Subjects -> INSTRUMENTS (Total: 63 journals)
Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Computational Visual Media     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Devices and Methods of Measurements     Open Access  
Documenta & Instrumenta - Documenta et Instrumenta     Open Access  
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Sensors Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
IEEE Sensors Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Imaging & Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
InfoTekJar : Jurnal Nasional Informatika dan Teknologi Jaringan     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
International Journal of Sensor Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Invention Disclosure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Instrumentation Technology & Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research of NIST     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Informatika Upgris     Open Access  
Measurement : Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Measurement and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Measurement Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrology and Instruments / Метрологія та прилади     Open Access  
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Standards     Open Access  
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Videoscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Труды СПИИРАН     Open Access  
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Journal of Instrumentation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.642
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 31  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1748-0221
Published by IOP Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Optimized scintillation strip design for the DANSS upgrade

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      Authors: Alekseev; I.
      Abstract: DANSS is a one cubic meter plastic scintillator detector with a primary goal of sterile neutrino searches at a commercial nuclear reactor. Due to its highly advantageous location, fine segmentation and ability to change the distance to the neutrino production origin, DANSS is ahead of many similar experiments around the world in terms of the counting rate, signal to background ratio and sterile neutrino exclusion regions. Yet a moderate energy resolution of the detector prevents further progress in the physics program. The main challenge of the planned upgrade is to achieve an energy resolution of 12% at 1 MeV. The new design of the main sensitive element the plastic scintillation strip is the most important step forward. The strip prototypes were manufactured and tested at the pion beam of the PNPI synchrocyclotron. More than twice higher light output together with fairly flat detector response uniformity, longitudinal timing information and other optimizations will help to reach the upgrade goal. This paper discusses the drawbacks of the current strip version, outlines the new features of the proposed upgrade, describes the beam test procedure and presents the test results reflecting the advantages of the new strip design in comparison with the current version.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04009
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Registration of a pulsed generation of electron beam in the nanosecond
           range under heating and cooling cycles of a lithium niobate crystal at
           atmospheric pressure

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      Authors: Mambetova; K.M.
      Abstract: We describe here an experimental prototype designed for registration of nanosecond discharge current pulses with an amplitude of up to 600 mA and a negative/positive polarity in the air gap between the +Z surface of a pyroelectric lithium niobate crystal and a flat copper electrode during the crystal heating/cooling cycles. The experiments were carried out in air at atmospheric pressure using a cylindrical lithium niobate sample with a diameter of 13 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. With the temperature varying from 20 to 80 °C, there were registered over 50 discharge pulses for heating as well as for cooling stage. Their parameters testify to pyroelectric generation of pulsed electron beam with a current at maximum from 45 mA to 600 mA, duration of about 15 ns, rise time from 1 to 1.9 ns, and transferred charge from 0.95 to 5.7 nC.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04008
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • High-spatial resolution measurements with a GaAs:Cr sensor using the
           charge integrating MÖNCH detector with a pixel pitch of 25 μm

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      Authors: Chiriotti; S.
      Abstract: The aim of this project is to determine the imaging capabilities of a 25 μm pixel pitch GaAs:Cr sensor of 500 μm thickness bump-bonded to the charge integrating MÖNCH 03 readout chip (also called GaAs-MÖNCH assembly) and to assess the possibility to improve the spatial resolution by applying a position interpolation algorithm developed at PSI. Measurements were performed at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) using photon beams in the energy range of 10-30 keV. The imaging experiments indicate the possibility to enhance the spatial resolution of the detector beyond its actual physical pixel pitch. We have quantified the spatial resolution of a GaAs-MÖNCH assembly by means of the modulation transfer function (MTF), achieving 10 μm at 10 keV and 12 μm at 20 keV photon energies. By applying a modified interpolation algorithm, a spatial resolution of ∼5 μm was obtained for 16 keV when binning to 2.5 μm virtual pixels, while with the silicon-MÖNCH assembly, we achieved a spatial resolution of 3.5 μm, which serves as gold standard. The results are promising because they open new possibilities to perform imaging measurements using the GaAs-MÖNCH assembly at photon energies above 15 keV, where silicon sensors suffer from a diminishing quantum efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04007
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Development of a direct-sampling RF receiver for precision beam charge
           measurements in the MOLLER experiment

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      Authors: Mei; Y.
      Abstract: We have developed and tested a direct-sampling RF receiver capable of measuring the amplitude of a 1497 MHz sinusoidal beam signal in 0.5 ms integration windows with a relative uncertainty of better than 10 parts per million. The receiver is intended for measuring signals from beam current monitoring cavities on the beamline of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. The beam signal strength, frequency, and integration window fulfill the thus far unmet requirements of the upcoming MOLLER experiment to measure the beam charge for different helicity states.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04006
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • GeMSE: a low-background facility for gamma-spectrometry at moderate rock
           overburden

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      Authors: Garcia; D.
      Abstract: The GeMSE (Germanium Material and meteorite Screening Experiment) facility operates a low-background HPGe crystal in an underground laboratory with a moderate rock overburden of 620 m.w.e. in Switzerland. It has been optimized for continuous remote operation. A multi-layer passive shielding, a muon veto, and a boil-off nitrogen purge line inside the measurement cavity minimize the instrument's background rate, which decreased by 33% to (164 ± 2) counts/day (100 - 2700 keV) after five years of underground operation. This agrees with the prediction based on the expected decay of short-lived isotopes. A fit to the known background components, modeled via a precise simulation of the detector, shows that the GeMSE background is now muon-dominated. We also present updates towards a more accurate detection efficiency calculation for the screened samples: the thickness of the crystal's outer dead-layer is precisely determined and the efficiency can now be easily calculated for any sample geometry. The advantage of this feature is showcased via the determination of the 40K content in the screening of a complex-shaped object: a banana.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04005
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • An MMC-based cryogenic calorimeter with a massive sodium molybdate crystal
           absorber for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

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      Authors: Kim; W.T.
      Abstract: Sodium molybdate crystals are excellent scintillating target material that can be used to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo. Because this material contains Na nuclei, it could also be used to clarify the contribution of Na in the controversial claim of dark matter observation by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. Recent developments have allowed the growth of sodium molybdate crystals of several hundred grams, which makes it possible to build large scale experiments. Therefore, a cryogenic calorimeter with a crystal of significant mass, which can exploit the excellent energy resolution from thermal signals and particle identification using the scintillation signals, is highly desired. We have developed a cryogenic calorimeter with a cylindrical sodium molybdate crystal of 178 g with dimensions of 4 cm (height) × 4 cm (diameter) coupled to a metallic magnetic calorimeter (MMC). The detector was also equipped with a light detector with a thin Ge absorber to detect scintillation signals. The detector test measurements showed excellent energy resolution and particle discrimination using dual detection of heat and light signals, and thus demonstrate that the crystal is a promising tool for searching for rare phenomena events. Details of the detector development with the massive sodium molybdate crystal are discussed in this paper along with the performance results from test measurements.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04004
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Simulation of a Xe-based X-ray Polarimeter at 10-30 keV

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      Authors: Zhang; J.
      Abstract: Polarization detection of X-rays is a non-negligible topic to astrophysical observation. Many polarization detection methods have been well developed for X-rays in the energy range below 10 keV, while the detection at 10-30 keV is rarely discussed. This paper presents a simulation study of a Xe-based gas pixel detector, which can achieve the polarization detection of X-rays at 10-30 keV. To verify the emission angle distribution of photoelectrons, different electromagnetic models in Geant4 were investigated. After a necessary modification by considering the missing factor when sampling the emission angle, a good agreement can be achieved. Moreover, the detection capability of 20 keV polarized photons was discussed and the modulation factor of 43% could be obtained.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04003
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The qualification of GEM detector and its application to imaging

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      Authors: Ahmed; A.
      Abstract: The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a new age detector, which can handle the high flux of particles. The GEM foil, which is constructed using 50 μm highly insulating foil (Kapton/Apical) coated with 5 μm layers of copper, on both sides, with a network of specifically shaped holes is the major component of these detectors. The European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) has been the sole supplier of the GEM foils until recently when a few other companies started manufacturing GEM foils under the transfer of technology (TOT) agrement from CERN. Techtra is one such company in Europe which gained a right to use CERN developed technology in order to produce commercially viable GEM foils. Micropack Pvt. Ltd. is another company in India which has successfully manufactured good quality GEM foils. Due to the microscopic structure of holes and dependence on the electric field inside, it becomes essential to study the defect and uniformity of holes along with the electrical property of foils under ambient conditions. In this work we are reporting the tests condition of Techtra GEM foils. We report on the development of a cost effective and efficient technique to study the GEM foils holes geometry, distribution, and defects. We also report on the electrical properties of these foils like leakage current, stability, and discharges. At the detector level, we describe the high voltage (HV) response, gain, uniformity, and stability. The GEMs have been proposed to have a wider applications, so we performed a feasibility study to utilize these for the imaging. We irrediated various objects of varying density with X-rays and reconstructed the images. The reconstructed image shows a good distinction between materials of different densities, which can be very useful in various applications like medical imaging or cargo imaging.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04002
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Double photon coincidence crosstalk reduction method for multi-nuclide
           Compton imaging

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      Authors: Uenomachi; M.
      Abstract: Compton imaging based on Compton scattering kinematics has the potential to visualize multi-nuclides by discriminating the total energy of Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption events. This feature enables us to perform multi-tracer imaging that reflects different functional information in nuclear medicine, resulting in a definitive diagnosis and being useful for biological and medical research. One of the challenges with multi-nuclide imaging is the crosstalk artifacts caused by scattered photons of higher energy gamma-rays. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of the double photon coincidence detection as a drastic crosstalk reduction method. Coincidence detection of successive gamma-rays can differentiate nuclides and reduce the background caused by other nuclides' gamma-rays because some nuclides emit two or more gamma-rays in rapid succession. In this study, we focused on the coincidence detection of a Compton event and a photoelectric absorption event, and we showed simultaneous double photon emitter imaging of 111In and 177Lu with a ring-type Compton imaging system. The artifacts caused by other nuclides' gamma-rays were reduced by extracting Compton events coincident with photoelectric absorption events. The coincidence Compton images demonstrated a signal-to-background ratio improvement of 1.1-1.7 times over the one of no-coincidence Compton images, despite a drop in intrinsic detection efficiency of the order of 10-2. This strategy of directly reducing crosstalk will be useful in other combinations imaging such as of 111In (or 177Lu) and a positron emission tomography nuclide.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/P04001
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Front-end hybrid designs for the CMS Phase-2 Upgrade towards the
           production phase

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      Authors: Kovacs; M.
      Abstract: Sixteen thousand 2S front-end hybrids and twelve thousand PS front-end hybrids will be produced for the CMS Tracker Phase-2 upgrade. The hybrids consist of flip-chips, passives and mechanical components mounted on a flexible substrate, laminated onto carbon-fibre stiffeners with thermal expansion compensators. In the prototyping phase, several critical issues have been solved to manufacture these complex circuits. Final designs are now reaching readiness for the full-scale production. Lessons learned during the prototyping phase and different improvements implemented for manufacturability will be presented in this contribution.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04018
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Characterization of Cs-free negative ion production in the ion source
           SPIDER by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

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      Authors: Barbisan; M.
      Abstract: The neutral beam injectors of the ITER experiment will be based on negative ion sources for the generation of beams composed by 1 MeV H/D particles. The prototype of these sources is currently under testing in the SPIDER experiment, part of the Neutral Beam Test Facility of Consorzio RFX, Padua, Italy. Among the targets of the experimentation in SPIDER, it is of foremost importance to maximize the beam current density produced by the accelerator. The SPIDER operating conditions can be optimized thanks to a cavity ring-down spectroscopy diagnostic, which provides line-integrated measurements of negative ion density in proximity of the accelerator apertures. The specific implementation in SPIDER shows a drift in ring down time measurements, which develops in a time scale of few hours, thus possibly affecting the negative ion density estimates in plasma pulses of 1 h duration, as required by ITER. Possible causes and solutions are discussed. Regarding the source performance, this paper presents how negative ion density is influenced by the RF power used to sustain the plasma, and by the magnetic filter field present in SPIDER to limit the amount of co-extracted electrons. In this study, SPIDER was operated in hydrogen and deuterium, in Cs-free conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04017
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Spectral-sensitive proton radiography of thin samples with the pixel
           detector Timepix3

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      Authors: Olsansky; V.
      Abstract: We evaluate a high-resolution contrast-enhanced method for energy-sensitive radiography of thin samples with low-energy protons at the light-ion Tandetron accelerator of the NPI-CAS in Rez near Prague. We make use of the high-sensitivity of the hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors Timepix enabled by integrated per-pixel signal processing electronics. For this work we use the Timepix3 ASIC chip equipped with a 500 µm Si sensor operated with the fast data rate AdvaPix readout electronics interface. Measurements are performed in air with a 2.9 MeV proton microbeam on thin samples (<100 µm thick). As referential and testing sample we use a set of aluminum foils stacked into a closely packed assembly of varying layers of well-defined thickness. This and other samples were imaged and placed in front of the detector in transmission geometry. Radiographies were collected with focused beam (few mm size) and a microbeam (few µm size). The imaging principle is based on high-resolution spectrometry of single transmitted particles. Contrast is obtained by registration of small differences in the deposited energy of the proton after passing through the sample. This can be measured in wide-range by detailed spectral-tracking analysis of the pixelated clusters in the pixel detector. We examine and evaluate various cluster-track parameters sensitive for imaging contrast such as deposited energy, cluster area (number of pixels) and cluster height (maximum energy value of the pixels in the cluster). The position of interaction in the detector is registered in sub-pixel resolution down to few µm scale for the particles and geometry used. Radiographies are reconstructed based on these individual parameters imaged in image bins of adjustable size (few µm up to few tens of µm). The technique developed with different cluster parameters is presented together with evaluation of image contrast sensitivity on various types of samples and beam energies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04016
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • SRS-based Timepix3 readout system

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      Authors: Gruber; M.
      Abstract: With the combination of the highly granular pixel ASIC Timepix3 by the Medipix3 collaboration and several technologies we are developing a range of detectors. These technologies are bump bonded sensors, microchannel plates (MCP) and photolithographically postprocessed gas amplification stages (InGrid). For example, we are using the combination of the ASIC and an InGrid for the development of X-ray detectors for X-ray polarimetry and for axion search at IAXO. Based on the combination of the ASIC and silicon sensors we are developing a tracker or respectively a beam telescope. The combination of the ASIC and a microchannel plate will be used for neutron detectors. As this range of detectors has several requirements towards the readout and control system and a wide range of designs from low- to high-rate (Hz to MHz) and from single- to multichip, a versatile readout system is needed which adapts these applications without producing too much overhead for the others. To fulfil these requirements, we are developing a modular and scalable readout and control system based on the basil framework a modular data acquisition system and system testing framework. The fully open-source implementation uses Verilog for the firmware and Python for the software. The system supports several FPGA boards to offer different applications a range of capabilities. One of these FPGA boards is the Scalable Readout System (SRS) by RD51 which offers scalability in low to medium rate applications. For high-rate applications we are working towards the firmware implementation on Xilinx adaptive compute acceleration platform. Besides the scalability, the system offers an optional monitoring interface via a microcontroller for monitoring chip temperatures and power supply voltages. Additionally, further external sensors could be connected to the monitoring system for example via I2C or SPI. For controlling the full system, the software offers a command line interface and a graphical user interface. Both interfaces also include an online event display to monitor the raw data. Additional meta data and data of the monitoring system is stored in a database and can be visualised with a monitoring dashboard.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04015
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Study of the spatiotemporal structure of extensive air showers at high
           energies

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      Authors: Kalikulov; O.A.
      Abstract: In a series of works carried out at the Tien-Shan High Altitude Science Station (TSHASS), a penetrating component of extensive air showers (EAS) caused by cosmic rays (CR) with energy of the primary particle above 1 PeV was discovered. The local increase in the energy of secondary hadrons in the EAS cores in the region of the CR spectrum slope change around energy of 3 PeV, the so-called "knee". The problem of knee formation currently is one of the currently still open mysteries in astrophysics. The studies carried out at the TSHASS show that more information on the knee region can be obtained by studying the characteristics of the EAS cores. At present, a large installation with an area of several hundred square meters is being constructed at the station to study the EAS cores in the "knee" region. The installation is located at an altitude of 3330 meters above sea level near the city of Almaty, Kazakhstan.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04014
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Onchip digital calibrated 2 mW 12-bit 25 MS/s SAR ADC with reduced input
           capacitance

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      Authors: Herrera; H.D.
      Abstract: We present a 12-bits asynchronous SAR ADC with a low complexity digital on-chip calibration and just 2 pF of total array capacitance. The ADC architecture utilizes a redundant weighting switching of 2 fF MOM capacitors consuming 14 clock-cycles to complete the conversion. Taking advantage of redundancy, the weights of the MSB capacitors are estimated using the LSB array, thus it is possible to digitally compensate for the mismatch non-linearity directly over the ADC output. The circuit consumes 2 mW at 25 MS/s on a core area of 300 μm × 500 μm in 180 nm CMOS technology. ENOB improvements of 0.85 bits were post-layout simulated after calibration. Sample characterization is ongoing.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04013
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Design of an Internet of Things based multi-channel temperature monitoring
           system

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      Authors: Clerbaux; B.
      Abstract: In the scope of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) project, 6 back-end card (BEC) mezzanines connected to one BEC base board are in charge of compensating the attenuated incoming data from 48 front-end channels over 48 100-meter-long Ethernet cables. Each of the mezzanines has 16 equalizers that may be subject to overheating. It is important therefore to monitor their temperature in real time. However, collecting data from a relatively large (1080) number of mezzanines is not a trivial task. In this work we propose a solution based on Wi-Fi mesh. Both the technical details and the first test results performed are reported.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04012
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • FPGA-based real-time data processing for accelerating reconstruction at
           LHCb

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      Authors: Lazzari; F.
      Abstract: In run-3, beginning in 2022, the LHCb software trigger will start reconstructing events at the LHC average crossing rate of 30 MHz. Within the upgraded DAQ system, LHCb established a testbed for new heterogeneous computing solutions for real-time event reconstruction, in view of future runs at even higher luminosities. One such solution is a highly-parallelized custom tracking processor ("Artificial Retina"), implemented in state of the art FPGA devices connected by fast serial links. We describe the status of a realistic prototype for the reconstruction of pixel tracking detectors that will run on real data during run-3.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04011
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Machine learning for real-time processing of ATLAS liquid argon
           calorimeter signals with FPGAs

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      Authors: Chiedde; N.
      Abstract: The ATLAS experiment at CERN measures energy of proton-proton (p-p) collisions with a repetition frequency of 40 MHz at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The readout electronics of liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters are being prepared for high luminosity-LHC (HL-LHC) operation as part of the phase-II upgrade, anticipating a pileup of up to 200 simultaneous p-p interactions. The increase of the number of p-p interactions implies that calorimeter signals of up to 25 consecutive collisions overlap, making energy reconstruction more challenging. In order to achieve the goal of the HL-HLC, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are used to process digitized pulses sampled at 40 MHz in real time and different machine learning approaches are being investigated to deal with signal pileup. The convolutional and recurrent neural networks outperform the optimal signal filter currently in use, both in terms of assigning the reconstructed energy to the correct proton bunch crossing and in terms of energy resolution. The enhancements are focused on energy obtained from overlapping pulses. Because the neural networks are implemented on an FPGA, the number of parameters, resource usage, latency and operation frequency must be carefully analysed. A very good agreement is observed between neural network implementations in FPGA and software.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04010
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Study, implementation and testing of radiation tolerant design for
           testability solutions for CMS OT FE ASICs

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      Authors: Bergamin; G.
      Abstract: The MPA and SSA development is approaching the production phase with an approximate volume of more than 200k ASICs, corresponding to 1200 wafers. The limited manufacturing yield requires testing strategies able to identify defective units and guarantee the correct functionality of the tracker modules. This contribution presents innovative methods to replace the currently used functional tests for the digital part of the ASICs, showing limited testing accuracy and long testing time. The proposed solution exploits the concept of structural test and new testing algorithms such as Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) for general digital logic and March for memory elements. Design for Testability (DFT) hardware is integrated on chip to test SRAM memories, peripheral logic and MPA pixel array, providing internal control and observation points for the implementation of the those algorithms. Particular attention is given to power increase, timing and placement impact as well as radiation tolerance of the introduced circuitry, which must be fully transparent during the normal operation of the chip. A faster and more accurate testing approach is presented, from design methodology to implementation choices and silicon results, for a reliable and cost effective testing procedure.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04009
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The fast beam condition monitor as standalone luminometer of the CMS
           experiment at the HL-LHC

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sedghi; M.
      Abstract: For the Phase-2 CMS upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC, a luminosity uncertainty of 1% is targeted. To achieve this goal, measurements from multiple luminometers with orthogonal systematics are required. A standalone luminometer, the Fast Beam Condition Monitor (FBCM) is being designed for the online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement. The sampling time resolution of ∼0.7 ns also enables the measurement of beam-induced backgrounds. In this paper, the hardware architecture and the readout protocol of the FBCM are described. The expected performance with a simple behavioral model of the front-end comprising a constant fraction discriminator is discussed, although the final implementation in the ASIC is still under discussion. Simulation results show that the FBCM will provide the required statistical uncertainty and deviation from linearity by employing 336 silicon-pad sensors, each with an area of about 3 mm2. In addition, the front-end with sensitivity to as low as 6000 electrons will satisfy the longevity constraints for an exposure of 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 3.5 × 1015 per cm2.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04008
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Firmware architecture of the back end DAQ system for the CMS high
           granularity endcap calorimeter detector

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      Authors: Mallios; S.
      Abstract: During the High-Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, the endcap calorimeter detectors of the compact muon solenoid experiment will be replaced by the high-granularity calorimeter. For reading out the new calorimeter, field programmable gate array firmware was developed targeting the off-detector hardware. The firmware is responsible not only for the readout of the detector but also for its slow control and timing. To facilitate system maintenance, the firmware is optimized to handle all the different front-end electronics configurations and data rates using a single highly configurable design. This manuscript presents the firmware architecture and the implementation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04007
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Integration and commissioning of the ATLAS
           Muon-to-Central-Trigger-Processor Interface for Run-3

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      Authors: Perrella; S.
      Abstract: The Muon-to-Central Trigger Processor Interface was completely redesigned as part of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger upgrade for Run 3 of the Large Hadron Collider. The new system is implemented as a single AdvancedTCA module, using three large state-of-the-art FPGAs and high-density fiber-optic modules. Trigger information from the muon trigger detectors are received through 208 high speed links, while 60 links are used to send processed trigger information to the L1 Topological Trigger Processor and the Central Trigger Processor. Extensive integration tests with all input and output systems have shown that the data transfer is stable and reliable. We present results from integration tests with connected sub-systems as well as commissioning of the Muon-to-Central Trigger Processor Interface in the ATLAS experiment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04006
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Time-of-flight methodologies with large-area diamond detectors for the
           effectively characterization of tens MeV protons

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      Authors: Salvadori; M.
      Abstract: A novel detector based on a polycrystalline diamond sensor is here employed in an advanced time-of-flight scheme for the characterization of energetic ions accelerated during laser-matter interactions. The optimization of the detector and of the advanced TOF methodology allow to obtain signals characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and high dynamic range even in the most challenging experimental environments, where the interaction of high-intensity laser pulses with matter leads to effective ion acceleration, but also to the generation of strong Electromagnetic Pulses (EMPs) with intensities up to the MV/m order. These are known to be a serious threat for the fielded diagnostic systems. In this paper we report on the measurement performed with the PW-class laser system Vega 3 at CLPU (∼30 J energy, ∼1021 W/cm2 intensity, ∼30 fs pulses) irradiating solid targets, where both tens of MeV ions and intense EMP fields were generated. The data were analyzed to retrieve a calibrated proton spectrum and in particular we focus on the analysis of the most energetic portion (E > 5.8 MeV) of the spectrum showing a procedure to deal with the intrinsic lower sensitivity of the detector in the mentioned spectral-range.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04005
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • QEMU-based hardware/software co-development for DAQ systems

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      Authors: Zabołotny; W.M.
      Abstract: Modern DAQ systems typically use the FPGA-based PCIe cards to concentrate and deliver the data to a computer used as an entry node of the data processing network. This paper presents a QEMU-based methodology for the co-development of the FPGA-based hardware part, the Linux kernel driver, and the data receiving application. This approach enables quick verification of the FPGA firmware architecture, organization of control registers, the functionality of the driver, and the user-space application. The developed design may be tested in different emulated architectures with a changeable CPU, IOMMU, size of memory, and the number of DAQ cards.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04004
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Installation, integration and first operating experiences of the ALICE ITS
           upgraded readout system

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      Authors: Groettvik; O.
      Abstract: The ALICE inner tracking system has gone through a significant upgrade for the upcoming third running period of the CERN LHC. The new detector consists of seven layers of high-granularity pixel sensors, while 192 custom FPGA-based readout units control the sensors and transmit the data upstream for analysis. This contribution describes the current system status and the expertise gained by moving from surface commissioning to the installation and throughout the data-taking preparation period, focusing on the intricate integration with other system components. Selected challenges, issues, and lessons learned during the various commissioning periods are presented.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04003
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Progress report on the online processing upgrade at the NA62 experiment

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      Authors: Ammendola; R.
      Abstract: A new FPGA-based low-level trigger processor has been installed at the NA62 experiment. It is intended to extend the features of its predecessor due to a faster interconnection technology and additional logic resources available on the new platform. With the aim of improving trigger selectivity and exploring new architectures for complex trigger computation, a GPU system has been developed and a neural network on FPGA is in progress. They both process data streams from the ring imaging Cherenkov detector of the experiment to extract in real time high level features for the trigger logic. Description of the systems, latest developments and design flows are reported in this paper.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04002
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Design considerations of the European DEMO's IR-interferometer/polarimeter
           based on TRAVIS simulations

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      Authors: Brunner; K.J.
      Abstract: Interferometry is the primary density control diagnostic for large-scale fusion devices, including ITER and DEMO. In this paper we present a ray tracing simulation based on TRAVIS accounting for relativistic effects. The study shows that measurements will over-estimate the plasma density by as much as 20°. In addition, we present a measurement geometry, which will enable vertical position control during the plasma's ramp-up phase when gap-reflectometers and neutron cameras are still blind.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/C04001
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Production and quality control of NICA-MPD shashlik electromagnetic
           calorimeter in Tsinghua University

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      Authors: Li; Y.
      Abstract: The Multi Purpose Detector (MPD) is one of the detectors at the NICA collider and the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal) is an important part of MPD. The cylindrical ECal system consists of 2400 ECal modules. In the first stage (2020-2024), Tsinghua University (THU) will produce 460 ECal modules for MPD project. This article mainly introduces the production, quality control and cosmic ray test of ECal modules in THU. The process flow, quality control standards, and testing system of ECal production have been established, which guarantees the high-quality completion of mass production on schedule. Up to now, nearly 360 modules have been manufactured, and a total of 460 modules will be produced by June 2022.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/T04005
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of hard x-ray emissions from terawatt laser-irradiated foils
           at the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument of the Linac Coherent Light
           Source

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      Authors: Fletcher; L.B.
      Abstract: In this technical report, we investigate the hard x-ray background produced at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) from the interaction of a high-intensity (∼1019 W/cm2) femtosecond laser with solid μm-thick aluminum and polypropylene targets. This background is dominated by bremsstrahlung from laser-generated relativistic electrons, and a measurement of the broadband x-ray spectrum via differential x-ray energy filtering was used to infer the existence of two electron distributions with electron temperatures of Thot = 500 ± 300 keV and Tcold = 5.0 ± 0.5 keV. Simultaneous single-shot measurements of the proton energies accelerated from laser-irradiated solid targets could be correlated with these measurements to further constrain the on-target laser parameters. Measurements of the hard x-ray photon background generated from laser-irradiated foils can be used to directly monitor and test the signal-to-background limits of silicon-based hybrid pixel array x-ray detectors at laser intensities approaching 1019 W/cm2.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/T04004
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Validation of high voltage power supplies for the 1-inch photomultipliers
           of AugerPrime, the Pierre Auger Observatory upgrade

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      Authors: Anastasi; G.A.
      Abstract: In the framework of the upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory, a new high voltage module is being employed for the power supply of the 1-inch photomultiplier added to each water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array with the aim of increasing the dynamic range of the measurements. This module is located in a dedicated box near the electronics and comprises a low consumption DC-DC converter hosted inside an aluminum box. All the modules have undergone specific tests to verify their reliability in the extreme environmental conditions of the Argentinian pampa. In this paper, we describe the validation procedure and the facility developed to this aim. The successful results of the tests on the HVPS modules are presented and discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/T04003
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • R&D of ultra-fast 8 × 8 anodes MCP-PMT

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      Authors: workgroup; on
      Abstract: Cooperating with the North Night Vision Science & Technology (Nanjing) Research Institute Co. Ltd, Institute of High Energy of Physics in China is developing a 2-inch square shape 8 × 8 anodes micro-channel-plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) with a time resolution of picosecond level. It has a 40 × 40 mm2 bi-alkali photocathode with a peak quantum efficiency (QE) of about 22% around a wavelength of 410 nm. With the chevron MCP stack, the MCP-PMT can reach a gain of over 106 under a working voltage of 1500 V. The typical output waveform has an amplitude of 64 mV and a rise time of 334 ps. Due to the well-designed structure of the MCP-PMT, the transit time spread (TTS) for the middle anode can reach 36 ps when working at single photon mode. To evaluate the performance uniformity of the 8× 8 anodes MCP-PMT, ten anodes which constitutes the smallest repetition unit of the anode array are chosen and tested. The average transit time spread (TTS) for the 64 anodes is 44.1 ± 2.0 ps.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/T04002
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Beam diagnostics for linear accelerator of SKIF synchrotron light source

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      Authors: Xiaochao; M.
      Abstract: As the injector of the new fourth-generation SKIF synchrotron light source at the BINP SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia), the linear accelerator will provide a 200 MeV electron beam. A precise measurement of the beam is very important for the control of the linac and even the entire light source. A set of diagnostic instruments for tuning the linac and measuring the beam parameters starting from the electron RF gun to the output of accelerator has been designed. The instrumentation should cover the dynamic diagnostic range of 0.6 to 200 MeV and a beam duration from the initial 100 ps to 3 ps at the output of the accelerator. The set includes eight fluorescent screens to measure beam transverse size, two Cherenkov probes and RF-cavity sensors to record beam duration, a dipole magnetic spectrometer to measure energy and energy spread, a Faraday cup (FC) and fast current transformers (FCTs) to measure beam charge current, and beam position monitors (BPMs) to check the beam position. This paper aims to give an overview of the beam instrumentation and briefly describes the design and parameters of each diagnostic system. The results of numerical and dynamics simulations of some of the instruments are briefed. Possible scenarios of linac tuning are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T23:20:50-05:00
      DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/04/T04001
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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