Subjects -> INSTRUMENTS (Total: 63 journals)
Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Computational Visual Media     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Devices and Methods of Measurements     Open Access  
Documenta & Instrumenta - Documenta et Instrumenta     Open Access  
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Sensors Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
IEEE Sensors Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Imaging & Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
InfoTekJar : Jurnal Nasional Informatika dan Teknologi Jaringan     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
International Journal of Sensor Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Invention Disclosure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Instrumentation Technology & Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research of NIST     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Informatika Upgris     Open Access  
Measurement : Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Measurement and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Measurement Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrology and Instruments / Метрологія та прилади     Open Access  
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Standards     Open Access  
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Videoscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Труды СПИИРАН     Open Access  
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Journal of Research of NIST
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.42
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1044-677X
Published by National Institute of Standards and Technology Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Androgenic ability and plant regeneration potential in some tomato
           varieties

    • Authors: Adriana BĂDULESCU, Anamaria M. DUMITRU, Andreea E. MANOLESCU, Dorin I. SUMEDREA, Carmen F. POPESCU
      Pages: 12413 - 12413
      Abstract: Aiming to evaluate the in vitro regeneration potential, five varieties of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) were studied for their response in anther culture. Anther explants at an early stage of microspore development were inoculated onto three culture media. The first differentiation processes were recorded during the first three weeks of culture, in darkness. The statistical analysis of the data recorded during the anther culture showed significant differences between genotypes regarding their specific response to culture conditions and the significant influence of the initiation medium composition in triggering the differentiation processes. Under the tested conditions were induced: the embryogenic potential in three genotypes (ʻȘtefănești 22ʼ, ʻCostate 21ʼ and ʻChihlimbarʼ) and the indirect organogenesis in two genotypes (ʻArgeș 20ʼ and ʻCostate 21ʼ). Morphological characteristics of anther-derived plants from ʻArgeș 20ʼ variety, grown in greenhouse conditions (growth rate, features of leaf,  flower, and fruit), as well as analyses with nine SSR markers (banding patterns, the coefficient of genetic similarity, and the polymorphism information content) in DNA samples from each regenerant and the donor variety, provided clear evidence of the occurrence of spontaneous genetic variation during in vitro anther culture, and of the existence of somaclonal variation in regenerated plants. The amplified products obtained with SSR primers revealed a total number of scorable bands of 160 and a mean percentage of polymorphic bands of 21.09%. Two out of the nine tested primers, SSR63 and SLM6-7 proved to be efficient in detecting genetic differences not only among regenerants but also between them and the donor genotype.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112413
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Extraction and characterization of mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica
           cultivated on hydroponic system

    • Authors: Brenda LUNA-SOSA, Guillermo C.G. MARTÍNEZ-ÁVILA, Humberto RODRÍGUEZ-FUENTES, Lorenzo M. PASTRANA, Ana G. AZEVEDO, Dulce C. GONZÁLEZ-SANDOVAL, Miguel A. CERQUEIRA, Romeo ROJAS
      Pages: 12460 - 12460
      Abstract: An interesting component of Opuntia ficus-indica is the mucilage for its properties and industrial uses. However, the great variability of its quantity and quality caused by different growing conditions, the hydroponic system is an alternative. The objective of the present study was cultivating 4 species of Mexican Nopal in a hydroponic system, extract and characterize the mucilage. The characterization consists of pH, ºBrix, colour, proximal analysis, phenols, antioxidant activity, crystallinity, and chemical bonding constituents. ‘Copena F1’ is the best alternative for production of biomass and mucilage. ‘Villanueva’ had high levels of phenols (1,311.83 mg GAE g-1), antioxidant capacity ABTS·+ (6,301.12 mg TE g-1) and FRAP (536.26 mg GAE g-1). A large amount of lipids (1.39%), and nitrogen-free extract (49.27%). The functional groups of the mucilage were identified (-OH, -CH, -CH2, -CH3, C=C, HCH, -CHO) and gypsum, cellulose, SiO2 CaSO4, C2H2K2O5, CaCO3 and CaH2 by X-ray diffraction. The hydroponic system is a viable alternative for production of nopal and mucilage of high-quality mucilage that can be used in several sectors of the industry.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112460
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote early flowering and prolong flowering
           in Antirrhinum majus L. by regulating endogenous hormone balance under
           field-planting conditions

    • Authors: Li-Jun XING, Wei LI, Yan-Lin ZHAI, Xue-Yi HU, Shao-Xia GUO
      Pages: 12503 - 12503
      Abstract: It is well documented that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) affect growth and nutrient absorption in host plants under pot conditions. However, their effects on reproductive growth in ornamental plants under field conditions are unknown. Our study evaluated the effects of AMF on flowering and physiological traits in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) under greenhouse field conditions. Seedlings were inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae (Nicolson & Gerd.) and without as controls. Results showed that AMF inoculation significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, phosphorus, and soluble protein; decreased soluble sugar; and had no effect on total nitrogen, carbon, and potassium. AMF colonization increased concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA), indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA3), and zeatin riboside (ZR); increased the ZR/IAA ratio; and reduced ABA/GA3 and ABA/IAA+GA3+ZR ratios. AMF advanced flowering by five days and prolonged flowering by 13 days. Our study showed that AMF can promote flowering and prolong flowering in snapdragon, which may be due to the improvement of endogenous hormone equilibrium.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112503
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Endogenous hormone and nutritional ingredient of pendulous characteristics
           of Cunninghamia lanceolata var. Luotian

    • Authors: Yujie YANG, Yezhou XU, Chaoqun DU, Hui YUAN, Shaoliang YAN, Chu WU
      Pages: 12528 - 12528
      Abstract: Cunninghamia lanceolata var. Luotian (herein, Luotian), a natural variety of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir, herein Lanceolata), shows great potential for agricultural protection short-period and high-density plantations because of its narrow, pointed, tower-shaped crowns, thin braches and older drooping branches that die naturally at 6-7 years old. The physiological mechanisms of the pendulousness and the natural death of the branches are still unclear. To investigate these mechanisms, phytohormone levels and nutritional ingredients of different positions of branches in Luotian and Lanceolata were determined. Phytohormone analyses showed that IAA and ZR played critical functions on the branch initial growth, and that GA3 was related to bending of branches. Meanwhile, ABA may enhance abscission of the branches in Luotian. Nutritional ingredient analyses showed that the accumulation of nutritional ingredients in Luotian and Lanceolata were consistent with the morphology of their branches. An integrated analysis implied that phytohormones had a strong influence on pendulous characteristics by interacting with other factors. This study helps to elucidate the mechanism governing the pendulous trait and provides theoretical basis and technical support for its cultivation, introduction, plantation management and genetic improvement.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112528
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of EDTA and aqueous plants extract on the developmental and stress
           tolerance attributes of Spinacia oleracea and Brassica rapa under sewage
           water regime

    • Authors: Ghalia S. H. ALNUSAIRI, Mona H. SOLIMAN, Amir A. KHAN, Awatif M. ABDULMAJEED, Ayshah A. ALRASHIDI, Mohamed S. ATTIA, Haitham S. MADY, Emad A. EWAIS, Md. MAHADI HASSAN, Shehzad MEHMOOD, Mohamed M. HASSAN, Jamal A. ALORABI, Hoda H. SENOUSY
      Pages: 12534 - 12534
      Abstract: Sewage water is causing a potential threat to agriculture sector due to industrial effluents having heavy metals. Present investigation was carried to study the role of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or aqueous extracts of Hyacinth and Hedychium on soil quality and growth of spinach and turnip plants irrigated with sewage water (SW). Treatment of plants with SW resulted in an increment of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities. However, EDTA or plant extracts further enhanced their activities. At both stages of development of the tested crops, a substantial increase was found in the content of proline and total phenols, indicating the strengthening of the antioxidant protection mechanism to boost the oxidative effects of SW stress. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) studies revealed considerable variation in the protein profile among the different treatments, with an expression of some unique proteins obvious with other treatments. SW treatments increased heavy metals (HM) content in soil and plants; however, EDTA or plant extracts greatly decreased the levels of HMs in both shoots and roots and soils. The present study results suggest that the application of EDTA or aqueous plant extracts can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction in areas irrigated with sewage water.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112534
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of codon usage pattern in Lonicera × heckrottii ‘Gold Flame’
           based on chloroplast genome

    • Authors: Jiaqiang ZHANG, Huichun LIU, Wenting XU, Kaiyuan ZHU
      Pages: 12535 - 12535
      Abstract: Codon usage bias (CUB) was a unique feature of the genome, and revealing chloroplast genome codon usage bias can provide useful information for the evolution of plant species. Lonicera × heckrottii ‘Gold Flame’ is one of the members of the Lonicera genus with important ornamental value. However, the codon usage bias of chloroplast genome of this genotype has not been investigated. In this study, base compositions and various codon usage indices of 51 coding sequences from Lonicera × heckrottii ‘Gold Flame’ chloroplast genome was calculated, by Codon W, DnaSP, CUSP of EMBOSS and SPSS software. A total of 51 CDS of the Lonicera × heckrottii ‘Gold Flame’ chloroplast genome was selected to analyse codon usage bias. The results showed that the average GC content of 51 CDS sequences was 39.27%, and the average value of ENC was 48.75%. The chloroplast gene codon usage bias was weak, and preferred A/T ending. The general GC content order was GC1 (47.72%)>GC2 (39.89%)>GC3 (30.19%). Correlation analysis results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between GC content and GC1, GC2 and GC3 content. Combined with neutral plot analysis, ENC-plot and PR2-plot analysis, it is found that chloroplast gene codon usage preference was affected by mutations pressure and natural selection. In addition, the eight optimal codons in chloroplast genome were finally identified, codon bias ending with A/T. The study on the codon usage bias of Lonicera × heckrottii ‘Gold Flame’ provides a demonstration for exploring its genetic structure and molecular evolution mechanism, and provides a reference for molecular breeding.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112535
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of gibberellin, nano-nutrition with titanium, zinc and iron on
           yield and some physiological and qualitative traits of white beans

    • Authors: Seyed Mostafa AZIMI, Hamid Reza EISVAND, Ahmad ISMAILI, Naser AKBARI
      Pages: 12538 - 12538
      Abstract: Plant nutrition has a vital role in crop production. This study was performed to investigate the effects of different application methods of some nutrients (nano Fe, Zn, and Ti), and gibberellin on yield, some morphophysiological and grain protein of white beans in 2018 as a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Experimental factors included seed priming (hydropriming, gibberellin priming, titanium nano dioxide, and nano-Zn priming) and micronutrient foliar spraying (zinc, iron, and zinc + iron). The results illustrated that seed priming and foliar application significantly affected yield, yield components and chlorophyll content. Plant height increased in seed priming treatment with gibberellin and foliar application of zinc + iron by 13% compared to the control. Furthermore, this treatment enhanced the number of sub-branches per plant by 32% compared to the control. Grain yield components such as the number of pods per plant and 100-grain weight were also affected by seed priming with nano-Zn, and the simultaneous spraying of iron and zinc that grain yield by 18%, so that grain yield by 2649 kg ha–1 in hydropriming treatment reached to 3211 kg ha–1 in nano-Zn priming with simultaneous application of zinc and iron. Nano-Zn priming with iron foliar application caused the highest biological yield (9011 kg ha–1), which increased by 19% compared to control. Nano-Zn priming increased grain protein percentage by 21%. This treatment along with the foliar application of zinc + iron, significantly enhanced leaf chlorophyll content compared to other treatments. Therefore, to increase the yield of white beans, priming treatment with nano-Zn as well as foliar application of zinc + iron can be used.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112538
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Yield, quality and enzyme activity of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)
           grown on different agricultural wastes

    • Authors: Gökhan BAKTEMUR, Ecem KARA, Mahmut YARAR, Nurten YILMAZ, Erdal AĞÇAM, Asiye AKYILDIZ, Hatıra TAŞKIN
      Pages: 12553 - 12553
      Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to investigate cultivation of Lentinula edodes by using different agricultural wastes (oak sawdust, poplar sawdust, wheat stalk, peanut shell, corncob and vine pruning waste) and to determine the most suitable growing mixture/mixtures. For this purpose, 12 growing mixtures were tested. Within the scope of the experiment, besides measurement of yield and quality parameters of mushrooms, properties of agricultural wastes and enzyme activities (laccase and cellulase) of mixtures at different periods were measured. Based on results of the study, the highest and lowest amounts of nitrogen were obtained from after harvest (1.71%) and after sterilization (1.34%) periods, respectively. While the highest amount of carbon was at the after-sterilization period (46.6%), the lowest amount was recorded at the after harvest (45.64%) period. The fastest and slowest mycelia development time was observed in A7 (21.67 days) and A4 (50 days) mixtures, respectively. While the highest yield was determined in A5 (299.59 g kg-1) mixture, A9 (55.99 g kg-1), A6 (65.59 g kg-1) and A11 (75.47 g kg-1) gave the lowest results. While the highest biological activity rate was recorded in A3 (93.65 %) and A5 (92.90%), the lowest was observed in A11 (21.45%), A6 (19.85%) and A9 (19.22%) mixtures. The highest and lowest protein amounts were determined in the A5, A7 and A10, A9 and C mixtures, respectively. The highest cellulase and laccase activities were found in A3 (3.16 IU g-1) and A7 (2164.48 U g-1), respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112553
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Promoter activity analysis and transcriptional profile of Ginkgo biloba
           1-Deoxy-D- Xylulose 5-Phosphate reductoisomerase gene (GbDXR) under
           abiotic stresses

    • Authors: Honghui YUAN, Linling LI, Li LI, Hua CHENG, Shuiyuan CHENG
      Pages: 12562 - 12562
      Abstract: Terpene trilactones (TTL) is a pharmacological ingredient in Ginkgo biloba and its content has become one of the key indices for medicinal value evaluation of ginkgo. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) catalyzes the first step specific for isopentenyl diphosphate production in methylerythritol phosphate pathway, which provide the basic structure required for TTLs biosynthesis. To understand the mechanism controlling the GbDXR gene expression, the GbDXR promoter sequence was isolated and subjected to transient expression with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in tobacco plants. Characteristic analysis revealed various cis-acting elements that related to light-regulated transcription, hormone signaling (auxin, ethylene), adversity stress and defense signaling (heat/dehydration stress) in the GbDXR promoter region. In transient expression assay, deletion of different portions of the upstream GbDXR promoter identified that the promoter region -3230bp to -865bp conserve the positive regulation function, which could promote the expression of GFP in the cytoplasm of tobacco leaf epidermal cells. The regulation function of the promoter region -865bp to -262bp remained to be elucidated. EMSA analysis suggested possible interactions of GbERF10 and GbERF17 with the ERF-binding elements in the upstream of GbDXR promoter. For abiotic stresses treatment, the expression of GbDXR gene could be significantly induced by UV-B and drought stress. In general, the GbDXR gene expressed differently in different ginkgo tissues but exhibited the highest transcriptional level in the root, with the maximum TTLs content simultaneously. The positive relationship between gene expression level and TTLs content indicated that the GbDXR is responsible for TTLs biosynthesis in G. biloba.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112562
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Microbial diversity and physicochemical properties in farmland soils
           amended by effective microorganisms and fulvic acid for cropping Asian
           ginseng

    • Authors: Yonghua XU, Chenyang LIU, Jingshan BAO, He ZHU, Yuanhui CHEN, Yunqing LUO, Lianxue ZHANG
      Pages: 12563 - 12563
      Abstract: Demand for products made from the dry mass of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) is growing, but harvest is limited by fungal disease infection when ginseng is replanted in the same field. Rotated cropping with maize can cope with the replant limit, but it may take decades. We aimed to amend post-maize-cropping farmland soils for cultivating Asian ginseng, using effective microorganisms EMs and fulvic acid (FA) additives and detecting and comparing their effects on soil microbial diversity and physiochemical properties. Amendments promoted seedling survival and depressed disease-infection. Both EMs and FA increased the relative abundances of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Duganella, and Massilia spp., but, decreased the relative abundances of Fusarium and Sistotrema. In addition, soil nutrient availability and properties that benefitted nutrient availabilities were promoted. In conclusion, amendments with EMs and FA improved the fertility of farmland soils, and the quality of Asian ginseng, and revealed the relationship between soil microbial diversity and physiochemical properties.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112563
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Combined use of compost, compost tea, and vermicompost tea improves soil
           properties, and growth, yield, and quality of (Allium cepa L.)

    • Authors: Abdel-Haleem A. H. EL-SHAIENY, Hosny M. FARRAG, Abeer A. A. BAKR , Khaled G. ABDELRASHEED
      Pages: 12565 - 12565
      Abstract: Liquid organic fertilizers are organic solutions that are a valuable choice for sustainable agriculture. In addition, these organic forms play a significant role, in integrated waste management strategies. In this study, a one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlations and principal component analysis were performed on all traits, to compare the responses of sole application of compost, compost tea, vermicompost tea and their combinations on growth, yield of Allium cepa and on soil properties. The results showed that, in most cases with fertilizers treatments, the soil pH, CaCO3 and bulk density were decreased, while soil organic matter, total N, available P and K were increased. A mixture of 50% compost, 25% compost tea, and 25% vermicompost had more desirable effect on plant height, leaves number, plant fresh weight and plant dry weight. Therefore, application of 50% compost tea and 50% vermicompost tea, it is possible to achieve an acceptable total bulb yield ton/ha, total soluble solids %, and dry matter %. While, available P, K in soil and P % in plant were raised when plants treated with teas sole or combined with compost 50%. Using a mixture of 50% compost, 25% compost tea, and 25% vermicompost tea, was a higher nutrient concentration and had a significant impact on onion plants productivity, and on soil properties.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112565
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Microbiome structure and response to watering in rhizosphere of
           Nitrosalsola vermiculata and surrounding bulk soil

    • Authors: Haneen W. ABUAUF, Rewaa S. JALAL, Ruba A. ASHY, Ashwag SHAMI, Hanadi M. BAEISSA, Lina BAZ, Manal A. TASHKANDI, Aala A. ABULFARAJ
      Pages: 12567 - 12567
      Abstract: The plant rhizosphere microbiomes were thought to help the plant stands adverse condition. The study aims at deciphering signatures of rhizosphere soil microbiomes of the medicinal plant Nitrosalsola vermiculata and those of the surrounding bulk soil as well as to detect influence of watering in restructuring soil microbes that can improve the plant’s ability to tolerate drought stress. Amplicon sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene indicated that alpha diversity indices are higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soils, while no distinctive differences were observed due to the watering. Relative abundance of phylum Cyanobacteria and its descendent unidentified genus is the highest among phyla and genera of bulk soil. Relative abundance of phyla Euryarchaeota, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes as well as genera Bacillus, Ammoniphilus, Sphingomonas, Microvirga, Pontibacter, Adhaeribacter and Arthrobacter was significantly higher in rhizosphere soil. The latter taxa were reported to act as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) through symbiotic associations. We speculate that relative abundance and mutual dominance of these taxa in rhizosphere of N. vermiculata were due to the intensity and type of plant root exudates. Other factors include soil pH where microbes favoring high soil pH can show better growth in rhizosphere soil. Also, co-existence of phyla that promote sustainability of cohabiting phyla in the rhizosphere and have high synergism prevalence in biofilm formation can be one extra factor. Quorum sensing (QS) also mediates bacterial population density in a given environment and elicit specific plant responses. The low abundance of Cyanobacteria in rhizosphere soil can be due to the inhibitory effect of highly abundant members of Firmicutes, especially those of genus Bacillus. The latter conclusion was confirmed by the occurrence of high expression rate of comQ gene triggering QS in genus Bacillus. Highly abundant microbes whose abundance was not changed due to watering are phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria and their descendent genera Bacillus, Ammoniphilus, Sphingomonas, Microvirga and unidentified genus of Cyanobacteria. We speculate that non-responsive taxa to watering were drought tolerant and can help plants stand adverse conditions of water scarce. In conclusion, insights on the factors involved in shaping microbiome signatures and those eliciting differential plant responses to drought stress are raised and warrant further investigations.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112567
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Biofortification with copper nanoparticles (Nps Cu) and its effect on the
           physical and nutraceutical quality of hydroponic melon fruits

    • Authors: Manuel FORTIS HERNÁNDEZ , Jaime ORTIZ LOPEZ, Pablo PRECIADO RANGEL , Radames TREJO VALENCIA, Erika LAGUNES FORTIZ, Alfonso ANDRADE-SIFUENTES, Edgar O. RUEDA PUENTE
      Pages: 12568 - 12568
      Abstract: Currently, the use of nanoparticles is having an impact on agricultural production. There is evidence that copper nanoparticles have a strong impact on the growth and development of different crops. Biofortification specifically with (NPs Cu) improves the nutritional quality of food and its consumption has a positive influence on the health of humanity. The objective of this study consisted in evaluating the foliar application of copper nanoparticles (NPs Cu), on the weight of the fruit, nutraceutical quality and concentration of copper in melon fruit pulp. The treatments consisted of five doses of Cu NPs: 0, 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2 and 9.0 mg L -1 sprinkled foliarly. The variables evaluated were fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameter, firmness, total soluble solids, bioactive compounds and copper content in melon pulp. The results obtained indicated that the foliar application of NPs Cu, improved the physical and nutraceutical quality and the concentration of Cu in melon fruits. The highest weight and the best diameters of the fruit were obtained with the highest concentrations of NPs Cu (7.2 and 9.0 mg L-1). The concentration of 3.6 mg L-1 Cu NPs presented the highest antioxidant capacity with a value of 117,713 mg equiv. Trolox * 100 mg -1 PF, and higher content of phenols with 243.68 mg ac. gallic / 100 g FP, exceeding the concentration of 1.8 mg L -1 by 39% and the control treatment by 48%. The 3.6 and 5.4 mg L-1 treatments obtained the highest amount of flavonoids with values ​​of 149.903 and 148.29 mg QE / 100 g -1 FP, respectively. Regarding the copper concentration in the melon fruit pulp, the 9.0 mg L-1 treatment presented the highest concentration with a value of 5.39 mg kg -1 PS; The results show that, statistically, there is a correlation between the copper nanoparticles and the phytochemical variables in melon fruits. It is concluded that the use of Cu NPs can be an alternative to enrich melon fruits, and could help to solve the copper deficiency in the diet of the population.  
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112568
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impact of the foliar application of potassium nanofertilizer on biomass,
           yield, nitrogen assimilation and photosynthetic activity in green beans

    • Authors: Ana K. MÁRQUEZ-PRIETO, Alejandro PALACIO-MÁRQUEZ, Esteban SANCHEZ, Bertha C. MACIAS-LÓPEZ, Sandra PÉREZ-ÁLVAREZ, Octavio VILLALOBOS-CANO, Pablo PRECIADO-RANGEL
      Pages: 12569 - 12569
      Abstract: The agricultural areas of the world face problems that create difficulties when producing food and the excessive use of fertilizers is generating a negative environmental impact. An alternative that appears as a solution to this problem is the use of nanofertilizers. Within nanofertilizers an area of opportunity is the application of macronutrients, which report an increase in absorption efficiency of 19% compared to conventional fertilizers. Potassium (K) is one of the three macronutrients most used in agriculture and its deficiency affects key processes in plant development, limiting crop production. However, the number of publications where K is used as a nanofertilizer is limited, despite this, products in this form are already on the market. Therefore, the aim of this research work was to study the effect of the foliar application of K nanofertilizer on biomass, yield, nitrogen assimilation and photosynthetic activity in green beans cv. ‘Strike’. K was applied in the form of a nanofertilizer in doses of 0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm. The biomass accumulation, yield, nitrate reductase enzyme activity, photosynthetic activity and photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. The dose of 100 ppm of K nanofertilizer obtained a higher accumulation of biomass, nitrate reductase activity, photosynthetic activity, SPAD values and total chlorophyll content. While the 200-ppm dose obtained a higher increase in yield. The results obtained suggest that the application of K nanofertilizers benefits the physiological development of plants. However, more studies are required to compare the application of nanofertilizers with traditional fertilizers.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112569
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of water deficit tolerance in maize genotypes using
           biochemical, physio-morphological changes and yield traits as multivariate
           cluster analysis

    • Authors: Piyanan PIPATSITEE, Rujira TISARUM, Thapanee SAMPHUMPHUANG, Sumaid KONGPUGDEE, Kanyaratt TAOTA, Apisit EIUMNOH, Suriyan CHA-UM
      Pages: 12572 - 12572
      Abstract: Drought is an abiotic stress that inhibits plant growth and development and, therefore, declines crop productivity, as seen in maize plant. The aim of this investigation was to identify the candidate maize varieties that can be grown under water limited conditions using physio-morphological and yield attributes. Eight genotypes of maize including ‘Suwan4452’ (drought tolerant) as a positive check, ‘CP301’, ‘CP-DK888’, ‘DK7979’, ‘DK9901’, ‘Pac339’, ‘S7328’, and ‘Suwan5’ were selected as test plants. Physiological, biochemical and morphological characteristics at seedling (24 day after sowing; DAS) and reproductive (80 DAS) developmental stages of plants under 20-day water withholding (WD), and yield traits at harvesting period were analysed. Leaf temperature in each genotype increased with the degree of water deficit stress, leading to leaf chlorosis, and reduction in maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), overall growth and yield. Pn and stomatal conductance (gs) in drought tolerant genotype, ‘Suwan4452’, were decreased by 19.1% and 18.6%, respectively, whereas these in drought sensitive, ‘Pac339’, were significantly declined by 53.9% and 61.8%, respectively. Physio-morphological parameters, growth performance and yield-related traits of maize genotypes grown under water deficit conditions and well-watered conditions were subjected to Ward’s cluster method for identification of water deficit tolerant cultivars. Maintaining photosynthetic abilities, osmotic adjustment and CWSI in drought tolerant genotypes of maize were evidently demonstrated to keep overall growth performance and yield attributes. Based on multivariate cluster analysis and PCA (principal component analysis), ‘Suwan4452’, ‘CP-DK888’ and ‘S7328’ were categorized as drought tolerant genotypes whereas ‘Suwan5’, ‘Pac339’, ‘DK7979’, ‘CP301’ and ‘DK9901’ were identified as drought susceptible cultivars. Hybrid maize cvs. ‘CP-DK888’ and ‘S7328’ may further be suggested to be grown in the rainfed area without irrigation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112572
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Humic substances and rhizobacteria enhance the yield, physiology and
           quality of strawberries

    • Authors: Simeón MARTÍNEZ-DE LA CRUZ, José A. GONZÁLEZ-FUENTES, Armando ROBLEDO-OLIVO, Rosalinda MENDOZA-VILLARREAL, Armando HERNÁNDEZ-PÉREZ, Miriam D. DÁVILA-MEDINA, Daniela ALVARADO-CAMARILLO
      Pages: 12578 - 12578
      Abstract: The strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is appreciated for its aroma, color, texture and nutritional value. In conventional agriculture, the use of fertilizers damages the environment since it causes loss of soil fertility, salinity and its erosion, hence production alternatives, without harming the environment, are sought. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a biostimulant based on humic substances and rhizobacteria, on the production and quality of the strawberry cultivar ‘San Andreas’. Strawberry plants cultivar ‘San Andreas’ were treated with fulvic acids + mixture of microorganisms, humic acids + Pseudomonas fluorescens, fulvic acids + Azospirillum brasilense, fulvic acids + Pseudomonas fluorescens and the mixture AH and AF + Azospirillum brasilense with two doses (d1, d2) in total 10 treatments were applied plus the control. Humic substances were applied every 15 days and rhizobacteria every 30 days. The results showed that the AFyAzoz d1 increased over control plants, the number of leaves in 38.3%, root volume in 42.6%, the fresh weight in 130% and dry weight in 63.8%, the number of fruits 50.0% and the yield in 59.5%. The AFyPF d1 favored Photosynthesis in 127.3%; AFyPF d1 increased TSS in 25%, AFyPF d2 vitamin C in 17.1% and MHyF + Azoz d1 increased in 20% the content of Phenols. Humic substances plus rhizobacteria are an ecological alternative to be used as biostimulant in the production and quality of strawberry plants.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112578
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of fertilizing with different levels of phosphorous and zinc on the
           botanical characteristics of table beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    • Authors: Ebtesam A. GASHASH, Ashmawi E. ASHMAWI, Ahmed M. EL-TAHER, Magdy A. OMAR, Nahid A. OSMAN, Noura M. TAHA, Amr ELKELISH
      Pages: 12579 - 12579
      Abstract: The interaction of phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) is a crucial factor affecting crop yield in agricultural production called a P-induced Zn deficiency. The application of Zn and P together reduces deficiencies and increases plant growth by more than the sum of the increases from Zn and P alone. This experiment was carried out during two seasons, in consecutive years, to study the effect of P and Zn levels on the physical, physiological and anatomical response in table beet plants. Treatment one was as control; the second treatment was 35 P units with 5, 10, and 20 Zn units; the third treatment was 40 P units with 5, 10, and 20 Zn units; and the fourth treatment was 45 P units with 5, 10, and 20 Zn units. The data showed that the number of leaves and the root diameters were high with the addition of 40 P units and 10 Zn units, and the roots fresh and dry weights were high under 40 P units and 10 Zn units in both seasons. The contents of TSS, AA, TS, ACY, N, P, and K were significantly increased by the use of 40 and 45 P units combined with 5 and 10 Zn units. The anatomical alterations in both leaf blade, epidermal layers, midrib zone, vessel diameter, vascular bundle area, palisade, and spongy tissues were studied. The results recommend that fertilizing table beet plants with 40 P units and 10 Zn units is suitable.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112579
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Trehalose induced drought tolerance in plants: physiological and molecular
           responses

    • Authors: Jinhua SHAO, Weixiong WU, Fahd RASUL, Hassan MUNIR, Kai HUANG, Masood I. AWAN, Tasahil S. ALBISHI, Muhammad ARSHAD, Qiliang HU, Guoqin HUANG, Muhammad U. HASSAN, Muhammad AAMER, Sameer H. QARI
      Pages: 12584 - 12584
      Abstract: Drought stress is significant abiotic stress that limits crop growth and productivity across the globe. The intensity of drought stress continuously rises due to rapid climate change. Drought-induced alterations in physiological and bio-chemical processes by generating membrane dis-stability, oxidative stress, nutritional imbalance and leading to substantial reduction in growth and productivity. Plants accumulate various osmolytes that protect themselves from abiotic stresses' harmful effects. Trehalose (Tre) is a non-reducing sugar found in multiple microbes ranging from bacteria to yeast and in plants and it possesses an excellent ability to improve drought tolerance. Trehalose appreciably enhanced the plant growth, and counter the drought induced damages by maintaining cellular membranes, plant water relations, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic activities, nutrient uptake, osmolyte accumulation, activating stress proteins and detoxifying the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by strengthening the anti-oxidant system. Therefore, it is essential to understand the mechanism of exogenous and endogenous Tre in mitigating the drought-induced damages and to identify the potential research questions that must be answered in the future. Therefore, to better appraise the potential benefits of Tre in drought tolerance in this review, we discussed the diverse physiological and molecular mechanisms regulated by Tre under drought stress. We have a complete and updated picture on this topic to orientate future research directions on this topic.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112584
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Characterization of broad-spectrum biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus
           velezensis against Fusarium oxysporum in Triticum aestivum L.

    • Authors: Syed I. AGHA, Nusrat JAHAN, Saba AZEEM, Samia PARVEEN, Bushra TABASSUM, Asif RAHEEM, Hamid ULLAH, Anwar KHAN
      Pages: 12590 - 12590
      Abstract: Fungi are the most important phytopathogens that cause yield losses. The mycotoxins released by fungi cause spoilage of stored food consumed by humans and feed supplied to animals. Fungi-antagonistic microbes are gaining attention as potential biocontrol agents (BCAs). This study was designed to isolate bacterial isolates from different crops and evaluate their in vitro antifungal assay against three phytopathogens, plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics, molecular identification, and in vivo efficiency against the most devastating phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. In the in vitro experiment, the 3 isolates BA, GL-1, and 5a out of 360 isolates showed more than 60% inhibitory activity against the selected fungi in this study. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, BA isolate was identified as Bacillus velezensis. All three isolates produced indole acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and cellulase enzymes, while the BA and GL-1 isolates also produced siderophores and the BA isolate also produced ammonia. BA was selected on basis of not only Biocontrol efficacy but also maximum PGPR activity compared to GL-1 and 5a. In vivo assay, the isolate BA showed a significant decrease in disease severity caused by Fusarium oxysporum by 64.97% after 100 days of inoculation on wheat (FD-08) seedlings in a greenhouse assay and enhanced the shoot root height, fresh and dry mass. The wide-ranging antagonistic action of Bacillus velezensis isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat crops showed promising fungicidal and plant growth-promoting capabilities, suggesting it can be used as a biofungicide.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112590
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Management of root-knot nematode infection by using fly ash and
           Trichoderma harzianum in Capsicum annum plants by modulating growth,
           yield, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical substances, and secondary
           metabolite profiles

    • Authors: Gufran AHMAD, Amir KHAN, Safiuddin ANSARI, Abrar A. KHAN, Abeer ELHAKEM, Rokayya SAMI, Heba I. MOHAMED
      Pages: 12591 - 12591
      Abstract: A nematicide is a type of chemical pesticide used to kill plant-parasitic nematodes. Nematicides have tended to be broad-spectrum toxicants, possessing high volatility or other properties that promote migration through the soil. In addition, the nematicides used are more expensive and have adverse effects on health and the environment, so it must use more eco-friendly and less expensive alternative methods to control root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita). Chili (Capsicum annum) suffers from nematode infestation, which reduces its quality and quantity. Therefore, the goal of this research was to assess the effect of different doses of fly ash (FA) mixed soil (5%, 10%, 15 and 20% FA) with two doses of Trichoderma harzianum (1 g and 2 g) for the management of root-knot nematode infection in chili crop. The results showed that significant enhancement in plant growth, yield, chlorophyll, and carotenoid content, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, tryptophan, indole acetic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, proline, and nitrate reductase content of chili plants was recorded at 10% fly ash with 2 g of T. harzianum (T6). The inoculated plants registered the greatest damage with galling indexes. The lowest galling index was estimated at the T6 treatment. At higher levels of FA + combined with both doses of T. harzianum, nematode could not survive that’s why eighter galls or egg masses were observed. Nematodes may have ceased to function, lost their activity, and hence been unable to resist the stress of fly ash and T. harzianum set.  The application of T. harzianum with a lower dose (10%) of fly ash to control the nematode favored plant growth in general. In conclusion, 10% fly ash and 2 g of T. harzianum have the ability to operate as growth promoters and biocontrol agents for M. incognita.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112591
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Estimation of nitrogen in cotton leaves using different hyperspectral
           region data

    • Authors: Qiang ZHANG, Lulu MA, Xiangyu CHEN, Jiao LIN, Caixia YIN, Qiushuang YAO, Xin LV, Ze ZHANG
      Pages: 12595 - 12595
      Abstract: As an important index of a plant’s N nutrition, leaf nitrogen content (LNC) can be quickly monitored in real time with hyperspectral information, which is helpful to guide the precise application of N in cotton leaves. In this study, taking cotton dripping in Xinjiang, China, as the object of study, five N application treatments (0, 120, 240, 360, 480 kg·ha-1) were set up, and the hyperspectral data and the N content of main stem functional leaves at the cotton flower and boll stage were collected. The results showed that (1) comparing the correlations of the three types of spectral data from the original spectra, first derivative spectra, and second derivative spectra with the LNC of cotton, the first derivative spectra increased the correlation between the reflectance in the peak and valley ranges of the spectral curves and the LNC of cotton; (2) in the three hyperspectral regions of VIS, NIR, and SWIR, all R2 values of the estimation model for the LNC of cotton established based on the characteristic wavelengths of the original and the first derivative spectra were greater than 0.8, and the model accuracy was better than that of the second derivative spectra; and (3) the normalized root mean square error (n-RMSE) values of the validated model using MLR, PCR, and PLSR regression methods were all in the range of 10–20%, indicating that the established model could well estimate the nitrogen content of cotton leaves. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the three hyperspectral domains of VIR, NIR, and SWIR to estimate the LNC of cotton and provide a new basis for hyperspectral data application in crop nutrient monitoring.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112595
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Influence of eight rootstocks on fruit quality of Morus multicaulis cv.
           ‘Zijing’ and the comprehensive evaluation of fruit quality traits

    • Authors: Rong-Li MO, Na ZHANG, Yang ZHOU, Zhao-Xia DONG, Zhi-Xian ZHU, Yong LI, Cheng ZHANG, Qiang JIN, Cui YU
      Pages: 12598 - 12598
      Abstract: Mulberry (Morus L.) has become an important crop throughout the world due to its fruits have been industrially exploited for various commercially valuable products. Many studies on mulberry related to genetic diversity, fruit quality, and breeding programs have been carried out, but little information on mulberry rootstocks is available, especially the possibility of applying grafting to improve the fruit quality. Here, we evaluated the effects of 8 different rootstocks on the fruit quality of ‘Zijing’ mulberry. Twelve fruit quality traits were extremely different except for the fruit shape index (FSI). ‘Zijing’ on ‘Zheza 2’ had the highest fruit weight (FW) and size, as well as titratable acidity (TA), but lower levels of other compounds content except the total soluble solids content (TSS) were detected. ‘Yuesang 51’ exhibited the highest soluble sugar content (SSC), reducing sugar content (RSC), SSC/TA ratio, anthocyanin content (AC) and the lower TA. In contrast, the lowest TSS, SSC and RSC were shown in ‘Guisang 5’. Moreover, ‘Guisang 12’ exhibited the highest TSS and soluble protein content (SPC). The highest vitamin C content (VC) was observed in ‘Guisang 6’. ‘Tang 10 × Lun109’, Zhenzhubai seedlings, ‘Yuesang 11’ together with ‘Yuesang 51’ had the lowest and similar levels of TA. Most importantly, these fruit quality traits were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA), and ‘Yuesang 51’ with good comprehensive fruit quality was screened out, followed by ‘Guisangyou 12’. Overall, these results contribute to evaluating the roles of different rootstocks on improving fruit quality of mulberry.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112598
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Responses of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) to different seed priming methods
           under osmotic stress

    • Authors: Habib NOORI, Seyed G. MOOSAVI, Mohammadjavad SEGHATOLESLAMI, Mansour FAZELI ROSTAMPOUR
      Pages: 12600 - 12600
      Abstract: A common problem with vegetable production in drought areas is low crop stand, but germination data are limited and inconsistent for cumin. Different priming methods positively affect the enhancement of seed germination and seedlings growth, especially under stress conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different priming treatment (unprimed seeds as control, hydro-priming, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, paclobutrazol, and chitosan) on cumin seed germination indices and physiological traits under osmotic stress (0, -5, and -10 bar; induced by polyethylene glycol-6000). Seed germination of cumin was reduced by 9.77% and 23.95% under osmotic potential -5 and -10 bar, respectively, compared with non-stressed conditions. Nevertheless, priming enhanced germination indices and improved photosynthetic pigments and activity of peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes at all potential osmotic levels compared with non-primed seeds. Seed treated by jasmonic acid showed the highest seedling vigor index and chlorophyll and carotenoids content under stress and non-stress conditions. Under the high level of osmotic potential (-10 bar), jasmonic acid treatment was caused increasing by 59.3%, 55.19%, 54.26%, 57.52%, and 47.72% of seedling vigor index, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids content, respectively. In conclusion, the jasmonic acid priming can modify the negative effects of the osmotic stress by improved physiological traits resulting in enhanced germination parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112600
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Exogenous application of agmatine improves water stress and salinity
           stress tolerance in turnip (Brassica rapa L.)

    • Authors: Rewaa S. JALAL, Aala A. ABULFARAJ
      Pages: 12601 - 12601
      Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the consequence of foliar application of agmatine (0 and 0.5 mM), on growth, physiological and biochemical traits, and yield of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) plants grown under water stress or salt stress conditions. The effect of three irrigation regimes (100%, 80% and 40% of field capacity) and three salt concentrations (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) on turnip plants grown in pots under greenhouse conditions were studied.  Water deficit developed at 40% Field capacity (FC) and salinity stress, especially at 200 mM, resulted in significant decreases in all growth parameters when compared to control plants (100% FC) including root length and diameter as well as shoot weights per plant. Water stress and high salt stress negatively affected most physiological and biochemical characteristics such as total chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate. Water use efficiency (WUE) increased under 80% FC or 100 mM NaCl. Antioxidant enzymes activity, catalase and peroxidase and glutathione reductase, increased with water stress and salt stress. Foliar application of agmatine seemed to alleviate the adverse effects of water stress and salt stress on turnip. Alleviating harmful effects of salt stress and enhancing water stress tolerance by agmatine was associated with improving leaf gas exchange, antioxidant enzymes and protein profile.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112601
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A survey of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ isolates in the Czech
           Republic based on imp gene genotyping

    • Authors: Lucie VALENTOVÁ, Markéta BOHUNICKÁ, Martina REJLOVÁ, Jana SUCHÁ, Tomáš NEČAS, Aleš EICHMEIER, Tomáš KISS, Jana CMEJLOVA, Radek CMEJLA
      Pages: 12602 - 12602
      Abstract: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma spp.’ are pathogenic bacteria that infect many plant species. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’, one of the members of the 16SrX group causes pear decline disease that adversely affects pear crops. To describe the prevalence of ‘Ca. P. pyri’ genotypes in the Czech Republic, 143 pear samples were collected from 41 locations including commercial orchards as well as trees along roads. Phytoplasma was detected by PCR in 115 samples, and it was possible to determine imp gene genotype in 84 samples. The most frequent genotypes were A1, B1, and C, which were identified in 71% of phytoplasma positive samples. ‘Ca. P. pyri’ was present either alone or as a mix of two populations in 88% of genotyped samples, and in another 6% of samples it was found in a mixed infection with ‘Ca. Phytoplasma mali’. A sole infection with ‘Ca. Phytoplasma mali’ was observed in 6% of samples. As for symptoms, 19% of symptomatic samples were found to be phytoplasma negative, and 74% of asymptomatic samples proved to be phytoplasma positive; leaf roll was more often observed in phytoplasma positive samples, while leaf narrowing rather indicated the absence of phytoplasma. The mildest symptoms were observed in samples infected with ‘Ca. P. pyri’ of the A1 imp genotype.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112602
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Interactive effect of potassium and spermidine protects growth,
           photosynthesis and chlorophyll biosynthesis in Vigna angularis from
           salinity induced damage by up-regulating the tolerance mechanisms

    • Authors: Amina A.M. AL-MUSHHIN
      Pages: 12607 - 12607
      Abstract: Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the role of potassium (100 mg KCl / kg soil) and the spermidine (100 µM Spd) in regulation of growth, chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis in Vigna angularis under salinity stress (100 mM NaCl). Salinity declined chlorophyll synthesis by causing a significant decline in the synthesis of δ-amino levulinic acid (ALA), prototoporphyrin IX (Proto IX) and Mg-prototoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX), however application of K and Spd alone as well as combinedly alleviated the decline to considerable extent. Further, K and Spd treated plants exhibited a significant decline in reactive oxygen species and the lipid peroxidation and such effects were also obvious under salinity stress. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, Fv/Fm and photochemical quenching increased significantly due to K and Spd application, and salinity induced alleviation of the decline was maximal due to combined K and Spd treatment. Up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes activity, increased content of ascorbic acid and glutathione (GSH), and the accumulation of compatible osmolytes due to K and Spd application strengthened the tolerance against the salinity stress thereby lessening the oxidative effects considerably. Accumulation of phenols and flavonoids increased significantly due to application of K and Spd. Salinity caused significant increase in Na however K and Spd application induced a significant decline concomitant with increase in K content reflecting in decreased Na/K. Results suggest that K and Spd application protect the growth and photosynthesis from salinity induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the ion homeostasis, antioxidant system, osmolyte accumulation and secondary metabolite synthesis.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112607
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the growth and polyphenol
           production of medicinal plants: Ehretia asperula and Solanum procumben

    • Authors: Cuong V. BUI, Quang D. LE, Anh T. K. VO, Lam D. TRAN
      Pages: 12609 - 12609
      Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus intradices) on growth and polyphenol production of the two important and popular medicinal plants in Vietnam: Ehretia asperula Zoll. & Mor. and Solanum procumbens Lour. The results showed a significant effect of the fungus on the growth of these two species with the growth indices such as height, weight and P content that were all higher than those of non-AM plants; although the indices of AM symbiosis in the plant roots were not as high as other plants in previous studies. The effect of AM fungus on polyphenol production was different between the two species. In E. asperula, the effect of AM fungi on polyphenol production was not significant; whereas in S. procumbens, AM symbiosis significantly increased polyphenol production in plant biomass, especially in roots. The different growth times of the two species might cause the different effects of AM fungus on polyphenol production.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112609
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Role of calcium and magnesium on dramatic physiological and anatomical
           responses in tomato plants

    • Authors: Ayshah A. ALRASHIDI, Haifa Abdulaziz Sakit ALHAITHLOUL, Mona H. SOLIMAN, Mohamed S. ATTIA, Salah M. ELSAYED, Mohamed M. ALI , Ahmed M. SADEK, Marwa A. FAKHR
      Pages: 12614 - 12614
      Abstract: Minerals are the fundamental source of nutrients for plant functions such as photosynthesis, ATP currency, cellular respiration, metabolic activities, defense mechanisms, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stressors. Minerals are the most significant component of plant nutrition and applying these minerals supplements can increase fruit output. The study’s main aim was to make agricultural farming easier by foliar applying newly created nutrients like Lebosol-calcium and Magnesium. The four treatments: To (Control), T1 (Lebosol-Mg-Plus, 3 ml/L), T2 (Lebosol-Ca-Forte, 3 ml/L), and T3 (Lebosol-Mg-Plus and Lebosol-Ca-Forte, 3 ml/L) was applied as foliar spray to the seedlings of tomato. It was found that T3 substantially enhanced tomato’s morphological features and yield. The treatment T3 significantly increased total soluble protein, chlorophyll content, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Furthermore, the foliar application of T3 considerably improved phenolic and ascorbic acid contents. The general anatomical features of the leaf, stem, and roots of tomato were qualitatively affected by the treatments. Application of Lebosol-Ca provided the highest total thickness of lamina, number of vessel elements, total phloem area, chlorenchyma layer, total area of vessel elements, xylem ratio, and increased palisade layer thickness, vessel diameter. Furthermore, T3 treatment showed a diverse impact on the internal structure of tomato organs, with palisade and spongy parenchyma growing to maximum values and vessel diameters expanding. T3 had also posed remarkable alterations in morpho-physiological, biochemical, and anatomical aspects in tested plants.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112614
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Seed priming with different agents mitigate alkalinity induced oxidative
           damage and improves maize growth

    • Authors: Imran KHAN, Hina ZAFAR, Muhammad U. CHATTHA, Athar MAHMOOD, Rizwan MAQBOOL, Fareeha ATHAR, Maryam A. ALAHDAL, Farhana BIBI, Faisal MAHMOOD, Muhammad U. HASSAN, Sameer H. QARI
      Pages: 12615 - 12615
      Abstract: Soil alkalinity is a severe threat to crop production globally as it markedly retards plant growth. Different techniques are used to mitigate alkaline stress, but priming techniques are considered the most appropriate. The current study was carried out in complete randomized design (CRD) to evaluate the effect of different priming techniques on maize crop grown under different levels of alkalinity stress. The experiment was comprised of different treatments of alkalinity stress (AS) including, control, 6 dS m-1 and 12 dS m-1 and different priming techniques including control, hydro-priming (HP), osmo-priming (OP) with potassium nitrate: KNO3) and redox-priming (RP) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Results indicated that alkalinity stress significantly reduced plant growth and biomass production and induced severe alterations in physiological attributes and antioxidant activities. Soil alkalinity significantly reduced the root and shoot growth and subsequent biomass production by increasing electrolyte leakage (70.60%), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2: 31.65%), malondialdehyde (MDA: 46.23%) and sodium (Na+) accumulation (22.76%) and reduction in photosynthetic pigments, relative water contents (RWC), total soluble proteins (TSP) and free amino acids, potassium (K+) accumulation. However, priming treatments significantly alleviated the alkalinity-induced toxic effects and improved plant growth. OP (KNO3) remained the top performing. It appreciably improved plant growth owing to the improved synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, better RWC (16.42%), TSP (138.28%), FAA (178.37%), and K+ accumulation (31.385) and improved antioxidant activities (APX and CAT) by favoring the Na+ exclusion and maintenance of optimum Na+/K+. In conclusion, KNO3 priming is an imperative seed priming practice to improve maize growth and biomass production under alkalinity stress.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112615
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Invasive alien forest insect species in south-eastern Romania

    • Authors: Nicolai OLENICI, Flavius BĂLĂCENOIU, Romică TOMESCU, Constantin NEȚOIU, Andrei BUZATU, Alina ALEXANDRU
      Pages: 12618 - 12618
      Abstract: Biological invasions in forest ecosystems are recognised as a global scale challenge. However, our current knowledge of invasive alien forest insect species (IAFIS) in Romania is still lacking and rather insufficient to support clear policies. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of IAFIS in the Muntenia and Dobrogea provinces of Romania. For this purpose, direct observations and insect collections were made two consecutive years, in 76 locations. Of these, 67 sampling locations forming a long field observation route were visited only once, and nine sampling locations were fixed monitoring points with primed traps used in first year for regular collection of insects at 1-2-week intervals. Seventeen non-native forest insect species from five orders and 11 families were detected: Aproceros leucopoda, Cameraria ohridella, Corythucha arcuata, Cydalima perspectalis, Dasineura gleditchiae, Eopineus strobus, Euura tibialis, Gilletteella cooleyi, Hyphantria cunea, Ips duplicatus, Macrosaccus robiniella, Neoclytus acuminatus, Obolodiplosis robiniae, Parectopa robiniella, Phyllonorycter issikii, Prociphilus fraxinifolii and Xylosandrus germanus.  Eleven IAFIS species originate from North America, four from Asia and two from Europe. All detected species were previously reported from Romania, but eight species had not been recorded in these two provinces. Seven species live on native tree species, while 10 thrive on exotic trees or shrubs. The highest number of IAFIS was recorded in urban areas. Except for E. tibialis, all found IAFIS have a significant ecological or economic impact across invaded habitats. The risks posed by biological invasions need more thorough consideration that deserves greater attention and scientific support.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112618
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Taxonomy, phytochemical and bioactive compounds and potential use as
           material with different drying methods of Alpinia latilabris Ridl. new
           record from Thailand

    • Authors: Theeraphan CHUMROENPHAT, Surapon SAENSOUK
      Pages: 12619 - 12619
      Abstract: Alpinia latilabris Ridl., a new record from Thailand, has great potential for use as a material for food and traditional medicine. Dried samples preserve the quality and avoid the degradation of phytochemicals. The aim here was to determine the taxonomy and changes in the phytochemical and bioactive compounds when using different drying methods as well as the antioxidant properties in this first report for this species.  The results show that freeze-dried samples had greater quality volatile compounds, bioactive compounds, organic acid, phenolic acid, flavonoids and antioxidants compared with a fresh sample while having a microstructure similar to that of the fresh sample. The major volatile compounds were 1,8-cineole in fresh and dried samples, as confirmed by FTIR spectra. The bioactive chemicals are sensitive to thermal drying and sunlight due to degradation of the phytochemicals. This result can be useful information and be applied to the preparation of material for further development of functional foods, medicinal plants or cosmetics.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112619
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Influence of maturity stages on postharvest physico-chemical properties of
           grapefruit (Citrus paradisi var. ‘Shamber Tarnab’) under different
           storage durations

    • Authors: Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI, Izhar ULLAH, Muhammad SAJID, Abdul BASIT, Wael F. SHEHATA, Syed T. SHAH, Saleh M. ALTURKI, Asad ULLAH, Iftikhar AZIZ, Fawad ALI
      Pages: 12620 - 12620
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of maturity stages on the physicochemical characteristics of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi cv. ‘Shamber Tarnab’) under storage conditions for 60 days at ambient temperature (16±1 °C with 55-60% relative humidity). Grapefruits were harvested at different maturity stages, namely mature green (MG) and full ripe (FR). The fruits of both stages were assessed for different physical quality parameters at 15 days interval. The experimental results showed that ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, fruit firmness, percent disease incidence was higher at FR stage. In contrast, weight loss, percent juice content, total soluble solid (TSS), and TSS/acid ratio at MG (mature green) were lower than that of FR fruits. Regarding storage durations, the fruit firmness, titratable acidity, percent juice content, ascorbic acid content decreased significantly, whilst total soluble solid, TSS/Acid ratio, weight loss, and percent disease incidence increased significantly with the extension of storage duration from 0 to 60 days. As concerned to its interactive effects, the highest ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, percent juice content, and maximum fruit firmness were observed in fresh grapefruit, harvested at (MG) mature green stages, whereas the maximum total soluble solid, percent disease incidence, and TSS/Acid ratio were recorded in fruit harvested at (FR) full ripe stage, stored for 60 days at room temperature. Similarly, the Pearson’s Correlation Analysis (p> 0.05) of grapefruit was positive effect for most of the quality traits of grapefruit at different storage durations and maturity stages. It was concluded that grapefruit could be harvested at the mature green stage (MG) for sustaining quality attributes up to 60 days of storage at room temperature.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112620
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Seasonal variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in ecotone forests of
           the northern region of Brazilian Amazonia

    • Authors: Oscar O. PRIETO-BENAVIDES, Sidney L. STÜRMER, Eliane do NASCIMENTO-CUNHA, Juan P. URDÁNIGO-ZAMBRANO, Krisle da SILVA, Reinaldo I. BARBOSA
      Pages: 12625 - 12625
      Abstract: The ecotone forests in the northern region of Brazilian Amazonia are important areas representing transition zones between forest and non-forest ecosystems. These areas have soils nutrient-poor that poorly drain. Under these environmental conditions, Peltogyne gracilipes (Leguminoseae), an endemic tree species, can form natural monodominant forests. Here, we assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community in three forest types on the eastern side of Maracá Island and the relationship of these microorganisms with the monodominance of P. gracilipes. In this study, soil samples were collected in two seasons (dry and rainy). The samples were collected in 9 plots, in rich areas, poor areas and areas without P. gracilipes. Soil samples were evaluated for chemical and particle size analysis, spore density and morphology, and identification of AMF. AMF species were identified using two approaches: spores collected in the field and trap cultures. Eighteen and 13 AMF species were identified in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively, for spores extracted from the field. Six total species were detected exclusively in trap cultures in the dry season. AMF communities were co-dominated by members of the Gigasporaceae, Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae families. Redundancy analyses indicated that several soil attributes, such as pH, Fe, Mg, and sand content associated with the AMF species richness in both seasons. We conclude that the ecotone forests in the eastern region of Maracá Island are home to important richness and diversity of AMF species and that various soil factors influence the composition of the AMF community in this ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112625
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Taxonomy, distribution, epidemiology, disease cycle and management of
           brown rot disease of peach (Monilinia spp.)

    • Authors: Shehzad IQBAL, Aqleem ABBAS, Iqra MUBEEN, Manda SATHISH, Zarafshan RAZAQ, Mustansar MUBEEN, Muhammad KAMRAN, Muhammad HAROON, Sartaj-Alam SYED, Syed-Atif-Hasan NAQVI, Mohamed A. A. AHMED
      Pages: 12630 - 12630
      Abstract: Peach is a temperate fruit and is grown in various edaphoclimatic settings worldwide. Brown rot, caused primarily by Monilinia spp.  is one of the most destructive peach diseases. The disease results in severe pre-harvest and post-harvest losses. More than half of the world’s post-harvest losses of peach can be attributed to brown rot disease. Despite the widespread adoption of management strategies such as pruning, removing fruit mummies, eliminating wild plums, chemical control remains an effective strategy for managing brown rot disease. However, environmental and human health impacts of chemical control and fungicides resistance consequences, these management tactics tend to be re-evaluated. The aim of this review is to comprehensively sum up the available information on the taxonomy, distribution, epidemiology, symptomology, molecular and morphological characterization of brown rot disease, and to date management approaches. However, fast paced current research on brown rot disease of peach management should be carefully updated for the full-proof control of the fungi. Nevertheless, more research and review of the information regarding various aspects of diseases management exclusively biocontrol agents are needed to exploit their actual potential, which is the salient objective of this review. This review will open new avenues giving future prospects and research agenda to the scientists working on this serious pathosystem of peach.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112630
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Grain yield, nutritional, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in
           accessions of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    • Authors: Silvia UÑATE-FRAGA, Josué I. GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, Antonio FLORES-NAVEDA, Norma RUIZ-TORRES, Sonia RAMÍREZ-BARRÓN, Agustín HERNÁNDEZ-JUÁREZ, Alejandro LOZANO-DEL RÍO, Julio C. TAFOLLA-ARELLANO
      Pages: 12637 - 12637
      Abstract: Sorghum is an economically important crop in developing countries. The objective of this study was to compare the agronomic performance, and the chromatic, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of nineteen sorghum accessions cultivated in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Results showed that the grain yield (15.22 to 70.18 g per plant), days to flowering (73 to 92 days), panicle length (16.63 to 27.67 cm), luminosity (27.14 to 57.75), chromaticity (5.65 to 15.33) and hue angle (38.49 to 82.66) varied. The percentage of protein (7.33 to 3.43%), fiber (0.60 to 3.03%) and carbohydrates (70.17 to 78.39%) also varied. Grains had a high concentration of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium; the content of total phenols and total flavonoids (free + bound) was found in a range of 117.61 to 2367.01 mg GAE/100 g and 22.52 to 613.92 mg CE/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant capacities (free + bound) showed ranges from 65.09 to 2,017.58 μmol TE/100 g, 43.13 to 1,907.99 μmol TE/100 g and 107.20 to 3,523.20 μmol TE/100 g using the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods, respectively. A negative correlation (-0.36) was observed between grain yield and days to flowering. In addition, a positive correlation between phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. These results confirm an important genetic diversity among the studied accessions of sorghum.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112637
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Modelling plant morphometric parameters as predictors for successful
           cultivation of some medicinal Agastache species

    • Authors: Rodica VÂRBAN, Roxana VIDICAN, Andreea D. ONA, Dan VÂRBAN, Andrei STOIE, Ștefania GÂDEA, Sorin VÂTCĂ, Valentina STOIAN, Ioana CRIȘAN, Vlad STOIAN
      Pages: 12638 - 12638
      Abstract: Researches carrying evidence for various uses and bioactive principles of Agastache spp. are justifying the upscaling into cultivation of these medicinal species. But, hindrances in their cultivation exist due to the insufficient documentation of their biology under field conditions. Because productivity of these medicinal species (herba) is ensured by the combined contribution of plant agronomic traits, these are related to the feasibility of the crop and therefore, can be used as predictors for successful cultivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively four valuable Agastache species (A. mexicana, A. scrophulariifolia, A. foeniculum) and one cultivar (A. rugosa ‘After Eight’), in order to identify the favourability for cultivation in local conditions (Romania). Based on the structural indicators of plant morphology (plant height, shoot number, leaf number, leaf length and width, inflorescence length, verticillaster number and flower number), registered over the span of two years, were explored relationships and similarities as well as their implications in previsioning the phenotypic potential. The results showed that studied species acclimatized successfully and all agronomic parameters studied increased in values in the second year. The average plant height in second year (2020) was 109.8 cm and average inflorescences length 9.6 cm. Stable positive correlations between inflorescence length with plant height and shoot number were observed, while differences among species became pronounced as plants become established, evidenced by clearer distinction in the second year. Phenotypic potential in the absence of inputs enables the feasibility assessment for medicinal plants introduced for cultivation in new regions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112638
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Identifying strawberry DOF family transcription factors and their
           expressions in response to crown rot

    • Authors: Chun LUO, Yuyang HU, Bo SHU
      Pages: 12640 - 12640
      Abstract: Crown rot is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated strawberry. The DOF family transcription factors, which involved in biotic stress, has not been studied in responding to strawberry crown rot. In this study, the DOFs of Fragaria × ananassa, F. iinumae, F. nilgerrensis, F. viridis, and F. vesca were characterized. One hundred and eighteen FaDOFs, twenty-two FiDOFs, twenty-three FnDOFs, twenty-five FviDOFs and thirty-seven FvDOFs were identified. Gene cluster analysis showed nearly seventy segmental duplication and seventeen tandem duplications for DOF family expansion in octaploid strawberry. In addition, 59 FaDOFs showed syntenic relationships with 32 AtDOFs, which were located on all F.×ananassa chromosomes except Fvb4-1 and Fvb4-2. Except for five DOFs of diploid strawberries had syntenic relationships to one FaDOF, most of them corresponded to multiple FaDOFs. Gene expression analysis revealed that 107 FaDOFs were expressed in crown, and most of them were downregulated by crown rot, while some FaDOFs such as FaDOF107, 12, 82, 91, 90 and 101 were upregulated, whose regulation was not always consistent with the cis-elements in their promoters. Together, these results provided a basis for further functional studies of the FaDOFs.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112640
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of acetylsalicylic acid and ammonium sulphate on productive and
           

    • Authors: Julio MOLINA, Sara GONZÁLEZ-ORENGA, Oscar VICENTE, Monica BOSCAIU, Josep V. LLINARES, Francisco ZAMBRANO, Claudia SANTIBÁÑEZ
      Pages: 12645 - 12645
      Abstract: Stipa caudata is a grass native to low rainfall areas in Argentina and Chile, considered an excellent potential candidate for biofuel production or soil restoration programmes. This study aimed at analysing the effects of ammonium sulphate (AMS) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the productivity and biochemical traits of plants of this species under water scarcity conditions. The experimental work was carried out on plants grown outdoors using a randomised block plot design. Several yield and biochemical parameters related to resistance to water scarcity were analysed in plants treated with AMS or ASA. Plants in the treatments with ASA and AMS had higher total chlorophyll content than the others. Concerning ion content, water-restricted plants treated with AMS had similar values to irrigated plants. Regarding the osmoprotectants and antioxidants, treated plants had increased concentrations of proline and total flavonoids. Under water stress, plants had higher APX activity and there was an A x B interaction for CAT and SOD activity. The results obtained show that the use of ASA and AMS in some crops or in environmental restoration programmes could be a useful tool to cope with future climate scenarios of water scarcity.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112645
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A polishing the harmful effects of Broad Bean Mottle Virus infecting broad
           bean plants by enhancing the immunity using different potassium
           concentrations

    • Authors: Mahmoud R. SOFY, Ahmed G. MANCY, Abd El‐Aleem M. ALNAGGAR, Ehab E. REFAEY, Heba I. MOHAMED, Mohamed E. ELNOSARY, Ahmed R. SOFY
      Pages: 12654 - 12654
      Abstract: Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV) infects a wide range of hosts, resulting in significant production reductions. The lack of adequate and effective control methods involves implementing novel BBMV control strategies. Herein, we demonstrate the effect of different potassium concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mM) against BBMV in broad bean plants. Potassium could control BBMV infection in broad bean by inhibiting the virus. In addition, infection with BBMV caused a significant decrease in morphological criteria, SPDA, photosynthetic characteristics, phytohormones, and mineral content in broad bean leaves compared to control plants. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and oxygen anion) and ROS scavenging enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, phenylaniline ammonia-lyase, chitinase, and 1,3 - glucanase) increased significantly in plants inoculated with BBMV alone or in the presence of K+. In addition, proline and phenolic compounds increased significantly after being infected with BBMV. In conclusion, treatment with a high potassium concentration (60 mM) alleviates the adverse effect of BBMV on broad bean plants by boosting secondary metabolites, phytohormones, and enzymatic antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112654
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Copper oxide nanoparticles biosynthetized improve germination and
           bioactive compounds in wheat sprouts

    • Authors: Hortensia ORTEGA-ORTIZ, Jazmín M. GAUCIN-DELGADO, Pablo PRECIADO-RANGEL, Manuel FORTIS HERNANDEZ, Luis G. HERNANDEZ-MONTIEL, Efraín DE La CRUZ-LAZARO, Liliana LARA-CAPISTRÁN
      Pages: 12657 - 12657
      Abstract: Metal nanoparticles have many positive effects in improving crop production and productivity and allow for increased germination and rapid crop establishment under field conditions. The metallic nanoparticles applied in this study were copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) biosynthesized using orange peel (Citrus X sinensis) as a reducing agent to avoid or reduce toxicity in wheat seeds and sprouts. This study determined the effect of CuONPs on germination, radicle and plumule length, as well as the production of phytochemical compounds in wheat sprouts. The seeds were treated with suspensions of CuONPs at the following concentrations: 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 mg mL-1. The results indicate that the use of low doses of CuONPs (0.5 mg mL-1), improved germination, vigor, plumule and radicle length, in addition to increasing the biosynthesis of phytochemical compounds in wheat shoots. A high concentration of CuONPs (6 mg mL-1) causes inhibitory effects due to Cu accumulation and phytotoxicity in plant tissue. The use of CuONPs for green synthesis is a viable alternative to obtain beneficial effects in germination and seedling development, as well as greater secondary metabolite production.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112657
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Rosa gorenkensis Besser aqueous extracts on germination and
           early growth of native plant species

    • Authors: Agnieszka TATOJ, Katarzyna MOŻDŻEŃ, Beata BARABASZ-KRASNY, Anna SOŁTYS-LELEK, Wojciech GRUSZKA, Peiman ZANDI
      Pages: 12668 - 12668
      Abstract: In Europe, Rosa gorenkensis Besser is considered an invasive species. However, its negative impact on native flora components or other habitat components has not been described so far. In the experiment, the germination reactions of mono- and dicotyledonous plant seeds to the aqueous extracts of R. gorenkensis were investigated to determine the allelopathic potential of this plant. Seeds of common plants – wild-growing Festuca rubra L. and cultivated Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula Pers. cv. ‘Rowa’ were treated with aqueous extracts from the roots, stalks, leaves, and flowers of rosa at concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, and 5%. Along with the increase in the concentration of allelochemical compounds in the extracts, the negative influence of the extracts on the germination capacity of the tested seeds species was found. Regardless of the type of extract, inhibition of the growth of the underground and aboveground parts of seedlings was also observed. Changes in biomass and water content, depending on the concentration and type of the extract, were found. The greatest differences in the electrolytes leakage in seedlings watered with 5% extracts were revealed. The study showed that the aqueous extracts of leaves and flowers of this species had the greatest allelopathic potential.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112668
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Performance of fourteen genotypes of durum wheat under Eastern
           Mediterranean conditions

    • Authors: Ioanna KAKABOUKI, Dimitrios BESLEMES, Evangelia L. TIGKA, Ioannis ROUSSIS, Antonios MAVROEIDIS, Varvara KOUNELI, Nikolaos KATSENIOS, Aspasia EFTHIMIADOU, Stella KARYDOGIANNI, Chariklia KOSMA, Anastasios ZOTOS, Vassilios TRIANTAFYLLIDIS
      Pages: 12682 - 12682
      Abstract: Durum wheat is used as raw material for many foods. Climate change might be responsible for larger or smaller changes in crop yields. For the combined assessment of climate and crop, growing degree days (GDDs) have a crucial role. Two experimental lines and twelve commercial wheat (Triticum durum) varieties from diverse backgrounds were cultivated to compare their crop properties, yield, and protein content in terms of GDDs. The experiment was established in typical Mediterranean environment, using a randomized complete block design with blocks of varieties and lines for two growing seasons. For all varieties, GDDs to head emergence was affected by factor year, whereas GDDs from head emergence to harvest were influenced by both varieties and year. Protein content (%) was not affected by genotypes. Factor of variety and interaction variety × year had an impact on vitreousness; it was ranged from 79.75 % (‘Makaras’ variety) to 44.00 % (‘Levante’ variety). Yield had no statistically significant difference among varieties/lines. In durum wheat cultivation, up to head emergence, when GDDs increased, yield would be declined in contrast to GDDs from emergence to harvest; with the increasing of GDDs to harvest, yield was climbed. Nowadays, the integrations of and interpretation of GDDs in the evaluation of crop performance seem vital.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112682
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of quality and chemical composition of continental halophytic
           grasslands in south-east Europe

    • Authors: Milica LUKOVIĆ, Urban ŠILC, Jovica VASIN, Jasmina RADOVIĆ, Goran TOPISIROVIĆ, Marija KOSTIĆ, Zora DAJIĆ STEVANOVIĆ
      Pages: 12694 - 12694
      Abstract: Continental halophytic grasslands are known for performing of range of ecosystem services especially remarkable in the regions where they are much distributed – in arid and semi-arid areas. Continental halophytic grasslands of the Central and South-East Europe are not considered as favourable for arable farming, however, traditional animal husbandry plays a crucial role in maintaining biodiversity and preserving these natural habitats. The particular interest of this study is the assessment of the chemical composition of biomass and the quality of insufficiently studied halophytic grassland communities of the central Balkans. In addition, the differences in pastoral value were monitored along the geographical gradient, i.e., between grasslands situated in the Pannonian plain (grasslands of Alliance Puccinellion limosae) and those distributed on the south Serbia (Alliance Festucion pseudovinae). The study was carried out at 18 representative sites, focusing on the saline grasslands of the two distinct regions – on the north and on the south of Serbia. The obtained results show that the halophytic grasslands have satisfying quality characteristics (average values: dry matter - 93.67%, crude protein - 8.66%, cellulose - 30.36%, crude fat - 2.27%) compared with other studied grasslands of saline habitats. There were no significant differences in quality and chemical composition of grasslands of the two regions, despite differences in floristic composition, indicating that salinity is the key determinant for pastoral value of the halophytic vegetation. The certain variations were attributed to the specific floristic composition related to ecological conditions and halophytic community characteristics.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112694
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Marker assisted selection (MAS) for downy mildew resistance in grapevines
           using Rpv3.1 associated markers

    • Authors: Murat AKKURT, Irem ŞENSES, Burak AKTÜRK, Ilhami TOZLU, Nuray ÖZER, Halil Ibrahim UZUN
      Pages: 12708 - 12708
      Abstract: Powdery mildew and downy mildew are primary fungal diseases that cause significant damage in viticulture. Therefore, breeding powdery and/or downy mildew resistance is one of the priority subjects in grapevine breeding programs. This study aims to conduct early-selection by marker assisted selection (MAS) method among 869 genotypes obtained through crossbreeding ‘Alphonse Lavallee’ × ‘Regent’ cultivars using the markers (GF18-06 and GF18-08) associated with downy mildew resistance gene region Rpv3.1 to develop new grapevine cultivars resistant to downy mildew caused by Plasmopara viticola.  A total of 869 hybrid plants which were obtained after crossing ‘Alphonse Lavallee’ × ‘Regent’ in a 3-year breeding program were used in the study. The hybrid plants were scored for the resistance level based on their sporulation intensity after artificial inoculation of P. viticola. DNA samples of the hybrid plants were amplified with GF18-06 and GF18-08 markers in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for MAS. The alleles which were associated to Rpv3.1 resistance locus and the results of resistance scoring were compared, and the applicability of the markers in MAS was verified. It was determined that the GF18-08/410 bp marker can be used successfully for MAS. Gf 18-06 marker 385 bp, 390 bp and 407 bp gave false positive results in our population, respectively 8.86%, 9.02% and 37.94%. Therefore, this may limit its use for MAS.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112708
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Introduction pages

    • Authors: Radu E. SESTRAS
      Pages: 12717 - 12717
      Abstract: The papers published in Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Issue 4, Volume 49, 2021 represent new exciting researches in different topics of life science, respectively in plant science, horticulture, agronomy and crop science. Among the interesting articles we invite you to find news about: Trehalose induced drought tolerance in plants: physiological and molecular responses; Taxonomy, distribution, epidemiology, disease cycle and management of brown rot disease of peach (Monilinia spp.); Promoter activity analysis and transcriptional profile of Ginkgo biloba 1-Deoxy-D- Xylulose 5-Phosphate reductoisomerase gene (GbDXR) under abiotic stresses; Identifying strawberry DOF family transcription factors and their expressions in response to crown rot; Analysis of codon usage pattern in Lonicera × heckrottii ‘Gold Flame’ based on chloroplast genome; Biofortification with copper nanoparticles (Nps Cu) and its effect on the physical and nutraceutical quality of hydroponic melon fruits; Effect of gibberellin, nano-nutrition with titanium, zinc and iron on yield and some physiological and qualitative traits of white beans; Seasonal variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in ecotone forests of the northern region of Brazilian Amazonia.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112717
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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