Subjects -> INSTRUMENTS (Total: 63 journals)
Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted by number of followers
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
IEEE Sensors Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
International Journal of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Measurement and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Videoscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Imaging & Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Measurement : Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Visual Media     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medical Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sensors and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Sensors Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Measurement Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Instrumentation Technology & Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sensor Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research of NIST     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Invention Disclosure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metrology and Instruments / Метрологія та прилади     Open Access  
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Труды СПИИРАН     Open Access  
Standards     Open Access  
Jurnal Informatika Upgris     Open Access  
InfoTekJar : Jurnal Nasional Informatika dan Teknologi Jaringan     Open Access  
Devices and Methods of Measurements     Open Access  
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access  
Documenta & Instrumenta - Documenta et Instrumenta     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Measurement Techniques
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.163
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-8906 - ISSN (Online) 0543-1972
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Influence of Atmospheric Transmission on the Accuracy of Lidar
           Measurements of the Mie Scattering Power by Aerosol Particles

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      Abstract: The current issue of improving the lidar measurements accuracy has been considered. For a monostatic aerosol lidar, the degree of influence of atmospheric transmission at the selected laser radiation wavelengths on the lidar signal error has been estimated. Numerical simulation of the lidar equation for Mie scattering by atmospheric aerosol particles during vertical remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer up to 1500 m has been carried out. It has been shown that taking into account the measurement error of the extinction coefficient at the selected laser radiation wavelengths leads to limitation of the ranging distances to ensure the specified measurement error of the lidar signal. The results obtained can be applied to the development of new aerosol lidars.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
       
  • Systematic Aspects of Measurement Problem Theory

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      Abstract: Two problems associated with distinguishing measurement problem theory from measurement theory are described. The first issue to be addressed is that of harmonizing the definition of the term “measurement” due to a basic terminological confusion between measurements, methods, measurement procedures, and methods for solving measurement problems, including in the International Vocabulary of Metrology, i.e., the problem of distinguishing between measurements and calculations. The second problem arises from the inadequacy of mathematical models representing measurement objects. A solution to these problems is presented in terms of measurement problem theory.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
       
  • Algorithm for Synchronizing the Results of Measurements of the Position of
           the Electromechanical System and of the emf of the Inductor During Dynamic
           Operation of the Kibble Balance

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      Abstract: An algorithm is developed for synchronizing the results of measurements of the emf of the inductor and the position of the coil of the electromechanical system during implementation of the dynamic mode of the Kibble balance. This algorithm makes it possible to scale series of data to a common time scale without using hardware synchronization of the data acquisition devices. The algorithm is based on numerical differentiation of the measurement results using Savitsky–Golay filtering, the selection and minimization by the gradient descent method of a special target function in the form of a standard deviation between temporal values of the emf of the coil and the corresponding values of the speed of the coil motion transformed by differentiation and subsequent interpolation. The proposed algorithm for processing the measurements of the position and emf of the coil has been tested experimentally as part of the Balance research project. The measurement data are obtained by means of measurement with asynchronous interfaces contained in a Kibble balance model. Use of the algorithm has made it possible to reduce the error in processing the experimental data owing to the lack of synchronization of the measured position and emf of the coil by a factor of more than 10 in the dynamic mode of operation of this model of the Kibble balance.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
       
  • End-of-Line Waveguide Thermistor Power Meters in the Frequency Range
           16.7–37.5 GHz

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      Abstract: In this study, a multiprobe end-of-line converter, which is a part of a waveguide thermistor wattmeter, was developed. This converter functions to improve the power transmission accuracy of electromagnetic oscillations in waveguide paths in the frequency range of 16.7–37.5 GHz. It is proposed to increase the transmission accuracy by reducing the reflection coefficient of the input of the end-of-line wattmeters and reducing the mismatch error. The prototypes of waveguide thermistor wattmeters with multiprobe converters in the frequency range of 16.7–37.5 GHz were manufactured and experimentally investigated. The results show that these wattmeters can be used as a portable and secondary standard for transmitting the unit of power of electromagnetic oscillations or as an initial measuring instrument as a part of working standards. Moreover, they can be used to control the stability of the effective reflection coefficient module of the outputs of pass-through wattmeters.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Accuracy Evaluation of Algorithms for Processing a Posteriori Measurement
           Results Obtained from Tripled Measurement Channels

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      Abstract: The paper considers a problem associated with the evaluation of conditional (refined) confidence limits set for measurement errors using a posteriori information on measurement results. An analysis was carried out to compare the accuracy of various algorithms for processing a posteriori measurement results obtained using three measurement channels of the same type. The algorithms are used to process the results of three equally accurate measurements according to the arithmetic mean and median values, as well as the arithmetic mean of the maximum and minimum values. Here, three parameters serve as a posteriori information: the ratio of the difference between the maximum and minimum results of three measurements to the accuracy indicator of the measurement channel; the ratio of the minimum to the maximum values of two differences (the maximum and median or median and minimum values of the three measurement results); the product of the two above-mentioned parameters. The first and second parameters characterize relative spread and uniformity in the dispersion of results obtained from three measurements, respectively, while the third characterizes density and – as with the second parameter – dispersion uniformity. For these three parameters, boundary values were ascertained, relative to which the conditional confidence limits for the errors of algorithms exceed or fall below the unconditional confidence limits for the errors of these algorithms. In terms of accuracy indicators, a particular algorithm can be rationally applied for processing three equally accurate measurements depending on the error distribution law. Relationships are proposed for evaluating the accuracy indicators of results obtained when processing these measurement data.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • A Coplanar Waveguide with a Gallium Arsenide Substrate for an
           Electro-Optic Sampling System with a Bandwidth Over 110 GHz

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      Abstract: The problem of the measurement of the parameters of picosecond electric pulses with bandwidth greater than 110 GHz was examined. In order to measure the parameters of the specified electric pulses, it was proposed to use an electro-optic sampling measurement system. Several variants for implementation of a coplanar waveguide, a central node of the electro-optic sampling measurement system, are described. The parameters of a coplanar waveguide with a gallium arsenide substrate were calculated. An energy calculation was conducted for an electro-optic sampling measurement system in which the parameters of past probing laser radiation were determined. An optical circuit of an electro-optic sampling measurement system is presented, and its optical devices are preliminarily calculated. Ways toward enhancement of the sensitivity of the system are described, as well as a method of focusing the laser radiation to a spot with diameter of several tens of μm.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Traceability of Measurements of the Energy Parameters of Laser Beams

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      Abstract: A conceptual approach to the traceability of measurements of the energy (power) of laser beams during calibration of means of measurement to standards is formulated, algorithms for solving traceability problems are developed, and technical implementations of these solutions are presented. It is shown that the use of a measurement attenuator is an integral part of the scheme for constructing a standard that provides traceability of measurements of the energy (power) of laser beams. The operation of the standard is examined for sequential, stepwise, and parallel structural schemes which ensure traceability to the State secondary standard for the unit of pulsed laser radiation GVE 2.1.ZZA.0095.2017 and the State primary standard for the unit of average laser radiation power GET 28-2016. Features of the construction of measurement dividers for the calibration of means of measurement of low and high levels of energy (power) are determined. Algorithms for comprehensive calibration of means of measurement which have an advantage over element-by-element calibration are presented.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Phase Registration of Disturbances in Fluctuating Media Using a Spatially
           Separated Radio-Acoustic Generator

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      Abstract: Research in the field of monitoring and registration of geophysical disturbances being a complex scientific and technical problem of great importance has been carried out. Disturbances of fluctuating media have a significant impact on the functioning of technical systems for control, safety, navigation, communications, etc. For this reason, the development of methods and tools for monitoring and registration of geophysical disturbances is an urgent task in many fields of science and technology. The article discusses a method for registering geophysical disturbances in fluctuating media using a spatially separated radio-acoustic generator. The method for registering geophysical disturbances is based on comparing the phase of an acoustic signal received from a fluctuating medium with the phase of a signal emitted into a controlled medium. The output signal of the phase detector is a DC voltage, described by a monotonic function of the phase difference of the input signals. A condition for self-excitation of a spatially separated radio-acoustic generator, which is determined by the general solution of the transient component of a second-order differential equation, is formulated. Block diagrams of the technical implementation of the method are presented. The principle of disturbances registration is based on the comparison of the phases of signals received and emitted into the controlled medium. Based on the results of the experimental study, a phase diagram of the output signal of the phase detector is presented as a response to the throwing of objects of various sizes into the area of acoustic beam propagation. The results of the study are relevant for the following areas of application: sounding of continental sea and ocean shelves, monitoring of vortex and turbulent disturbances in the airspace of airport runways, control of sea waves and underwater currents in the waters of seaports, detection of foreign objects in protected areas.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Methods for Determining the Primary Measuring
           Transducer Parameters of a Contact Conductometer

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      Abstract: This study discusses the problem of increasing the accuracy of contact conductometers. This study also describes the main sources of error in the primary measuring transducer of a contact conductometer, which include the solution resistance, polarization resistance, and capacitance of the double electric layer and the characterization of the electrochemical processes on the primary measuring transducer electrodes. Moreover, this study presents the methods for determining the specific parameters that affect the impedance of the primary measuring transducer. Method 1 is based on the analysis of the amplitude–frequency characteristics of the active component of the impedance of the conductive cell of a contact conductometer filled with a solution. Method 2 is based on the determination of the active component of the impedance of the solution at the resonance frequency, i.e., at zero reactive components of the impedance. In Method 3, the active component of the impedance of the solution is determined at three different frequencies. Results showed that Method 2 can only reliably determine the active resistance of the solution. The cell constants are determined by Methods 1 and 3 in the same frequency range. Meanwhile, Method 2 uses a frequency that is several times higher than the upper limit of the frequency range. Notably, the cell constants determined by Methods 2 and 3 practically coincide with each other and significantly differ from the cell constants determined by Method 1.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Loading of Tracked Vehicles under their Own Power on a Trailer under the
           Control of a Machine Vision System

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      Abstract: The paper outlines problems associated with safe loading and transportation of construction and special tracked vehicles on the cargo platforms of heavy-duty trailers. In order to improve the positioning accuracy of this equipment on trailer platforms, it is proposed to use a machine vision system (MVS). The study presents a fully functional physical model of such a system. The specified model was tested under automated control over the spatial position of tracked vehicles in the process of their loading on a cargo platform. The spatial position parameters of equipment affecting the safety of loading under its own power were identified. The loading process was automated using a videogrammetric device mounted on the vehicle to be transported and three active-type sighting targets placed on the cargo platform. The MVS employs digital video processing methods to enable a high probability of detecting and identifying sighting targets according to their flashing frequency. For the purposes of loading automation, an operation algorithm is proposed for tracked vehicles under MVS control. The system was tested using the physical models of a heavy-duty trailer and a tracked vehicle platform. The actual technical and metrological characteristics of the MVS were experimentally determined. It is established that a base spacing of 2.5 m between the sighting targets ensures safe loading of equipment (up to 8 m in length) on a cargo platform (up to 16 m in length).
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Application of a Nonparametric Pattern Recognition Algorithm to the
           Problem of Testing the Hypothesis of the Independence of Variables of
           Multi-Valued Functions

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      Abstract: The problem of hypothesis testing for the independence of two-dimensional random variables in the analysis of variables of multi-valued functions is considered. To solve it, we used a technique based on a nonparametric kernel-type pattern recognition algorithm corresponding to the maximum likelihood criterion. The technique made it possible to bypass the problem of decomposing the random variable domain of values into intervals. Based on the results of computational experiments, the effectiveness of the applied technique was estimated depending on the type of multi-valued functions, the level of random noise and the amount of initial statistical data. The results obtained are relevant for solving the problem of detecting natural and technical objects from remote sensing data.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Analysis of the Methods for Determining Losses in the Transformer Magnetic
           Core

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      Abstract: To effectively minimize magnetic losses and increase the efficiency of machines, particularly transformers, exact separation of total losses in the magnetic cores of electrical appliances into hysteresis and eddy current is required. To address this issue, the author proposes three variants of the wattmeter method, based on different dependences of eddy current and hysteresis losses on the magnetization reversal frequency, magnetic flux, and temperature, referring to the methods of two frequencies, two densities, and two temperatures. Two experiments were performed for each of the three methods under different conditions. In no-load experiments at two frequencies, at two magnetic flux densities, and two temperatures of the magnetic core, the active powers spent on heating the core were measured, and expressions for the powers of hysteresis and eddy current losses were obtained. The experimental results obtained using different methods are consistent with each other. The advantages and difficulties of each method are analyzed. The combination of methods determines the degree of density index for the magnetic flux in the hysteresis loss power expression (Steinmetz factor) in a particular transformer.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Method for Concurrent Identification of a Linear Dynamic Measurement
           System Based on Preliminary Nonlinear Transformation of the Input Signal

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      Abstract: We consider the problem of the concurrent identification of a linear dynamic measuring system with an unknown input signal under the influence of various destabilizing factors on the system parameters. Solution of this problem will reduce the error of measuring systems in the dynamic measurement mode. To perform the identification, we introduce an additional channel for the transformation of the measured value in the spatial domain; this operator satisfies the condition of non-commutativity with the operator of the system under study. The concurrent identification problem is solved for the linear dynamic characteristic of the main channel of a first-order measuring system. To exclude incorrect operations when differentiating the output signals of a structurally redundant measuring system (SRMS), in the process of concurrent identification the method of modulating functions is used. We present the dependence of the mean square deviations of the reduced input estimation error on the number of measurements during identification for various levels of the standard deviation of the measurement noise, reduced to the input signal scale, as well as on the sampling rate of output signals of a structurally redundant measuring system. The sampling rate determines the size of the observation sample formed during digital processing of the system output signals in a computing device. It is shown that the highest identification accuracy is achieved with a quadratic transformation of the input signal in an additional channel of a structurally redundant measuring system, and the selection of a modest sampling rate of output signals increases the stability of the identification algorithm. In this case, the dependence of the standard deviation of the reduced input estimation error on the sampling rate of the output signals of a structurally redundant measuring system has a minimum. Research results can be used to improve the accuracy of measuring systems in dynamic measurement mode, as well as to enable automatic metrological control of intelligent measuring systems.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11018-022-02027-2
       
  • Determination of Probabilistic Characteristics of Random Values of
           Estimates of the Lyapunov Function for Description of a Physical Process

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      Abstract: Application of the Lyapunov characteristic function is determined by the means for estimating it. The probabilistic characteristics of estimates of the Lyapunov characteristic function are described for the first time. The probabilistic characteristics of random values of estimates of the Lyapunov function are estimated empirically by statistical methods. A model of a special device for producing estimates of the characteristic function by a direct method is developed in the Matlab package. A quasi-deterministic signal is delivered to the input of the model for which the instantaneous values are distributed according to an arcsine law and at the output a set of values of estimates of the Lyapunov function is obtained which is used to evaluate the probabilistic characteristics of these estimates. Statistical evaluation is carried out by an indirect method. It is found that the values of the estimates of the Lyapunov characteristic function are distributed according to a normal law. The results of these studies will be of use for engineering calculations, e.g., in identifying the errors in transfer of messages in modems with a modulated characteristic function.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11018-022-02037-0
       
  • Calibration Laboratories: Risk Management and the Problem of Assessing
           Opportunities

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      Abstract: An evaluation of resources required for the opportunity management (OM) of calibration laboratories is presented. In this study conducted at the Mendeleev All-Russian Institute for Metrology, a correlation is noted between methods for assessing risks associated with calibration laboratory activities and the topic of opportunity management. It is shown that risk identification methods play an important role in enhancing opportunities to achieve the laboratory’s purpose and objectives. Opportunity management involves the use of new approaches to the allocation of laboratory resources. This work considers OM approaches relying on the Pareto distribution and logistic curves. In addition, the prospects of using hyperbolic distributions in the management of resources required to introduce innovations are noted. It is recommended that risks and innovations be managed taking into account the characteristic parameters of hyperbolic distributions. The consideration of characteristic parameters is aimed at optimally combining frequently performed and new types of work. The novel described approach is shown to support the appropriate selection of solutions for managing opportunities and ensuring the sustainable development of calibration laboratories. This approach is applicable when improving secondary standards and working to higher level standards.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11018-022-02028-1
       
  • Analytical and Simulation Model of a System for Non-Contact Determination
           of Aircraft Mass and Centre of Gravity

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      Abstract: The problem of increasing the accuracy of determining the mass and centre of gravity of vehicles in order to reduce accidents and improve transportation safety is considered. A comparative analysis of various systems and methods for determining the mass and centre of gravity of vehicles has been carried out. The advantages of non-contact methods and mass measuring instruments have been shown. The technique of non-contact determination of the vehicle mass by the vertical movement of its body has been proposed. An analytical and simulation model of a system for non-contact determination and remote control of the mass and centre of gravity of vehicles has been developed. On the example of aircrafts, the possibilities of simulating this system using various interpolation methods have been considered. For Airbus aircrafts, experiments have been carried out in the MathCad software using linear interpolation, fitting methods, least squares method, and Lagrange polynomials. The principles of constructing a system for non-contact determination of the mass and centre of gravity of aircrafts have been proposed. The choice of methods and instruments for measuring the aircraft fuselage vertical displacement for the implementation of such a system has been substantiated. The research results provide the possibility and prospect of creating a system for non-contact remote control of the mass and centre of gravity of aircrafts, as well as other types of aerial vehicles.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11018-022-02034-3
       
  • Measurement of the Intensity of a High-Frequency Electric Field:
           Application of a Ring Waveguide with Two Slots Filled with Electro-Optic
           Polymer

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      Abstract: The problem of enhancing the sensitivity of a measurement transducer of high-frequency external electric fields is examined. It is shown that solving this problem is possible by using a ring waveguide with two horizontal or vertical slots filled with an electro-optic polymer. The structure of a measurement transducer of a ring waveguide with two horizontal or vertical slots is examined. In waveguides with two slots, a greater intensity of optical radiation in the region of the slots is achieved, in comparison with waveguides with one slot. The values of the optimal distances between the slots and their width for maximum sensitivity of the measurement transducer are determined. As a result of using the active organic compound SEO125 and waveguides with two slots, the transducer under study makes it possible to measure the strength of alternating electric fields of frequency 0–10 GHz over the range 150–16·106 V/m with resolution up to 150 V/m. The measurement transducer can be used to detect high frequency waves and electromagnetic pulses, as well as to analyze external electromagnetic interference and diagnose high frequency electronic circuits.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11018-022-02039-y
       
  • Method for Measuring a Surface Profile Using a Mechatronic Profiler with
           Parallel Control of Sensor Drives

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      Abstract: Issues associated with improving the maneuverability and operating speed of a mechatronic profiler, as well as extending the profile measurement range for various surfaces, are considered. In order to solve these problems, a method was proposed for measuring a surface profile along a given trajectory using a mechatronic profiler that provides parallel control of sensor drives. A system for controlling a mechatronic profiler characterized by distributed control of drives is described, effectively implementing the programmed movements of the profiler’s laser sensor. The described control system improves the accuracy, sensitivity, speed, and reliability of the mechatronic profiler during operation, as well as reducing measurement and calibration time while significantly increasing the accuracy of measurement results. In addition, a developed information and measurement system of the mechatronic profiler is presented, along with a specification of software for controlling the electric drives of a mechatronic profiler. The following metrological characteristics of the mechatronic profiler were established and confirmed during verification: range of measuring the sensor-to-surface distance – 100–500 mm; maximum permissible absolute measurement error – ±0.05% of the range; circumferential measurement range – 0–360°; maximum permissible error of the rotary encoder ±30″. The results of surface profile measurements performed in polar coordinates for a corrugated sheet having a downward deflection amounting to 13.8 ± 0.05 mm in the cross-section are presented in graphic form. The study results can be used in various economic sectors: mechanical engineering, agriculture, construction, etc.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11018-022-02032-5
       
  • Enthalpy Calibration Method for Differential Scanning Calorimeters

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      Abstract: A method for enthalpy calibration of differential scanning calorimeters is described which makes it possible to eliminate the existing limits on the temperature range within which this metrological procedure can be carried out. The proposed method does not require use of standard samples of heats of fusion, so it is not limited by the thermal properties of certified materials. This method solves the problem of increasing the accuracy of measurements of specific enthalpy and heats of phase transitions of various substances for all types of differential scanning calorimeters. The effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the accuracy problems is confirmed and illustrated by the authors by comparing the results of measurements of heats of fusion of a number of metals. Results of measurements obtained on differential scanning calorimeters calibrated by the proposed method and on the same instruments, but calibrated in accordance with the generally accepted standard method of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, are compared. During the experiment, the advantages of the enthalpy calibration method developed here are identified in terms of saving the time and the costs necessary for calibration. The results can be used in work with differential scanning calorimeters, in the development of new materials, the monitoring of technological processes, production, input, and output control, as well as in the development of methods for studying various materials using differential scanning calorimeters.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11018-022-02035-2
       
  • A Technique for the Selection of the Guard Band in Climatic Tests of
           Radio-Electronic Equipment

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      Abstract: The problem of estimating the correspondence between the quality of a technical product and specified requirements in climatic testing is described. The problem of estimating false acceptances and false rejections, which are risks that arise in climatic testing of radio-electronic equipment, is considered. It is shown that additional misalignment of the transmitting lines of radio-electric equipment caused by temperature irregularities tends to increase these risks. A technique of selecting the guard band in order to minimize the probability of false acceptance and false rejection of devices that are being tested is proposed. Based on the results obtained it becomes possible to determine the optimal coefficient of the guard band of the measurements that minimizes the risks to the consumer and producer of radio-electronic equipment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11018-022-02030-7
       
 
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