Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Agricola     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Seed Science Research     Hybrid Journal  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Semiárida     Open Access  
Siembra     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Smart Agricultural Technology     Open Access  
Social & Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Economic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stiinta Agricola     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Tropical Technology Journal     Open Access  
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access  
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Weed Biology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Weed Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World's Poultry Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research
Number of Followers: 0  

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ISSN (Online) 2717-8420
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [187 journals]
  • Chemical Coagulation: An Effective Treatment Technique for Industrial

    • Authors: Aijaz Ali PANHWAR; Aftab KANDHRO, Sofia QAİSAR, Mudasir GORAR, Eidal SARGANİ, Humaira KHAN
      Abstract: Industrial sector is a backbone of the economy throughout the world. Despite that there are a lot of benefits; such as development of urbanization, major contributor in economy’s growth is sign of industrial development. There are a lot of adverse effects on environment including depletion and damage of our natural and precious resources. Textile, cement, paper and pulp, sugarcane, food, pharmaceuticals, chemical, paint and other industries are largest consumers of the freshwater; for meeting the requirements of industrial production requirement for the industrial sector for their production. As a result the discharged huge amount of water in form of highly polluted water, this is a great threat to our ecosystem. The unplanned industrialization is a prime responsible for degradation of environment. If industrial wastewater is not properly treated instantly, it may create foulest and septic conditions in adjacent parts of the industrial areas. The discharges acute poisonous wastewater by different industries is responsible for reduction of penetration in crops, and severely affects aquatic life. There are many treatment techniques such as coagulation, adsorption, membrane, biological etc. by different research studies disclosed that coagulation with different chemicals alum, ferric chloride, lime, PACl, PVA and ferrous sulphate are very effective for remove of pollution. The industrial wastewater creates several problems such as health problems, aquatic life including water pollution. In this paper reviews the chemical coagulation treatment technologies for industrial wastewater.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Mathematical Modeling of Food Processing Operations: A Basic Understanding
           and Overview

    • Authors: Manibhushan KUMAR; Siddhartha VATSA, Mitali MADHUMİTA, Pramod K PRABHAKAR
      Abstract: Modeling is the core of food processing supported by many approaches and governed by heat, mass, and momentum transfer equations. The objective of this paper is to mainly discuss and introduce mathematical modeling of some food processes. Food processing is unique from other material processing, as it includes complex multiphase transport and change in material properties during processing. It poses a great challenge in food process engineering. Now a day’s, consumers are taking more precautions before eating something. The way of food processing effectively impacts food quality. Most of the conventional industries use thermal processes like pasteurization, sterilization, and freezing. In recent years the main aim has been to improve these conventional processing technologies. Characterization of temperature distribution is done by mathematical modeling during processing, so this review paper aims to introduce mathematical modeling as a potential tool for the food processing industry. The mathematical models discussed in this article captures the essential features of a complex object or process based on a theoretical understanding of the phenomena and available measurements.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil and Removal Methods

    • Authors: Osman SÖNMEZ; Fatma Nur KILIÇ
      Abstract: Heavy metals decompose in the soil and cause pollution that is difficult to remove, due to their inability to turn into other compounds. Recently, the increase in population and increasing demand and industrialization and intensive agricultural practices in line with this cause environmental pollution. Heavy metal pollution can also occur from the parent material. Among the heavy metals in the soil, cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) have an important place. Heavy metal pollution can cause losses in agricultural areas, as well as adversely affect human health with the consumption of products grown in these areas. Heavy metal pollution in the soil can be controlled by physical, chemical or biological methods and/or processes, by isolation techniques, replacing contaminated soil, electrokinetic techniques, leaching and bioremediation techniques. In this review, heavy metal pollution and removal methods were evaluated.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of Factors Affecting Tractor Brand Preference Farmer of
           Erzurum Province

    • Authors: Servan BAYBAS; Adem AKSOY
      Abstract: In this study; it is aimed to identify and reveal the factors which affect the choice of tractor farmers about brand of tractor in Erzurum where mechanization in agriculture, particularly the number of tractors, is increasing day by day. Another aim of the studyis to revealif the farmers are conscious or not about purchasing tractors. With this aim one to interviews were reconciled with 200 bussinesses which own tractors in Erzurum in 2020 and a number of questions were asked to the producers to decide the factors, affect the manufacturers brand selection. probit and Multinominal regression model were used in the study. According to the results of the research farmers attach the most importance to endurance fuel consumption spare parts status, service status, dealer network and brand image, in turn. 75% of the farmers prefer the same brand when they change their tractors. Spare parts and brand image were effective in the prefence of brand A fuel and service in the prefence of brand B and durability in the prefence of other brand groups. According to the results of the study, farmers must be trained about the maintenance and use of tractors. This training can be provided by tractor manufacturers or various official institutions.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Prediction the Performance Rate of Chain Type Trenching Machine

    • Authors: Mohamed GHONİMY
      Abstract: The mathematical analysis for estimating the performance rate "RP" of chain-type trenching machine was studied. The mathematical analysis ended with an equation for this type. This mathematical equation was checked under different operating conditions. The practical study of the performance rate showed that the deviation of the theoretical performance rate from the actual performance rate ranged from -3.4 to +2% only for the 150.7 cm and 120.7 cm trench depth respectively. The machine field efficiency ranged from 46.7 to 57% for the 150.7 cm and 120.7 cm depth respectively. It also showed an increase in machine field efficiency by decreasing the trench depth.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • LabVIEW Based Real-time Color Measurement System

    • Authors: Abdullah BEYAZ
      Abstract: Colorimetry is of paramount importance to the agricultural industry. Colorimetry refers to the processing of agricultural products for consumer needs from a marketing point of view, and therefore the agricultural industry spends a lot of money and time classifying each product. In the past, agricultural professionals had to use program codes that are difficult to learn, and even the most basic image analysis for agricultural product classification required mastering different program libraries. Today, the LabVIEW platform offers a flexible, fast, easy-to-learn, and complete image analysis infrastructure with various useful modules. For this reason, in this study, a method analysis for color perception with a simple USB webcam and software developed for real-time color analysis on the LabVIEW platform is presented and its success in the basic color analysis is tried to be revealed. The basic application developed for this purpose in LabVIEW v2019 using NI Vision Development Module v19 and NI IMAQ v19 modules. The basic fact that is the LabVIEW application is the idea that LabVIEW can only be analyzed with expensive IEEE 1394, but it should be known that these analyzes can be done with USB webcams. For this purpose, the application includes a USB webcam driver that can be stacked seamlessly. USB Webcam and colorimeter measurement-based results of ƔR factors for each of RGB color channels are 1.161232, 0.506287, 0.432229; ƔG factors for each of RGB color channels are 0.519619, 1.025383, 1.201444; at last ƔB factors for each of RGB color channels are 0.600362, 0.714016, 1.413406, respectively.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Assessment of Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals (Pb and Al) in Alluvial
           Soil around Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro,
           Southern Nigeria

    • Authors: Hilary UGURU; Ovie AKPOKODJE, Goodnews Goodman AGBI
      Abstract: Soil heavy metals pollution is a major global threat, because of its impact to plants, animals, and the soil geotechnical properties. Geostatistical method was used to investigate the spatial distributions of aluminum and lead within a section of the Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro, Nigeria. A total area of 1 km2 (100 hectares) was covered within the school environment. Twenty -five (25) topsoil samples were collected, at the end of the dry season (March 2021); when the water table in the study area was very low. The lead and aluminum concentrations of the 25 samples were measured by using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) approved methods. Using a geostatistical tool, the lead and aluminum concentrations and distribution in the soil were plotted on predication maps. The maps revealed irregular spatial distributions of lead and aluminum ions within the study area. The lead concentration was highest at the North-central region of the study area; while lead concentration was lowest at the Eastern region of the study area. In terms of the aluminum metal, the highest aluminum concentration was observed in the North eastern region; while aluminum concentration was lowest at the South western region. Data obtained from this study will be useful for agricultural and civil engineering purposes, mainly in the area of decision-making.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Effects of Different Carbonization Conditions on the Color Change of

    • Authors: Alperay ALTIKAT; Mehmet Hakkı ALMA
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to determine the effects of different carbonization temperature, gas flow rate and heating rates on biochar's color change. Three different carbonization temperatures (400°C, 500°C, and 600°C), two different gas flow rates (0.2 l min-1 and 0.5 l min-1) and two different heating temperature rates (30°C min-1 and 60°C min-1) were used in the experiments. The color changes of biochar were examined utilizing the international approved L*, a*, b* system. Atriplex nitens Schkuhr was used as a biomass source in the experiments. High carbonization temperature and high gas flow rate caused a decrease in the “L” value of biochar. It is an indication that the color is getting darker, when the L value approaches zero. In the study, only the effect of gas flow rate on the "a" value was found to be statistically significant (P≤0.05). The increase in gas flow rate caused the biochar to become darker by increasing the deep red tone. Heating rate and gas flow speed significantly influenced the "b" values of biochar. The slow heating rate and high gas flow rates made the biochar color darker. At end of the research, it can be said that the biochar produced at high carbonization temperature, low heating rate and high gas flow rates will have darker tones.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Evaluating the Effects of Milling Speed and Screen Size on Power Consumed
           During Milling Operation

    • Authors: Ademola ADENIGBA; Samuel Dare OLUWAGBAYIDE
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of rotor speed and screen size on power consumed during milling operation. The milling system was tested using three fish feed ingredients; bone meal, groundnut cake and maize. The moisture contents of the ingredients bought from the market are 13.1%, 14.7% and 17.5% dry basis, respectively. The milling machine was evaluated with the 3 kg of each feed ingredient and was replicated three times for each of the experimental parameters. The machine parameters varied during the experiment includes four screen sizes (1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm and 3.0 mm) and five rotor speeds (1500 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2100 rpm, 2400 rpm and 2700 rpm). Regression analysis was carried out on the data collated. The analysis was used to develop a model which is capable of predicting the electrical energy (kJ) consumed. There was no significant effect of screen size on the average power consumed during milling since there is no linear relationship between power consumed and screen size. However, there is a significant effect of speed on average power consumed, the power consumed increases as speed decreases therefore making milling operation at higher speed to be cost effective since it doesn’t require much power to achieve the required output. The P-Value depicts that screen size has no significant effect on the electrical energy consumed during the milling operation while speed has a significant effect on the electrical energy used at 95% confidence level.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Mathematical Modelling of Drying Characteristics of Coconut Slices

    • Authors: John ISA; Kabiru Ayobami JİMOH
      Abstract: Mathematical modelling is one of the most important Engineering considerations for the effective representation of drying processes. Therefore, the drying behaviour of the coconut slices was modelled using non-linear regression (fitting existing mathematical models). The three thickness of the coconut samples (4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm) were dried using laboratory oven under five different temperature (40C, 50C, 60C, 70C and 80C) and constant air velocity (1 m s-1). Drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio, drying rate, drying time, effective moisture diffusivity coefficient (Deff) and activation energy of the process was used to define the behaviour of the coconut slices, the experimentally observed moisture ratios were fitted into fifteen (15) existing thin-layer mathematical model to forecast the behaviour of the coconut slices during process. The result of the modelling showed that the modified Henderson and pabis, Page and Peleg model had the most acceptable level of accuracy in predicting the drying behaviour of the coconut slices at 4mm, 8mm and 12mm, respectively. The obtained values for the effective moisture diffusivity ranges between 6.06×10−11 𝑚2 𝑠-1 and 3.16×10−10 𝑚2 𝑠-1 for 4mm thickness; 5.46×10−10 𝑚2 𝑠-1 and 1.44×10−9 𝑚2 𝑠-1 for 8mm thickness; 5.97×10−10 𝑚2 𝑠-1 and 2.83×10−9 𝑚2 𝑠-1 for 12mm thickness, whilst the activation energy ranges between 27.44892 and 27.563 𝑘𝐽 𝑚𝑜𝑙-1 for 4mm thickness; 27.45371 and 27.53017 𝑘𝐽 𝑚𝑜𝑙-1 for 8mm thickness; 35.64817 and 35.84369 𝑘𝐽 𝑚𝑜𝑙-1 for 12 mm. Therefore, the Modified Henderson and Pabis, Page and Peleg thin-layer mathematical models were chosen for the best prediction of the dehydration behaviour of coconut slices of 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm thickness respectively.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Modelling Kinetics of Extruded Fish Feeds in a Continuous Belt Dryer

    • Authors: Funmilayo OGUNNAİKE; Ayoola OLALUSİ
      Abstract: Feed is the major inputs in aquaculture production which affects the development growth of aquaculture in the African continent. Extruded fish feeds are dried to desire moisture content to increase the shelf life. Conventional method of drying fish feeds had gained attention recently in Nigeria in order to reduce high cost of producing fish feeds. However, this method is still grossly underutilized. Extrude floating fish feed was dried using continuous belt dryer at drying air temperature from 60°C to 100°C at an interval of 10°C, velocity of air using for drying from 0.8 m s-1 to 1.0 m s-1 at an interval of 0.1 m s-1 using a constant linear belt speed of 50 m s-1. Various moisture contents gotten at different conditions were changed to ratio of the dried extrudates moisture so as to obtain curves of drying by plotting the ratio of moisture against time. The dried extrudates behaviour was determined by fixing the drying curves with five well known models. Model with high determination coefficient and low reduced chi-square, low standard error, low value of least square and low standard deviation error (SEE) was used as best model. Midilli et al model was found suitable in describing the behaviour of extruded fish feed during drying. The temperature of air used for drying was discovered to have a major influence on the drying kinetics of the extruded fish feeds based on the conditions of this experiment.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Important Physical and Mechanical Properties of Dominant Potato Variety
           Widely Grown in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Dereje ALEMU
      Abstract: The physical attributes of agricultural product are utmost essential in developing technologies for different unit operations. Pertinent potato tuber attributes were studied. 100 samples of dominant and popular potato tuber varieties grown in Ethiopia which are free from any injuries from each variety were obtained from Holeta Agricultural Research Center. In this study, the physical attributes of potato tubers were determined at a moisture content of 70.75, 69.99, 71.75, 69.70 and 72.38% (wet basis) for Belete, Jalenie, Gera, Gudene and Chala varieties, respectively. Except specific gravity of potato tuber, other physical properties studied were significantly different at 5% of level of significance. Analysis of variance showed that there is also a significant difference in coefficient of static friction and angle of repose of all potato tuber varieties under four different materials and dynamic coefficient of friction under mild steel sheet metal and galvanized sheet.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Effect of Moisture Content on the Mechanical Properties of Watermelon Seed

    • Authors: Paul Chukwuka EZE; Eze CHIKAODILI, Ide PATRICK EJIKE
      Abstract: The effect of moisture content on the mechanical properties of agricultural material is essential during design and adjustment of machines used during harvest, cleaning, separation, handling and storage. This study determined some mechanical properties of Black and Brown colored of watermelon seed grown in Nigeria under different moisture contents range of 6.5 to 27.8% (d.b). The results for the mechanical properties obtained ranged from 15.68-29.54 N for compressive force; 1.95-3.40 mm for compressive extension; 0.13-0.33 N mm-2 for compressive strength; and 0.17-1.93 kJ for deformation energy at vertical loading position while at horizontal loading position, results obtained ranged from 14.71-38.36 N for compressive force; 1.94-4.20 mm for compressive extension; 0.16-0.32 N mm-2 for compressive strength; and 1.47-76.39 kJ for deformation energy for Black colored watermelon seed. The compressive force, compressive extension, compressive strength, deformation energy ranged from 14.18-36.49 N, 1.85-5.20 mm, 0.19 0.76 N mm-2, 26.23-189.75 kJ at vertical loading position and 16.47-41.82 N, 1.68-11.08 mm, 0.34- 0.57 N mm-2, 27.67-319.99 kJ at horizontal loading position for Brown colored watermelon seed. The correlation between the mechanical properties and moisture content was statistically significant at (p≤0.05) level. It is also economical to load Black colored in vertical loading position at 27.8% moisture content and Brown colored in vertical loading position at 27.8% moisture content to reduce energy demand when necessary to crack or compress the seed. This research has generated data that are efficiently enough to design and fabricate processing and storage structures for Black and Brown water melon seeds.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Influence of Irrigation Water pH on Biomass, Rooting, Root and Shoot
           Growth of Grapevine Rootstocks

    • Authors: Selda DALER; Rüstem CANGİ
      Abstract: In this study, the effects of irrigation water pH on root and shoot developments in grapevine rootstocks were investigated. Cuttings of Kober 5 BB and 41 B rootstocks were planted in plastic pots containing perlite and irrigated with 6 different pH values (5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0). At the end of the 90-day growing period, root and shoot characteristics of rootstocks were examined and determined that the highest rooting rates occurred at neutral and about neutral pH levels. In both rootstocks, it was recorded that the value of fresh and dry root weight reached the highest level at pH: 6.0. In addition, the highest dry matter ratios were obtained from pH: 6.0 (6.15%) in 41 B rootstocks, and from pH: 6.0 and 6.5 (respectively, 4.46% and 4.20) in 5 BB rootstocks. It was determined that the highest values of mean shoot weight and mean shoot length of rootstocks were obtained from pH: 6.5. chlorophyll measurement in SPAD, it was seen that there was no statistically significant difference between irrigation solutions with pH 5.5-7.5 on both rootstocks. As a result of the research, it was determined that irrigation solutions with different pH levels played an important role on the morphological and physiological characteristics of grapevine rootstocks.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Optimization of Mechanical Oil Expression from Sandbox (Hura crepitans
           Linn.) Seeds

    • Authors: David ONWE; Adeleke Isaac BAMGBOYE
      Abstract: Optimization of process variables has become very vital in oil extraction processes to obtain maximum oil yield from oilseeds and nuts. This work focussed on the optimization of process oil extraction process from sandbox seed by mechanical expression. Effects of moisture content, roasting temperature, roasting time, expression pressure and expression time on oil yield from sandbox seed was studied using a 5×5 Central Composite Rotatable Design of Response Surface Methodology experimental design. Results obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and SPSS statistical tool at (p = 0.05). Optimum conditions predicted were validated by experiments. All the processing factors were significant at (p = 0.05) for the sandbox oil yield except roasting temperature. The experimental results and predicted values showed low deviation (0.01-0.62). Oil yields obtained from the sandbox seed at varying process conditions varied from 16.38-38.68%. The maximum oil yield of 38.68% was obtained when the sandbox seed was subjected to process conditions of 6% moisture content, 85°C roasting temperature, 15 min roasting time, expression pressure of 20 MPa and 8 min pressing time. Mathematical equations to predict sandbox seed oil yield at varying process conditions were developed with an R2 (0.8908). The optimum extractable oil yield of 38.95% was predicted for sandbox seed at processing conditions of 7.03% moisture content, 97.72°C roasting temperature, 11.32 min roasting time, 15.11 MPa expression pressure and 8.57 min expression time. The study results provide data for designs of process and equipment for oil extraction from sandbox and other oilseeds.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Development and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Powered Lawn Mower

    • Authors: Babatunde SOYOYE
      Abstract: The continuous increase in the cost of fuel and the effect of emission of gases from burned fuel into the atmosphere when operating engine powered lawn mower has necessitated the use of the abundant solar energy from the sun as a power source of a lawn mower. A solar powered lawn mower was designed, fabricated and assembled on the basis of the general principle of mowing. The components of the lawn mower are; direct current (DC) motor, rechargeable battery, solar panel, galvanized steel blade of various thicknesses and shapes, and a speed controller. The required torque needed to drive the galvanized steel blade was achieved through the DC motor. The speed of the DC motor was controlled by the speed controller with the resistance in the circuit and allowed the motor to drive the blade at varied speeds. The battery recharged through the solar charging circuit, which comprises of a solar panel and charge controller. Performance evaluation was conducted on the developed mower with various thicknesses (1 mm, 1.5 mm and 2 mm) and shapes of the cutting blade (two, three and four blades). It was found that the cutting efficiency of the mower ranges from 70.50% - 84.10%, also the cutting capacity ranges from 0.05 ha h-1 - 0.27 ha h-1, the uncut area was also found to range from 15.90% - 29.50%.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Multipurpose Fruit Juice Machine for Preventing Fruit Wastage in Nigeria

    • Authors: Ayoola JONGBO
      Abstract: Fruits are produced in large quantities in developing countries because of the favourable climatic conditions but the level of spoilage is high. It is essential to extract and preserve fruit juice to have a regular supply throughout the year. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a machine that could be used to extract juice from several fruits. Thus, the objective of the research work was to develop a multipurpose small scale fruit juice machine that could be adopted by an average farmer in the rural regions to increase their juice intake. A fruit juice extractor was designed, developed and tested. The machine utilised a serrated auger for crushing the fruits before squeezing out the juice. The performance evaluation showed that the machine has an extraction capacity of 88.4 kg h-1 and 84.5 kg h-1 for pineapple and sweet orange respectively. The efficiencies of the juice extractor for pineapple and sweet orange were 91.13% and 85.96% respectively. The average production cost of the machine was estimated as 390 US dollars.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Thermal Properties of New Developed Nigerian Illa and Ekpoma Rice Flour
           Varieties as Effected with Moisture Content

    • Authors: Ide PATRICK EJIKE; Ikoko OMENAOGOR
      Abstract: Thermal parameters of food flour moisture content and temperature give an insight in the development and prediction of models that meet the needs of process design models, it also determine the thermal load of a particular product during handling. The bulk density (ρ), thermal conductivity (k), specific-heat capacity (Cp) and diffusivity (α) of Illa and Ekpoma rice flour were studied at varied (MC) moisture content (%) level. The results showed significance in thermal properties values at the different MC levels. The MC increased from 10.56 to 18.50%, increased the specific heat capacity (Cp) from 5.72 to 48.61kJ kg-1 C-1 and 6.84 to 29.41 kJ kg-1 C-1 for Illa and Ekpoma rice variety respectively and thermal conductivity(k) from 0.03 to 1.56 W/m0C and 0.03 to 0.38 W m-1 C-1 for Illa and Ekpoma rice flour samples. Thermal diffusivity(α) and bulk density (ρ) of the processed Illa and Ekpoma rice flour samples decreased across the MC range of 10.56 to 18.50% (d.b). Thermal diffusivity(α) decreased from 4.38 to 1.25 x 10-4 m2 s-1 and 3.42 to 1.30 x 10-4 m2 s-1 for Illa and Ekpoma rice flour respectively while the values of bulk density (ρ) decreased from 697.72 to 676.34 kg m-3 and 687.49 to 664.26 kg m-3 for Illa and Ekpoma rice flour respectively.The developed model equations can be applied in estimation of thermal parameters of rice flour. Finally, Ekpoma and Illa rice flour sample displayed good thermal characteristics and it can be used as an alternative to imported wheat flour.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Physicochemical Characterization of Selected Pomegranate (Punica granatum
           L.) Cultivars

    • Authors: Vijay Singh MEENA; Bhushan BİBWE, Bharat BHUSHAN, Kirti JALGAONKAR, Manoj MAHAWAR
      Abstract: The physical and chemical characteristics of five pomegranate cultivars (Mridula, Ganesh, White muscut, G-137 and Jalor seedless) were examined in the present investigation. Physical properties of different cultivars were determined such as major diameter (85.05 to 91.62 mm), intermediate diameter (76.85 to 87.83 mm), minor diameter (79.86 to 90.01 mm), sphericity (0.903 to 0.937), fruit weight (294.4 to 404.14 g), fruit volume (289 to 387 mL), number of arils per fruit, weight of 100 arils were evaluated and analysed for the varietal difference. In addition, properties such as peel moisture content (68.72 to 74.15% w.b.), aril moisture content (78.25 to 81.82% w.b.), peel ash content (0.81 to 1.51%), aril ash content (0.29 to 0.53%), juice pH (3.47 to 3.96), total soluble solids (11.60 to 13.00 °Brix), titratable acidity (0.42 to 0.58%), total phenolic content, juice yield per fruit (104 to 186 mL) juice turbidity (142.20 to 364.50 NTU) and textural properties, like fruit compressive strength/firmness of arils (23.09 to 34.54 N), cutting strength of peel (84.33 to 111.35 N) and aril skin puncture force (0.28 to 0.38 N) were also investigated. Overall results suggested that the measured physico-chemical properties were quite different by the cultivar differences.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Optimization of Operational Parameters of an Improved Maize Sheller Using
           Response Surface Methodology

    • Authors: Adewale SEDARA; Emmanuel ODEDİRAN
      Abstract: The research was carried out to optimize parameters for evaluating an improved motorize maize sheller. Statistical analysis was performed using response surface methodology (RSM) with 3 by 3 factorial experiment with 3 replicates. The three parameters are speed (850 rpm, 950 rpm and 1100 rpm), moisture content (12, 15, and 17%) and feed rate (120 kg h-1, 130 kg h-1 and 140 kg h-1) used to illustrate the ability of the machine to shell maize (throughput capacity, shelling rate and machine efficiency). Results obtained showed that for optimum throughput capacity of 630.97 kg h-1; shelling rate 485.34 kg h-1 and machine efficiency 93.86% of the machine; is maximum for 129.6 kg h-1 feed rate and moisture content 16.49% and machine speed of 1026.9 rpm. The machine can be used on commercial farms with these operational results.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Comparison of Yield and Yield Components of Different Anise (Pimpinella
           anisum L.) Populations Under Eskişehir Ecological Conditions

    • Authors: Nimet KATAR; Mustafa CAN, Duran KATAR
      Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to reveal the effect of different genotypes (population) of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) on yield and yield components. The experiment was carried out under Eskişehir ecological conditions in the growing season of 2017 and 2018. Four different anise population (Afyon, Bilecik, Çeşme and Burdur) obtained from different parts of Turkey was used in the study. Plant materials were cultivated in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the populations had a significant differences on other all parameters examined except 1000 seed weight (g). The highest seed yield (80.56 and 76.31 kg da-1, respectively) and the highest essential oil yield (2.17 and 2.22 L da-1, respectively) were obtained from Bilecik and Çeşme populations. On the other hand, the essential oil contents obtained from the populations varied between 2.67-2.92%, and it is seen that these values are above the 2% limit stated in the European pharmacopoeia. As a result, it was determined that Bilecik and Çeşme populations are superior populations among the populations examined in terms of high seed and essential oil yields.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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