Subjects -> INSTRUMENTS (Total: 63 journals)
Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Computational Visual Media     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Devices and Methods of Measurements     Open Access  
Documenta & Instrumenta - Documenta et Instrumenta     Open Access  
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Sensors Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
IEEE Sensors Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Imaging & Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
InfoTekJar : Jurnal Nasional Informatika dan Teknologi Jaringan     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
International Journal of Sensor Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Invention Disclosure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Instrumentation Technology & Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research of NIST     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Informatika Upgris     Open Access  
Measurement : Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Measurement and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Measurement Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrology and Instruments / Метрологія та прилади     Open Access  
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Standards     Open Access  
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Videoscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Труды СПИИРАН     Open Access  
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Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.467
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2166-2746 - ISSN (Online) 2166-2754
Published by AVS Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Extreme contact shrink for back end of line connectivity

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      Authors: Filip Schleicher, Sara Paolillo, Stefan Decoster, Chen Wu, Victor Vega-Gonzalez, Mahmudul Hasan, Christophe Beral, Frédéric Lazzarino
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      For the past 50 years, Moore’s law has been well followed by the semiconductor industry. The scaling of transistors and interconnects has been enabled not only by various technological advancements but also by novel patterning approaches. However, in order to keep up with Moore’s law, further shrinking at all levels of the integrated circuit is needed. Among them is the back end of line (BEOL), where increasingly smaller metal pitches require tight specifications for vias connecting metal lines. In this paper, BEOL via shrink options is investigated, targeting the bottom critical dimension (CD) 10.5 nm in order to land on metal pitch 21 nm lines below, while maintaining low defectivity, as well as low global and local CD uniformity (CDU and LCDU, respectively). Approaches to this shrink consist of modifications to the etch chemistry at different levels of the mask etch and liner-assisted shrink, either organic or inorganic. Numerical analysis of CD-scanning electron microscopy (CDSEM) images quantitatively shows the efficiency of different approaches via shrink, together with associated CDU, LCDU, and defectivity values. CDSEM results are supplemented by large-area voltage contrast defectivity and transmission electron microscopy data sets.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T12:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001757@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Extreme contact shrink for back end of line connectivity

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      Authors: Filip Schleicher, Sara Paolillo, Stefan Decoster, Chen Wu, Victor Vega-Gonzalez, Mahmudul Hasan, Christophe Beral, Frédéric Lazzarino
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      For the past 50 years, Moore’s law has been well followed by the semiconductor industry. The scaling of transistors and interconnects has been enabled not only by various technological advancements but also by novel patterning approaches. However, in order to keep up with Moore’s law, further shrinking at all levels of the integrated circuit is needed. Among them is the back end of line (BEOL), where increasingly smaller metal pitches require tight specifications for vias connecting metal lines. In this paper, BEOL via shrink options is investigated, targeting the bottom critical dimension (CD) 10.5 nm in order to land on metal pitch 21 nm lines below, while maintaining low defectivity, as well as low global and local CD uniformity (CDU and LCDU, respectively). Approaches to this shrink consist of modifications to the etch chemistry at different levels of the mask etch and liner-assisted shrink, either organic or inorganic. Numerical analysis of CD-scanning electron microscopy (CDSEM) images quantitatively shows the efficiency of different approaches via shrink, together with associated CDU, LCDU, and defectivity values. CDSEM results are supplemented by large-area voltage contrast defectivity and transmission electron microscopy data sets.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T12:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001757
       
  • Plasma-based area selective deposition for extreme ultraviolet resist
           defectivity reduction and process window improvement

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      Authors: Katie Lutker-Lee, Jennifer Church, Eric Miller, Angelique Raley, Luciana Meli
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has overcome significant challenges to become an essential enabler to the logic scaling roadmap. However, it remains limited by stochastically driven defects, such as line breaks and line bridges for aggressive pitches. This is especially relevant for the back end of line, which requires the most aggressive scaling. Stochastic defects reduce device yield and may push device manufacturers to move to EUV multipatterning beyond 36 nm pitch single exposure, which is a costly option. While the lithography and patterning stack can be optimized to provide the largest process window with the lowest number of defects, process margins decrease as smaller pitches are required. Currently, for some lithography stacks, especially spin-on glass based trilayer stacks, the defect-free process window beyond 36 nm pitch is limited by line collapse. Reduction in resist thickness may mitigate pattern collapse, but it may also increase the number of line breaks—trading one killer defect for another. In this paper, we expand on an area selective deposition (ASD) process in situ of an etch chamber to selectively deposit material on the EUV photoresist prior to transferring the pattern downstream. We demonstrate mitigation of resist line notching and breaks while maintaining deposition-free open areas and clear alignment marks. Due to the inherent chemical selectivity of the deposition process as opposed to a purely aspect ratio driven deposition process, thinner resists that, with a normal etch condition would result in line breaks, can now be considered. This drives down flopover defect issues seen with thicker EUV resists and enables several underlayer systems that could otherwise not be considered. Finally, we demonstrate that defectivity levels measured by e-beam inspection post lithography and post pattern transfer and yield are both improved at 30 nm pitch when this ASD process is used.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T12:32:22Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001665@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Plasma-based area selective deposition for extreme ultraviolet resist
           defectivity reduction and process window improvement

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      Authors: Katie Lutker-Lee, Jennifer Church, Eric Miller, Angelique Raley, Luciana Meli
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has overcome significant challenges to become an essential enabler to the logic scaling roadmap. However, it remains limited by stochastically driven defects, such as line breaks and line bridges for aggressive pitches. This is especially relevant for the back end of line, which requires the most aggressive scaling. Stochastic defects reduce device yield and may push device manufacturers to move to EUV multipatterning beyond 36 nm pitch single exposure, which is a costly option. While the lithography and patterning stack can be optimized to provide the largest process window with the lowest number of defects, process margins decrease as smaller pitches are required. Currently, for some lithography stacks, especially spin-on glass based trilayer stacks, the defect-free process window beyond 36 nm pitch is limited by line collapse. Reduction in resist thickness may mitigate pattern collapse, but it may also increase the number of line breaks—trading one killer defect for another. In this paper, we expand on an area selective deposition (ASD) process in situ of an etch chamber to selectively deposit material on the EUV photoresist prior to transferring the pattern downstream. We demonstrate mitigation of resist line notching and breaks while maintaining deposition-free open areas and clear alignment marks. Due to the inherent chemical selectivity of the deposition process as opposed to a purely aspect ratio driven deposition process, thinner resists that, with a normal etch condition would result in line breaks, can now be considered. This drives down flopover defect issues seen with thicker EUV resists and enables several underlayer systems that could otherwise not be considered. Finally, we demonstrate that defectivity levels measured by e-beam inspection post lithography and post pattern transfer and yield are both improved at 30 nm pitch when this ASD process is used.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T12:32:22Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001665
       
  • Reduction of exposing time in massively-parallel E-beam systems

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      Authors: Md Nabid Hasan, Soo-Young Lee, Byung-Sup Ahn, Jin Choi, Joon-Soo Park
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      Several writing methods were previously introduced for massively parallel electron-beam systems, e.g., single-row writing and multirow writing. A straightforward application of these methods for realizing nonuniform dose distributions often required for the proximity effect correction (PEC) including line/space patterns would turn off certain beams, sometimes all, selectively in several cycles. Consequently, the utilization of beams is reduced considerably. In this study, two different approaches to increasing the beam utilization and thereby reducing the exposing (writing) time are investigated, i.e., lowering the dose difference among the regions of a feature while implementing the PEC and utilizing the cycles with all the beams turned off. It has been shown that with these methods, the exposing time can be reduced significantly.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T12:32:22Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001722
       
  • Supercapacitor characteristics of MoS2 and MoOx coated onto
           honeycomb-shaped carbon nanotubes

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      Authors: Wei Li, Yung-Jui Huang, Pao-Hung Lin, Liang-Chiun Chao, Kuei-Yi Lee
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with multilayer hierarchical structures is generally considered to be able to provide more active sites and shorter diffusion channels for electrolytes, which make them extremely suitable for supercapacitor applications. Nevertheless, the MoS2 poor conductivity and rare surface area are the major technical obstacles. Herein, we demonstrated a honeycomb basis using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The honeycomb-shaped carbon skeleton provides a relatively larger surface area to store more ions with a more stable and stronger structure to maintain long-term electrochemical tests. During MoS2 fabrication, MoOx was also synthesized onto CNTs. MoOx influenced the electrochemical test results. Thermal annealing was conducted to remove the MoOx attachments to assure the optimal capacitance value. For the particular composite honeycomb structure (MoS2/CNTs) used in this research, the specific capacitance increased from 4.7 F/g (CNTs) to 75 F/g (MoS2 + MoOx/CNTs), measured using cyclic voltammetry measurements. The specific capacitance further reached 425 F/g using thermal annealing at optimal temperature, 700 °C. The designed electrode materials demonstrated excellent electrochemical characteristics and had great potential for future electrochemical applications.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T12:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001773
       
  • Patterning challenges for direct metal etch of ruthenium and molybdenum at
           32 nm metal pitch and below

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      Authors: Stefan Decoster, Elisabeth Camerotto, Gayle Murdoch, Souvik Kundu, Quoc Toan Le, Zsolt Tőkei, Gosia Jurczak, Frédéric Lazzarino
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      Ruthenium and molybdenum are candidate materials to replace Cu as the back-end-of-line interconnect metal for the tightest pitch features for future technology nodes. Due to their better figure of merit ρ0 × λ (ρ0 bulk resistivity, λ electron mean free path), it is expected that the resistance of
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T12:26:14Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001791
       
  • Atomic-resolution lithography with an on-chip scanning tunneling
           microscope

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      Authors: Afshin Alipour, Emma L. Fowler, S. O. Reza Moheimani, James H. G. Owen, John N. Randall
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      In this work, atomic-resolution lithography with a Microelectromechanical-System (MEMS) based Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) is demonstrated for the first time. The microscope consists of a commercial UltraHigh-Vacuum (UHV) STM whose regular tip is replaced with a 1-Degree-of-Freedom (1-DOF) MEMS nanopositioner. This results in a hybrid STM system where XY-plane motions are provided by the piezotube of the original system and Z-axis motion by the MEMS with a higher bandwidth. Sharp tips made of Pt or W are added to the MEMS devices with postfabrication techniques. With this hybrid system, STM-based lithography is demonstrated on an H-passivated Si (100)-[math] sample under UHV condition. Results prove the capability of the hybrid STM system for atomic-scale lithography. This capability, paired with the small footprint of the MEMS device, makes this approach a candidate for building a high-throughput parallel STM lithography platform by incorporating an array of 1-DOF MEMS devices that perform lithography in parallel.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T11:14:41Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001826
       
  • Si nanocone structure fabricated by a relatively high-pressure hydrogen
           plasma in the range of 3.3–27 kPa

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      Authors: Toshimitsu Nomura, Kenta Kimoto, Hiroaki Kakiuchi, Kiyoshi Yasutake, Hiromasa Ohmi
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      In this study, we prepared a silicon nanocone structure using a relatively high-pressure H2 plasma in the range of 3.3–27 kPa. The silicon sample with the prepared nanocone structure exhibited a black surface. We investigated the dependence of the silicon nanocone formation behavior on various experimental parameters such as H2 pressure, processing time, substrate temperature, input power, and substrate bias. A small amount of air feed and a thin native oxide layer are desirable for the nanocone formation. Furthermore, the silicon temperature during plasma exposure plays an important role in increasing the silicon nanocone height. In addition, the polarity of the substrate bias drastically changes the surface structure from the nanocone in the case of a negative bias to a low-aspect-ratio pyramidal structure in that of a positive bias. This result implies that the anisotropic ion incidence is important for nanocone formation, despite the relatively high process pressure.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T11:29:04Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001676
       
  • On the brightness, transverse emittance, and transverse coherence of field
           emission beam

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      Authors: Soichiro Tsujino
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      The highly brilliant electron beam produced by field emitters is one of the enabling factors of the high resolution electron microscope with atomic resolution. In addition to high beam brightness, field emitters are also high current, high current density, and highly coherent cathodes. These characteristics motivated the use of field emitters for high-frequency vacuum electric tubes and accelerator applications and in experiments including electron diffraction, holography, coherent diffraction imaging, to name a few. Here, we present an overview of the key characteristics of field emitters for beam applications: beam brightness, transverse emittance, and transverse coherence. We further discuss their implications on the coherent propagation of the field emission beam.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T12:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001776
       
  • Designing MoS2 channel properties for analog memory in neuromorphic
           applications

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      Authors: Vladislav Kurtash, Sebastian Thiele, Sobin Mathew, Heiko O. Jacobs, Joerg Pezoldt
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      In this paper, we introduce analog nonvolatile random access memory cells for neuromorphic computing. The analog memory cell [math] channel is designed based on the simulation model including Fowler–Nordheim tunneling through a charge-trapping stack, trapping process, and transfer characteristics to describe a full write/read circle. 2D channel materials provide scaling to higher densities as well as preeminent modulation of the conductance by the accumulated space charge from the oxide trapping layer. In this paper, the main parameters affecting the distribution of memory states and their total number are considered. The dependence of memory state distribution on channel doping concentration and the number of layers is given. In addition, how the nonlinearity of memory state distribution can be overcome by variation of operating conditions and by applying pulse width modulation to the bottom gate voltage is also shown.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T03:50:51Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001815
       
  • Nondestructive x-ray reflectivity analysis of Al distributions of
           ultraviolet-cured spin-coated resist films hybridized with
           trimethylaluminum

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      Authors: Kohei Chiba, Masaru Nakagawa
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      Ultraviolet (UV)-cured spin-coated resist films of 100 nm and thinner thicknesses made with bisphenol A-based dimethacrylate monomers on silicon substrates were hybridized by multiple-pulsed vapor infiltration of sequential trimethylaluminum (TMA) doses and a final H2O dose. Nondestructive x-ray reflectivity measurements without film shrinkage enabled characterization of the internal layer structures of the UV-cured films unmodified before hybridization and hybridized by TMA infiltration and chemical fixing. It was possible to determine the thickness, density, and interface roughness of each layer in the unmodified and hybridized UV-cured films. The TMA infiltration and chemical fixing resulted in the formation of the highest-density Al-rich layer near the film surface. The presence of the highest-density layer arising from the most abundant component, Al, was confirmed through energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The increase in the cycle number of TMA dose from 100 to 150 and 200 cycles had little effect on organic–inorganic hybridization of the 100 nm-thick UV-cured films. The thickness of the outermost Al-rich layer near the film surface was approximately 30 nm, which was unchanged when the film thicknesses of 100, 75, and 50 nm were changed. The outermost skin layer suppressed the infiltration of TMA into the UV-cured films. The infiltration of TMA into the UV-cured films progressed as the film thicknesses decreased.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T03:50:50Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001747
       
  • Optimization of silicon etch rate in a CF4/Ar/O2 inductively coupled
           plasma

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      Authors: Dmitry Levko, Laxminarayan L. Raja
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      We use a fluid plasma model coupled with Maxwell's equations to analyze the influence of various parameters on the silicon etching rate by inductively coupled low-pressure plasma (ICP) generated in a CF4/O2/Ar mixture. These parameters include different argon and oxygen fractions in the feedgas, the gas residence time, and the discharge power. The simulation results show that the optimal etching rate is obtained when the gas residence time in the reactor is comparable to the time scale of dissociation reactions of feedgas CF4. We find that the etch rate remains almost constant for argon fraction in the mixture
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T03:50:49Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001745
       
  • Time-resolved ion energy distribution in pulsed inductively coupled argon
           plasma with/without DC bias

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      Authors: Zhiying Chen, Joel Blakeney, Megan Carruth, Peter L. G. Ventzek, Alok Ranjan
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      Pulsed plasmas have emerged as promising candidates as a means for precise control of ion energy/angle dependent surface processes and surface chemistry during the plasma process, which are key to 3 nm and beyond device fabrication. The ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) and ion fluxes over a pulsed period are important to understand as they directly influence the feature profile, damage, and selectivity. We have developed an advanced plasma diagnostics (APD) system with advanced pulsing capability, including source, bias, and synchronous pulsing. It is a compact inductively coupled plasma system with a RF source frequency of 13.56 MHz intended to diagnose the general behavior of biased high density plasmas. We report the effect of the pulse frequency (2–10 kHz), RF duty cycle (25%–75%), DC duty cycle (5%–50%), phase lag (50–60 μs), RF power (120–180 W), DC bias voltage (0–150 V), and discharge pressure (20–80 mTorr) on the IEDFs and ion flux over a pulse period on the APD system. The time-resolved IEDFs and ion flux were measured using a retarding field energy analyzer. The ion energy transitions in a pulsed period from a plasma ignition stage to a stable stage and from plasma in a glow period to an afterglow period are studied. The results indicate that the ion energy and ion flux are tailored by RF pulsing and RF-DC pulsing. The time-resolved IEDF demonstrates the merits of pulsing to precisely control ion energy and flux, and the ion energy spread was narrowed by the pulsed plasma.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T12:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001737
       
  • Vacuum control system for the Space Plasma Environment Research Facility

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      Authors: Chenggang Jin, Yongqi Zhang, Wenbin Ling, Manxing Liu, Peng E, Chunxi Chen, Yunxuan Li, Zhiyong Peng, Yaowen Lu, Liyi Li
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      The Space Plasma Environment Research Facility (SPERF) is a ground simulation user facility for studying the space plasma physical processes. This study presents the design and construction of a vacuum control system for the SPERF to set up an appropriate vacuum environment for plasma experiments, including the terrestrial space and near space vacuum control systems. Based on the requirements of remote automation, distributed control, centralized management, high reliability, expansibility, and safety, the architecture of the vacuum control system has been divided into three levels. Among these, the local level is the most essential part of the control system, which adopts the programmable logical controller (PLC) with Siemens S7-1500 CPU as the core. The PLC supports multiple communication protocols and can accurately control and monitor the actuators in the process of establishing a vacuum environment. Furthermore, it has the ability to communicate and interact with remote upper computers and the central control system through the supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) software developed based on iFix. Based on the architecture of the vacuum control system, the control process for establishing the vacuum environment, including the ultimate vacuum and experimental vacuum, was designed. It is noteworthy that in experimental vacuum acquisition, the injection of working fluid gas is controlled directly by the central control system, considering the different requirements of the terrestrial space and near space systems for the experimental working pressure and flexibility of the experimental vacuum control. The vacuum control system designed in this study provides technical support for the SPERF to perform the plasma experiments successfully. In addition, it offers reference and insights for the design of vacuum control systems in similar large-scale plasma simulation facilities.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T11:11:43Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001785
       
  • Morphology of Ge thin films crystallized by Au-induced layer exchange at
           low temperature (220 °C)

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      Authors: Narin Sunthornpan, Kenjiro Kimura, Kentaro Kyuno
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      The influence of the original amorphous Ge (a-Ge) layer thickness on the crystallization behavior by Au-induced crystallization at low temperature (220 °C) is studied. Initially, the coverage of the crystalline Ge (c-Ge) layer increases as the a-Ge layer thickness increases. A further increase in a-Ge layer thickness, however, results in the decrease of the coverage and appearance of the second Ge layer on top of the first layer, which results in the increase of surface roughness. The bottom c-Ge layer has a better crystal quality compared to the top layer. The maximum coverage of ∼97% with only a small amount of second layer is obtained by annealing an a-Ge(46 nm)/Au(29 nm) bilayer and a Hall effect hole mobility of as high as ∼85 cm2/V s is achieved.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T02:07:22Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001774
       
  • Effect of low frequency voltage waveform on plasma uniformity in a
           dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma

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      Authors: Shahid Rauf, Peng Tian, Jason Kenney, Leonid Dorf
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      In a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) with disparate frequencies, the low frequency (LF) voltage usually has a strong influence on the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) but contributes less to plasma generation. It is well-known that rectangular LF voltage waveform with a small positive period yields a narrow, nearly monoenergetic IEDF. This paper focuses on the effect of the LF voltage waveform on plasma uniformity in a low-pressure dual-frequency (40 + 0.8 MHz) CCP. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell model is used for this investigation, and the effect of LF voltage amplitude on plasma uniformity is investigated for sinusoidal and rectangular voltage waveforms. When the LF voltage is low, the peak in plasma density is at the chamber center due to ample diffusion at the low pressure considered (20 mTorr) and higher losses to the chamber walls. As the LF voltage is increased, the sheath gets thicker at the powered electrode and charged species densities decrease for a constant 40 MHz voltage. The plasma profile, however, evolves differently for the two LF voltage waveforms. With sinusoidal LF voltage, the plasma spreads out between the electrodes. On the other hand, with rectangular LF voltage waveform, the plasma splits into two regions: a density peak at the chamber center and another peak near the electrode edge. This double-peaked density profile with a rectangular wave can be attributed to the location and timing of plasma generation. 40 MHz produces plasma most efficiently when the LF rectangular wave is positive and the sheath at the powered electrode is thin (frequency coupling). This plasma is produced uniformly between the electrodes, but only for a short period. When the LF voltage becomes negative, the sheath expands at the powered electrode and the plasma is produced near the electrode edge where the sheath is thinner and the electric field is stronger.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T12:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001732@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Effect of low frequency voltage waveform on plasma uniformity in a
           dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma

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      Authors: Shahid Rauf, Peng Tian, Jason Kenney, Leonid Dorf
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      In a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) with disparate frequencies, the low frequency (LF) voltage usually has a strong influence on the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) but contributes less to plasma generation. It is well-known that rectangular LF voltage waveform with a small positive period yields a narrow, nearly monoenergetic IEDF. This paper focuses on the effect of the LF voltage waveform on plasma uniformity in a low-pressure dual-frequency (40 + 0.8 MHz) CCP. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell model is used for this investigation, and the effect of LF voltage amplitude on plasma uniformity is investigated for sinusoidal and rectangular voltage waveforms. When the LF voltage is low, the peak in plasma density is at the chamber center due to ample diffusion at the low pressure considered (20 mTorr) and higher losses to the chamber walls. As the LF voltage is increased, the sheath gets thicker at the powered electrode and charged species densities decrease for a constant 40 MHz voltage. The plasma profile, however, evolves differently for the two LF voltage waveforms. With sinusoidal LF voltage, the plasma spreads out between the electrodes. On the other hand, with rectangular LF voltage waveform, the plasma splits into two regions: a density peak at the chamber center and another peak near the electrode edge. This double-peaked density profile with a rectangular wave can be attributed to the location and timing of plasma generation. 40 MHz produces plasma most efficiently when the LF rectangular wave is positive and the sheath at the powered electrode is thin (frequency coupling). This plasma is produced uniformly between the electrodes, but only for a short period. When the LF voltage becomes negative, the sheath expands at the powered electrode and the plasma is produced near the electrode edge where the sheath is thinner and the electric field is stronger.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T12:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001732
       
  • Electrical characteristics of tungsten-doped InZnSnO thin film transistors
           by RF magnetron sputtering

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      Authors: Jinbao Su, Hui Yang, Weiguang Yang, Xiqing Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.
      A bottom-gate tungsten-doped InZnSnO (IZTO:W) thin film transistor (TFT) is fabricated. The IZTO:W thin film is deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The x-ray diffraction result indicates that the film is amorphous. The transmittance spectrum shows that the film is transparent with an average optical transmittance over 80% in the visible range. The TFT shows excellent performances with a saturation mobility (μSAT) of 41.0 cm2/V s, a threshold voltage (VTH) of 2.4 V, a subthreshold swing of 0.5 V/decade, and a current on/off ratio (ION/IOFF) of 6.8 × 108. The gate bias stress stability and stress recovery of the TFT are investigated. The threshold voltage shifts (ΔVTH) under negative and positive bias stress for 1 h are −9.4 and 10.0 V, respectively. After the stress is removed, ΔVTH under negative and positive stress recovery for 1 h are 7.0 and −3.6 V, respectively.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T12:19:24Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001702
       
  • Retraction: “Fabry–Perot-cavity-based refractometry without influence
           of mirror penetration depth” [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 39, 065001 (2021)]
           

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      Authors: C. Forssén, I. Silander, J. Zakrisson, M. Zelan, O. Axner
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T12:19:24Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001829
       
  • In-plasma photo-assisted etching of Si with chlorine aided by an external
           vacuum ultraviolet source

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      Authors: Linfeng Du, Demetre J. Economou, Vincent M. Donnelly
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      Photo-assisted etching of p-type Si was previously found to occur in a chlorine-containing, Faraday-shielded, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and this was attributed to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light generated by the plasma. Other causes for the very high etching rates were ruled out, including ion bombardment. In the present study, the substrate in the main Cl2/Ar ICP was subjected to extra VUV light that was generated in an independently controlled, auxiliary Ar/He ICP in tandem with the main ICP. The ICPs were separated by a tungsten mesh and a bundle of high-aspect-ratio quartz tubes in a honeycomb configuration. There was no measurable perturbation of the main plasma by the auxiliary plasma. The etching rate was found to be enhanced by 11%–51% with the additional VUV light provided by the auxiliary ICP. With absolute measurements of the auxiliary ICP photon flux at the sample surface, as described elsewhere, incredibly large etching yields of 90–240 Si atoms per photon were obtained. It is argued that etching is not a result of electron–hole pair formation but is instead ascribed to a photocatalytic chain reaction.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T01:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001710@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Absolute measurement of vacuum ultraviolet photon flux in an inductively
           coupled plasma using a Au thin film

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      Authors: Linfeng Du, Paul Ruchhoeft, Demetre J. Economou, Vincent M. Donnelly
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      A new method for absolute measurement of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon flux at the edge of a plasma is described. The light produced by the plasma was allowed to strike a negatively biased, gold-coated copper substrate remote from the plasma. The resulting photoelectron emission current was measured, and the absolute photon flux was then found from the known photoelectron yield of Au. The method was used to quantify the amount of VUV light produced by an Ar/He inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Strong emissions at 104.82 and 106.67 nm, corresponding to the 1s2 and 1s4 resonant states of Ar, were observed. The maximum, integrated VUV photon flux measured at the remote location was 3.2 × 1013 photons/cm2 s. This was estimated to correspond to a flux of 5 × 1015 photons/cm2 s at the edge of the ICP, in the range of reported values under similar conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T01:12:53Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001709@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Plasma atomic layer etching for titanium nitride at low temperatures

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      Authors: Dahee Shim, Jihyun Kim, Yongjae Kim, Heeyeop Chae
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      Isotropic plasma atomic layer etching (ALE) was developed for titanium nitride (TiN) through a three-step process: plasma oxidation, plasma fluorination, and thermal removal at low temperatures. In the plasma oxidation step, TiN was oxidized to form a titanium oxide (TiO2) layer with O radicals generated from O2 plasma at 100 °C. The TiO2 thickness was found to be saturated with plasma after an exposure time of 300 s, and the saturated thickness increased from 0.29 to 1.23 nm with increasing temperature and RF power. In the plasma fluorination step, the TiO2 layer was converted to titanium oxyfluoride (TiO2−xFx) with F radicals generated in the CF4 plasma at 100 °C. The F atomic fraction on the surface was found to be saturated at 12%, with RF powers below 15 W in the fluorination step. The process temperature was increased during the removal step, and the TiO2−xFx formed by plasma fluorination was completely removed above 150 °C. The removal rates of TiN ranged from 0.24 to 1.71 nm/cycle by controlling the thickness of the TiO2 layer determined earlier. The average surface roughness of TiN decreased from 1.27 to 0.26 nm after 50 cycles of the ALE process. This work demonstrated that plasma oxidation and fluorination with thermal removal can remove TiN at the atomic scale at low temperatures for atomic-scale three-dimensional devices.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T01:12:52Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001602@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • In-depth feasibility study of extreme ultraviolet damascene extension:
           Patterning, dielectric etch, and metallization

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      Authors: Xinghua Sun, Yann Mignot, Christopher Cole, Eric Liu, Daniel Santos, Angelique Raley, Jennifer Church, Luciana Meli, Stuart A. Sieg, Peter Biolsi
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      While semiconductor logic device nodes keep moving to N3 and beyond, the backend of line (BEOL) metal pitch is aggressively scaling to improve device performance and density. BEOL damascene extension refers to interconnect with a full metal pitch of 26–21 nm. The challenges of damascene extensions are profoundly critical due to an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) single exposure limit, dielectric etch, and metallization challenges. Multipatterning is required as well as more advanced low K dielectric etch. Severe line wiggling, bad via/contact hole open, and via/trench short issue can easily be observed. Cu resistance also contributes to most of the device’s R/C delay. Before transitioning to subtractive metal integrations, there is no doubt that multipatterning damascene extension plays an important role in bridging the gap between them. In this work, we provide an in-depth feasibility study on damascene extension focusing on EUV self-aligned double patterning with cut and block assembly for 24 nm pitch line and space. EUV double patterned self-aligned via is also validated for the dual damascene test. Both continuous wave and quasiatomic layer etch are developed to achieve a wiggling-free, bridge-free, and high metal hard mask selectivity process in TEL’s new generation capacitively coupled plasma etchers. Copper metallization is demonstrated in both via and trench of a 24 nm pitch. This report provides an important insight into damascene extension feasibility for high volume manufacturing.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T12:27:19Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001671@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Plasma kinetics of c-C4F8 inductively coupled plasma revisited

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      Authors: Dmitry Levko, Chandrasekhar Shukla, Kenta Suzuki, Laxminarayan L. Raja
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      In this work, we improve the plasma kinetics of perfluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8), one of the most important gases in plasma etching applications. We use the self-consistent plasma fluid simulation model coupled with a comprehensive finite-rate chemical reaction mechanism. First, we discuss the deficiencies of the existing mechanisms of plasma chemical reactions found in the literature and the approach to improve these mechanisms. Second, we compare the results of our self-consistent simulations of inductively coupled plasmas in pure c-C4F8 with the experimental results obtained using the Gas Electronics Conference reference cell plasma reactor. Finally, we analyze the influence of various model parameters such as the surface reactions mechanism, gas pressure, discharge power, and electron stochastic heating length scale on the plasma parameters. We discuss how these parameters influence the kinetics of the dominant plasma species.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T01:28:13Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001631@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Molecular dynamics study of silicon atomic layer etching by chorine gas
           and argon ions

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      Authors: Joseph R. Vella, David Humbird, David B. Graves
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      Classical molecular dynamics (MD) is used to simulate atomic layer etching processes of silicon by alternating exposure to chlorine gas and argon ions. In order to validate our model, a rigorous comparison is done with ion beam experiments found in the literature [Park et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 389 (2005)]. It is shown that the etch per cycle (EPC) as a function of argon ion energy from simulations is in quantitative agreement with experimental results if the correct argon ion fluence is used in the simulations. The EPC as a function of ion irradiation time and amount of chlorine exposure also show good agreement with the experiment. The MD simulations also show the formation of an amorphous silicon region with chlorine atoms mixed uniformly throughout following ion bombardment. Finally, the etch products during the ion irradiation step are analyzed and discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T01:32:26Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001681@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Plasma-assisted thermal-cyclic atomic-layer etching of tungsten and
           control of its selectivity to titanium nitride

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      Authors: Kazunori Shinoda, Nobuya Miyoshi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Yuko Hanaoka, Masaru Izawa, Kenji Ishikawa, Masaru Hori
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      Plasma-assisted thermal-cyclic atomic-layer etching (ALE) of tungsten (W), the selectivity of which with respect to TiN can be tuned between highly selective and nonselective by changing infrared-heating time, has been demonstrated. It is a two-step process consisting of exposure to radicals generated in a CHF3/O2 or CH2F2/O2/Ar plasma followed by infrared heating. Analysis by in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that a WFx-based modified surface formed on the surface of a W film exposed to radicals at −22 °C. The modified surface on the W film is volatile at a heating temperature lower than that required for removing the modified surface on the TiN film. Cyclic etching of both W and TiN was performed by using the CH2F2/O2/Ar plasma and infrared heating in a 300-mm ALE apparatus. When the infrared-heating time was not long enough to remove the modified surface on TiN, the cyclic repetition etched only the W film. On the other hand, when the infrared-heating time was long enough to remove modified surfaces on both W and TiN, the cyclic repetition etched both W and TiN films. Therefore, both highly selective and nonselective ALEs for W and TiN were obtained by choosing an optimum infrared-heating time. This shows that material selectivity in plasma-assisted thermal-cyclic ALE can be controlled by changing the infrared-heating time.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T01:26:52Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001660@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Ion energy control in an industrial ICP etch chamber without bias power
           usage

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      Authors: Michael Klick, Hans-Peter Maucher
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      This investigation focuses on process control for commercial inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etchers under manufacturing conditions. Plasma processes close to active zones of surface-sensitive devices are critical, demanding minimal damage caused by ion bombardment and so an excellent process understanding and control. In order to get the ion energy below the surface damage limit, RF biasing at the substrate is switched off. The plasma process then works in a downstreamlike mode. Without Faraday shielding, capacitive coupling must always be considered. Also with very low bias power, the ion energy can still be too high. Without bias power, bias matchbox capacitances are used as control elements for the ion energy. To ensure a high reliability for this control solution in a running production line, a combined RF and plasma model of the entire system with this special setup is presented and validated. The etch rate shows that the RF peak voltage measurement in the bias matchbox does not represent the ion energy at the substrate. The sheath voltage provided by the model is closely related to the ion energy and shows a reasonable correlation with the etch rate of the photoresist on test wafers. This relation shows the transition of chemical etching at low ion energies to ion-assisted etching with increasing sheath voltage.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2021-12-30T12:50:21Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001477@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Efficient plasma-surface interaction surrogate model for sputtering
           processes based on autoencoder neural networks

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      Authors: Tobias Gergs, Borislav Borislavov, Jan Trieschmann
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      Simulations of thin film sputter deposition require the separation of the plasma and material transport in the gas phase from the growth/sputtering processes at the bounding surfaces (e.g., substrate and target). Interface models based on analytic expressions or look-up tables inherently restrict this complex interaction to a bare minimum. A machine learning model has recently been shown to overcome this remedy for Ar ions bombarding a Ti-Al composite target. However, the chosen network structure (i.e., a multilayer perceptron, MLP) provides approximately 4[math] degrees of freedom, which bears the risk of overfitting the relevant dynamics and complicating the model to an unreliable extent. This work proposes a conceptually more sophisticated but parameterwise simplified regression artificial neural network for an extended scenario, considering a variable instead of a single fixed Ti-Al stoichiometry. A convolutional [math]-variational autoencoder is trained to reduce the high-dimensional energy-angular distribution of sputtered particles to a low-dimensional latent representation with only two components. In addition to a primary decoder that is trained to reconstruct the input energy-angular distribution, a secondary decoder is employed to reconstruct the mean energy of incident Ar ions as well as the present Ti-Al composition. The mutual latent space is hence conditioned on these quantities. The trained primary decoder of the variational autoencoder network is subsequently transferred to a regression network, for which only the mapping to the particular low-dimensional space has to be learned. While obtaining a competitive performance, the number of degrees of freedom is drastically reduced to 15 111 (0.378% of the MLP) and 486 (0.012% of the MLP) parameters for the primary decoder and the remaining regression network, respectively. The underlying methodology is very general and can easily be extended to more complex physical descriptions (e.g., taking into account dynamical surface properties) with a minimal amount of data required.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2021-12-22T01:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001485@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
  • Fundamental study on the selective etching of SiGe and Si in ClF3 gas for
           nanosheet gate-all-around transistor manufacturing: A first principle
           study

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      Authors: Yu-Hao Tsai, Mingmei Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Volume PPAM2022, Issue 1, May 2022.
      We conduct an atomic-level investigation on how a Ge atom impacts on the SiGe etching rate. The plasmaless dry-etching process in ClF3 gas is considered in this study. We perform the density functional theory to model the elementary reactions of an etchant molecule fluorinating Si/Ge atom. Based on the modeling results, the activation energy (Ea) of a single-F-transfer breaking Ge-Ge bond is 0.4 eV lower than the Si-Si bond, with the Ea of Si-Ge cases fall between. The overall smaller Ea suggests that the relatively active fluorination reaction enabled by a Ge atom facilitates the selective etching. In addition, a unique double-F-transfer from ClF3 is identified, which simultaneously fluorinates two adjacent Ge atoms. The reaction enhances selective etching with the drastically lowered Ea and the more negative total energy change. We modeled different locations of a Ge atom with respect to the fluorinated Si atom. The results show that the effect of the Ge atom on lowering the Si fluorination Ea has a long-range nature. The calculation predicts a reduced Ea even when the Ge atom is on the second-nearest-neighbor site to the fluorinated Si atom. The finding implies that the Ge-induced Ea reduction can continuously assist the selective etching with a Ge-percentage as low as 6 at. %. Details of the surface chemical reactions and byproduct formation are discussed in the report.
      Citation: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
      PubDate: 2021-12-07T01:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1116/6.0001455@jvb.2022.PPAM2022.issue-1
       
 
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