Subjects -> INSTRUMENTS (Total: 63 journals)
Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted by number of followers
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
IEEE Sensors Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
International Journal of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Measurement and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Videoscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Imaging & Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Measurement : Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Visual Media     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medical Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sensors and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Sensors Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Measurement Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Instrumentation Technology & Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sensor Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research of NIST     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Invention Disclosure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metrology and Instruments / Метрологія та прилади     Open Access  
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Труды СПИИРАН     Open Access  
Standards     Open Access  
Jurnal Informatika Upgris     Open Access  
InfoTekJar : Jurnal Nasional Informatika dan Teknologi Jaringan     Open Access  
Devices and Methods of Measurements     Open Access  
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access  
Documenta & Instrumenta - Documenta et Instrumenta     Open Access  
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Standards
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2305-6703
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 246-259: The Effect of Dust Storm on Sea Surface
           Temperature in the Western Basin of Persian Gulf

    • Authors: Masoud Torabi Azad, Kamran Lari, Rana Oudi, Tayeb Sadeghifar, Ozgur Kisi
      First page: 246
      Abstract: A dust storm is one of the costliest and most destructive events in many desert regions. This research investigates the effect of dust storm on sea surface temperature (SST) in the western zone of the Persian Gulf, especially Bushehr Province and its beaches in the years 2008 and 2009. Therefore, some climate and sea parameters such as SST, salinity, air temperature, wind velocity and direction, evaporation, horizontal visibility, sunshine hours and radiation, simultaneously measured in a specific period of time, were analyzed by comparing each of them with satellite data. Sea surface temperature analysis in summer shows that the maximum SST in Persian Gulf along neighbor waters to Bushehr County and central regions in northern section of Persian Gulf is about 34–36 °C. The SST amplitude variation in these places in summer ranges from 28 to 34 °C and when there are dust phenomena, it is from 29.5 to 31 °C. The outcome of this study shows that the SST increases during dusting phenomena and this causes an increase in vapor and as a result a decrease in temperature occurs. On the other hand, vapor increase leads to a growth in the amount and layer of earth’s cloud cover and finally it causes an effective decrease in short-wave sunshine and the temperature and the vapor on surface decrease. As a result, the decrease in sea surface temperature terminates.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2030018
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 260-275: Does Standardisation Ensure a Reliable
           Assessment of the Performance of Construction Products'

    • Authors: Ewa Szewczak
      First page: 260
      Abstract: The implementation of a standard should be preceded by research work aimed at developing the test method, particularly in validation experiments. Is it actually so' Numerous experiences of producers and labs and an increasing number of scientific works prove the opposite. It turns out that some standard methods are very poorly suited to assessing the performance of construction products. This is related both to the specificity of the methods and the tested products. This article presents some product assessment problems and the risk of using test methods that have not been fully validated. The risk seems relatively low if laboratories account for their own uncertainty. However, in some cases, additional components that both laboratories and product manufacturers might fail to consider can significantly increase the risk. This indicates the need for continuous work in the reference area.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2030019
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 276-293: Smart Systems: The Role of Advanced
           Technologies in Improving Business Quality, Performance and Supply Chain
           Integration

    • Authors: Ivett Schmidt, Wyn Morris, Andrew Thomas, Louise Manning
      First page: 276
      Abstract: Technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, and Smart Systems (SSs) have become an important focus for industry, especially in the manufacturing and retail sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse the importance of SSs and their related technologies in improving business performance. Through an initial systematic review of sixty-one papers, the authors identify six key determinants that lead to the effective application of SSs in business systems, namely, the application of effective managerial skills, supply chain integration, financial analysis, business performance, strategic and operational capabilities, and technologies. The work then goes on to develop an industry case study that informs thinking on the capabilities of smart technologies in collaborative working environments and then onto the development of a practice-focused framework for future research. This study identifies that the implementation of SSs within organisations not only improves business performance but also their supply chains through the effective integration of business activities and systems, and through the degree to which communication and decision-making is facilitated between humans and devices. This leads to the improvement of quality, speed of information, and information sharing. This study also finds that there is a lack of systems standards that currently govern IoT and SSs integration and data security within businesses.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2030020
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 294-305: The Development Trend of the
           Occupational Health and Safety in the Context of ISO 45001:2018

    • Authors: Marek Šolc, Peter Blaško, Lenka Girmanová, Juraj Kliment
      First page: 294
      Abstract: The main task of safety and health at work is to protect the most important thing we have, the health of each of us. Employers are able to anticipate and prevent risks by properly implemented occupational safety and health management systems. The basic task of the article is to describe the history of safety management systems to identify the state of implementation of the ISO 45001 system in the world. Subsequently, the article describes the ISO 45001 standard from the perspective of the PDCA cycle and describes the benefits and importance of implementing the ISO 45001 standard. The conclusion of the article deals with the development trend of the occupational health and safety management system according to STN ISO 45001:2019 in the context of occupational accidents in the conditions of the Slovak Republic.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2030021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 306-328: Partial Order as Decision Support
           between Statistics and Multicriteria Decision Analyses

    • Authors: Lars Carlsen, Rainer Bruggemann
      First page: 306
      Abstract: Evaluation by ranking/rating of data based on a multitude of indicators typically calls for multi-criteria decision analyses (MCDA) methods. MCDA methods often, in addition to indicator values, require further information, typically subjective. This paper presents a partial-order methodology as an alternative to analyze multi-indicator systems (MIS) based on indicator values that are simultaneously included in the analyses. A non-technical introduction of main concepts of partial order is given, along with a discussion of the location of partial order between statistics and MCDA. The paper visualizes examples of a ‘simple’ partial ordering of a series of chemicals to explain, in this case, unexpected behavior. Further, a generalized method to deal with qualitative inputs of stakeholders/decision makers is suggested, as well as how to disclose peculiar elements/outliers. The paper finishes by introducing formal concept analysis (FCA), which is a variety of partial ordering that allows exploration and thus the generation of implications between the indicators. In the conclusion and outlook section, take-home comments as well as pros and cons in relation to partial ordering are discussed.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2030022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 329-351: Food Safety Management System (FSMS)
           Model with Application of the PDCA Cycle and Risk Assessment as
           Requirements of the ISO 22000:2018 Standard

    • Authors: Antoaneta Stoyanova, Velichka Marinova, Daniel Stoilov, Damyan Kirechev
      First page: 329
      Abstract: The management strategy requires a shift to change-oriented management. These management approaches are process- and activity-oriented and are based on the assumption that the future is difficult to predict and ineffective for modeling. The aim of this study is to present a model of food safety management using a process approach based on the PDCA cycle set in the international standard ISO 22000:2018 by supplementing the regulatory requirements for food safety management. After analyzing the aspects of food safety management, a model is proposed for risk analysis and assessment at the operational and organisational level. In this study, the FMEA method for risk assessment of storage of foods of plant origin was used. The research can be useful for producers and traders in the planning and development of food safety management systems according to the requirements of the ISO 22000:2018 standard. The implementation of documented rules for compliance with the requirements of the international standard is aimed at the management and control of processes at the operational and organisational level in the activities of companies. Process management and data analysis is a direction to improve activities aimed at minimizing food safety risks.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2030023
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 352-365: The Rating Scale Paradox: Semantics
           Instability versus Information Loss

    • Authors: Jacopo Giacomelli
      First page: 352
      Abstract: Rating systems are applied to a wide variety of different contexts as a tool to map a large amount of information to a symbol, or notch, chosen from a finite, ordered set. Such a set is commonly known as the rating scale, and its elements represent all the different degrees of quality—in some sense—that a given rating system aims to express. This work investigates a simple yet nontrivial paradox in constructing that scale. When the considered quality parameter is continuous, a bijection must exist between a specific partition of its domain and the rating scale. The number of notches and their meanings are commonly defined a priori based on the convenience of the rating system users. However, regarding the partition, the number of subsets and their amplitudes should be chosen a posteriori to minimize the unavoidable information loss due to discretization. Considering the typical case of a creditworthy rating system based on a logistic regression model, we discuss to what extent this contrast may impact a realistic framework and how a proper rating scale definition may handle it. Indeed, we show that choosing between a priori methods, which privilege the meaning of the rating scale, and a posteriori methods, which minimize information loss, is not strictly necessary. It is possible to mix the two approaches instead, choosing a hybrid criterion tunable according to the rating model’s user needs.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2030024
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 366-384: Wearable Biosensor Standardization: How
           to Make Them Smarter

    • Authors: Giada Giorgi, Sarah Tonello
      First page: 366
      Abstract: The availability of low-cost plug-and-play devices may contribute to the diffusion of methods and technologies for the personalized monitoring of physiological parameters by wearable devices. This paper is focused on biosensors, which represent an interesting enabling technology for the real-time continuous acquisition of biological or chemical analytes of physio-pathological interest, e.g., metabolites, protein biomarkers, and electrolytes in biofluids. Currently available commercial biosensors are usually referred to as customized and proprietary solutions. However, the efficient and robust development of e-health applications based on wearable biosensors can be eased from device interoperability. In this way, even if the different modules belong to different manufacturers, they can be added, upgraded, changed or removed without affecting the whole data acquisition system. A great effort in this direction has already been made by the ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451 standard that introduces the concept of smart sensors by defining the main and essential characteristics that these devices should have. Following the guidelines provided by this standard, here we propose a set of characteristics that should be considered in the development of a smart biosensor and how they could be integrated into the existing standard.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2030025
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 106-120: Quality and Historical Marks of National
           Interest: The Italian Case Study

    • Authors: Giuliana Vinci, Lucia Maddaloni, Sabrina Antonia Prencipe, Marco Ruggeri
      First page: 106
      Abstract: Trademarks are distinctive signs designed to promote and enhance the products/services of companies. In recent years, the concept of quality has asserted growing interest, especially among enterprises, aiming to promote consumers by creating distinctive marks. In Italy, in 2021, the number of filled quality trademarks for products and services will amount to about 81. Through the “Decreto Crescita”, Italy supported Italian companies to limit their delocalization overseas. In this regard, the historical mark of national interest was established, from which Italian companies with a trademark filed for at least 50 years can benefit. Therefore, the study aimed at evaluating two different types of trademarks, quality marks and historical marks, highlighting the main aspects that characterize these two marks as a function of the standards that distinguish them from the most common trademarks. For this purpose, the study focused on evaluating historical brands in Italy to promote their strategic importance and enhance the temporal continuity of the marks. These were considered a new marketing tool to promote know-how and “Made in Italy”, which is particularly useful for the brand image of companies to be competitive in a global market.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 121-135: Evaluating Management Practices in
           Precision Agriculture for Maize Yield with Spatial Econometrics

    • Authors: Nuno Santos, Isabel Proença, Mariana Canavarro
      First page: 121
      Abstract: Precision agriculture (PA) aims to provide data on soil, nutrient use, irrigation, and crops, to guide management strategic decisions towards an efficient use of inputs, increasing production and avoiding environmental problems due to excessive accumulation of fertilizers. In this paper, PA data from a large Portuguese farm producing maize were used to assess the effectiveness of agronomic management decisions concerning fertilizer and nutrient use, seed choice, and water content, in terms of crop productivity. The maize yield in 2017 and 2018 was modelled as a function of manageable inputs and unmanageable factors introduced as control variables. Panel spatial econometric methods were used for specification and estimation, to control for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity. The model proved to fit the data remarkably well and could be a good reference for specifying models to explain maize production; thus, helping researchers who need to deal with the huge amount of data that normally originates from PA. Additionally, it can be considered another tool for farm managers, helping in the design and evaluation of their agronomic management decisions.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020010
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 136-156: Photovoltaic Qualification and Approval
           Tests

    • Authors: Andrés Firman, Manuel Cáceres, Alexis Raúl González Mayans, Luis Horacio Vera
      First page: 136
      Abstract: This paper presents the main aspects of implementing a laboratory for testing qualification and approval related to crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic devices. In this aspect, a simplified review-based IEC 61215 standard methodology for mechanical and electrical tests is presented from a practical-experimental view. The instrumental requirements and uncertainties are discussed. Specially focused on the nowadays high-size PV modules.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 157-183: An Overview of Indoor Positioning and
           Mapping Technology Standards

    • Authors: Yuejin Deng, Haojun Ai, Zeyu Deng, Wenxiu Gao, Jianga Shang
      First page: 157
      Abstract: Technologies and systems for indoor positioning, mapping, and navigation (IPMN) have rapidly developed over the latest decade due to advanced radio and light communications, the internet of things, intelligent and smart devices, big data, and so forth. Thus, a group of surveys for IPMN technologies, systems, standards, and solutions can be found in literature. However, currently there is no proposed solution that can satisfy all indoor application requirements; one of the biggest challenges is lack of standardization, even though several IPMN standards have been published by different standard developing organizations (SDOs). Therefore, this paper aims to re-survey indoor positioning and mapping technologies, in particular, the existing standards related to these technologies and to present guidance in the field. As part of our work, we provide an IPMN standards system architecture consisting of concepts, terms, models, indoor positioning technologies, software and tools, applications, services and policies, and indoor mapping and modelling; and, we present IPMN standards developed for our projects in practice, such as multi-source fusion positioning data interfaces; seamless cooperative positioning service interfaces; content model for indoor mapping and navigation, and specification for digital indoor map products.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020012
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 184-193: Standards and Assessment of Construction
           Products: Case Study of Ceramic Tile Adhesives

    • Authors: Jacek Michalak
      First page: 184
      Abstract: This work attempts to draw attention to the importance of a multidimensional approach when creating standard requirements in the assessment of construction products with the example of ceramic tile adhesives (CTAs). CTAs are an essential group of building materials today, the continuous development of which has been noted since the 1960s. However, until 2001, i.e., the year when EN 12004 was published, there were no precise requirements for CTAs at the European level, which often made it difficult or, in extreme cases, even impossible to assess the product objectively. Under the provisions of EN 12004, for twenty years, the basis for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of CTAs has been adhesion determined by tensile strength. The paper discusses the test methods, paying attention to their imperfections, including the impact of the materials used in measurements, i.e., concrete slab, ceramic tile, and water quality. The results of the multi-annual interlaboratory tests indicate that an essential factor that must be considered in the process of AVCP is test measurement uncertainty. Additionally, it should be remembered that uncertainty also occurs at other assessment levels. It also seems that the simple acceptance rule that does not consider the variability resulting from the measurement uncertainty is inadequate when assessing CTAs.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020013
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 194-201: Eurachem/CITAC Guide “Assessment
           of Performance and Uncertainty in Qualitative Chemical
           Analysis”—A Medical Laboratory Perspective

    • Authors: Paulo Pereira
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Background: The performance assessment of tests that express qualitative results in the medical laboratory is of primary importance in characterization, diagnosis, follow-up, and screening. An important contribution to this type of assessment may be the publication of the Eurachem AQA 2021 guide. The text intends to principally discuss the consistency of the subclauses of this guide with ISO 15189 and CLSI EP12-A2. Methods: The study involves a literature review within the scope of qualitative tests. Results: Tables are used for crossing AQA. with ISO 15189 and CLSI EP12-A2. Conclusions: Consistency with ISO 15189 and CLSI EP12-A2 is demonstrated in the study. Introducing “uncertainty of proportion” reflects the necessity of assessing uncertainties when dealing with qualitative results.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020014
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 202-208: Ensuring the Validity of the Results by
           Participating in ILC Schemes—Case Study: The Determination of the
           Water-Soluble Chromium (VI) Content of Cement

    • Authors: Cristina Stancu, Andreea Vijan
      First page: 202
      Abstract: The paper presents the mode in which an accredited laboratory, according to SR EN ISO/IEC 17025, monitors its performance by comparing the results with the results of other laboratories. This article aims to analyse the results of the participation of an accredited laboratory in two ILC schemes, one organized in France and the other in Romania, on cement, discussing only the results of the determinations of the water-soluble hexavalent chromium content. Although chromium (VI) is not present in large amounts in cement, it is responsible for allergic reactions on the skin of workers. Thus, in EU countries, the maximum amount of water-soluble Cr (VI) in bagged cement or in the products based on cement is limited to a maximum of 0.0002% by mass of cement. The Chromium (VI) results obtained by the lab must meet the requirements of the standard SR EN 196-10 for the repeatability and, where appropriate, the reproducibility. Questions about the validity of the results arise when the laboratory obtains satisfactory results in the ILC scheme, but the standard deviation of the scheme is higher than that recommended in the standard method. The elements of the novelty of this paper are the interpretation of water-soluble Cr (VI) results and the use of information obtained from participating in interlaboratory testing schemes tom improve the validity of laboratory results.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020015
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 209-225: Flood–Ebb and Discharge Variations
           in Observed Salinity and Suspended Sediment in a Mesotidal Estuary

    • Authors: Wen-Cheng Liu, Hong-Ming Liu, Wei-Che Huang
      First page: 209
      Abstract: To explore the spatial and temporal variations in salinity and suspended-sediment concentration in the Danshuei River estuary of northern Taiwan, two intensive field surveys were conducted in July 2016 and 2019 to assign high- and low-flow conditions, respectively. According to the analysis of tidal characteristics, the duration during ebb tide was longer than that during flood tide, while the maximum ebb discharge was higher than the maximum flood discharge, causing the occurrence of tidal asymmetry during ebb and flood tides. The barotropic forcing dominated during high flow, resulting in lower salinity and a shorter distance of saltwater intrusion. Based on the analyzed results using stratification indices, most of the time was spent in the state of partial mixing at the Guandu Bridge and good mixing at the Taipei Bridge during high flow, while most of the time was spent in the states of partial mixing and good mixing at both Guandu Bridge and Taipei Bridge during low flow. More stratification occurred during high flow at high slack tide compared to that during low flow. The freshwater discharges from upriver reaches controlled the suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in tidal estuaries. The higher SSC appeared downstream of the tidal estuary at ebb tide during high flow. Observations also revealed that there was an estuarine turbidity maximum at the bottom layer of Guandu Bridge.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020016
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 226-245: Visualization Concept of Automotive
           Quality Management System Standard

    • Authors: Alena Pauliková
      First page: 226
      Abstract: In organizations that manufacture products or provide services as well as in academic practice, the visualization of management systems’ standards is presented primarily in the form of static diagrams or tables. Demands for the quality of products and services are reflected in the complexity and interconnectedness of standards, which could cause complications during the implementation phase. This article presents a visualization of the standard IATF 16949 Automotive Quality Management System Standard, Quality management system requirements for automotive production and relevant service parts organizations, which incorporates in its content ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems—Requirements using a dynamic cluster model built using software TouchGraph Navigator. The visualization process began with a detailed examination of the two-stage requirements, documented information, and notes detailed in IATF 16949 and continued with the creation of a central node to which new nodes were subsequently connected, containing the introductory parts of the standard, including clauses. The activation of clauses and sub-clauses for other parts of the document followed. The dynamic behavior of the resulting cluster can be used in the implementation, execution, maintenance, or certification process to encourage organizations to improve their operational processes by incorporating more rigorous quality considerations into their operational frameworks.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2020017
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 14-31: Voluntary Sustainability Standards: State
           of the Art and Future Research

    • Authors: Axel Marx, Charline Depoorter, Ruth Vanhaecht
      First page: 14
      Abstract: In this feature paper, we introduce voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) and canvas the research that has been conducted on VSS from different academic disciplines. We identify four main areas of research on VSS and explore them. First, we focus on research on the institutional design of VSS, which highlights the diversity among VSS. Next, we explore studies that try to assess the impact of VSS on key sustainability dimensions. Third, we zoom in on studies that analyse the uptake or adoption of VSS. Finally, we focus on the interaction between VSS and public policies. For each of the four areas, we summarise the main research findings and identify opportunities for future research.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2010002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 32-42: Screening for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
           among Palm Oil Mill Workers in Peninsular Malaysia: A Comparison across
           Noise Exposure Levels

    • Authors: Sirri Ammar, Aziah Daud, Ahmad Filza Ismail, Ailin Razali
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Background: Palm oil mill workers in Malaysia are exposed to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace, and thus are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In 2019, Malaysia introduced a new noise regulation, which reduced the level of permissible noise exposure. Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of NIHL among palm oil mill workers based on screening data and assess the effects of different noise exposure levels on NIHL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing data from noise risk assessment reports of selected mills and screening audiometric data from workers. NIHL was defined as bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. Results: The overall NIHL prevalence was 50.8%. Noise exposure level and age were significant predictors of NIHL among the workers. The risk of developing NIHL was high even for workers who were not categorized in the high-risk group. Conclusions: In view of the findings, a precautionary approach is needed when evaluating the risk of NIHL in the study population. Vulnerable groups of workers must be protected from occupational noise hazards through the implementation of effective hearing conservation programs in the workplace.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2010003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 43-51: Quantities and Units in Chemical and
           Environmental Engineering

    • Authors: Peter Glavič
      First page: 43
      Abstract: The International System of Quantities (ISQ) shall be used in education and textbooks, in scientific and engineering journals, in conference papers and proceedings, in industry, among others. The names of quantities together with their symbols and units are being published by the International Organization for Standardization, the standard ISO 80000 Quantities and units, composed of 13 parts. Mathematics and natural sciences (physics, light and radiation, acoustics, physical chemistry, atomic and nuclear physics, condensed matter physics) compose most of the parts. In addition, some engineering disciplines (mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism) and characteristic numbers are covered. The units are based on the International System of Units (SI). Unfortunately, chemical and process engineering, as well as environmental engineering and engineering economics, are not dealt with in the standard. In this paper, they are proposed as an additional part of the ISO standard with a tentative name Chemical and environmental engineering. The additional part of the standard is suggested to include (a) reaction and separation engineering together with mass transfer and reaction kinetics, (b) process design, control, and optimization, (c) process economics, mathematical modeling, operational research, and (d) environmental engineering with climate change, pollution abatement, an increase in resource efficiency, zero waste and circular economy. The number of quantities is planned but not limited to about 70, the average of ISO 80000 parts. Each quantity item contains a quantity name and definition (including an equation if suitable), SI unit, and remarks (running number will be added later). The rules are defined in ISO 80000-1 General rules, and the practice of the other ISO 80000 parts is respected; the quantities already included in the other parts are not repeated. In addition, the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Green Book rules are respected. The literature used included traditional textbooks, encyclopedias, handbooks from the chemical engineering and environmental fields. Some common mistakes in printing symbols of quantities and units are mentioned.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2010004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 52-65: Challenges in the Integration of Quality
           and Innovation Management Systems

    • Authors: Ana Lopes, Daniel Polónia, Adriana Gradim, Jorge Cunha
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Seeking to reduce the number of inconsistencies in their processes, many organisations choose to implement the ISO 9001:2015 quality management standard. Their aim is to improve operational performance while, at the same time, they cope with increased pressures from the market to present innovative products and solutions and from the stakeholders to implement new organizational methods. This work intends to investigate how organisations can leverage ISO 9001:2015 in implementing the ISO 56002:2019 innovation management standard, given that both standards have a high degree of compatibility with each other. For that purpose, meetings were held with senior managers and quality managers of three Portuguese SMEs to discuss the existing potential challenges and gaps in the integration of both management systems. The results point to the existence of a significant set of practices in the field of quality that can support and facilitate the formalization of integrated management systems. Nevertheless, generalization of the results should be avoided, and more research is needed, since the integration of management systems is often conditioned by cost and time related issues. Furthermore, it is disputable whether a company can simultaneously reach a high level of efficiency (brought about by implementing a quality management system) and a high level of innovation (made possible by the implementation of an innovation management system) thus jeopardizing the implementation of an integrated management system.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2010005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 66-82: Innovation Opportunity and Challenge of
           Standardization in Response to COVID-19 Pandemic and the Socio-Economic
           Impact: A Case Study in Indonesia

    • Authors: Bambang Prasetya, Daryono Restu Wahono, Yopi, Candraditya Prasetya
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The COVID-19 health crisis has disrupted various aspects of life: social, economic and work models in organizations, such as government organizations, private organizations, and businesses. To overcome this situation, a number of appropriate activities are needed to directly overcome the various problems in public health, both preventive and curative. In line with that, activities have also been taken to recover from the impact caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper describes the role of standardization in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the business process of formulation and development of standards, conformity assessment procedures, and the role of metrology in providing calibration services. Moreover, the role of the implementation of standards to overcome the socio-economic impact and innovation is also discussed. The method used in this report is based on observation and secondary data. The observation was carried out in Jakarta and surrounding cities, which are representatives of the islands of Java and Bali. A short overview of the literature regarding Coronavirus, the principal role of standardization, regulation, innovation, and its social-economic impact were obtained from secondary data from various sources.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2010006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 83-89: Overview of Standards Related to the
           Occupational Risk and Safety of Nanotechnologies

    • Authors: Delfina Ramos, Luis Almeida
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Nanomaterials offer new technical and commercial opportunities but, due to their low particle size, raise occupational health and safety concerns and may also pose risks to the consumers and the environment. In the last 15 years, many standards have been developed in the area of nanotechnologies, taking into account, namely, occupational risk and safety. This paper presents an overview of the standards in this area, with special emphasis at the ISO level, but also at European level, where standards are considered as an important support for legislation. A brief presentation of five relevant ISO standards is included. Relevant European Standards are also mentioned. The control banding approach for occupational risk management applied to engineered nanomaterials, according to ISO/TS 12901-2:2014, is presented. Standards are essential for society and should, in fact, be considered an important tool for companies to support sustainable products and process innovation.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2010007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Standards, Vol. 2, Pages 90-105: A Framework for Developing Environmental
           Justice Indicators

    • Authors: Geoffrey R. Browne, Lucy Dubrelle Gunn, Melanie Davern
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Environmental justice (EJ) is a broad discipline that attempts to understand and redress unfair exposure to unhealthy environmental conditions. EJ is often made measurable with indicators, however the capabilities and the limitations of EJ indicators can be difficult for policy makers to understand. Using an exploratory review of EJ literature, this paper performs a research translation role by clarifying the key terms used to describe EJ indicators and by providing conceptual frameworks for developing locally valid EJ indicators for government and community. Issues such as the position of EJ in the context of the social determinants of health, indicator development, and definitions are explored. The exploratory literature review highlighted the potential and limitations of EJ indicators for measuring the extent and impact of EJ issues on human health and the environment. We found that EJ indicators are invariably (1) composed of two or more measures, and (2) developed iteratively, in consultation with those affected. To aid governments and communities, we present both a top-down and a bottom-up framework for developing EJ indicators, with the bottom-up framework guiding the combination of measures from four different core elements; environment, demography, epidemiology and procedures. A list of evidence-based example measures, from the literature, for developing EJ indicators is also provided. It is anticipated that the frameworks and list of EJ example measures will provide guidance for efficiently developing locally relevant EJ indicators.
      Citation: Standards
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/standards2010008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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