Subjects -> INSTRUMENTS (Total: 63 journals)
Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of Social Informatics Theory and Application     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Visual Media     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Devices and Methods of Measurements     Open Access  
Documenta & Instrumenta - Documenta et Instrumenta     Open Access  
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Sensors Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 103)
IEEE Sensors Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Imaging & Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
InfoTekJar : Jurnal Nasional Informatika dan Teknologi Jaringan     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 282)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
International Journal of Sensor Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Instrumentation Technology & Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Informatika Upgris     Open Access  
Measurement : Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Measurement and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Measurement Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Measurement Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Instrumentation     Open Access  
Metrology and Instruments / Метрологія та прилади     Open Access  
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal  
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access  
Sensors and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Standards     Open Access  
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Труды СПИИРАН     Open Access  
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Measurement and Control
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.137
Number of Followers: 36  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0020-2940 - ISSN (Online) 2051-8730
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1151 journals]
  • Research on predictive sliding mode control strategy for horizontal

    • Authors: Hong Wang, Mingqin Zhang, Ruijun Zhang, Lixin Liu
      Pages: 360 - 373
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 360-373, March-April 2021.
      In order to effectively suppress horizontal vibration of the ultra-high-speed elevator car system. Firstly, considering the nonlinearity of guide shoe, parameter uncertainties, and uncertain external disturbances of the elevator car system, a more practical active control model for horizontal vibration of the 4-DOF ultra-high-speed elevator car system is constructed and the rationality of the established model is verified by real elevator experiment. Secondly, a predictive sliding mode controller based on adaptive fuzzy (PSMC-AF) is proposed to reduce the horizontal vibration of the car system, the predictive sliding mode control law is achieved by optimizing the predictive sliding mode performance index. Simultaneously, in order to decrease the influence of uncertainty of the car system, a fuzzy logic system (FLS) is designed to approximate the compound uncertain disturbance term (CUDT) on-line. Furthermore, the continuous smooth hyperbolic tangent function (HTF) is introduced into the sliding mode switching term to compensate the fuzzy approximation error. The adaptive laws are designed to estimate the error gain and slope parameter, so as to increase the robustness of the system. Finally, numerical simulations are conducted on some representative guide rail excitations and the results are compared to the existing solution and passive system. The analysis has confirmed the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:11:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211003926
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • Performance analysis of different predictive models for condition
           monitoring of direct drive wind turbine generator

    • Authors: Jui-Hung Liu, Nelson T Corbita
      Pages: 374 - 384
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 374-384, March-April 2021.
      This paper presents a performance analysis of predictive models for the generator module which can be used as a reference for improvement in the condition monitoring system using wind turbines in a wind farm in Taiwan. With the generator being a critical component prone to failures, it is important to perform data analysis on its parameters that could be used for condition monitoring. The main innovative feature in this framework is the conduct of performance analysis before the development of the condition monitoring system. Also, the consistency of the performance between the different wind turbines in the wind farm is evaluated. The predictive models are generated using the neural network algorithm with a different combination of parameters from the SCADA system. The correlation of the parameters as well as the mean square error of the predictive models were then computed for analysis. Results showed that pairing of input parameters with a higher correlation to the output parameter would give better performance for the predictive model. Furthermore, the performance of the different models was consistent throughout the different wind turbines in the wind farm which indicates that the same model can be developed and used for wind turbines belonging to the same wind farm. Employing a preliminary performance analysis of different combinations of component parameters could help in optimizing predictive models for condition monitoring.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T06:59:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211003930
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • Iterative automatic global registration algorithm for multi-view point
           cloud of underground tunnel space

    • Authors: Ming Guo, Bingnan Yan, Guoli Wang, Pingjun Nie, Deng Pan, Kecai Guo, Yunming Liu
      Pages: 385 - 395
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 385-395, March-April 2021.
      Aiming at the narrow and long tunnel structure, few internal features, and a large amount of point cloud data, the existing registration algorithms and commercial software registration results are not ideal, an iterative global registration algorithm is proposed for massive underground tunnel point cloud registration, which is composed of local initial pose acquisition and global adjustment. Firstly, the feature point coordinates in the point cloud are extracted, and then the station-by-station registration is performed according to the Rodrigues matrix. Finally, the registration result is considered as the initial value of the parameter, and the global adjustment of all observations is carried out. The observation values are weighted by the selection weight iteration method and the weights are constantly modified in the iteration process until the threshold conditions are met and the iteration stops. In this paper, the experimental data, made up of 85 stations of point cloud data, are from the Xiamen subway tunnel, which is about 1300 m long. When the accumulated error of station-to-station registration is too large, several stations are regarded as partial wholes, and the optimal registration is achieved through multiple global adjustments, and the registration accuracy is within 5 mm. Experimental results confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm, which provides a new method for point cloud registration of underground space tunnel.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T12:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211003935
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • Design and implementation of smart and automatic oven for food drying

    • Authors: Mehmet Tümay, Halil Murat Ünver
      Pages: 396 - 407
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 396-407, March-April 2021.
      Fruits and vegetables ripen at certain times of the year and must be ripe for consumption. However, in the short-term ripening period, some of the fresh vegetables and fruits that are more than the consumable amount deteriorate before they can be consumed. Picking up fruits and vegetables when they are ripe and drying the surplus for later use is the most common storage method. In recent years, where technology has developed rapidly, instead of drying in the sun, solutions are produced in which the drying processes are managed automatically by using the drying kinematics of the products. The most recent techniques manage the drying process by measuring the weight of the wet and dried products during heating. Also, different types of ovens such as microwave ovens are tried to increase the efficiency of the drying process. These are rather complex solutions. In this study, a smart system that manages the drying process in real-time by using the humidity in the environment instead of weight together with the drying kinematics of the product is designed. So the complexity of the system is simplified. Also, the total duration of the drying process is exactly estimated by using the moisture content in the environment and the drying model of the product. In the study, firstly, data on the drying stage were collected with the experiments made for each product. These data were processed in a Matlab environment and a drying model with a curve fitting method was developed for each product. The drying models developed in the study were loaded into the processor of the smart oven and the entire drying process was managed in real-time. With the developed system solution, when the process is started, the drying time is estimated according to the amount processed and the type of product, and the drying time of the drying process is estimated by using the moisture content in the environment and the drying model of the product. In this way, pre-drying and post-drying stages can be planned.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T07:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211000084
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • FFT-based selective harmonic current control of AC filter capacitors for
           audible noise analysis

    • Authors: Jingang Han, Shuoshuo Sun, Shouzhi Zheng, Yang Gao, Yide Wang, TianHao Tang
      Pages: 408 - 416
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 408-416, March-April 2021.
      With the development of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) and ultra HVDC, a growing number of high voltage film filter capacitors have been installed for harmonic suppression. But the capacitors generate severe audible noise in the converters, which has become more and more serious. Then it is important to imitate the practical working situation of capacitors for the research of noise characteristics to improve the capacitive performance in lab. In this paper, a FFT-based harmonic current control method is proposed for audible noise analysis of AC filter capacitor. Firstly, mathematical model of the Harmonic Current Injection System (HCIS) is built based on MATLAB. Then a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) harmonics detection method is analyzed and used to detect the amplitude and phase of each harmonic considering a number of harmonic currents flowing through AC filter capacitors. Since the amplitude and phase spectrum of capacitor current are obtained, the Proportional Integral (PI) regulator is applied to adjust the specified harmonic amplitude to achieve zero-error control. Then accurate harmonic current can be injected to the tested capacitor and it will help to acquire the noise characteristics of the tested plant. At last, the simulation and experimental results validate the proposed strategy.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T07:21:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211000078
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • A real-time HIL control system on rotary inverted pendulum hardware
           platform based on double deep Q-network

    • Authors: Yanyan Dai, KiDong Lee, SukGyu Lee
      Pages: 417 - 428
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 417-428, March-April 2021.
      For real applications, rotary inverted pendulum systems have been known as the basic model in nonlinear control systems. If researchers have no deep understanding of control, it is difficult to control a rotary inverted pendulum platform using classic control engineering models, as shown in section 2.1. Therefore, without classic control theory, this paper controls the platform by training and testing reinforcement learning algorithm. Many recent achievements in reinforcement learning (RL) have become possible, but there is a lack of research to quickly test high-frequency RL algorithms using real hardware environment. In this paper, we propose a real-time Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) control system to train and test the deep reinforcement learning algorithm from simulation to real hardware implementation. The Double Deep Q-Network (DDQN) with prioritized experience replay reinforcement learning algorithm, without a deep understanding of classical control engineering, is used to implement the agent. For the real experiment, to swing up the rotary inverted pendulum and make the pendulum smoothly move, we define 21 actions to swing up and balance the pendulum. Comparing Deep Q-Network (DQN), the DDQN with prioritized experience replay algorithm removes the overestimate of Q value and decreases the training time. Finally, this paper shows the experiment results with comparisons of classic control theory and different reinforcement learning algorithms.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T07:04:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211000380
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • Micro-electromechanical system based optimized steering angle estimation
           mechanism for customized self-driving vehicles

    • Authors: Muhammad Atif Butt, Faisal Riaz, Shehzad Khalid, Samia Abid, Muhammad Asif Habib, Sarmad Shafique, Kijun Han
      Pages: 429 - 438
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 429-438, March-April 2021.
      In an automated steering system of the self-driving vehicles, the steering wheel angle is measured by the absolute angular displacement sensors or relative angle sensors. However, these sensors either encompass global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)/gyroscope – Micro Electromechanical-Sensor (MEMS) based solutions or comprise of the complex gear-based mechanical structure which results in latency and additive bias in the accumulative steering angle assessment. To address these issues, we propose a novel steering angle assessment system based on enhanced gear mechanism along with the adapted rotation paradigm for the customized self-driving vehicles. Additionally, a digital signal processing system has been introduced to resolve the issues in the identification of absolute central and max-bounding steering wheels position in self-driving vehicles. In assistance with the proposed mechanism, an algorithm has also been proposed to optimize the computed steering angle to minimalize the effect of additive bias in the accuracy. The proposed mechanism has been installed in the customized self-driving testbed vehicle and rigor validation has been performed in the straight and curvy road scenarios. Finally, the comparison study has been carried out between the conventional relative sensor and the proposed mechanism to show the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed mechanism in terms of error rate, stability, and deviation.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T07:10:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211000076
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • Deep learning algorithm evaluation of hypertension classification in less
           photoplethysmography signals conditions

    • Authors: Chih-Ta Yen, Sheng-Nan Chang, Cheng-Hong Liao
      Pages: 439 - 445
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 439-445, March-April 2021.
      This study used photoplethysmography signals to classify hypertensive into no hypertension, prehypertension, stage I hypertension, and stage II hypertension. There are four deep learning models are compared in the study. The difficulties in the study are how to find the optimal parameters such as kernel, kernel size, and layers in less photoplethysmographyt (PPG) training data condition. PPG signals were used to train deep residual network convolutional neural network (ResNetCNN) and bidirectional long short-term memory (BILSTM) to determine the optimal operating parameters when each dataset consisted of 2100 data points. During the experiment, the proportion of training and testing datasets was 8:2. The model demonstrated an optimal classification accuracy of 76% when the testing dataset was used.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T09:51:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211001904
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • Active disturbance rejection control for a piezoelectric nano-positioning
           system: A U-model approach

    • Authors: Wei Wei, Bowen Duan, Min Zuo, Weicun Zhang
      Pages: 506 - 518
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 506-518, March-April 2021.
      Both speed and accuracy are key issues in nano-positioning. However, hysteresis existing in piezoelectric actuators severely reduces the positioning speed and accuracy. In order to address the hysteresis, a U-model based active disturbance rejection control is proposed. Based on the linear active disturbance rejection control, a controlled plant is dynamically transformed to be pure integrators. Then, according to the U-model control, a common inversion is obtained and the controlled plant is converted to be “1.” By integrating advantages of both linear active disturbance rejection control and U-model control, the U-model based active disturbance rejection control does promote the reference tracking speed and accuracy. Stability and steady-state error of the close-loop system have been analyzed. Phase lag between the system output and the control input has been effectively eliminated, and the phase-leading advantage of the U-model based active disturbance rejection control has been confirmed. Experimental results show that the U-model based active disturbance rejection control is capable of achieving faster and more accurate positioning. Remarkable improvements and practical realization make the U-model based active disturbance rejection control more promising in nano-positioning.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T06:10:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211000075
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • Experimental and numerical investigations on the effects of radius of
           curvature and longitudinal slope on the responses of curved bridges
           subject to seismic pounding

    • Authors: Chiyu Jiao, Junrui Lu, Chuang Wang, Peiheng Long, Zhe Sun
      Pages: 519 - 537
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Volume 54, Issue 3-4, Page 519-537, March-April 2021.
      Because of the irregular geometries, earthquake-induced adjacent curved bridge pounding may lead to more complex local damage or even collapse. The relevant research is mainly concentrated on the numerical analysis which lack experimental verification and discussion by changing of structural parameters. In this paper, a scaled three-dimensional numerical model of a curved bridge is established based on 3D contact friction theory for investigating the uneven distribution of pounding forces at the expansion joint of the bridge. Shaking table tests were carried out at first on a curved bridge to validate the numerical model. A series of parametric studies were then conducted to examine the impacts of the radius of curvature and longitudinal slope of the superstructure of the curved bridge on its seismic pounding response. The results show that the maximum pounding force first increases and then decreases as the radius of curvature increases, but that it decreases monotonically with the growth of the longitudinal slope. These results suggest that controlling the radius of curvature and the longitudinal slope of the superstructure of the bridge can reduce the localized high stress that is induced by seismic pounding. Also, the unevenly distributed pounding forces can significantly increase the relative radial displacement of the bridge’s deck corners, although the relative tangential displacement may decrease. It is thus necessary to adopt effective anti-pounding measures to prevent the superstructure of the bridge from being unseated.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T06:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211000377
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3-4 (2021)
  • Machine vision-based relative-angle measurement system between circular

    • Authors: Chao-Ching Ho, Rong-Hua Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the machine-vision technique is employed to measure the angle between two circular holes for the derailleur parts of a bicycle. A delta robot equipped with a motorized zoom lens is constructed as an automatic measurement device. In this way, we can detect the normal vectors of circular holes with different positions and sizes by using only one camera. By calculating the plane normal vectors of two circular holes within the camera coordinate system and performing the cross-product operation, the angle between the two circular holes is obtained. Simulation experiments reveal that the measurement method is influenced by the projection eccentricity error, and the error can be reduced by increasing the focal length and employing the virtual-center alignment method. The results show that the average error for measuring the derailleur parts is approximately 0.061°, and the standard deviation is 0.112°. Experimental analysis indicates that while the magnification of the image is larger, the average error of the measurement result is reduced, and the standard deviation is reduced as well. When the magnification is 0.4×, the measurement average error is 0.04°, and standard deviation is 0.101°. When the distance between the center of the circle and the center of the image is increased, the error in the angle calculation is also increased. A significant improvement is obtained by setting the fitting center position to the optical central position, which omits the influence of the error amplification caused by the distance of the circular hole from the optical axis.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T11:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211013059
  • Numerical and analytical assessment of hydraulic pressure on the inner
           wall of the deep-water caisson under sudden flooding risk

    • Authors: Jie Hong, Kai Wei, Shunquan Qin
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Sudden flooding is one of the major risks for the drainage sinking construction of deep-water caisson. The damage of inner walls due to hydraulic pressure induced by sudden flooding threatens the labor and structural safety. This study developed the numerical model and analytical method to assess the hydraulic pressure on the inner walls of both the balanced and sudden-sinking caisson under sudden flooding risk. An experimental program of sudden flooding into a caisson specimen was conducted in a water basin to validate the numerical model and the analytical method for balanced caisson. The numerical and analytical methods were then illustrated by an actual engineering practice to show the hydraulic pressure on the inner walls for the caisson under balanced and sudden-sinking state, respectively. The experimental validation and engineering illustration prove that the numerical model is effective in the assessment of hydraulic pressure of caisson under sudden flooding, especially for the complicated case that includes the turbulence effect and sudden sinking, while the analytical method can calculate the quasi-static value of the hydraulic pressure more efficiently. The presented methods provide the engineers with alternative tools to learn more about the sudden flooding risk of the deep-water caisson.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-30T06:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211010840
  • Direct tuning of the data-driven controller considering closed-loop
           stability based on a fictitious reference signal

    • Authors: Shuichi Yahagi, Itsuro Kajiwara
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The direct tuning of controller parameters, which is based on data-driven control, has been attracting considerable attention because of the ease of its control system design. In practical use, it is important to consider the stability of the closed-loop system and model matching with few design parameters. In this study, we propose a direct tuning method based on a fictitious reference signal that considers the bounded-input bounded-output (BIBO) and model matching without repeating experiments. The proposed method includes two steps. In the first step, the BIBO stability is satisfied. The pole information is lost in the cost function of the conventional method using a fictitious reference signal. Then, we derive a new cost function that can prevent the loss of the pole information. This provides controller parameters that can stabilize the closed-loop system. The model matching between the reference model and the closed-loop system is considered in the second step. When model matching is achieved, the characteristics of the reference model almost match those of the closed-loop system, including the gain and phase margins. The parameters of the reference model are automatically tuned to realize model matching. Using the two-step method, we can obtain parameters considering BIBO stability and the model matching. In addition, there are no design parameters apart from the dealing noise. Two simulations and an experiment were performed on a system with dead time to verify the effectiveness of the proposed two-step method. The results showed that the proposed method provides BIBO stability and model-matched control parameters from the measured data through a one-time experiment without trial and error.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-30T06:15:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211010834
  • Composite control for disturbed direct-driven surface-mounted permanent
           magnet synchronous generator with model prediction strategy

    • Authors: Hong-Jun Shi, Xu-Chen Nie
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In order to obtain the best power in the wind energy conversion system (WECS) of the direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (SPMSG), active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is introduced to track the motor speed in real time. The control algorithm provides a new design concept and an inherent robust controller component that requires very little system information. Aiming at the problem of system parameter mutation caused by internal factors and external environment changes, an adaptive controller with multi parameter identification is designed, and the disturbance caused by parameter changes is compensated in real time. The model predictive current control (MPC) technology for the sudden change of external environment is designed to accelerate the response speed of the current loop, so as to weaken the estimation of the current disturbance by the active disturbance rejection controller, and make the speed estimation more accurate. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy is effective and satisfactory.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-30T06:14:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211010829
  • Non-fragile distributed mode-dependent dissipative state estimation of
           uncertain Markov jump systems over sensor networks

    • Authors: ChangHua Jiang, Yan Zhao, Bo Wang, Liang Liu, HuiJiong Yan, WenHao Zhan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper considers the non-fragile distributed state estimation problem for Markov jump systems over sensor networks based on dissipative theory. Moreover, both state estimator gain variations and parameter uncertainties are assumed to be with mode-dependent for more practical modeling. On the basis of stochastic analysis and Lyapunov–Krasovskii function method, sufficient conditions with desired mode-dependent estimators are established such that the prescribed dissipative performance can be achieved. In the end, the effectiveness and applicability of the developed scheme is confirmed via the illustrative example.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T07:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211000072
  • Task failure prediction for wafer-handling robotic arms by using various
           machine learning algorithms

    • Authors: Ping Wun Huang, Kuan-Jung Chung
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Industries are increasingly adopting automatic and intelligent manufacturing in production lines, such as those of semiconductor wafers, optoelectronic devices, and light-emitting diodes. For example, automatic robot arms have been used for pick-and-place workpiece applications. However, repairing automatic robot arms is time-consuming and increases the downtime of equipment and the cycle time of manufacturing. In this study, various machine learning (ML) models, such as the general linear model (GLM), random forest, extreme gradient boosting, gradient boosting machine, and stacked ensemble, were used to predict the maximum Cartesian positioning shift (i.e. the maximum eccentric distance) in the next handling time period (e.g. 1 min). A charge-coupled-device-based fault diagnostic system was developed to measure the critical positions of the robotic arm when transferring wafers. A novel data augmentation method was used to determine the correlation parameters in the dataset for the ML models. The prediction error for each algorithm was determined using the root mean square error (RMSE). The results revealed that the GLM exhibited the lowest prediction errors. The RMSEs of the GLM were 0.024, 0.032, and 0.046 mm for 3421 pickups, the last 1000 pickups, and 100 pickups, respectively, for the prediction target. Thus, the GLM is a promising model for predicting the task failure of wafer-handling robotic arms.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T10:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211003938
  • Adaptive optimal control approach to robust tracking of uncertain linear
           systems based on policy iteration

    • Authors: Dengguo Xu, Qinglin Wang, Yuan Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, an optimal adaptive control approach is established to solve the robust output tracking problem of a class of continuous time uncertain linear systems based on the policy iteration (PI) in actor-critic algorithm. First, by augmenting the integral variables of the tracking error into state variables, the robust tracking problem is transformed into a robust control problem of an augmented uncertain linear system. It is proven that the robust control law of the augmented system enables the output of the considered system to track a polynomial time signal asymptotically. Second, an optimal control method in the corresponding auxiliary nominal system is established, and based on the Bellman optimality principle, PI algorithms are proposed to solve online tracking controllers for the matched and the mismatched uncertain systems. Finally, for testing the availability of the proposed approach and theoretical results, two numerical experiments are provided.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T10:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211007177
  • Optimized dosage control of the ozonation process in drinking water

    • Authors: Dan Niu, Xiaojun Wang, Xisong Chen, Li Ding, Jun Yang, Fuchun Jiang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Ozonation is an important process in drinking water treatment. Determination of optimal ozonation dose is of significant importance for enhancing the quality of treated water and reducing the energy cost. It is known that keeping the dissolved ozone residual constant is an effective and reliable dosage control scheme. However, some external disturbances, such as large changes in raw water quality and water flow rate, always exist in the ozonation process. Meanwhile, the ozonation is a nonlinear process with large time constant and long time delay. Thus, it has been always a challenge for dosage control to maintain the dissolved ozone residual constant. The traditional control strategies such as PID and MPC merely utilize feedback regulation to suppress disturbances. This will degrade the control performance when strong disturbances occur. In this work, an effective control method integrating MPC method with disturbance observer (DO) is put forward to improve disturbance suppression performance. DO is utilized to estimate the disturbances and uncertainties, and then the estimated values are employed to conduct feed-forward compensation. The test results indicate that significant disturbance suppression improvements can be accomplished under the proposed method in comparison with the conventional MPC method in the ozonation process.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T10:37:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211007164
  • Wide area monitoring, protection, and control application in islanding
           detection for grid integrated distributed generation: A review

    • Authors: Onkemetse Tshenyego, Ravi Samikannu, Bokani Mtengi
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The assimilation of Distributed Generation (DG) into the electric power system (EPS) has become more attractive as the world is following a trend to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by introducing more renewable energy forms resulting in high penetration scenarios. This high penetration of DGs brings several challenges to the protection philosophy of the EPS which compromises its reliability, availability, and efficiency. Under high DG penetration scenarios, conventional islanding detection methods (Idms) fail to detect an island as the grid loses its inertia to leverage a significant frequency and voltage mismatch necessary for Idms to effectively detect an islanding event. This has given rise to the birth of Artificial Intelligent (AI) methods that are found to perform better in islanding detection. AI Idms are computationally intensive and require a lot of data to operate accurately. Because the computational burden of these methods requires fast computing hardware, the current trend of AI Idms are integrated with Wide Area Monitoring, Protection, and Control (WAMPAC) system. This paper aims at reviewing all these Idms and the WAMPAC’s system latency when hosting AI Idms which are currently the best in islanding detection. This is done to determine if the WAMPAC system latency plus Idms computational time meet the islanding detection time specified by the IEEE Standard 1547 framework.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021989768
  • The weak frequency anomaly detection method of atomic clocks based on
           Kalman filter and extrapolation-accumulation

    • Authors: Ran Yan, Junliang Liu, Jianfeng Wu, Chao Xu, Yonghui Hu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      A new method based on the innovation of Kalman filter and extrapolation-accumulation is proposed to detect weak frequency anomalies in atomic clocks with short detection time and high detection probability. In this method, the detection statistics of the innovation extrapolation method in several epochs are accumulated. It avoids the influence of outliers, increases the noncentrality parameter of chi-square distribution, and realizes more effective detection of weak frequency anomalies. The simulation results show that compared with the innovation method and the innovation extrapolation method, the new method has a higher detection probability for micro frequency anomalies, and the detection time is shortened. The new method is used to analyze the real data of the cesium atomic clock, and the results are consistent with the simulation results.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:21:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211000073
  • Temperature-insensitive FBG acceleration sensor based on strain chirp

    • Authors: Li Hong, Yuzi Zhang, Ruwang Mu, Yuntian Teng, Zhongchao Qiu, Ruilei Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The measurement of low-frequency vibration signals is a very important job in the fields of earthquake early warning, health monitoring of large-scale engineering structures, and geological exploration. Aiming at the problem of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) acceleration sensors’ cross-sensitivity to temperature and strain when measuring low-frequency vibration signals, this paper developed an M-shaped double cantilever beam structure that can produce chirp effect with its own structural characteristics, thereby making the sensor insensitive to temperature. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the paper obtained the relationship between the reflection spectrum bandwidth of the chirped FBG and its acceleration. It adopted a spectrometer and a vibration test system to detect the reflection spectrum bandwidth of the FBG, and then obtained the acceleration. The experimental results showed that, compared with bare fiber grating, the temperature sensitivity of the proposed sensor was significantly lower, and its reflection spectrum bandwidth was not sensitive to temperature changes, moreover, there are good linear relationships between the reflection spectrum bandwidth, the power of the light, and the acceleration. The sensitivity was about 256 pm/g, the natural frequency was 66 Hz; therefore, the proposed sensor had realized high-performance detection of low-frequency vibration signals.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211001900
  • Experimental study and numerical simulation of temperature gradient effect
           for steel-concrete composite bridge deck

    • Authors: Da Wang, Benkun Tan, Xie Wang, Zhenhao Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The temperature distribution of the bridge and its thermal effect has always been an important issue for researchers. To investigate the temperature distribution and thermal stress in the steel-concrete composite bridge deck, a 1:4 ratio temperature gradient effect experimental study was carried out in this paper. First, a set of experimental equipment for laboratory temperature gradient loading was designed based on the principle of temperature gradient caused by solar radiation, the temperature gradient obtained from the measurements were compared with the specifications and verified by the FE method. Next, the loading of the steel-concrete composite deck at different temperatures was performed. The thermal stress response and change trend of the simply supported and continuously constrained boundary conditions under different temperature loads were analyzed. The experimental results show that the vertical temperature of steel-concrete composite bridge deck is nonlinear, which is consistent with the temperature gradient trend of specifications. The vertical temperature gradient has a great influence on the steel-concrete composite bridge deck under different constraints, and the extreme stress of concrete slab and steel beam is almost linear with the temperature gradient. Finally, some suggestions for steel-concrete composite deck design were provided based on the research results.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211007166
  • A modified genetic algorithm for task assignment of heterogeneous unmanned
           aerial vehicle system

    • Authors: Song Han, Chenchen Fan, Xinbin Li, Xi Luo, Zhixin Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This study deals with the task assignment problem of heterogeneous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system with the limited resources and task priority constraints. The optimization model which comprehensively considers the resource consumption, task completion effect, and workload balance is formulated. Then, a concept of fuzzy elite degree is proposed to optimize and balance the transmission of good genes and the variation strength of population during the operations of algorithm. Based on the concept, we propose the fuzzy elite strategy genetic algorithm (FESGA) to efficiently solve the complex task assignment problem. In the proposed algorithm, two unlock methods are presented to solve the deadlock problem in the random optimization process; a sudden threat countermeasure (STC) mechanism is presented to help the algorithm quickly respond to the change of task environment caused by sudden threats. The simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Meanwhile, the effectiveness and feasibility of the algorithm in workload balance and task priority constraints are verified.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T06:56:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211002235
  • Study on flow field and measurement characteristics of a small-bore
           ultrasonic gas flow meter

    • Authors: Desheng Chen, Haibin Cao, Baoling Cui
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      A new structure is proposed for a DN25-type ultrasonic gas flow meter with a V-shape double sound channel arrangement. The flow field characteristics are analyzed including velocity curves for the four channel lines, velocity profiles for different cross-sections of the flow meter, and streamlines of the transducer channel sections. The metering characteristics of the flowmeter are measured using a Venturi nozzle device. When the pipeline flow rate is less than 2.26 m/s, the pipe installation does not have a significant effect on the velocity profile and the velocity in the channel lines. However, the error in the low-flow region is large, and the flow distortion directly affects the measurement accuracy. When an ultrasonic gas flow meter with an accuracy class of 1.5 is used with pipes containing a single or double bend upstream, the linear error doubles, low-flow error becomes a negative deviation, and reference error in the low-flow region becomes approximately 700%–949%. The installation structure of the first pair of transducers also affects the signal propagation of the transducers behind it. Therefore, it is critical to process the ultrasonic signal according to the flow field distribution and adopt different weighted algorithms to obtain accurate pipeline flow rates to improve the measurement accuracy of the ultrasonic flow meter.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211007515
  • Variable step control to improve scanning speed of gene sequencing stage

    • Authors: Xiaohua Zhou, Jianbin Zheng, Xiaoming Wang, Wenda Niu, Tongjian Guo
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      High-speed scanning is a huge challenge to the motion control of step-scanning gene sequencing stage. The stage should achieve high-precision position stability with minimal settling time for each step. The existing step-scanning scheme usually bases on fixed-step motion control, which has limited means to reduce the time cost of approaching the desired position and keeping high-precision position stability. In this work, we focus on shortening the settling time of stepping motion and propose a novel variable step control method to increase the scanning speed of gene sequencing stage. Specifically, the variable step control stabilizes the stage at any position in a steady-state interval rather than the desired position on each step, so that reduces the settling time. The resulting step-length error is compensated in the next acceleration and deceleration process of stepping to avoid the accumulation of errors. We explicitly described the working process of the step-scanning gene sequencer and designed the PID control structure used in the variable step control for the gene sequencing stage. The simulation was performed to check the performance and stability of the variable step control. Under the conditions of the variable step control where the IMA6000 gene sequencer prototype was evaluated extensively. The experimental results show that the real gene sequencer can step 1.54 mm in 50 ms period, and maintain a high-precision stable state less than 30 nm standard deviation in the following 10 ms period. The proposed method performs well on the gene sequencing stage.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T08:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00202940211002219
  • Observer based sliding mode control for subsonic piezo-composite plate
           involving time varying measurement delay

    • Authors: Na Qi, Chen Zhang, Jiaxin Yuan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, an observer based sliding mode control (SMC) scheme is proposed for vibration suppression of subsonic piezo-composite plate in the presence of time varying measurement delay by using the piezoelectric patch (PZT) actuator. Firstly, the state space form of the subsonic piezo-composite plate model is derived by Hamilton’s principle with the assumed mode method. Then an state observer involving time varying delay is constructed and the sufficient condition of the asymptotic stability is derived by using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, descriptor method and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) for the state estimation error dynamical system. Subsequently, a sliding manifold is constructed on the estimation space. Then an observer-based controller is synthesized by using the SMC theory. The proposed SMC strategy ensures the reachability of the sliding manifold in the state estimate space. Finally, the simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed observer-based controller strategy is effective in active aeroelastic control of subsonic piezo-composite plate involving time varying measurement delay.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983373
  • Surge protection of centrifugal compressors using advanced anti-surge
           control system

    • Authors: Arslan Ahmed Amin, Muhammad Taimoor Maqsood, Khalid Mahmood-ul-Hasan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Centrifugal Compressors (CCs) are widely used equipment to transport the natural gas over long-distance pipelines from the gas processing facility to end consumers. Surge protection is of vital importance for such compressors to avoid costly damage to machine and production loss due to process interruption. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of CCs has been studied during four critical scenarios: high header pressure, low suction pressure, startup of the new unit, and emergency shutdown of the unit. The dynamic simulation has been carried out using HYSYS software and validated with an industrial scale CC plant. The advanced Anti-Surge Control (ASC) consists of a split PID control in contrast to conventional PID control. The simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of advanced ASC over a conventional one for the severe surge in the event of high header pressure and low suction pressure. The occurrence of surge during start-up and the emergency shutdown was handled with the full open operation of the Anti-Surge Valve (ASV). The proposed algorithm has proved successful in protecting the compressor during fast transients of the operating point towards the surge limit line. The study is significant for the oil and gas plants and other process industry professionals for designing effective ASC systems.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983372
  • A novel algorithm of ship structure modeling and target identification
           based on point cloud for automation in bulk cargo terminals

    • Authors: Yang Miao, Changan Li, Zhan Li, Yipeng Yang, Xinghu Yu
      First page: 155
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Achieving port automation of machinery at bulk terminals is a challenging problem due to the volatile operation environments and complexity of bulk loading compared to the situations in container terminals. In order to facilitate port automation, we present a method of hull modeling (reconstruction of hull’s structure) and operation target (cargo holds under loading) identification based on 3D point cloud collected by Laser Measurement System mounted on the ship loader. In the hull modeling algorithm, we incrementally register pairs of point clouds and reconstruct the 3D structure of bulk ship’s hull blocks in details through process of encoder data of the loader, FPFH feature matching and ICP algorithm. In the identification algorithm, we project real-time point clouds of the operation zone to spherical coordinate and transforms the 3D point clouds to 2D images for fast and reliable identification of operation target. Our method detects and complements four edges of the operation target through process of the 2D images and estimates both posture and size of operation target in the bulk terminal based on the complemented edges. Experimental trials show that our algorithm allows us to achieve the reconstruction of hull blocks and real-time identification of operation target with high accuracy and reliability.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T11:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021992804
  • Quantitative evaluation of eddy current distribution by relative entropy
           and cross entropy

    • Authors: Guolong Chen, Zheng Cao
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Koch curve exciting coil of an eddy current probe can adjust the eddy current distributing in more directions at a small domain to enhance the sensitivity of eddy current probe for short defect detection. In this study, a relative entropy and a cross entropy of tangential intersection angle spectrum are proposed to evaluate the eddy current distributions in the different directions when the eddy current probe is positioned at different lift-off distances and excited by different exciting frequency alternative currents. The eddy current distributions induced by a circular and a fractal Koch curve exciting coils are analyzed by the two entropy indices. With the increasing of the lift-off distance or the decreasing of the exciting frequency, the eddy current distributions induced by the Koch curve exciting coil are close to those induced by the circular exciting coil.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-27T07:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020984201
  • Comparing traditional and constrained disturbance-observer based
           positional control

    • Authors: Igor Bélai, Mikulas Huba, Damir Vrancic
      First page: 170
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper compares three different position controllers of electrical drives equipped by binomial [math] th order filters, which are offering filtering properties important in a quantization noise attenuation. To demonstrate their impact, a non-filtered P-PI control is considered, as a reference. The comparative framework includes a filtered P-PI control, a filtered linear pole assignment PD controllers with a disturbance observer (DO) based integral action and its constrained modification. In terms of a total variation, depending on noise and process properties, all filtered controllers are capable to bring down the undue controller activity at the plant input from 10 to more than 100 times. Furthermore, thanks to the applied disturbance observer, the constrained control derived for a double integrator is shown to fully exploit the closed loop capabilities without any trajectory generation, taking into account the control constraints. Thus, the simplified controller design may focus on other important aspects.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T06:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021989752
  • Guaranteed cost synchronization for second-order discrete-time multi-node
           networks with switching transmission topologies and cost limitations

    • Authors: Xinli Yin, Luogeng Tian, Bailong Yang, Zhong Wang, Kunyu Yang
      First page: 179
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The guaranteed cost synchronization control for discrete-time second-order leader-following multi-node networks with varying transmission topologies and cost limitations is investigated. First, the control law and its cost function are proposed to balance the tradeoff between the synchronization regulation and the control cost. Then, we derive the sufficient conditions without cost limitations to achieve guaranteed cost synchronization with varying transmission topologies, where the dimensions of matrix variables do not rely on the number of nodes. In addition, we calculate an upper bound on the cost consumption index, which is a function of the initial conditions. Moreover, guaranteed cost synchronization criteria are formulated for control with cost limitations, which are involved by establishing the relation between the cost limitation and the upper bound on the cost consumption index. Numerical simulation experiments were conducted to validate the theoretical results.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-27T07:50:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021989741
  • Estimation of aerodynamic noise of diaphragms through IEC 60534-8-3 and

    • Authors: Luca Fenini, Luca Nicola Quaroni, Stefano Malavasi
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The aerodynamic noise emitted by a subsonic flow of dry air through an orifice plate is estimated in terms of internal sound power level and external sound pressure level (SPL) by application of the methodology described in the international standard IEC 60534-8-3. A shortcoming of the standard in defining the efficiency of the transformation of the mechanical energy of the flow into acoustic energy is discussed. Experimental evidence of the matter is also described. An alternative model employing the resolution of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques for the calculation of the acoustic power generated by the turbulent flow through the orifice plate is applied so as to overcome the issue.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:50:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021989764
  • Numerical analysis of multi-scale pressure pulsation on the energy
           accumulation for submarine-based tracking and pointing systems

    • Authors: Liu Zongkai, Tang Zhaolie
      First page: 196
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      One of the main goals of submarine designers and researchers is to estimate the influence of submarine fluid dynamics for submarine-based optical tracking and pointing systems. In this study, firstly, based on the basic flow governing equation and hierarchical grids, the numerical simulation method of DNS (direct numerical simulation) is adopted to simulate the seawater flow around the submarine at 6° yaw angle and 107 Reynolds number. Secondly, the transformation equations from the earth coordinate system to the optical axis system have been deduced and the ultimate influence of pressure torques on the tracking system is studied. Transfer functions of the coarse channel direct current (DC) torque motor and fine channel fast steering mirror (FSM) also have been modeled and deduced. On this basis, the time domain step responses of both subsystems are analyzed by MATLAB Simulink. Finally, performance analyses have been deduced by comparing the error variation and vortices evolution. It revealed that the frequency characteristics of multi-scale pressure pulsation mainly depended on the lengths of submarine hull or its appendage, as well as the fluid dissipation and random interaction. In general, the coarse channel appears a good compensation performance at low frequency and large amplitude error that caused by the middle-scale pressure pulsation. Contrarily, the FSM fine channel exerts an excellent control effect for higher frequency and small amplitude error caused by small-scale pressure pulsations.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:48:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021989748
  • Uncertainty propagation on a nonlinear measurement model based on Taylor

    • Authors: Min-Hee Gu, Chihyun Cho, Hahng-Yun Chu, No-Weon Kang, Joo-Gwang Lee
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the propagation of uncertainty on a nonlinear measurement model is presented using a higher-order Taylor series. As the derived formula is based on a Taylor series, it is necessary to compute the partial derivatives of the nonlinear measurement model and the correlation among the various products of the input variables. To simplify the approximation of this formula, most previous studies assumed that the input variables follow independent Gaussian distributions. However, in this study, we generate multivariate random variables based on copulas and obtain the covariances among the products of various input variables. By applying the derived formula to various cases regardless of the error distribution, we obtained the results that coincide with those of a Monte-Carlo simulation. To apply high-order Taylor expansion, the nonlinear measurement model should be continuous within the range of the input variables to allow for differentiation, and be an analytic function in order to be represented by a power series. This approach may replace some time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations by choosing the appropriate order of the Taylor series, and can be used to check the linearity of the uncertainty.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T09:01:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021989740
  • Design and control of a passive compliant actuation with positioning
           measurement by LED and photodiode detector for medical application

    • Authors: Anan Suebsomran
      First page: 216
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Control of assistive exoskeleton robot recently has to be crucial of development and innovation of medical application. To support daily motions for humans, control application of assistive exoskeleton robot allows for limb movement with increased strength and endurance during patient’s wearable exoskeleton robot application. The interaction between such exoskeleton device and the human body at the connecting joint, especially the knees, is the main interest of this design formation. The assistive device requires to design and to develop into innovation design aspect. This research presents the novel design of an active compliant actuation joint in order to increasing the higher torque of actuation than conventional actuation joint. Control design of the higher torque actuation usually difficult priori to conventional torque control. This will contributed to applying the supervisory control for compliant actuation that verified by experiment method. Then the hybrid Radial Basis Function neural network (RBFNN) and PID were proposed for actuating torque control methods. Experimental results show that the design of supervisory control is get better response, and higher producing torque output than the conventional design. Error of torque control of compliant actuation is not instead of [math] N·m for applying supervisory control, RBFNN with PID controller. Indeed, the low electromagnetic interference (EMI) positioning system using LED and photodiode detector is proposed to be usable in medical application.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T05:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021989749
  • Vibration control of cantilever blade based on trailing-edge flap by
           restricted control input

    • Authors: Ting-Rui Liu, Ai-Ling Gong
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Vibration and control of cantilever blade with bending-twist coupling (BTC) based on trailing-edge flap (TEF) by restricted control input are investigated. The blade is a thin-walled structure using circumferentially asymmetric stiffness (CAS) configuration, with TEF embedded and hinged into the host composite structure along the entire blade span. The TEF structure is driven by quasi-steady aerodynamic forces. Vibration control is investigated based on linear matrix inequation (LMI) algorithm using restricted control input (LMI/RCI). Flutter suppression of BTC displacements and the angle of TEF (i.e. the practical control input) are illustrated, with apparently controlled effects demonstrated. The restricted control input signals are used to driven the TEF to explore the scope of the feasibility of the practical TEF angle, which is displayed by a virtual simulation platform. The platform verifies the feasibility of the hardware implementation for the control algorithms.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T07:07:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983377
  • Laboratory tests of the hydraulic pump operating load with monitoring of
           changes in the physical properties

    • Authors: Lubomir Hujo, Jozef Nosian, Marcin Zastempowski, Jan Kosiba, Jerzy Kaszkowiak, Matej Michalides
      First page: 243
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The present article deals with the physical properties monitoring of the transmission-hydraulic fluid, and changes of those properties due the operating load of the hydraulic pump in laboratory conditions. Tests of the transmission-hydraulic fluid were performed in laboratory conditions with the simulation of the operating load, so as to simulate the real conditions under which hydraulic circuit of the agricultural tractors operates. The universal transmission-hydraulic fluid was subjected to analysis, where the samples of the fluid were taken sequentially according to the chosen methodology at intervals of 250 and 500 h. The results of the present article include the evaluation of the physical properties of the fluid and the flow efficiency change of the hydraulic pump after 250 and 500 h of operation, while simulating the operation load. Based on a laboratory test, we found that after working for 500 h, the dynamic viscosity of the examined hydraulic fluid at 40°C decreased by 2.92 mPa.s and at 100°C decreased by 0.64 mPa.s. When determining the kinematic viscosity of the hydraulic fluid after working for 500 h, we recorded its decrease, namely, at a temperature of 40°C by a value of 3.37 mm2/s and at a temperature of 100°C, its value decreased by 0.77 mm2/s. In the analysis of the test oil samples, we found that the level of water contamination of the hydraulic fluid decreases with increasing number of hours worked. Specifically, the water concentration in the hydraulic fluid decreased by 0.031%. At the same time, we recorded a slight decrease in the flow efficiency of the hydraulic pump, specifically by a value of 0.03% after 500 h worked. After working 500 h, we found that the range of abrasion particles in the transmission-hydraulic fluid is within the prescribed range, which is determined by the standard D6595-00.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T07:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983385
  • Vibration isolation characteristics and control strategy of parallel air
           spring system for transportation under abnormal road and eccentric load

    • Authors: Di Qu, Xiandong Liu, Guangtong Liu, Tian He
      First page: 252
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The precision equipment bears the vibration excited by the road roughness during transportation, and faces the risk of damage arising from the vibration. The parallel air spring vibration isolation system (PAVS) has an excellent vibration isolation performance, so has a good application prospect in the precision equipment transportation. But under the conditions of abnormal road and eccentric load, PAVS bears great vibration excitation, and the resulting large deformation of air spring makes the air spring stiffness nonlinear, so to obtain an excellent vibration isolation performance faces a great challenge. Aiming at this problem, based on the measured parameters, the nonlinear dynamics model of PAVS is proposed. Then, the influence of air spring under large deformation on the vibration isolation characteristics is discussed. Finally, under the condition of eccentricity of precision equipment, the vibration isolation characteristics of PAVS with equal height control strategy is investigated. The results show that PAVS with the equal height control strategy has good vibration isolation characteristics. So for the transportation of large precision equipment, PAVS is a potentially useful method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-24T12:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021996631
  • Adaptive probability hypothesis density filter for multi-target tracking
           with unknown measurement noise statistics

    • Authors: Weijun Xu
      First page: 279
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Under the Gaussian noise assumption, the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter represents a promising tool for tracking a group of moving targets with a time-varying number. However, inaccurate prior statistics of the random noise will degrade the performance of the PHD filter in many practical applications. This paper presents an adaptive Gaussian mixture PHD (AGM-PHD) filter for the multi-target tracking (MTT) problem in the scenario where both the mean and covariance of measurement noise sequences are unknown. The conventional PHD filters are extended to jointly estimate both the multi-target state and the aforementioned measurement noise statistics. In particular, the Normal-inverse-Wishart and Gaussian distributions are first integrated to represent the joint posterior intensity by transforming the measurement model into a new formulation. Then, the updating rule for the hyperparameters of the model is derived in closed form based on variational Bayesian (VB) approximation and Bayesian conjugate prior heuristics. Finally, the dynamic system state and the noise statistics are updated sequentially in an iterative manner. Simulations results with both constant velocity and constant turn model demonstrate that the AGM-PHD filter achieves comparable performance as the ideal PHD filter with true measurement noise statistics.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T09:39:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021992800
  • Atmospheric PM2.5 concentration prediction and noise estimation based on
           adaptive unscented Kalman filtering

    • Authors: Jihan Li, Xiaoli Li, Kang Wang, Guimei Cui
      First page: 292
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the randomness and uncertainty in the atmospheric environment, and accompanied by a variety of unknown noise. Accurate prediction of PM2.5 concentration is very important for people to prevent injury effectively. In order to predict PM2.5 concentration more accurately in this environment, a hybrid modelling method of support vector regression and adaptive unscented Kalman filter (SVR-AUKF) is proposed to predict atmospheric PM2.5 concentration in the case of incorrect or unknown noise. Firstly, the PM2.5 concentration prediction model was established by support vector regression. Secondly, the state space framework of the model is combined with the adaptive unscented Kalman filter method to estimate the uncertain PM2.5 concentration state and noise through continuous updating when the model noise is incorrect or unknown. Finally, the proposed method is compared with SVR-UKF method, the simulation results show that the proposed method is more accurate and robust. The proposed method is compared with SVR-UKF, AR-Kalman, AR and BP methods. The simulation results show that the proposed method has higher prediction accuracy of PM2.5 concentration.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T06:36:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021997491
  • Social spider optimization algorithm for tuning parameters in PD-like
           Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller applied to a parallel robot

    • Authors: Amjad J Humaidi, Huda T Najem, Ayad Q Al-Dujaili, Daniel A Pereira, Ibraheem Kasim Ibraheem, Ahmad Taher Azar
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents control design based on an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (IT2FL) for the trajectory tracking of 3-RRR (3-Revolute-Revolute-Revolute) planar parallel robot. The design of Type-1 Fuzzy Logic Controller (T1FLC) is also considered for the purpose of comparison with the IT2FLC in terms of robustness and trajectory tracking characteristics. The scaling factors in the output and input of T1FL and IT2FL controllers play a vital role in improving the performance of the closed-loop system. However, using trial-and-error procedure for tuning these design parameters is exhaustive and hence an optimization technique is applied to achieve their optimal values and to reach an improved performance. In this study, Social Spider Optimization (SSO) algorithm is proposed as a useful tool to tune the parameters of proportional-derivative (PD) versions of both IT2FLC and T1FLC. Two scenarios, based on two square desired trajectories (with and without disturbance), have been tested to evaluate the tracking performance and robustness characteristics of proposed controllers. The effectiveness of controllers have been verified via numerical simulations based on MATLAB/SIMULINK programming software, which showed the superior of IT2FLC in terms of robustness and tracking errors.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T09:02:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021997483
  • Cross-coupled control based on real-time Double Circle contour error
           estimation for biaxial motion system

    • Authors: Li Bo, Wang Taiyong, Wang Peng
      First page: 324
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In contour machining, contour error is a major factor affecting machining quality. In order to improve the performance of contour following, many control techniques based on real-time contour error estimation have been developed. In this paper, a Double Circle contour error estimation method is proposed. First, based on the kinematic information of the reference point on the command trajectory, five interpolation points closest to the actual point are obtained. Then the approximate contour error is obtained by employing the Double Circle approximation method. Compared with the common contour error approximation methods, the proposed method can achieve high precision approximation. In addition, according to the proposed contour error approximation method, the cross-coupled control strategy is improved. Experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method and control strategy.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-27T01:20:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021993830
  • Hierarchical classification method of electricity consumption industries
           through TNPE and Bayes

    • Authors: Zi-Wen Gu, Peng Li, Xun Lang, Xin Shen, Min Cao, Xiao-Hua Yang
      First page: 346
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      As the multi-daily electricity consumption behaviors have the strong characteristics of dynamicity, nonlinearity and locality caused by temporal manifold structure, the existing methods are difficult to fine-grained and accurately classify it. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a hierarchical classification method based on the temporal extension of the neighborhood preserving embedding algorithm (TNPE) and Bayes. The input data are multi daily-load curves of a single consumer, including power-hour-day three dimensions, which contains the full information of the user’s consumption behaviors not only in hours, but also in days. Firstly, electricity consumption behaviors are divided into routine and non-routine types by k-means clustering algorithm. Secondly, the load feature mapping matrix of different industries is extracted through the TNPE, and each TNPE model can regard as one binary classifier, so the multi-classifier is constructed through multiple TNPE models. Finally, by converting the feature similarity between samples into probabilities, a Bayesian model is established to realize which the power consumption type belongs to. The case results show that this method can effectively recognize the local dynamic features in the temporal load data, and obtain a higher classification accuracy through a smaller number of training samples.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T06:56:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021997494
  • Modal parameters identification of bridge by improved stochastic subspace
           identification method with Grubbs criterion

    • Authors: Yulin Zhou, Xulei Jiang, Mingjin Zhang, Jinxiang Zhang, Hao Sun, Xin Li
      First page: 457
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In the wind tunnel test of a long-span bridge model, to ensure that the dynamic characteristics of the model can satisfy the test design requirements, it is particularly important to accurately identify the modal parameters of the model. First, the stochastic subspace identification algorithm was used to analyze the modal parameters of the model in the wind tunnel test; then, Grubbs criterion was introduced to effectively eliminate outliers in the damping ratio matrix. Stochastic subspace identification algorithm with Grubbs criterion improved the accuracy of the modal parameter identification and the ability to determine system matrix order and prevented the modal omissions caused by determining the stable condition of the damping ratio in the stability diagram. Finally, Oujiang Bridge was used as an example to verify the stochastic subspace identification algorithm with Grubbs criterion and compare with the results of the finite element method. The example shows that the improved method can be effectively applied to the modal parameter identification of bridges.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T09:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294021993831
  • RETRACTION NOTICE: Restricted release of skin cancer medicine based on
           fascination and dispersion rates using
           proportional–integral–derivative controller

    • First page: 538
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T01:41:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020986012
  • A scientometric analysis and critical review of gas turbine aero-engines
           control: From Whittle engine to more-electric propulsion

    • Authors: Seyed Jalal Mohammadi, Seyed Alireza Miran Fashandi, Soheil Jafari, Theoklis Nikolaidis
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The gas turbine aero-engine control systems over the past eight decades have been thoroughly investigated. This review purposes are to present a comprehensive reference for aero-engine control design and development based on a systematic scientometric analysis and to categorize different methods, algorithms, and approaches taken into account to improve the performance and operability of aircraft engines from the first days to present to enable this challenging technology to be adopted by aero-engine manufacturers. Initially, the benefits of the control systems are restated in terms of improved engine efficiency, reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and improved fuel economy. This is followed by a historical coverage of the proposed concepts dating back to 1936. A comprehensive scientometric analysis is then presented to introduce the main milestones in aero-engines control. Possible control strategies and concepts are classified into four distinct phases, including Single input- single output control algorithms, MIN-MAX or Cascade control algorithms, advanced control algorithms, More-electric and electronic control algorithms and critically reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of milestones are discussed to cover all practical aspects of the review to enable the researchers to identify the current challenges in aircraft engine control systems.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T09:47:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020956675
  • Boom motion trajectory generation approach for load sway rejection in
           rotary cranes considering double-pendulum effect

    • Authors: Huimin Ouyang, Xiang Xu, Guangming Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In the control research on the rotary crane systems with double-pendulum effect, a motion trajectory with both simple structure and excellent robust performance is proposed to achieve the positioning of the boom and the suppression of the load sway. The presented trajectory consists of an anti-swing component and a boom positioning component, where the first part is used to achieve the sway angle elimination without affecting boom positioning; the second one is used to move the boom to the desired location precisely. The Lyapunov technique, LaSalle’s invariance theorem, and Barbalat’s lemma are used to prove the excellent performance of the method. Eventually, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified through a large amount of simulation data analysis.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T08:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944964
  • Multi-objective parametric optimization for high surface quality and
           process efficiency in micro-grinding

    • Authors: Jun Wang, Qiang Ye, Man Zhao, Xusheng Shi, Tingwei Fei
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, for the selection of maximum material removal rate and minimum surface roughness [math] in micro-grinding of aluminum alloy through multi-response optimization, two optimization approaches are proposed based on statistical analysis and genetic algorithm. The statistical analysis–based approach applies response surface methodology according to the analysis of variance to propose a mathematical model for [math]. In addition, the individual desirability of material removal rate, [math], and the global desirability function are calculated, and the inverse analysis is conducted to locate input setting giving maximum desirability function. The genetic algorithm–based approach uses the improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization with the experimental data trained by support vector machine. To demonstrate that the material microstructure is a significant parameter for material removal rate and [math], the models with and without Taylor factor consideration are developed and compared. The optimized results achieved from both response surface methodology and improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization demonstrate that the consideration of Taylor factor can significantly improve the optimization process to achieve the maximum material removal rate and minimum [math].
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T12:00:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944953
  • Dynamic flexible job shop scheduling method based on improved gene
           expression programming

    • Authors: Chunjiang Zhang, Yin Zhou, Kunkun Peng, Xinyu Li, Kunlei Lian, Suyan Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Dynamic scheduling is one of the most important key technologies in production and flexible job shop is widespread. Therefore, this paper considers a dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem considering setup time and random job arrival. To solve this problem, a dynamic scheduling framework based on the improved gene expression programming algorithm is proposed to construct scheduling rules. In this framework, the variable neighborhood search using four efficient neighborhood structures is combined with gene expression programming algorithm. And, an adaptive method adjusting recombination rate and transposition rate in the evolutionary progress is proposed. The test results on 24 groups of instances with different scales show that the improved gene expression programming performs better than the standard gene expression programming, genetic programming, and scheduling rules.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T07:53:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020946352
  • Nonlinear differential and integral sliding mode control for wave
           compensation system of ship-borne manipulator

    • Authors: Zhiqiang Xu, Zhiyong Wang, Zhixin Shen, Yougang Sun
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Ship-borne manipulator system is extremely unstable under the complex marine environment, which seriously threatens the safety of operating equipment and operators. In this paper, the dynamics and robust control of wave compensation system for ship-borne manipulator are studied. First, based on the oil circuit variable amplitude control of ship-borne manipulator, the coupling dynamic model of valve-controlled cylinder parallel accumulator is established. Then, since traditional sliding mode needs high-order derivative of feedback angle, it is difficult to implement traditional sliding mode in real hardware system. To solve these problems, a nonlinear differential and integral sliding mode control strategy is proposed. The integral term is introduced to reduce the influence of unmodeled disturbance and parameter perturbation. The stability analysis proves that the system state can track the desired target signal, and the tracking error e(t) tends to zero. In addition, in order to weaken the phenomenon of system chattering, this paper introduces a nonlinear differential control to increase the damping coefficient of the system. The simulation and experimental results show that the control law has good dynamic performance, high control accuracy, and strong anti-disturbance ability without chattering phenomenon. It is of great significance to improve the efficiency and safety of ship-borne manipulator operation, and this paper also provides useful reference for wave compensation system of other marine equipment.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T07:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944956
  • Multi-objective numerical simulation of geometrical characteristics of
           laser cladding of cobalt-based alloy based on response surface methodology

    • Authors: Lu-jun Cui, Meng Zhang, Shi-Rui Guo, Yan-Long Cao, Wen-Han Zeng, Xiao-lei Li, Bo Zheng
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The objectives of this study are to optimize the key process parameters of laser cladding remanufacturing parts, improve the sealing quality of the hemispherical valve and prolong and improve its service life and reliability. A high-power fiber-coupled semiconductor laser was used to fabricate a single Co-based alloy cladding layer on the pump valve material ZG45 plate. The key process parameters of laser power, scanning speed and powder feeding rate in the process of laser remanufacturing are taken as optimization variables, and the coating width, coating height, coating depth, aspect ratio and dilution rate are taken as response indexes. Based on the response surface analysis method, the central compound experiment is designed using Design-Expert software. The variance analysis of the experimental results is performed, and the regression prediction model of the process parameters relative to the corresponding index is established. Through analysis of the established perturbation diagram and three-dimensional response surface, it is concluded that the main influence factors of melting width and penetration depth are laser power and positive effect, and the main influence factors of melting height are scanning speed and negative effect. The average error of each regression prediction model is lower than 10%. The above research work has important guiding significance for optimizing the process parameters and improving the cladding quality of cobalt-based alloy on ZG45.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T06:43:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944955
  • Sparse Fourier transform and amplitude–frequency characteristics
           analysis of vortex street signal

    • Authors: Jie Chen, Yun Cao, Chengyi Wang, Bin Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Vortex flowmeter is a commonly used flow measurement device. It is almost not affected by the density and viscosity of the fluid, so the vortex flowmeter can be used for the detection of various medium, such as gas, liquid and steam. When dealing with vortex street signal, we usually use fast Fourier transform to calculate the signal frequency, but this traditional vortex street signal processing method is not only inefficient, but also difficult to filter out noise signals in the same frequency band as the vortex signal. The sparse Fourier transform utilizes the sparsity of the signal to efficiently calculate the signal spectrum, and the computational complexity is lower than that of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. In this paper, the amplitude and frequency of the vortex signal is analyzed by sparse Fourier transform and the noise signal is removed based on the amplitude–frequency characteristics of the vortex signal. Finally, by comparing with the other methods, we found that the time complexity of our algorithm is one-tenth of others’ methods. This means that our approach is 10 times faster than others.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-12T11:10:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919870
  • 3D target localization based on multi–unmanned aerial vehicle

    • Authors: Cheng Xu, Chanjuan Yin, Daqing Huang, Wei Han, Dongzhen Wang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Ground target three-dimensional positions measured from optical remote-sensing images taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle play an important role in related military and civil applications. The weakness of this system lies in its localization accuracy being unstable and its efficiency being low when using a single unmanned aerial vehicle. In this paper, a novel multi–unmanned aerial vehicle cooperative target localization measurement method is proposed to overcome these issues. In the target localization measurement stage, three or more unmanned aerial vehicles simultaneously observe the same ground target and acquire multiple remote-sensing images. According to the principle of perspective projection, the target point, its image point, and the camera’s optic center are collinear, and nonlinear observation equations are established. These equations are then converted to linear equations using a Taylor expansion. Robust weighted least-squares estimation is used to solve the equations with the objective function of minimizing the weighted square sum of re-projection errors from target points to multiple pairs of images, which can make the best use of the effective information and avoid interference from the observation data. An automatic calculation strategy using a weight matrix is designed, and the weight matrix and target-position coordinate value are updated in each iteration until the iteration stopping condition is satisfied. Compared with the stereo-image-pair cross-target localization method, the multi–unmanned aerial vehicle cooperative target localization method can use more observation information, which results in higher rendezvous accuracy and improved performance. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of this method is verified by numerical simulation and flight testing. The results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the precision of the target’s localization and demonstrates great potential for providing more accurate target localization in engineering applications.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-11T05:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020922268
  • Modeling and optimization of machining parameters in milling of
           INCONEL-800 super alloy considering energy, productivity, and quality
           using nanoparticle suspended lubrication

    • Authors: Te-Ching Hsiao, Ngoc-Chien Vu, Ming-Chang Tsai, Xuan-Phuong Dang, Shyh-Chour Huang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Inconel-800 super alloy is a newly difficult-to-cut material. To improve the cutting conditions for this metal, sustainable methods in which minimum quantity lubrication enhanced with suspended nanoparticle were employed. This work also aims to model the relationship between process parameters (cutting speed, feed per tooth, depth of cut, and corner radius of cutting tool) and machining responses (surface roughness, specific cutting energy, cutting power, and material removal rate) using orthogonal array design of experiment and response surface methodology. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to solve the multi-objective optimization problems in terms of energy, productivity, and quality of the machining process. The results indicate that the application of the response surface methodology model in combination with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is appropriate for this study due to the goodness of fit of response surface methodology and the global optimum solution of genetic algorithm. Because multi-objective optimization gives multiple solutions, Pareto plot and data mining are employed to support the selection of process parameters that can save time and cost and increase energy efficiency, meanwhile, simultaneously improve productivity and surface quality. The research results show that the specific cutting energy and energy consumption can be reduced up to 20.2% and 6.4%, respectively.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T10:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020925842
  • A novel distributed event-triggered control for reactive power sharing
           based on hierarchical structure in islanded microgrid

    • Authors: Yingwen Long, Yanxiang Zhu, Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Due to line impedance mismatches, nonlinear loads and other reasons, the traditional droop control algorithms have great limitations on the control of reactive power sharing. Distributed control algorithms based on hierarchical structure have become an effective approach for reactive power sharing compared with traditional centralized control methods. In this paper, an event-triggered control algorithm based on stability analysis of Lyapunov method is put forward in order to satisfy the demand of low-bandwidth communication for distributed generator in islanded microgrid. Subsequently, a distributed hierarchical control scheme adopting proposed event-triggered strategy is designed to achieve proportional reactive power sharing in an islanded microgrid. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the proposed algorithm are further verified in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T11:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020924754
  • Model-free active input–output feedback linearization of a single-link
           flexible joint manipulator: An improved active disturbance rejection
           control approach

    • Authors: Wameedh Riyadh Abdul-Adheem, Ibraheem Kasim Ibraheem, Amjad J Humaidi, Ahmad Taher Azar
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional input–output feedback linearization requires full knowledge of system dynamics and assumes no disturbance at the input channel and no system’s uncertainties. In this paper, a model-free active input–output feedback linearization technique based on an improved active disturbance rejection control paradigm is proposed to design feedback linearization control law for a generalized nonlinear system with a known relative degree. The linearization control law is composed of a scaled generalized disturbance estimated by an improved nonlinear extended state observer with saturation-like behavior and the nominal control signal produced by an improved nonlinear state error feedback. The proposed active input–output feedback linearization cancels in real-time fashion the generalized disturbances which represent all the unwanted dynamics, exogenous disturbances, and system uncertainties and transforms the system into a chain of integrators up to the relative degree of the system, which is the only information required about the nonlinear system. Stability analysis has been conducted based on the Lyapunov functions and revealed the convergence of the improved nonlinear extended state observer and the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. Verification of the outcomes has been achieved by applying the proposed active input–output feedback linearization technique on the single-link flexible joint manipulator. The simulations results validated the effectiveness of the proposed active input–output feedback linearization tool based on improved active disturbance rejection control as compared to the conventional active disturbance rejection control–based active input–output feedback linearization and the traditional input–output feedback linearization techniques.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T09:38:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020917171
  • Point cloud clustering and outlier detection based on spatial neighbor
           connected region labeling

    • Authors: Xiaocui Yuan, Huawei Chen, Baoling Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Clustering analysis is one of the most important techniques in point cloud processing, such as registration, segmentation, and outlier detection. However, most of the existing clustering algorithms exhibit a low computational efficiency with the high demand for computational resources, especially for large data processing. Sometimes, clusters and outliers are inseparable, especially for those point clouds with outliers. Most of the cluster-based algorithms can well identify cluster outliers but sparse outliers. We develop a novel clustering method, called spatial neighborhood connected region labeling. The method defines spatial connectivity criterion, finds points connections based on the connectivity criterion among the k-nearest neighborhood region and classifies connected points to the same cluster. Our method can accurately and quickly classify datasets using only one parameter k. Comparing with K-means, hierarchical clustering and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise methods, our method provides better accuracy using less computational time for data clustering. For applications in the outlier detection of the point cloud, our method can identify not only cluster outliers, but also sparse outliers. More accurate detection results are achieved compared to the state-of-art outlier detection methods, such as local outlier factor and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:34:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919869
  • Improved gravity model under policy control in regional logistics

    • Authors: Hongchun Wang, Mengyao Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Regional logistics has become an important direction of logistics development. The rationality of regional logistics network layout will affect the regional development. And the measurement and calculation of node gravity is an important aspect affecting the layout of logistics network. Nowadays, the traditional gravity model cannot measure the condition of a network properly. This paper focuses on the nodal gravity measurement in the logistics network and constructs an improved gravity model considering the role of policy. Quantifying the policy factors makes the measurement more realistic. We test our model on a famous regional logistics network in China. Result shows that cities are greatly influenced by policies, which change the node gravity obviously and even change the gravity level of logistics. This paper shows that the traditional gravity model ignores the impact of policy quantification on logistics gravity, and the improved gravity model that proposed in this paper has more practical significance.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919849
  • Efficient neural learning control of nonlinear dynamics with applications

    • Authors: Ruixin Liu, Xiaogang Huang, Chunning Liu, Fucheng Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The control of nonlinear dynamics is gaining increasing attention since many practical systems are with such kind of characteristics. To deal with the system uncertainty, in this paper, the efficient learning control using neural network is proposed for the nonlinear strict-feedback system. The whole scheme is with the back-stepping design, while the novel learning is proposed for the neural network weights update. To deal with the approximation error, the robust item is added. The stability of the closed-loop dynamics is analysed and the effectiveness of the design is verified through flight simulation.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:29:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919904
  • Multi-objective optimization of hard milling process of AISI H13 in terms
           of productivity, quality, and cutting energy under nanofluid minimum
           quantity lubrication condition

    • Authors: Ngoc-Chien Vu, Xuan-Phuong Dang, Shyh-Chour Huang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the multi-objective optimization of the hard milling process of AISI H13 steel under minimum quality lubricant with graphite nanoparticle. The cutting speed, feed per tooth, depth of cut, and hardness of workpiece were taken as the process parameters, while surface roughness, cutting energy, cutting temperature, and material removal rate were considered as technological responses. Response surface or Kriging approximate models were applied to generate the mathematical regression models showing the relationship between machining inputs and outputs obtained by physical experiments. Then, multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm in conjunction with the Pareto approach and engineering data mining was adopted to figure out the feasible solutions. The research results show that cutting energy can be reduced up to around 14% compared to the worst case. Based on the Pareto plot, the appropriate selection of machining parameters can help the machine tool operator to increase machining productivity and energy efficiency.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919457
  • Leader–follower formation source seeking control of multiple ships using
           sliding mode active disturbance rejection observer

    • Authors: Zhicheng Yuan, Benchao Wu, Jiayi He, Xingchen Fu, Hua Chen
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the control of multiple ships for unknown scalar field source seeking problem with unknown external disturbances is considered. The sliding mode active disturbance rejection observers are designed first to converge to fixed multiple of the unknown external disturbances in finite time, respectively, and a least square method is adopted to estimate the gradient of the unknown scalar field at the position of the leading ship. Second, the surge, sway and angle velocity of the leading ship can converge to the virtual kinematic controllers through the input control of the dynamic controllers using force and torque in finite time. Third, the virtual controllers and dynamic controllers of the following ships are developed to urge the following ships to accomplish the source seeking problem from the perspective of dynamics. Finally, theoretical proofs and simulations are provided to prove the effectiveness of the strategy proposed.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919925
  • Path planning of multiple UAVs using MMACO and DE algorithm in dynamic

    • Authors: Zain Anwar Ali, Han Zhangang, Di Zhengru
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Cooperative path planning of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles is a complex task. The collision avoidance and coordination between multiple unmanned aerial vehicles is a global optimal issue. This research addresses the path planning of multi-colonies with multiple unmanned aerial vehicles in dynamic environment. To observe the model of whole scenario, we combine maximum–minimum ant colony optimization and differential evolution to make metaheuristic optimization algorithm. Our designed algorithm, controls the deficiencies of present classical ant colony optimization and maximum–minimum ant colony optimization, has the contradiction among the excessive information and global optimization. Moreover, in our proposed algorithm, maximum–minimum ant colony optimization is used to lemmatize the pheromone and only best ant of each colony is able to construct the path. However, the path escape by maximum–minimum ant colony optimization and it treated as the object for differential evolution constraints. Now, it is ensuring to find the best global colony, which provides optimal solution for the entire colony. Furthermore, the proposed approach has an ability to increase the robustness while preserving the global convergence speed. Finally, the simulation experiment results are performed under the rough dynamic environment containing some high peaks and mountains.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:20:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020915727
  • An error-based active disturbance rejection control with memory structure

    • Authors: Sen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Zhiliang Zhao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The paper studies the control problem for nonlinear uncertain systems with the situation that only the current reference signal is available. By constructing a memory structure to save the previous reference signals, a novel error-based active disturbance rejection control with an approximation for the second-order derivative of reference signal is proposed. The transient performance of the proposed method is rigorously studied, which implies the high consistence of the closed-loop system. More importantly, to attain the satisfactory tracking performance, the necessary condition for nominal control input gain is quantitatively investigated. Furthermore, the superiority of the proposed method is illuminated by contrastively evaluating the sizes of the total disturbance and its derivative. The proposed method can alleviate the burden of the estimation and compensation for total disturbance. Finally, the experiment for a manipulator platform shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020915219
  • Angular velocity fusion of the microelectromechanical system inertial
           measurement unit array based on extended Kalman filter with correlated
           system noises

    • Authors: Li Xing, Xiaowei Tu, Weixing Qian, Yang Jin, Pei Qi
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The paper proposes an angular velocity fusion method of the microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit array based on the extended Kalman filter with correlated system noises. In the proposed method, an adaptive model of the angular velocity is built according to the motion characteristics of the vehicles and it is regarded as the state equation to estimate the angular velocity. The signal model of gyroscopes and accelerometers in the microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit array is used as the measurement equation to fuse and estimate the angular velocity. Due to the correlation of the state and measurement noises in the presented fusion model, the traditional extended Kalman filter equations are optimized, so as to accurately and reliably estimate the angular velocity. By simulating angular rates in different motion modes, such as constant and change-in-time angular rates, it is verified that the proposed method can reliably estimate angular rates, even when the angular rate has been out of the microelectromechanical system gyroscope measurement range. And results show that, compared with the traditional angular rate fusion method of microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit array, it can estimate angular rates more accurately. Moreover, in the kinematic vehicle experiments, the performance advantage of the proposed method is also verified and the angular rate estimation accuracy can be increased by about 1.5 times compared to the traditional method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:41:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020917702
  • Fatigue life estimation of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle engine by
           grey forecasting

    • Authors: Noor Muhammad, Zhigeng Fang, Yingsai Cao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      To avoid infrared or thermal signatures of the fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle, the engine is encapsulated in a special cowling that limits the ventilation and causes thermal stress. The stressed condition heats up the engine and accelerates the degradation process compromising life and causing early failure. Fatigue life estimation can help to predict and prevent sudden failure and improve safety and reliability. The study presents a grey forecasting methodology for estimating the fatigue life of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle engines operating under a stressed environment. Grey forecasting models are used for fatigue life estimation of the unmanned aerial vehicle engine using degradation data of output power for reliable flight hours (50 h). The result of grey forecasting models reveals that under normal operation, engine power drops to a threshold value of 9.4 kW (below this engine does not remain flight worthy) after 100 h. The forecasted life is in close agreement with the specification of the engine under normal operating conditions. This validates the accuracy of forecasting models. Furthermore, the forecast models are applied to estimate the fatigue life using degradation data in a stressed environment, which comes out to be 70 h. The study proposes application of grey forecasting to predict mechanical degradation and early failures by considering single or multiple parameters undergoing degradation and having limited data samples. Forecasting results are compared with other prediction tools like autoregressive–moving-average and found more accurate which shows the significance of grey forecasting models in a limited data sample environment. The results are also compared with exponential regression and found in close agreement but more robust.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:37:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020915215
  • Controlling of the melting through porous medium and magnetic field

    • Authors: Taza Gul, Raja S Gul, Waqas Noman, Fawad Hussain, Iraj S Amiri
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The melting procedure with a direct contact of phase change material is taken into account to consider the porous medium in the presence of a uniform and transverse magnetic field. A permeable rotating disk is taken as a heater in the melting progression of solid phase change material. The three-dimensional melting layer takes place due to the accruing of the temperature difference among the porous disk and solid material. Movement is subject to the effect of pressure loading (counting the weight of solid), direct relation with solid and rotation due to centrifugal force. The removal of melting is controlled due to the joint exertions of the porous media, wall permeability and resistive force generated due to the applied magnetic field. The motion of the melting layer is assumed unsteady and governed the nonlinear similarity equations. Furthermore, magnetic field, porosity, external load and wall suction enhance melting and heat transfer rates at the thin melts film thickness. The melting rate, momentum and thermal boundary layers are estimated under the impact of Stefan number, magnetic field, porosity parameter and unsteadiness parameter. The Eckert number enhances the thermal boundary layer, and consequently the larger amount of melting received. The governing PDEs is highly nonlinear; thus for the solution we use analytical method of HAM and BVPh 2.0 package. The important outputs of the thickness of the thin layer during melting process in the presence and absence of wall suction are mainly focused.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:34:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919918
  • Experimental validation of fractional order internal model controller
           design on buck and boost converter

    • Authors: Shivam Jain, Yogesh V Hote, Padmalaya Dehuri, Deeksha Mittal, Vishwanatha Siddhartha
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, fractional order internal model control technique is formulated for non-ideal dc–dc buck and boost converter. The fractional order internal model control approach integrates the concept of Commande Robuste d’Ordre Non Entier principle for tuning a fractional order filter with internal model control scheme. The final controller can be expressed as a series combination of proportional integral derivative controller and a fractional order low pass filter. To assess the robustness of the proposed fractional order internal model control scheme, both the servo response and regulatory response of the dc–dc converters are investigated in the presence of disturbances. The efficacy of fractional order internal model control technique is demonstrated via comparison with 2 degrees of freedom internal model control scheme. Furthermore, an experimental validation of fractional order internal model control is conducted on laboratory setup, and a dSPACE 1104 microcontroller is used for hardware implementation. The simulation results and the hardware validation are a testimony to the effectiveness of fractional order internal model control technique.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020922264
  • Reliability prediction of further transit service based on support vector

    • Authors: Xiaoning Gu, Chao Chen, Yunong Yang, Xingzhi Miao, Baozhen Yao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The requirement for transit reliability grows with the increase of pace of life since unstable bus arrivals can raise the anxiety of waiting passengers. This paper proposes a reliability assessment method to evaluate the reliability of each bus stop on the route and the reliability of bus routes. In reliability prediction, the prediction target is locked by rolling horizon to reduce the interference of other information. In addition, a prediction method of the reliability of further transit service using the accurate online support vector machine is proposed. This prediction can provide more accurate and stable data for the arrival of buses and reduce unnecessary waiting of passengers. Finally, the reliability prediction method proposed is tested with the real data of a bus route in Dalian, China. The results show that the accurate online support vector machine with reasonable parameters can predict the reliability of transit service accurately.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:28:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294019858101
  • CORRIGENDUM: Experimental investigations on the performance and noise
           characteristics of a forward-curved fan with the stepped tongue

    • Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T01:04:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020927588
  • N-version programming approach with implicit safety guarantee for complex
           dynamic system stabilization applications

    • Authors: Nadir Subasi, Ufuk Guner, Ilker Ustoglu
      First page: 269
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Safety-critical systems are widely used in many sectors to prevent fatal accidents and prevent loss of life, damage of property, or deterioration of the environment. Implementation of software safety standards as part of the development of safety-critical software is generally considered an essential element of any safety program. Therefore, it has become more critical to produce highly reliable software to meet the safety requirements established by functional safety standards, such as IEC 61508, ISO 26262, and EN 50128. IEC 61508 supports well-known safety mechanisms such as design diversity like N-version (multi-version) programming. N-version (multi-version) programming is a method where multiple functionally equivalent programs are independently developed from the same software specifications. N-version (multi-version) programming is particularly an effective approach to increase the quality of software in a safety-critical system. In this paper, one of the well-known and widely used algorithms in the field of N-version (multi-version) programming, the majority voting algorithm, has been modified with an online stability checker where the decisions of the voter are judged against the stability of the underlying system. The plant where all the theoretical results are implemented is a tilt-rotor system with the proposed N-version (multi-version) programming–based controller. The experimental results show that the modified majority voter-based N-version (multi-version) programming controller provides more reliable control of the plant.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294019887473
  • Free space traveling–standing wave attenuation method for microwave
           sensing of grain moisture content

    • Authors: Chenxiao Li, Xiaoting Yu, Zezhao Chen, Qian Song, Yanlei Xu
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Moisture content is an important index to assess the grain quality and food processing conditions. A measurement system based on the traveling–standing microwave attenuation method is designed for a fast and nondestructive grain moisture content determination. The proposed system consists of a microwave cavity oscillator, microwave transmitting and receiving horn antennas, microwave detector, slide rail, sample container, weight sensor, temperature sensor, and controller. The traveling–standing wave caused by free space microwave multiple reflection is discussed. The moisture content calibration functions eliminated the interference of bulk density and temperature are proposed based on the attenuation of the maximum field strength of the transmission traveling–standing wave. The moisture content of rice, which ranges from 10.75% to 27.62%, is obtained with a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.586% and a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.988, whereas the moisture content of corn, which ranges from 7.72% to 24.46%, is obtained with a SEP of 0.340% and R2 of 0.991. The main results might provide technical support for the development of accurate and intelligent grain quality detection equipment.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T07:15:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020962138
  • Automatic detection of petiole border in plant leaves

    • Authors: Abdullah Elen, Emre Avuçlu
      First page: 446
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Plants are our source of oxygen and nutrients on earth. Therefore, conservation of biodiversity is vital for the survival of other species. With the developing technology, plant species can be examined more closely. Image processing, which is a subject of computer science, has an important role in this field. In this study, an image processing–based method has been developed to automatically separate the petiole region of the plant leaves. To determine the boundary line of the petiole region, the cumulative pixel distributions of the input images in binary format according to the X- and Y-axis are analyzed. Accordingly, optimum thresholds and petiole boundary points are determined. The proposed method was tested on 795 leaf images from 90 different plant species that grow both as trees and shrubs in the Czech Republic. According to the results obtained in experimental studies, it is thought that the proposed method will make an important contribution especially in studies such as automatic classification of plants and leaves and determination of plant species in botanical science.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020917701
  • Numerical investigation of the dynamic responses of steel-concrete girder
           bridges subjected to moving vehicular loads

    • Authors: Qingfei Gao, Kun Zhang, Tong Wang, Weikang Peng, Chengqing Liu
      First page: 465
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The steel-concrete composite girder bridge is a new type of bridge. The steel girder and concrete slab are connected together by connectors and bear the common force so that the tensile performance of steel and the compressive performance of concrete can be fully utilized. The advantages are obvious. However, research on the dynamic analysis of steel-concrete composite beam bridges is still relatively rare, and the dynamic effects on these bridges from vehicles are becoming increasingly significant. In this paper, a more complex steel-concrete composite simply supported beam bridge model and the entire vehicle model are established, and five steel-concrete connection levels of the bridge model are considered. Using the finite element model, the effects of five factors, namely, bridge natural frequency, vehicle natural frequency, vehicle speed, vehicle lateral position and bridge deck roughness, on the dynamic load allowance (DLA) of the composite girder bridge are studied. The influence of vehicle speed and bridge surface roughness on the DLA has a strong regularity. The change in the DLA of the lateral position of the vehicle is highly symmetrical, and the DLA value at the side beam is larger than that of the center beam. Changes in bridge vibration frequency and vehicle vibration frequency can bring about significant changes in the DLA, and the closer the two frequencies are, the more significant the DLA increases, and the more likely it is to produce resonance.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-12-29T11:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020981406
  • Measuring impurity content in pipelines by positron annihilation

    • Authors: Yahan Yu, Min Zhao, Jun Xu, Min Yao, Ruipeng Guo, Weiyi Yu, Chang Liu
      First page: 485
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      γ photon pairs produced by positron annihilation can penetrate metals well; thus, they can be used for nondestructive detection of the inner state of metal pipelines. An experimental device is designed to simulate the working state of lube oil pipelines and inject nuclide into it. A symmetrical structure and a ratio algorithm are proposed considering the effects of various factors. Two sensors with good consistency are used to record the number of γ photon events in liquids with and without impurities. The ratio of the recorded events of reference and impurity sensors is taken as the test result of impurity content. The advantage of the method proposed in this paper is that it can eliminate the environmental error and inconsistency of the sensors by using ratio calculation and improve the measurement accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed detection scheme and algorithm can well detect impurity content, including metal, in various pipelines. The detection accuracy of matched sensors can exceed 2%. Detected impurities are not limited to metal particles. Thus, the proposed method can be applied to in situ and online detection of impurities in oil piping systems equipped with engines.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-06T10:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020968594
  • A homogeneous extended state estimator-based super-twisting sliding mode
           compensator for matched and unmatched uncertainties

    • Authors: Ankur Goel, Saleh Mobayen, Afef Fekih
      First page: 494
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this research work, an output tracking problem of a kind of nonlinear motion control systems influenced by exogenous uncertainties using second-order super-twisting sliding mode control is studied. It is shown that when second-order super-twisting sliding mode control is implemented with finite-time convergent homogeneous extended state observer, the second-order sliding mode is achieved on the selected sliding manifold with efficient disturbance attenuation from the output. The presented control structure is tested on the air-gap control of an electromagnetic levitation suspension system using MATLAB platform. The observations prove the efficacy of the proposed algorithm providing excellent robust control efficiency along with precise attenuation of various disturbances.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-08T10:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020922273
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