriele Milani
      First page: 473
      Abstract: Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames are a very widespread structural typology all over the world for civil, strategic or productive uses. The damages due to these masonry panels can be life threatening to humans and can severely impact economic losses, as shown during past earthquakes. In fact, during a seismic event, most victims are caused by the collapse of buildings or due to nonstructural elements. The damage caused by an earthquake on nonstructural elements, i.e., those not belonging to the actual structural body of the building, is important for the purposes of a more general description of the effects and, of course, for economic estimates. In fact, after an earthquake, albeit of a low entity, it is very frequent to find even widespread damages of nonstructural elements causing major inconveniences even if the primary structure has reported minor damages. In recent years, many territories have been hit worldwide by strong seismic sequences, which caused widespread damages to the nonstructural elements and in particular to the masonry internal partitions and the masonry infill panels of the buildings in reinforced concrete, with damage to the floor and out-of-plane expulsions/collapses of single layers. Unfortunately, these critical issues have arisen not only in historic, but also in recent buildings with reinforced concrete, in many cases exhibiting inadequate seismic behavior, only partly attributable to the intrinsic vulnerability of the masonry panels against seismic actions. Such problems are due to the following aspects: lack of attention to construction details in the realization of the construction, use of poor-quality materials, and above all lack of design tools for the infill masonry walls. In 2018, regarding the design of nonstructural elements, the formulation of floor spectra has been recently introduced in Italy. This entry article wants to focus on all these aspects, describing the state of the art, the literature studies and the design problems to be solved.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010030
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 486-497: Metaverse

    • Authors: Stylianos Mystakidis
      First page: 486
      Abstract: The Metaverse is the post-reality universe, a perpetual and persistent multiuser environment merging physical reality with digital virtuality. It is based on the convergence of technologies that enable multisensory interactions with virtual environments, digital objects and people such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). Hence, the Metaverse is an interconnected web of social, networked immersive environments in persistent multiuser platforms. It enables seamless embodied user communication in real-time and dynamic interactions with digital artifacts. Its first iteration was a web of virtual worlds where avatars were able to teleport among them. The contemporary iteration of the Metaverse features social, immersive VR platforms compatible with massive multiplayer online video games, open game worlds and AR collaborative spaces.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010031
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 498-510: Data Quality—Concepts and
           Problems

    • Authors: Max J. Hassenstein, Patrizio Vanella
      First page: 498
      Abstract: Data Quality is, in essence, understood as the degree to which the data of interest satisfies the requirements, is free of flaws, and is suited for the intended purpose. Data Quality is usually measured utilizing several criteria, which may differ in terms of assigned importance, depending on, e.g., the data at hand, stakeholders, or the intended use.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010032
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 511-513: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of
           Encyclopedia in 2021

    • Authors: Encyclopedia Editorial Office Encyclopedia Editorial Office
      First page: 511
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010033
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 514-529: Ladislaus II
           Jagiełło (1386–1434)

    • Authors: Mateusz Grzęda
      First page: 514
      Abstract: Ladislaus II Jagiełło (1386–1434). Ladislaus II Jagiełło is the founder of the Jagiellonian dynasty that had ruled over Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (until 1572), Bohemia (1471–1526) and Hungary (1440–1444, 1490–1526). A Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1377, and from 1386 a king of Poland and lord of Lithuania, which he ruled jointly with his cousin Witold (Vytautas), the son of Kęstutis. Five medieval portraits of Jagiełło survive, four of which date from the period of his reign in the Polish–Lithuanian state and one was executed posthumously. The earliest image, on Jagiełło’s Great Seal, was made in connection with his coronation as king of Poland (1386). Two portraits in the Holy Trinity Chapel at the Castle of Lublin (1418) are part of a wall paintings scheme commissioned by the monarch and executed by a team of painters brought from Ruthenia. Furthermore, the sumptuous tomb (before 1430) in Cracow was commissioned by the king. Its top slab bears an effigy of Jagiełło with his suggestively rendered countenance, which undoubtedly reflects the actual facial features of the elderly monarch. An image of the king represented as one of the Three Magi in a panel of an altarpiece in the tomb chapel of Casimir IV Jagiellonian, Jagiełło’s son and his successor on the Polish throne, dates from 1470. The chapel dedicated to the Holy Cross, erected at Cracow Cathedral, was in all likelihood commissioned by Casimir himself and his consort Elizabeth of Austria.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010034
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 530-537: Buddhism in Addiction Recovery

    • Authors: Vanessa Wang, Bryant M. Stone
      First page: 530
      Abstract: Buddhism was established by Guatama Buddha as a practice to liberate sentient beings from suffering. Mindfulness-Based interventions (MBIs) are Western psychologists’ adaptation of mindfulness/Vipassana to treat mental illnesses. In addition to mindfulness, Buddhist recovery peer-support programs also adopt the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the Five Precepts, which are the Buddha’s prescription to cease suffering and to discipline one’s ethical conduct.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010035
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 538-558: CRISPR towards a Sustainable
           Agriculture

    • Authors: Francesco Camerlengo, Arianna Frittelli, Riccardo Pagliarello
      First page: 538
      Abstract: Climate change and the need to feed an increasing population undermines food production and safety, representing the reasons behind the development of a new agriculture that is much more sustainable, productive and accessible worldwide. Genome editing and, in particular, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) tools will play a major role in plant breeding to address these concerns. CRISPR/Cas includes a series of genome editing tools relying on the recognition and cleavage of target DNA/RNA sequences to introduce specific mutations.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010036
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 559-577: Marine Fungi: Opportunities and
           Challenges

    • Authors: Micael F. M. Gonçalves, Ana C. Esteves, Artur Alves
      First page: 559
      Abstract: Marine fungi play a crucial role in energy flow and nutrient recycling, mediating the cycling of dissolved organic matter in marine environments. However, despite being a prolific group of organisms, marine fungi have been largely neglected for a long time. Besides their importance in the marine food web, marine fungi represent an active source of natural products. Over the last years, researchers have focused on studying marine organisms to discover new metabolites with antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer activities. Moreover, with the advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and mass spectrometry techniques, genomic and metabolomic approaches have revealed to be of paramount importance in natural products discovery. The marine mycobiome includes many organisms still to be identified, and the ones already known are still underutilized in biotechnological applications. For this reason, it is undeniable that exploring the marine mycobiome including new habitats and substrates, even those of remote access, is fundamental for describing the true magnitude of the Earth’s mycobiome.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010037
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 578-592: Wooden Additional Floor in Finland

    • Authors: Anu Soikkeli, Hüseyin Emre Ilgın, Markku Karjalainen
      First page: 578
      Abstract: One of the most effective ways to cover real estate development and renovation processes by improving functionality and energy efficiency is wooden additional floor construction. This entry maps out, organizes, and collates scattered information on the current state of the art and the benefits of this practice including its different stages, focusing on the case of Finland. The entry presents this topic in an accessible and understandable discourse for non-technical readers. By highlighting the benefits and opportunities of this sustainable application, the entry will contribute to increasing the awareness of wooden additional floor construction, which has many advantages, and therefore to gain more widespread use in Finland and other countries.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010038
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 593-601: Smoke Hazards of Tall Timber
           Buildings with New Products

    • Authors: Chi-Honn Cheng, Cheuk-Lun Chow, Tsz-Kit Yue, Yiu-Wah Ng, Wan-Ki Chow
      First page: 593
      Abstract: Timber buildings can now stand very tall using new products. As timber materials are expected to be easily ignitable, the fire hazard of timber is a concern. Charring of the timber surface would maintain structural stability, but would also be accompanied by smoke. Although treating timber products with fire retardants would delay the ignition time under low radiative heat flux, toxic combustion products and unburnt fuel would be emitted immediately upon burning. More smoke and higher toxic gas concentrations such as carbon monoxide would be given off upon burning some fire retardants under high flashover heat fluxes. Due to the fast upward movement of smoke under stack effect, spreading of toxic smoke in tall timber buildings would lead to a hazardous environment. Engineered timber consists of derivative timber products. New engineered timber products are manufactured with advanced technology and design, including cross-laminated-timber (CLT), laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and glue-laminated timber (Glulam). The fire behaviour of timber products has been studied for several decades. However, the smoke hazards of using new timber products in building construction should be monitored. The objective of this study is to inspire stakeholders in fire safety of timber buildings, inter alia smoke hazards, to use new timber products to build tall buildings.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010039
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 602-616: Trust in Science and COVID-19

    • Authors: Marilena Mousoulidou, Andri Christodoulou, Marios Argyrides, Michailina Siakalli, Louiza Constantinou
      First page: 602
      Abstract: In this entry, trust in science is defined as the reliance, confidence, and dependence on science to understand scientific information. With the outbreak of, and the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, turning towards science and trusting the specialized knowledge of experts is of particular importance during this period.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010040
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 617-624: On-Chip Liquid Chromatography

    • Authors: Makoto Tsunoda
      First page: 617
      Abstract: On-chip liquid chromatography (LC) refers to LC technology that is miniaturized to fit on a microchip to enable fast, high-throughput analysis, with small sample volumes and low reagent consumption. Four different on-chip LC approaches have been developed to date: use of open-tubular, packed-particle, monolithic, and pillar array columns. These methods have been applied to proteomics as well as the analysis of small molecules and drugs in various biological samples. Recent advances in on-chip LC are summarized herein.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010041
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 625-631: Two-Lane Highways: Indispensable
           Rural Mobility

    • Authors: Ahmed Al-Kaisy
      First page: 625
      Abstract: Two-lane highways refer to roadways consisting of two lanes in the cross section, one for each direction of travel. Occasionally, passing lanes may be added to one or two sides of the roadway extending the cross section to three or four lanes at those locations. In this entry, two-lane highways strictly refer to roads in rural areas meeting the previous definition and do not include urban and suburban streets.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010042
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, Pages 632-645: A Working Definition of Fake News

    • Authors: João Pedro Baptista, Anabela Gradim
      First page: 632
      Abstract: Current literature on fake news is rather abundant and mainly focused on history, variety, and types, rather than processes. This review draws on current literature to build a working definition of fake news focused on its present relevance to journalism and political communication contemporary debate, distinguishing it from non-pertinent conceptual varieties and contributing to a much-needed clarification on the subject. We performed a qualitative analysis of the literature published between 2016 and 2020. Data were extracted from Web of Science and Scopus. We define fake news as a type of online disinformation with misleading and/or false statements that may or may not be associated with real events, intentionally designed to mislead and/or manipulate a specific or imagined public through the appearance of a news format with an opportunistic structure (title, image, content) to attract the reader’s attention in order to obtain more clicks and shares and, therefore, greater advertising revenue and/or ideological gain.
      Citation: Encyclopedia
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/encyclopedia2010043
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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