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AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted by number of followers
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Arid Zone     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sugarcane Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Animal - Open Space     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Future Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Cereal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Indian Journal of Extension Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Potato Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Magazín Ruralidades y Territorialidades     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technica Agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Phenomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Rural and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Measurement : Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CSA News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Agriscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources : IJ-FANRES     Open Access  
Horticultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Reproduction and Breeding     Open Access  
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Research     Open Access  
Phytopathology Research     Open Access  
Rekayasa     Open Access  
International Journal of Agricultural and Life Sciences     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access  
Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Nexo Agropecuario     Open Access  
Dissertationen aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut     Open Access  
Berichte aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut     Open Access  
Journal für Kulturpflanzen     Open Access  
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science, Biology and Bioeconomy     Open Access  
Agrosains : Jurnal Penelitian Agronomi     Open Access  
Agrotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
PRIMA : Journal of Community Empowering and Services     Open Access  
Dinamika Pertanian     Open Access  

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Indian Journal of Extension Education
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0537-1996 - ISSN (Online) 2454-552X
Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Authors: Manjeet Singh Nain
      Abstract: From fuel to fertilizer and crude oil to vegetable oil the recent Russia-Ukraine conflict is roiling markets. India experienced a shortage of DAP right before rabi 2021-22 sowing season, and the recent sanctions may result in rising input costs and farmers may get lesser DAP for their fields. At least 80 % of crude oil, 60 % of the cooking oil and 35 % fertilizers is met through imports and the crisis region have lion’s share. Although, it is an opportune time for India to export its agricultural surplus and cut down the huge inventories it is carrying but the farmers and consumers need be prepared to weather the storm. Also the agricultural extension system needs far deeper commitment and more active engagement for contingent times.
      It’s my privilege to present the current issue (April- June, 2022) containing 46 manuscripts from cross sectional authors and content ranging from basic research in the form of measuring tool development; Climate Smart framework; Innovation decision process analysis; forecasting the price; studies on producer federations; knowledge and attitude analysis of various technologies and innovations; food consumption pattern; promising avenues like DSR; Tribal Sub Plan study; studies on millets especially buckwheat, pulses and oilseed; organic farming; water use efficiency; health and life style; social media utilization; value chain analysis; marketing skills; use of choice-based conjoint analysis for estimation of willingness to pay; livelihood security factors; technological gap analysis; credits and subsidy analysis; seed demand and supply gap of selected crops; price behaviour, case study of referral veterinary polyclinic services and so on. Geographically and diversity wise, the manuscripts cover 18 Indian states and UTs, 30 Indian institutions (SAUs/CAUs/ ATARIs/ DUs/ SVUs/ KVKs) and contents with issues of agriculture, dairy, fisheries, veterinary sciences and community sciences. The IJEE is now getting wider circulation with the opportunity for citations and indexing. As on date indexed at CAB International; Science gate; Agricultural Science and Technology Information data base of FAO which has become possible by submitting metadata in desirable form to Crossref.
      I extend my sincere thanks to all the authors for making valuable contributions. I also extend sincere thanks to all the expert members in the editorial board (Dr. Himanshu K. De, Dr. Kalyan Ghadei, Dr. Rajeev Bairathi, Dr. S. S. Dolli & Dr. V.P.S. Yadav) for their painstaking efforts. I extend my sincere thanks to all the authors for making valuable contributions. The support extended by Executive Council is duly acknowledged.
      Special thanks are extended to the President, ISEE; Dr. U.S. Gautam, Secretary ISEE; Dr. Rashmi Singh, Treasurer, ISEE; Dr. B. K. Singh and Joint Secretary, ISEE; Dr. J. S. Malik for providing insightful thoughts and guidance in bringing out this issue. Dr. Bhanu P. Mishra, Vice President (Central Zone) deserves special thanks for making committed efforts at all stages of ISEE matters.
      (Manjeet Singh Nain)
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Conceptualizing and Validating a Framework of Climate Smart Village in
           Flood Affected Ecosystem of West Bengal

    • Authors: Sujit Sarkar, R N Padaria, Sanjib Das, Biplab Das, Ganesh Biswas, Dinabondhu Roy, Ajit Sarkar
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Climate change is the major issue affecting the survival of human kind in the present day scenario. Farmers are the most vulnerable communities to these changes. Many climate smart technologies were devised and tried to promote through traditional extension system. But their adoption rate is very poor doe to multiple socio-economic and technological factors. Therefore focus extension approach were thought of and concept of climate smart village was introduced to promote climate smart technologies. But the past efforts on establishing climate smart villages were revolved around only on technological dimension ignoring socio-economic dimension of climate change. Hence, the present study conceptualizes the climate smart village integrating technological as well as social factors. The concept has been experimented during 2016-2021 at field level in the village Singimari,
      Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal in convergence mode with other related stakeholders line Krishi vigyan Kendra (KVK), state agricultural department, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), NGOs and farming communities. The findings revealed that adoption level of climate smart technologies and practices has increased significantly after establishment of climate smart village. Therefore, more number of climate
      smart villages should be established specially in vulnerable ecosystem for better adaptation to climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Farmers Decision Making Pattern on Agricultural Innovations: A Process

    • Authors: M. J Chandre Gowda, Shrishail S Dolli, Sreenath Dixit, M. V. Durga Prasad, D. Saravanan
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Decision making on new practices in crop production and marketing among farmers was studied in different agro-climatic situations of Gujarat and Karnataka. The process was analyzed using the initiation pattern, activities engaged in and sources consulted before decision-making based on primary data collected from 787 farmers cultivating paddy, cotton, groundnut, maize and potato. Five patterns of initiation to decision making were identified, which varied for different functional areas and crops. Activities that followed indicated that majority of farmers resorted to quick decision making, mostly based on a single source of information. Based on the pattern of initiation, sources of information and activities, decision making was broadly categorized as imitation, induced and informed. Informed decision-making was more prevalent in the case of groundnut and maize crops, which were less problematic crops. On the contrary, cotton and potato farmers resorted to induced decision-making, probably due to complexity of problems in pests, micronutrient and marketing. In paddy, a traditional food crop cultivated in a more homogenous environment, farmers resorted to imitative decision making. Maximizing informed decisions while facilitating purposeful imitation could be a desirable strategy, although the specific strategies could be location and context-specific.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Forecasting of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Prices in India

    • Authors: P. Prakash, D. Jaganathan, Sheela Immanuel, Achal Lama, J. Sreekumar, P. S. Sivakumar
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Due to the semi-perishable nature of sweet potato the price fluctuation occur based on demand and supply. Hence, it becomes necessary to precisely forecast market price of sweet potato. Price forecasting of sweet potato was carried out for six selected states in India using time series monthly market price, collected from AGMARKNET price portal from January 2010 to December 2021. Exponential Smoothing Models (ESM), Seasonal
      Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model and Time Delay Neural Network (TDNN) model were used for forecasting of sweet potato price. It was observed that among the forecasting models, the TDNN model predicted accurate future prices of sweet potato based on the lowest Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) than SARIMA and ESM. The forecast
      indicated that the average market price of sweet potato in selected states of India viz., Kerala, Odisha, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Telangana, would be in the range of Rs. 684 to Rs. 2757 per quintal during January 2022 to December 2022. The forecasted price of sweet potato would provide valuable information to the sweet potato growers, government institutions and other stakeholders in the sweet potato value chain to take appropriate decisions on production, marketing and consumption of sweet potato.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Food Consumption Pattern of Farming Families in Punjab

    • Authors: Abhishek Vij, Sukhdeep Kaur Mann
      Pages: 21 - 25
      Abstract: The present study was conducted in Punjab state to analyze the food consumption pattern of farming families. Empirical data was collected from a total of 180 respondents i.e. 60 males, 60 females and 60 children from farming families of Punjab with the help of a selfstructured interview schedule. Findings revealed that cent per cent of the respondents had
      their breakfast and dinner daily. Further, it was found that there was a low consumption of fruits and nuts & oil seeds in the majority of the respondents and high consumption of fats & oils in nearly half of the respondents. The frequency of consumption of all the other food groups was found to be in medium category. The mean frequency consumption of milk & milk products, other vegetables (non-green leafy vegetables) and non-vegetarian
      food showed significant differences between the three categories of respondents. An imbalance was found in the consumption of different food groups by the respondents. So, based on the findings of the research, the paper recommends that there is a need for special efforts to change the consumption pattern of farming families in Punjab and spread awareness
      among the population to include a variety of food items from different food groups in the diet.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Knowledge of Farmers on Functioning of e-NAM

    • Authors: M. Shanmukh Raju, M. Rama Devy, P. V. Sathya Gopal
      Pages: 26 - 29
      Abstract: National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal that networks the existing APMC mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.The study investigated the knowledge level of e-NAM registered farmers about the features and functioning of e-NAM in Duggirala market of Andhra Pradesh during 2019-2020. A total sample of 120 farmers was randomly selected from six mandals viz. Kollur, Kollipara,
      Bhattiprolu, Tenali, Mangalagiri and Duggirala of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh. The data were collected with pre-structured interview schedule. The knowledge on functioning of e-NAM was measured in three phases viz. gate entry, quality assaying and e-bidding.Majority of the farmers had knowledge on details of registration fee, details of quality assaying fee and provision of choice to accept or reject the bid in the gate entry, quality assaying and e-bidding phases of e-NAM respectively. Further, it was observed thatmajority of the farmers had medium level of knowledge on functioning of e-NAM. Knowledge scores were significantly related with education, extension contact, market orientation, income orientation, mass media exposure, risk orientation and socialparticipation. All the selected eleven variables of the profile put together explained about 59.90 per cent variation in the knowledge of respondents. There is a large scope for imparting training to the farmers about various aspects of e-NAM in order to enhance its utilization effectively and efficiently
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Adoption of Climate Resilient Agricultural Technologies by Farmers in
           Nalgonda district of Telangana State

    • Authors: Akshith Sai Pabba, V. Ravinder Naik, V. Sudha Rani
      Pages: 30 - 34
      Abstract: Over the past few decades, climate change has become inevitable. In the present scenario, the focus from yield intensification is switched over to the adaptation to climate change. Climate Resilient Agricultural (CRA) technologies are observed as the best adaptation options available which could enhance the resilience of agriculture. The present study investigates the extent to which CRA technologies are being adopted by the farmers in the National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project implemented villages of Nalgonda district in Telangana state. It further examined the association of profile characteristics of respondents with the extent of adoption of CRA technologies. A structured interview was used to obtain data from 120 respondents. Results revealed medium to high levels of adoption of CRA technologies by the farmers with renovation and/or use of farm ponds, introduction and raising of medium duration variety in red gram viz., LRG-52 and preventive vaccination in livestock among the highly adopted technologies. The profile characteristics viz., farm size, annual income, innovativeness, information seeking behaviour,achievement motivation, and Weather Based Agro Advisory Services had positive and significant association with the extent of adoption of CRA technologies by the farmers.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Capturing Community Participation in Rural Tourism through PRA: A Study in

    • Authors: Pagadala Sai Priyanka, Loukham Devarani
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Rural tourism as an agri-business enterprise has potential for socio-economic development of rural area and yields numerous benefits to strengthen culture, livelihood and technological outlook of communities, for which sustainability in the development venture depends on community participation. The study was taken up in two popular rural tourism centers viz., Mawlynnong (cleanest village of Asia) and Sohliya (Strawberry village) of Meghalaya state that has heavy tourist traffic; to carry out community stakeholder analysis of rural tourism. Through key informant technique, personal interview and observation, 15 categories of community stakeholders were identified. This was followed by a community level meeting of the key stakeholders and few residents in each tourism center where PRA exercises were conducted for information generation and discussion. It was found that community stakeholders organize rural tourism for various reasons through various means. The village council (Dorbar Shong) performed multiple roles and had high influence in village. Efforts in mobilizing community to undertake homestays and dhabas, emphasis on creation of exclusive tourism cooperatives within village to coordinate vital activitiesbetween stakeholders may ensure effective and sustainable participation by community members.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Farmer’s Field Evaluation of Direct Seeded Rice vis-à -vis Puddled
           Transplanted Rice in Kapurthala, Punjab

    • Authors: Rajan Bhatt, Pritpal Singh
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: The direct seeded rice (DSR) has emerged as an economically viable and sustainable option for timely rice establishment due to labor shortage amid Covid-19 pandemics. The crop production practices differ greatly among puddled transplanted rice (PTR) and DSR. Therefore, we compared the performance of different rice varieties viz. PR-121, PR-126 and Pusa-44 under two contrasting establishment methods (PTR vs. DSR). The study
      highlights that of the total area under rice, the highest area under DSR was in Sultanpur Lodhi block (about 68.2%), while the lowest area in Dhilwan block (about 41.9%). Results revealed higher benefit-cost ratio of rice establishment under DSR technology, compared with the PTR technology, regardless of the rice variety due to reduced (about 23.9%) cost of cultivation associated with rice establishment under DSR technology. About 68.9 per cent of the respondents perceived PTR as low cost effective, while about 4.7 per cent perceived PTR as highly cost effective. Conversely, about 16.0 per cent of respondents perceived DSR as low cost effective, while a large proportion (about 55.7%) perceived DSR as highly cost effective. About 14.1, 76.4 and 10.4 per cent of PTR farmers, while about 10.4, 69.8 and 14.1 per cent of DSR farmers perceived it as low, medium and highly
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact of Jharkhand State Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation on
           Socioeconomic Status of Dairy Farmers

    • Authors: Kalyan Mandi, Ritu Chakravarty, K. Ponnusamy, K. S. Kadian, A. K. Dixit, Magan Singh, A. K. Misra
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: The paper assesses the impact of membership of dairy cooperative i.e. Jharkhand State Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation (JMF) on the performance of dairy production systems using propensity score matching techniques. Dairy cooperative members differed significantly from non-members in terms of outcome variables. The mean difference value  explained that the socio-economic condition of members was better than non-members.The findings revealed that membership of JMF contributes towards improving yields of dairy animals, net dairy income, and also, to household milk consumption. The non-members reaped better price for the milk in the wet market as compared to the members. Nonetheless, the member-producers recorded higher proportion of milk sale as compared to the nonmembers which also indicated their intensity of market participation. These results indicate towards the need to improve dairy farmers’ linkages through cooperatives or other such institutions for their socio-economic development.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Organic Manure in Conservation Agriculture: Perception, Reality and

    • Authors: Sreemoyee Bera, S. K. Acharya, Prabhat Kumar, Riti Chatterjee, Kabita Mondal, Monirul Haque
      Pages: 53 - 57
      Abstract: The excessive reliance on chemical fertilizers and the negligence shown to the conservation and use of organic manures (OM) have led to the exhaustion of organic carbon level, soil moisture level, and retention of microorganism population in the soil. The present study reveals that the farmers merely have any perception or they are not technically aware of
      the importance of the application of OM into their farming for the restoration of ecological resilience. Elucidating the factors, impacts, and perceptions of farmers, fifty respondents have been selected from Dalilpur and Kastodanga village of Nadia district by systematic random sampling for the study. The responses are collected through a structured interview schedule. The study envisaged that the livestock count, size of homestead land, size of
      landholding, production of organic manure, education variables have been found to exert strong and determining contribution to the application of organic manure. The socialization of proper cognitive adoption of organic manure among the farmers for the restoration of ecological resilience and popularization of resource-saving agricultural crop production is
      the need of the hour.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Rice Productivity and Water Use Efficiency under Different Irrigation
           Management System in North-Western India

    • Authors: Mahekpreet Kaur, Karamjit Sharma
      Pages: 65 - 68
      Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important kharif cereal crop with huge irrigation water demand. Over the years, several water saving technologies have been developed, tested and disseminated among farming community for enhancing irrigation water productivity in rice. The present study, compared continuous flooding (T1), alternate wetting and drying in which irrigation is done 2 days after seepage (AWD; T2), soil matric potential(ψm; tensiometer guided) based irrigation scheduling at ψm=15kPa (T3) and ψm=20kPa (T4) using PAU tensiometer on basmati rice (var. Pusa Basamti-1121) productivity and water use efficiency (WUE). The results revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher rice grain yield (38.85 t ha-1) under T2, compared with the other irrigation scheduling methods. The AWD
      (T2) method of irrigation scheduling resulted in saving of 27 per cent irrigation water, compared with T1. The water productivity in basmati rice production was 0.285 kg m-3, 0.446 kg m-3, 0.414 kg m-3 and 0.528 kg m-3, respectively in four compared irrigation scheduling methods. As in Punjab around 3.0 Mha area is under rice cultivation and if we adopt irrigation after 2-3 days of seepage it will save around 27 per cent water as compared
      to continuous flooding amounting about 9.6 billon m3 of water.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Increasing Self-Esteem to Attract and Retain Farmers in Agriculture

    • Authors: Sujit K. Nath
      Pages: 69 - 72
      Abstract: Besides income, prestige also plays a major role in selection of profession. Lowering of selfesteem is perceived as one of the major setbacks for reducing attraction towards farming by the current generation. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deogarh, Odisha developed a strategy and worked upon it during 2018-19 and 2019-20 to increase the social status of farmers by increasing their human values. The selected farmers were branded as experts in certain fields before a public gathering. Their role and success story was highlighted through different mass media. The effect of such action was observed and recorded. The branded farmers felt their increased social status after branding by KVK. These young farmers served as a medium for technology transfer in their locality. Increasing of self-esteem was perceived as the greatest effect of branding by the farmers. The studied farmers were of the opinion that even after recognized by government, they had the least opportunity to easily avail government schemes. This novel approach was found a successful step towards encouraging farmers, rural agripreneurs as well as transfer of farm technologies. The model can be replicated
      successfully in agriculture and other such areas for a wholesome development.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Perceived Challenges of National Education Policy, 2020 by the Students

    • Authors: Dangi Pooja Arun, Joginder Singh Malik, Rohit Shelar
      Pages: 73 - 76
      Abstract: National Education Policy, 2020 is a progressive shift towards a more scientific approach to education and if it is enforced in its true vision, the new education structure can bring India stood up with the leading countries in the world. It is aiming to develop creative potential, skills, and analytical thinking which will be the need in the global job market. The policy has challenges for the students and the teachers. The present study focused on the perception of college students in India about NEP, 2020 concerning challenges like overburden of syllabus, lack of infrastructure, and transportation facilities, focus on regional languages, Disparity between rural and urban areas in manpower and quality of education. The results of the study indicated that out of 120 respondents, 45(37.50%) respondents agreed, for the statement “Overburden of syllabus”, followed by “Universal access to education” were agreed by around half of the respondents i.e. 64(53.33%), and 11(09.16%) were disagreed.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Lifestyle of Farming Community in Punjab: A Major Health Determinant

    • Authors: Anadi Ranjan Saikia, Ritu Mittal
      Pages: 77 - 80
      Abstract: The health status of the farming community and the various lifestyle factors which affect the health of the farming community is still an subject matter of less importance for researchers. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship of health with lifestyle of the farming community and data were collected using survey from a sample of 120 respondents from the farming community of Punjab, India during 2021. The overall health
      status was measured in terms of mental health status and physical health status. The lifestyle was measured through 8 parameters i.e. dietary diversity score, meal frequency,nutrition intake, physical activity, stress management, personal health habits, availing medical advice and substance abuse. The findings revealed that lifestyle was correlated with physical health, mental health as well as overall health. The results also showed that
      mental health, physical health and overall health of male respondents were better than female respondents. It was inferred that health was dependent on lifestyle. Therefore, there is need to create awareness and knowledge about importance of lifestyle among farming community.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Adaptation Methods Practiced by Farmers in Response to Perceived Climate
           Change in Andhra Pradesh

    • Authors: B. Vijayabhinandana, R. Asha, B. S. N. S. Gowtham Kumar
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: The study was aimed at analyzing adaptation methods practiced by farmers’ and determining factors for adoption to climate change in the Andhra Pradesh (Zone-1 and Zone-6). A cross sectional household survey (by employing structured interview schedule), participant observations and focused PRA were conducted to collect the information on adaptation methods being practiced by 320 randomly selected farmers. The study employed descriptive statistics to types of adaptation measures exercised to cope up with the risk of the change in climate. The study also employed the multinomial logit regression toanalyze the determinants of adaptation method extracted. Factors such as age, education,number of crops cultivated, use of new technology, extension participation, contact and farmer’s commitment are the common determinants for adoption of practices.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Analysis of Marketing Facilities available for Tomato Growers of Haryana

    • Authors: Neelam Kumari, Pardeep Kumar Chahal, Joginder Singh Malik
      Pages: 86 - 90
      Abstract: Market plays crucial role in the economic life of farmers, and essential in the chain of commodity distribution. Postharvest losses in tomato are a matter of concern for all tomato growers, therefore a need for farmers to sell their produce instantly after harvesting is felt. Provision of better marketing facilities would assist in better handling of the produce and reduce storage losses, thereby offering higher and remunerative prices to the growers. The present study was conducted during 2020-21 in four districts of Haryana, namely Nuh,
      Sonipat, Gurugram and Palwal. The investigation was focused on the marketing facilities available for the farmers, their knowledge and adoption level regarding post-harvest management practices. A total sample of 160 respondents were selected and personally interviewed. The results indicated that farmers had medium degree of mass media exposure, extension contact and extension participation. To test the adequacy of sample, factor analysis using KMO and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was applied and yielded 10 factors
      and explaining a total of 69.58 per cent of the variance for the entire set of marketing

      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Factors Contributing to the Stability of the Farmer Producer
           Organisations: A Study in West Bengal

    • Authors: Sudip Kumar Gorai, Monika Wason, R N Padaria, D U M Rao, Sudipta Paul, Ranjit Kumar Paul
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the stability of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) and the factors contributing to the stability of FPOs in West Bengal during 2020. Using random sampling procedure, data were collected from 120 farmer members from ten FPOs from four districts of the state namely Birbhum, Murshidabad, Purba Bardhaman and Nadia through personal interview method. For measuring the stability of FPOs, stability index was developed taking mutual trust, role clarity of the members, level of involvement of members in group works, satisfaction of the members, sense of attachment and conviction and sense of ownership as the indicators. The significant difference between the mean scores of stability index of high and low performing FPOs were observed with respect to the dimensions like satisfaction of the members, mutual trust, role clarity and sense of
      attachment and conviction. Attitude of members towards their FPO and cooperation were found to be significant contributor in developing better group stability within a high performing FPO. Attitude towards FPO, assimilation and competition were found to be the reliable predictors for the variance in group stability in low performing FPOs.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Terms of Trade for Selected Crops in Rajasthan: Insights on
           Farmers’ Complex Crop Choice Behaviour

    • Authors: Dinesh Kumar, Madhu Sharma, B. L. Manjunatha, Dipika Hajong
      Pages: 97 - 103
      Abstract: This study estimated the Terms of Trade (TOT) between the input and output prices for pearl millet, wheat, paddy and gram crops cultivated in Jaipur, Sri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh and Ajmer districts respectively in Rajasthan state for the period 1996-97 to 2018-19. It was found that the Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of Procurement Price Index (PPI) and Farm Harvest Price Index (FHPI) have increased consistently for all crops with a CAGR ranging from 5-8 per cent p.a. The CAGR of Composite Input Price Index (CIPI) was always higher (ranging from 6-8% p.a.) than the PPI and FHPI indicating that the input prices have increased at a much higher rate than the output prices during the study period. Analysis revealed that TOT (ratio of PPI to CIPI and ratio of FHPI to CIPI) for all crops for most of the years was unfavourable (<100) as evident from negative CAGR (ranging from -0.15 to -2.40% p.a.). The selection of the base year in which output prices are around 150% (i.e. 1.5 times the cost of cultivation) of the composite input prices for estimating TOT is recommended. The study further explored as to why farmers cultivated these crops despite declining and negative TOT.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Implementing Indian Innovations through Trained Extension Functionaries
           for Improving the Agriculture in Africa and Asia

    • Authors: Mahantesh Shirur, H. N. Sharath, Goldi Tewari, K C Gummagolmath
      Pages: 104 - 109
      Abstract: Agriculture in India has metamorphosed a lot during the last seven decades from being a subsistence farming to commercial agriculture. The innovations in Indian agriculture have paved the way for seeing agriculture as an agri-business enterprise. The creation of diverse agribusiness opportunities amidst the existing constraints and challenges has reoriented the farming in India. Having seen the positive changes in agriculture due to the agribusiness
      orientation in India, other countries in Asia and Africa are keen to adopt this approach in their countries. The selected officials representing Government, civil society and private firms from Africa and Asia were trained under Feed the Future India Triangular Training during 2019 on Agribusiness innovations in India and the opportunities for their countries. Following the training, the research study conducted showed that, Indian agribusiness innovations in supply chain management, good agriculture practices and promoting Farmer
      Producer Companies (FPCs) are perceived as best interventions by the trainees to address the problems of lack of improved technologies for small farmers, unorganized market, lack of institutional resources and lack of agri mechanization in their countries.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Analysis of Factors Affecting Social Media Utilization of Extension Agents

    • Authors: A. Shanmuka, V Lenin, V Sangeetha, L Muralikrishnan, V Ramasubramanian, Alka Arora
      Pages: 110 - 114
      Abstract: Digitalization of communication networks through social media platforms is the most important tool to increase the reach and impact of agricultural advisory services. A profound need to study the extent of usage of social media by extension agents and factors influencing its usage was felt and to analyze the extent of usage, a composite index was developed during 2021 by using seven sub-indices that had a Cronbach alpha value of 0.903. To study the extent of usage 160 extension agents through a proportionate random sampling method were selected from Andhra Pradesh where the majority of the extension agents had a medium extent of usage which accounts for 44.37 per cent. Based on the correlational analysis it is found that innovative proneness (p<0.05), scientific orientation, job perception, technology management orientation, information management orientation, orientation towards extension service profession have a significant and positive correlation with the extent of usage of social media at 0.01 level of significance. Based on stepwise regression analysis it revealed that five variables were a good fit with an R-square of 35.7 per cent. The findings may help in framing a social media-led extension strategy by extension organizations and government bodies to reach the grassroots of the rural communities.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Utilization Pattern of Bamboo in North Eastern Region of India

    • Authors: Jeemoni Gogoi, Ram Singh, S. Basanta Singh, S M Feroze, Anju Choudhury, L. Hemochandra, Hehlangki Tyngkan
      Pages: 115 - 119
      Abstract: The study was conducted in the states of Assam and Meghalaya of India in the year 2020- 21. Total 380 respondents were selected using multistage sampling method. The states Assam and Meghalaya, were selected purposively based on availability of processing units and highest productivity, respectively among the North Eastern states. The utilization pattern was classified into household, construction, handicraft, agricultural purpose, and food and other uses. The results indicated of total of 42062 numbers of bamboo culms were utilized by sample respondents. The construction uses contributed highest number of culms and accounted of 35541 numbers (84.50%), followed by household uses 4001 culms (9.51%) and agricultural uses 1350 culms (3.21%). The food consumption was observed of 2.11 per cent while for making handicraft products use was only 0.62 per cent of the total uses. The least bamboo was utilized in the musical instruments (0.05%). The use of bamboo would remain a vital part of the livelihood of people of the region. Therefore, with advancement of technology, trainings and support from government schemes on bamboo in the region would provide ample scope to develop new products and marketing opportunities and thereby generating employment and income to the youth.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effectiveness of Personal versus Online Extension Methods in Disseminating
           Knowledge on Household Waste Management

    • Authors: Priyanka Ginwal, Preeti Sharma
      Pages: 120 - 123
      Abstract: The article highlights the effectiveness of personal and online extension methods for disseminating knowledge on household waste management. A pre-test, post-test experimental design was used for the study. Thirty women, each from five randomly selected urban localities of Ludhiana district of Punjab were selected for the study, making a total of 150 respondents as the sample size. Of the five urban localities, four localities were randomly chosen for the experiment and one locality was chosen as the control group. Data was collected using a structured interview schedule consisting of a self-designed
      knowledge test on household waste management. Findings revealed that all the selected extension methods were effective in disseminating knowledge to the respondents. The most effective extension method was personal contact + print material followed by video conferencing + ICT based messages, video conferencing, and personal contact method. Oneway ANOVA revealed significant differences in gain in knowledge by the respondents of the study groups’ p < 0.001. Post-hoc analysis further revealed that the effect of both personal and online extension methods when supplemented with educational materials and when used solo, had statistically similar effects on gain in knowledge.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Profitability Analysis and Stakeholders Perception of Banana Value Chain
           in Nadia District of West Bengal

    • Authors: Barsha Sarkar, Debabrata Basu, Hiralal Jana, Monirul Haque
      Pages: 124 - 128
      Abstract: Banana occupies the highest rank among India’s fruit crops both in area and production. The study was conducted on four randomly selected banana marketing channels namely Habibpur to Kolkata marketing channel (Channel-I), Habibpur local marketing channel (Channel-II), Kalyani to Kolkata marketing channel (Channel-III), and Kalyani local marketing channel (Channel-IV) of Nadia District of West Bengal during 2019 to identify marketing efficiency of the channels and comparing them in respect of value chain management (VCM) abilities. The responses were collected from forty producers, sixteen commission agents, thirty wholesalers, forty-four retailers, and twenty consumers of the marketing channel through a structured interview schedule. It was observed that the marketing efficiency of the Channel-III for all of the four important banana varieties of ‘Singapuri’, ‘Champa’, ‘Martaman’ and ‘Kanthali’ were higher than the Channel-I because
      of its better transportation management system, storage management facilities, and value distribution index. The marketing efficiency of the local marketing channel was distinctly higher in respect of Kolkata marketing channels. Less number of the stakeholder’s intervention in the local market channels might be the determining factor for it.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Marketing Skills and Sanitary Status of Retail Meat Shops In relation to
           Butchers’ Educational Background in Maharashtra

    • Authors: R N Waghamare, S V Londhe, S S Ajabe, V V Khobe, V V Deshmukh
      Pages: 129 - 134
      Abstract: In India meat production is an unorganized business, although, ideally the butchers should possess basic education along sound understanding of sanitary practices and have standard infrastructure promoting meat business. A study was carried out in year 2021 to study the impact of butchers’ education on marketing skills and sanitary status of retail meat shops. The data was collected on 118 butchers’ shop through interview method. The study revealed that 42.37 per cent of the respondents had completed their secondary education with average age between 25-35 years. The study showed that 67.80 percent respondents running butchery as family business without undergoing any professional training. Butcher shops (42.37%) sales both chicken and mutton of which 68.64 and 80.51 per cent shops had registration with FSSAI and local body, respectively. COVID-19 has not affected meat business as compare to various religious festivals. Respondents (65.25%) believed that online marketing by corporate companies may not affect local meat business. Majority of butchers (85.59%) were unaware about modern slaughtering equipments. Considering the findings, a comprehensive skill development programme may be initiated on hygienic meat
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Estimation of Farmers’ Willingness-to-Pay for Quality Planting
           Material of Greater Yam (Dioscorea alata L.)

    • Authors: P. Sethuraman Sivakumar, M. Nedunchezhiyan, P. Adhiguru, S. K. Jata
      Pages: 135 - 139
      Abstract: Greater yam being a commercial tuber crop in Odisha state occupying a prominent place in food basket, the importance of meeting the planting material demand of the farmers, was realized by the ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and initiated mass efforts to multiply the high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties of yam to supply to farmers
      as quality planting materials.. As the farmers’ willingness to pay for the planting material depends on their assessment of the utility of each attribute of it, a research investigation was carried out in Odisha to estimate the utility value of each yam planting material attribute from the farmers’ perspective. The utility values for each planting material attribute
      were estimated through a choice-based conjoint analysis. Results indicated that yield had the highest utility level (30 t/ha = 5.20 and 25 t/ha = 2.60), followed by planting material price (Rs. 30/kg = 1.147) and culinary quality (excellent quality = 0.794). The marginal WTP for the yield 30 t/ha versus 25 t/ha was Rs 4.54/kg. It clearly shows that the farmers were willing to pay an additional amount of Rs 4.54/kg for a quality yam planting material that gave a higher yield than their variety.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Constraints Faced by Pineapple Growers in Tripura

    • Authors: Priyanka Roy, Souvik Ghosh
      Pages: 140 - 143
      Abstract: Agriculture is the main occupation of the inhabitants in Tripura and 80 per cent of the rural people depend on agriculture and allied sectors for the economic, food and nutritional security. Tripura has got highly suitable agro-climatic conditions to grow pineapple fruit. Livelihoods of many farmers largely depend on pineapple cultivation. However, pineapple cultivation is not delivering the desired output as it is constrained by several factors. Present study was conducted in year 2021 to delineate various constraints of pineapple cultivation and to determine difficulty level of each constraint as perceived by a random sample of 80 farmers. Various constraints were categorized as situational, technological, economic, social, environmental, infrastructure, and market related constraints. The major constraints identified were low rainfall, scarcity of water, labour intensiveness, high labour wage, high cost of cultivation, low adoption of scientific practices by neighbouring farmers, lack of group approach in farming, lack of infrastructure like; soil testing laboratory, agro-service centre, storage facilities and low-quality packaging. Lack of organised marketing facilities was the major concern for respondents-farmers. Future policy advocacies and agroadvisories for development of pineapple cultivation need to focus on combating aforesaid constraints in pineapple cultivation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact Assessment of Bidi Tobacco in Gujarat

    • Authors: A. Srinivas, D. Damodar Reddy, K. Vishwanath Reddy, Hema Baliwada, S. Kasturi Krishna
      Pages: 144 - 148
      Abstract: Tobacco, the golden leaf is one of the important high value commercial crops grown in over 15 states in India. It is a highly remunerative crop fetching more economic benefits to the farmers. Among different types of tobacco, bidi tobacco is an important non-FCV tobacco grown largely in Gujarat. The present study was conducted in the year 2019 with an objective to assess the impact of tobacco crop on socio-economic transformation of tobacco farmers in Gujarat state. The total sample size of the study was 160. The average net returns from bidi tobacco were Rs. 65000/ha. in Gujarat compared to wheat (Rs. 25,000/ ha) and jowar (Rs. 15000/ha). The socio-economic impact was high for tobacco growers in terms of land size, annual income, expenditure pattern, possession of assets, net returns, habitat &educational security and social empowerment than non-tobacco farmers. The major constraints identified from tobacco farmers wereprice fluctuation, non-availability of labour, suckers problem and storage facilities. The different factors for growing tobacco were high profit, availability of timely and sufficient credit, location suitability and timely availability of inputs. For non-tobacco crops, the major factors for cultivation were location suitability, adoption of improved technology, quick payment to the produce and government support.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact of Cotton Development Programme on Adoption of Recommended Bt-
           Cotton Cultivation Practices

    • Authors: Gurdeep Singh, Pritpal Singh, G P S Sodhi, Ranvir Singh, Kulwant Singh
      Pages: 149 - 152
      Abstract: The study assessed the impact of Cotton Development Programme (CDP) on the adoption of recommended management practices in Bt-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). The data was collected from 210 farmers over a period of six years to make quantitative comparison with baseline data collected during the initial three year period (2013-15) from Mansa district of Punjab. The adoption of crop management practices in Bt-cotton in terms of recommended Bt-cotton hybrids, seed rate, fertilizer dose, use pattern of potassium nitrate (KNO3; 13:00:45) and reduction in insecticide use was investigated to quantify the impact of the CDP in the study region. These results revealed that area under recommended Btcotton hybrids increased from a meager 15.2 per cent to as high as 89 per cent; adoption of recommended use nitrogenous fertilizers increased by 15.1 per cent; and the productivity of Bt-cotton enhanced by 138 per cent during this period. Therefore, it could be concluded that implementation of CDP was successful in the revival of Bt-cotton cultivation which was severely affected due to severe attack of sucking pests particularly by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) during kharif-2015.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Development of Scale to Measure Agripreneurs Attitude towards
           Entrepreneurial Climate

    • Authors: Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Manjeet Singh Nain, Rashmi Singh, Jyoti Ranjan Mishra
      Pages: 153 - 157
      Abstract: Attitude plays a crucial role in influencing one’s behaviour with respect to a particular psychological object. To measure the attitude of farmers towards entrepreneurial climate for agrienterprise development, need was realized to devise a scale and a Likert’s Summated Rating scale was constructed by following the standard methodology suggested. Attitude towards entrepreneurial climate was categorized in six specific dimensions viz. Institutional factors, psychological factors, cognitive factors, managerial factors, sociological factors and economic factors. A total of 141 items were constructed and was sent to 124 experts through email, Google docs form and handed over personally by visiting to the experts. Based on the 43 experts’ responses 72 items were screened out for item analysis. The scale was administered to 80 agripreneurs of Uttar Pradesh. The odd-even method was followed for testing reliability of the scale and reliability co-efficient was 0.66. The validity of the scale was examined with the help of face and content validity. The scale developed finally consisted of 44 items (36 positive and 8 negative).
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Technological Gap in Recommended Practices of Apple Cultivation in Kashmir

    • Authors: Zahoor Ahmad Shah, Mushtaq Ahmad Dar, Eajaz Ahmad Dar, Rufaida Mir, Mohammed Tauseef Ali
      Pages: 158 - 162
      Abstract: Apple is mainly cultivated in Kashmir valley, due to its well suited climatic conditions. The area under apple fruit has been increasing constantly, but the production as well as productivity has not improved to a satisfactory level. To notch up the goal of higher production and productivity of this important fruit in different regions of Kashmir valley, adoption of improved technologies plays an important role. A wide gap exists between the accessible technologies and its actual adoption by the apple growers, as reflected through the poor yield at the grower’s field. The study was conducted during 2019-20, with a view to determine the extent of technological gap between the recommended and actually adopted technologies by the apple growers in three districts of the Kashmir valley, selected purposively having maximum area under apple cultivation. A multistage sampling procedure was adopted for the study. It was found that the highest mean technological gap was found in district Budgam, followed by district Baramulla and the least gap existed in district Shopian. The overall mean technological gap index from all the three districts was found to be 63.08 per cent indicating need for scaling up extension efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Factors Affecting Livelihood Security of the Tribal Women in Crop Based
           Livelihood Activities

    • Authors: Asha Dagar, Rajshree Upadhyay
      Pages: 163 - 166
      Abstract: The study was aimed to find out the factors affecting by tribal women and association of different factors with livelihood security of the tribal women in crop based livelihood activities conducted in three districts of Rajasthan namely Dungarpur, Udaipur and Banswara 180 respondents data were collected through a well- structured interview schedule. Majority of the respondents had occasional access to extension agency, mass media sources, technological information as well print media. More than half of the respondents never had access to regular income, less than half of the respondents sometimes only produced new products, used improved methods and practices and took loan for carrying out livelihood. The livelihood security of the respondents was associated with access to resources, access to technological information, market and regular income, risk factors, risk taking ability and decision making ability. It can be inferred that all these factors affected to livelihood security of the tribal families with crop based livelihood.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Determinant of Access to Credit and Availing Subsidies for Protected
           Cultivation in Maharashtra

    • Authors: P. Prakash, Pramod Kumar, Prabhat Kishore, D Jaganathan, Sheela Immanuel, S. Varadha Raj
      Pages: 167 - 172
      Abstract: Protected cultivation requires high initial investment and intensive use of inputs for crop production but offers better yield which in turn increases the profitability of the farm. The study attempts to explore the economics of protected cultivation with different interest rates regime and subsidy in Pune and Nasik districts of Maharashtra conducted during 2018-19. About 95 to 97 per cent of the farmers availed subsidy from the government and the rest of the farmers constructed their polyhouse and shade net house without subsidy. About 47 to 50 per cent of the total cost was given as subsidy. Heckman selection model showed that the factors such as years of education, farm size, farm income, membership and occupation were the major determinants of access to credit. The study also indicated that household age, farm size, farm income, distance from the market and access to subsidies were important drivers of technology adoption. Among all, the access to subsidy reflected the availability of external capital support as one of the determining factors for adoption of technology. The factors responsible for non-repayment of loans were increase in farm income, family size and years of schooling.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Seed Production of Selected Crops in Telangana State, India: Assessment of
           Demand, Supply and Constraints

    • Authors: Pannala Divakar Reddy, Seema Seema, R Vijaya Kumari, M Sreenivasulu, D. Srinivasa Chary, B L Manjunatha
      Pages: 173 - 176
      Abstract: The study estimated the gap in demand and supply of seed production in paddy, groundnut and soybean in Telangana state from 2012-13 to 2016-17. There was a surplus in paddy seed production (95 to 216%), which was exported to other states; inconsistency in groundnut seed production and deficit in few years was met through seed imported from Gujarat state; and deficit in soybean (13 to 80%) was met by imports from Madhya Pradesh. The constraints in seed production were assessed through primary data collected during 2017-18, using the multistage random sampling technique. Farmers reported that procurement price of seed (similar to crop prices) was not remunerative. Labour (human and machine) alone accounted for 30-38 per cent of the cost of seed production in soybean and groundnut. Coordination among public and private sector in seed production and distribution is required for addressing the demand and supply gaps.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Arrival and Price Behaviour of Major Mustard Markets in Haryana

    • Authors: Jitender Kumar Bhatia, Dalip Kumar Bishnoi, Atul Dhingra, Parveen Kumar Nimbrayan
      Pages: 177 - 180
      Abstract: The market arrival and price behaviour of major mustard markets in Haryana during the pre-e-NAM (2010-2016) and post-e-NAM (2017-2021) periods was studied. In Haryana, e-NAM was implemented in 2016 but after adoption, its impact was shown in 2017. Results revealed that arrivals of mustard increased during pre e-NAM period in two selected markets, whereas, prices of mustard were found to be increased in Sirsa market while it decreased in Rewari market. In post e-NAM period, arrival and prices of mustard found to be decreased in both the markets. It was found that adoption and awareness about e- NAM was found higher in case of Sirsa market as compared to the Rewari market. Both Sirsa and Rewari markets were found spatially integrated in both pre as well as post e- NAM period. The Granger causality test in the post-e-NAM period demonstrated that mustard prices in Sirsa market were having a unidirectional causation on the prices in Rewari market, however there was no causality link between mustard prices in both markets in the pre-e-NAM time.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Diffusion of Agricultural Innovations: The Case of Organic Farming in
           Uttarakhand State of India

    • Authors: B Subrahmanyeswari, Mahesh Chander
      Pages: 181 - 185
      Abstract: Organic agriculture is an innovation among the agricultural production systems having its own unique characteristics thus making it distinct from traditional as well as conventional agricultural production systems. From India, organic food products exports grew by 51 per cent to US$1040 million in 2020-21. The rapid spread of organic agriculture makes an interesting case for analysis particularly in the context of developing countries. This paper has attempted to discuss the diffusion of organic farming in Uttarakhand state of India where promotion of organic farming is taking place systematically through Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB). The various stages of innovation-decision in the process of adoption of organic farming i.e. from knowledge to confirmation by the registered organic farmers have been traced including the factors that played role at every stage. Characteristics like social participation, information access, training received, and experience in organic farming were found having significant association with adoption of organic farming.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effectiveness of Agricultural Information Disseminated through Social

    • Authors: Guntukogula Pattabhi Sandeep, Pasunoori Prashanth, Middhe Sreenivasulu, Anne Madavilata
      Pages: 186 - 190
      Abstract: The study conducted to understand the effectiveness of agricultural information disseminated through social media as perceived by the farmers in three erstwhile districts of the Southern Telangana zone of Telangana state, with a sample size of 120 in year 2020. Effectiveness of Agricultural Information Index (EAII) was developed for the study by selecting eight indicators. It was found that (39.17%) of the respondents perceived effectiveness of agriculture information disseminated through social media as a medium level. Age and farming experience were found to be negative and significant with the effectiveness of agricultural information perceived by respondents. Digital literacy, farm size, social media network, social media usage, mode of access and preference, readiness to accept information, social media participation was positive and significant in relation to perceived effectiveness, and the variable information processing was found non-significant. The results shown that more than half of the respondents perceived information received on social media is effective. Social media platforms can be utilised effectively by developing better interface and information content to pictures and video format.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Knowledge Test for Extension Personnel on National Food Security Mission

    • Authors: Bhagya Vijyan, Manjeet Singh Nain, Rashmi Singh, N V Kumbhare
      Pages: 191 - 194
      Abstract: National Food Security Mission is one of the pertinent programmes of Indian Government. Developing a knowledge test to measure knowledge level of Extension Personnel on National Food Security Mission was required to study the programme in details. The locale of the study was Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka, hence the knowledge test items were selected keeping the locale under consideration. A Knowledge test comprising 33 items was subjected to relevancy test sought from extension specialists eventually selecting 29 items for the test. The 29 items were pretested on 30 extension personnel from other than the study area. Based on the scores obtained from the pretesting, item analysis eliciting difficulty index, discrimation index and point biserial correlation were done. The items with difficulty index ranging from 0.2 to 0.8, discrimination index above 0.1 and point biserial correlation significant at 5 per cent level of significance were selected. The reliability of the test was measured by using split half method and found to be 0.8. Eventually 24 items were selected for the final knowledge test for extension personnel on National Food Security Mission. This knowledge test can address the knowledge gap existing among the extension personnel by equipping them with right kind of information on NFSM through trainings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact of Cluster Front Line Demonstrations on Field Pea (Pisum sativum
           L.) in valley areas of Manipur

    • Authors: Laishram Kanta Singh, Lydia Zimik, S Roma Devi
      Pages: 195 - 197
      Abstract: In Imphal district of Manipur, the field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a prominent rabi season pulse crop. In comparison to other sections of the country, however, its output is quite poor. The productivity and economics of cluster front line demonstrations, as well as the adoption of newest production technologies including technology and extension gap by 50 Cluster Front Line Demonstrations (CFLD) farmers and 50 non-CFLD farmers were investigated during 2018-19 to 2020-21. The results revealed that average yield of the demonstration were 15.33 q/ha against the potential yield of 22 q/ha. The yield gap of 6.67 q/ha indicates that there still a technology gap and still there is big scope for increasing the yield. The percentage of increase in yield in CFLD ranged from 38.43 to 40.17 per cent with an average increase of 39.57 per cent over the farmers practice in local check plots. The extension yield gap fluctuated between 27.97 and 28.64 per cent. Overall it is concluded that cluster frontline demonstrations (CFLD) proved an effective tool for increasing the productivity of field pea.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Dairy Production Systems

    • Authors: G Letha Devi, Anjumoni Mech, Ravikiran Gorti, Veerasamy Sejian
      Pages: 198 - 201
      Abstract: Increasing water scarcity and simultaneously growing demands for food and feed challenge agricultural production. Globally livestock feed sourcing is one of the major causes for water depletion, therefore increasing livestock water use efficiency (LWUE) is necessary. In this direction, primary data was collected from 240 small and medium sized dairy farms in Karnataka, India during the period 2018-2021. Water inputs (by animals) considered were drinking water, water contained in forages, water for on-farm servicing, water for crop irrigation and water for all upstream inputs other than feeds and milk was considered as output. The water inputs through forage and other feed ingredients were more as compared to water inputs through drinking water and that used for on farm servicing operations such as cleaning etc. Average direct consumptive water use by smallholder system was found to be 130 litres per day per animal and 205 litres per day for commercial dairies. Water use efficiency for the smallholder system was 0.85 and for the commercial dairying it was 1.62.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Client’s Satisfaction towards Indian Veterinary Research Institute-
           Referral Veterinary Polyclinic Services: A Case Study

    • Authors: Kamni P Biam, Mahesh Chander, Pampi Paul
      Pages: 202 - 204
      Abstract: The study was conducted at Indian Veterinary Research Institute- Referral Veterinary Polyclinic (RVP), Izatnagar, to assess the client’s satisfaction on the overall veterinary service provided by the polyclinic from 2019-2020. A total of 60 clients visiting the RVP were at random selected irrespective of the animal they brought and place they belong too. 95 per cent of the clients prefer IVRI-RVP over other private or government-run clinics because of nominal consultation fees and 93.33 per cent due to their belief in the Institutes’ reliability of treatment of the diseases diagnosed on their animals. All the clients agreed that the IVRI-RVP cleanliness was very satisfactory, 98.33 per cent of them felt that the veterinarians were courteous and genuinely concerned for their animals and clearly explained their problems upon diagnosis. 56.67 per cent of the clients rated the overall quality of veterinary services as very good and were more than happy to recommend the polyclinic to their families and friends.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Modelling and Forecasting of Area, Production and Productivity of Tomatoes
           in Haryana and India

    • Authors: Parveen Kumar Nimbrayan, P K Muhammed Jaslam, Aniket Chandanshive
      Pages: 205 - 208
      Abstract: An effort was made to investigate the behaviour of the area, production and productivity of tomato crop in the Haryana and India. For the purpose modelling and forecasting, linear trend, exponential trend, quadratic trend, S-curve trend, ARIMA modelling techniques were used and analysed the available information from 1991 to 2018. The results show that there will not be a significant increase in tomato productivity in Haryana, but it will raise yield in India. The total production of tomatoes in Haryana will be 1029 thousand tons by 2024 and the current production (2018-19) is 643.55 thousand tons and an increase of 4043 tons can be achieved in 2024 in India. It is noteworthy that although the area under tomatoes will increase in the near future in Haryana, but productivity remains the same. Productivity in India may increase in the coming years, although the area under cultivation remains the same.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Perception of Farmers towards Custom Hiring Service Centres in Tumakuru
           District of Karnataka

    • Authors: Anil Kadaraiah, Basavaprabhu Jirli, Shivananda P Yarazari, H M Nandini, P N Chaubey
      Pages: 209 - 212
      Abstract: The study was carried out in Tumakuru district of Karnataka state during the year 2019- 20. Eight taluks and 130 farmers were selected where the Custom Hiring Service Centres were working effectively. The majority of the farmers strongly agreed with helps in overcoming the problem of labour through custom hiring service centre, for visiting farmers field after completion of the work, farmers pays only for the number of acres or number of hours used. The overall perception of farmers indicated that 43.8 % were categorized under favourable level of perception towards CHSC. The small and medium-sized farmers could not possess the modern machinery, due to high hiring charges with private vendors they were unable to take the farm machinery for the rent and some of the large farmers also were in great need of the modern machinery thus they require modern machinery through custom hiring. Hence, extension efforts need to be more strengthened to create awareness among the farming community about the services available in CHSCs.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Response of Green Gram Demonstrated Technology under Cluster Front Line
           Demonstration in Samastipur, Bihar, India

    • Authors: Sanjay Kumar, R K Tiwari, Bharati Upadhaya, Shailesh Kumar, Ranjan Kumar
      Pages: 213 - 216
      Abstract: Cluster Front Line Demonstration on green gram was conducted during 2016-17 to 2017- 18 in Samastipur district of Bihar to evaluate the performance of improved management techniques in green gram during each year. Performance of demonstrated technology revealed the highest number of nodules/plant at 20 DAS (12.78 & 11.92) & 40 DAS (26.83 & 25.14) and dry weight of nodules/plant at 20 DAS (29.14 & 78.57) & at 40 DAS (26.87 & 73.26) was observed in CFLD. Highest grain yield of (14.20 & 11.20 q/ha) were recorded in demonstrated plot over farmers’ practice during both the years. Lowest technology index was observed in demonstrated technology, 29.0 per cent and 43.8 per cent, respectively. The extension gap varied from 3.62 to 4.855 q/ha. Maximum net returns (Rs. 44,630/ha during 2016-17 and Rs. 40,740/ha in 2017-18) was obtained with higher benefit-cost ratio 2.69 and 2.53, respectively compared to 1.99 in case of local check. The results clearly indicate that use of improved package of practice with scientific intervention under cluster frontline demonstration programme led to increase the productivity and profitability of green gram.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact of Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) Intervention on Yield and Economics of
           Chickpea Cultivation in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh

    • Authors: V Jayalakshmi, B H Chaithanya, J Manjunath, S Khayum Ahammad, N Kamakshi, S Rama Devi
      Pages: 217 - 220
      Abstract: To promote improved chickpea varieties along with profitable crop management technologies, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Nandyal organized demonstrations on chickpea improved varieties along with crop package of practices in 210 tribal farmer’s fields (84 ha) under Tribal Sub Plan during 2018-2021 in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. The technology interventions included improved varieties (Nandyal Gram 49 and Nandyal Gram 119), seed treatment with vitavax power (1.5 g/kg seed), basal application of zinc sulphate, erection of pheromone traps @ 10/ha, prophylactic spray of neem oil and use of need based plant protection chemicals. The average yield of demonstration field with improved desi variety Nandyal Gram 49 (14.36 q/ha) was 19 per cent higher than the existing farmers practice (12.05 q/ha) and the average yield of 13.16 q/ ha was recorded with improved kabuli variety Nandyal Gram 119 which resulted in 7.78 per cent yield increase over farmers practice (JG11/Vihar) (12.21 q/ha). These demonstrations resulted not only in higher yield, but the higher net returns and cost benefits indicated the worth of improved varieties and scope for further spread of other technological interventions in farmers’ holdings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Knowledge and Adoption Levels of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)
           Cultivation by Farmers in Ladakh

    • Authors: Yogesh Kumar, Kunzes Angmo
      Pages: 221 - 223
      Abstract: Buckwheat belongs to the family polygonaceous is a high-value crop of Ladakh where it is grown either as the main season crop or after barley as short duration second crop. In the present investigation, four villages were selected from Leh and Kargil, districts. A random sample of 200 farmers was selected that included 50 farmers from each village. Collective interpolation of surveyed data indicated that the maximum number of farmers had a medium level of knowledge and adoption about the cultivation of buckwheat. The main constraints revealed by the respondents about the cultivation of buckwheat crops included nonavailability of improved seeds, lack of knowledge about varieties, lack of knowledge about the market rate, etc. However, the Ladakh administration is now facilitating the cultivation of buckwheat by giving training to the farmers through agriculture university experts and other allied departments in the cold desert aimed to enhance the knowledge base and the adoption of buckwheat cultivation, its popularization and commercialization.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2 (2022)
  • Perceived Knowledge and Attitude of Fisheries Extension Professionals on
           Usage of ICTs in Tripura

    • Authors: Chandrashekhar Nirmalkar, Biswajit Lahiri, Amitava Ghsoh, Prasenjit Pal, Sampa Baidya, Bikash Shil, Ram Kumar Kurmi
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Applications of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) offer excellent possibilities for strengthening transfer of technology between research and extension systems and onward transmission to the end-users. The study aims at studying the perceived knowledge and attitude levels of fisheries extension professionals of Tripura on the usage of ICTs concerning their socio-personal characteristics and explores the associated challenges. Data were gathered by pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule from completely enumerated 81 extension professionals of the department of fisheries, posted in the three purposively selected districts of Tripura during April- August 2021. The majority of respondents belonged to the middle age group (61.73%) and had medium level knowledge (78.57%) and attitude (85.18%) towards the use of ICT tools. Age and designation were negatively correlated, whereas education was positively and significantly correlated with knowledge and attitude level of fisheries extension professionals on usage of ICT tools separately. The Directorate of Fisheries of the state should develop meticulous strategies for each level of fisheries extension professionals to address the main challenges related to the use of ICT tools revealed in the study, which may bring a paradigm shift in fisheries farm information communication.
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 2
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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