Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
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    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted by number of followers
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sugarcane Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Arid Zone     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Animal - Open Space     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Future Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Magazín Ruralidades y Territorialidades     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Indian Journal of Extension Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cereal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Potato Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Revista Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technica Agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Phenomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Rural and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Measurement : Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CSA News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Agriscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources : IJ-FANRES     Open Access  
Horticultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Reproduction and Breeding     Open Access  
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Research     Open Access  
Phytopathology Research     Open Access  
Rekayasa     Open Access  
International Journal of Agricultural and Life Sciences     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access  
Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Nexo Agropecuario     Open Access  
Dissertationen aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut     Open Access  
Berichte aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut     Open Access  
Journal für Kulturpflanzen     Open Access  
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science, Biology and Bioeconomy     Open Access  
Agrosains : Jurnal Penelitian Agronomi     Open Access  
Agrotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
PRIMA : Journal of Community Empowering and Services     Open Access  
Dinamika Pertanian     Open Access  

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Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 0719-3726
Published by Universidad Católica de Temuco Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Phytosociological Assessment of Vegetation at Indira Gandhi National Open
           University (IGNOU) Campus at New Delhi

    • Authors: Kumari Anjali, Y S C Khuman, Amrita Nigam
      Abstract: The paper aims to investigate the phytosociological attributes the vegetation of the managed campus area of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) situated at New Delhi in India. The purpose of the study was to understand the diversity pattern of vegetation for its characterization. The vegetation sampling and data analysis were undertaken by adopting universally standard procedures. The findings of the study demonstrated that the study area had a total of 116 species of plants which belonged to 28 different families. Out of which 55 species of trees, 29 species of shrubs and 32 species of herbs were taken on record. The most common plant species based on importance value in tree, shrub and herb layers were found to be Azadiracta indica (IVI-66.87), Matricaria chamomilla (RVI-51.89) and Cynodon dactylon (RVI- 106.11), respectively. Amongst families, Fabaceae was found to be the most dominant. Results reflect dominance of higher trees over ground floras. This study provides baseline information for future studies on the managed and natural forest patches exiting in the campus, and suggests that suitable conservation and management of biodiversity can improve the natural floral and faunal value of institutional campus.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2860
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Evaluation of effect of pig production to the Environment in Enugu State,

    • Authors: Ume Smiles, Edeh V Ogochukwu, Gabriel C Ivoke, George I Okoro
      Abstract: The research was aimed at accessing the effect of pig production to the environmental effect in Enugu State, Nigeria. A total of sixty (60) farmers were selected using purposive and multi stage random sampling techniques. Structured questionnaire and oral interview were used to collect information on the objectives of the study. Percentages responses, probit analysis, multinomial logit models and factor analysis were used to capture the objectives of the study.. The results showed that most of the respondents were aged, educated, had large household size and member of organizations. The effect of pig production on the environment were odour, noise, flies, dust, mosquitoes and rodents. The pig management technologies adopted by the farmers were proper housing, proper manure disposal; precision feed management and proper disposal of animal carcass . The waste disposal methods employed by pig farmers were open lagoons, dumping in the farm, heap waste and burn and store in bag. The result of probit analysis of technologies adoption showed that in all the variables considered, only the coefficients of age, extension services, membership of organization and off – farm income activities that were positive. As well, the analysis of the choice of adopting of the management technologies against environmental hazards using multinomial logit regression, showed that only rearing experience and extension services were positive .Finally, poor access to credit, poor housing, extension services, disease problem, drug, high costs of labour and location of veterinary posts in the urban area were the major challenges faced by farmers in the study area. There is need to ensure farmers’ access to credit, extension services, membership of organization and off farm income activitiesKey words: Effect, PigProduction, Probit model, Environment, Multinomial logit Enugu
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2300
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Effect of organic manures on degrading soil due to brick manufacture
           industry at Changunarayan municipality of Bhaktapur district, Nepal

    • Authors: Sabina Raut, Santosh Shrestha, Saroj Koirala
      Abstract: A lab experiment was conducted to analyze the degraded land reclamation potential by the use of organic manure (OM) in the soil collected from Changunarayan municipality of Bhaktapur District, Nepal. Benchmark nutrient test was performed to the different soil sample collected from three land types i.e., brick kiln premises, excavated land and arable land. Further lab test was carried out by adding 2% and 4% OM by weight on 100g of each soil samples, replicating each for three. The samples were incubated at 32oC for 45 days and the soil chemical properties; N, P2O5, K2O, pH and soil organic matter were analyzed. It was revealed that with the application of 4% OM by weight in all soil samples collected, there was increased in chemical parameters analyzed, followed by 2% OM by weight. The total soil nitrogen content and soil organic matter content was found significant (P<0.05) with different treatment of OM. Significant change was seen in the phosphorus content in the soil from brick kiln premises with the application of 4% OM. Slight increase was seen in the potassium content with the application of different treatments in the soils. With the application of 2% and 4% OM, pH was found to be increased significantly in the soil from brick kiln premises. Thus, from this study, it is revealed that the use of 4% OM by weight might be optimal to improve the land degraded by the brick kilns and excavation to some extent but at 4-10 times higher economic cost than usual farming management practices of organic manure.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2672
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Mapping women’s role in small scale fisheries value chain in India for
           fisheries sustainability

    • Authors: SARIGA P K, Mini Sekharan N, Eswarappa Kasi
      Abstract: Sustainability in small scale fisheries is receiving wider acceptance worldwide as the system faces different kinds of exploitations. Gender can play a significant role in achieving sustainability as they are the primary beneficiaries in small scale fisheries. Exploring their level of participation in resource use can provide a database that functions as the key determinants for sustainability. This article looks for empirical evidences on the role of men and women in small scale fisheries through gender structure analysis. The indigenous communities (n=154) in Vazhachal Forest Division, Kerala, southern state in India is considered for the study. Methods adopted includes household survey using semi structured questionnaire, transect walks, focus groups and direct observations. Results reveal that although higher percentage of men (66.20%), women’s role is substantial (33.80%) in fisheries value chain including pre harvest, harvest and post-harvest sector. Their presence had a significant relation in supporting men in fisheries activities like collection of baits (χ2= 6.189, p= 0.013), accompanying men in fishing (χ2= 4.153; p= 0.042), sorting of fishes (χ2= 3.566, p=0.059), processing of fishes (χ2=9.776, p= 0.002) and in mending of nets (χ2= 4.40, p=0.042). Results, further, reveal that men and women have unique and overlapping roles in small scale fisheries. The key findings of the study provide quantitative evidence to develop strategies for small scale fisheries sustainability.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2789
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Evaluation of Chromium Toxicity on Different Growth and Biochemical
           Attributes of Abrus precatorius L.

    • Authors: Milvee Vyas
      Abstract: The toxicity of trace metals on human health and the environment has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Plants are the main link in the transfer of heavy metals from the contaminated soil to humans. In the present study, effects of different concentrations of chromium (Cr, 50-250 mg/l) was analyzed in medicinal plant Abrus precatorius L. with respect to seed germination, shoot and root growth and their dry weights along with changes in biochemical contents like pigments, protein and total sugar. The study showed that the different concentrations of Cr had an adverse effect on percentage of germination and growth parameters. The results also suggested that at higher concentrations, roots were strongly affected as compared to shoots. Further, when biochemical analysis was carried out it was depicted that the biochemical contents like chlorophyll A and B, carotenoids, protein and total sugar also decreased sequentially as the Cr concentration was increased.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2691
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Trichodinids (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) in Rastrelliger kanagurta
           (Perciformes: Scombridae) and Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes:
           Cichlidae) from India with two new host report

    • Authors: Amrutha Shyla Suresh, Balamurali Rakhavan Pillai Sreekumaran Nair, Arya Unni, Binumon Thankachan Mangalathettu
      Abstract: Trichodinids are one of the main groups of fish parasites. These ciliates are pathogenic, causing damage to skin and gills, often leading to the death of the infested fish. Trichodinid ciliophorans are still a poorly studied group in India. A detailed account is given about the infestation and identification of trichodinids from the skin and gills of two economically important fishes in India, Rastrelliger. kanagurta Cuvier, 1816 and Oreochromis mossambicus Peters, 1852. Dried slides were prepared from the smears and impregnated with silver nitrate (2%). Morphometric characteristics were made, and schematic drawings of the denticles were prepared using photomicrographs produced from the slides. O. mossambicus was found positive for two species, viz., Trichodina magna Van As and Basson, 1989 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski and El-Tantawy, 1986. R. kanagurta was found to be infested with Paratrichodina sp. Lom, 1963. Full descriptions of collected species are given. Seasonal variations in the rate of parasite infestation were observed in T. magna and P. africana from O. mossambicus. These parasites showed a significant increase during post-monsoon while a decrease during monsoon. No seasonal variation was observed in Paratrichodina infestation in R. kanagurta. The infection induced excessive mucus secretion, paleness in gills, and multifocal whitish areas and lesions that probably permitted entry of opportunistic bacteria, which eventually caused ulcers and death. The present study reports the first record of a trichodinid sp. on R. kanagurta and T. magna on O. mossambicus. 
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2684
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Isolation, identification, enzyme productivity and antibacterial activity
           of intestinal bacteria of Blue morph Maylandia lombardoi and its role on

    • Authors: M.R; Rajan, A. Sabitha
      Abstract:            Four distinct colonies were isolated from the intestine of Blue morph (Maylandia lombardoi) through serial dilution, pour plate, spread plate and streak plate method. The isolated colonies were identified by using biochemical and enzyme (Amylase, Cellulase, Lipase and Protease) productivity tests. The isolated bacteria such as Bacillus sp., (BM1), Enterobacter sp., (BM 2), Escherichia sp., (BM3) and Pseudomonas sp., (BM4) were mass multiplied in nutrient broth. Antibacterial activity of intestinal bacteria of Blue morph was carried out with the help of selective media along with commercial antibiotic Ampicillin. Based on higher enzyme productivity  and antibacterial activity two bacteria  were sequenced and the identified as BMI(Lactobacillus casei)  and BM2 (Lactobacillus acidophilus).Five different feeds having different concentration of bacteria such as Feed I (Control)(without bacteria), Feed II (1ml of Lactobacillus casei ), Feed III (1ml each of Lactobacillus casei  and Lactobacillus acidophilus ), Feed IV(1 ml each of  Lactobacillus casei,  Lactobacillus acidophilus Bacillus sp., and Escherichia sp.,) and Feed V (1ml each  of Lactobacillus casei,  Lactobacillus acidophilus Escherichia sp., and Pseudomonas sp.,)were prepared by using fish meal, groundnut oil cake, wheat flour and tapioca flour. Feed utilization parameters of Blue morph were estimated after a period of 21 days. Based on the antibacterial test the Lactobacillus acidophilus (BM2) has higher inhibition. The feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, feed conversion efficiency, growth, percentage growth, relative growth rate, assimilation, metabolism, gross growth efficiency, and net growth efficiency was higher in feed IV.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2586
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • The new onset of health complications in patient after COVID-19 recovery.

    • Authors: Neelesh Maurya, Latika Yadav, Poonam Maurya
      Abstract: Global pandemic coronavirus caused by COVID 19 appears to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Until now, acute respiratory problems, particularly in critically ill patients, have been the primary concern of clinical communication. Several case studies and limited series have indicated that COVID-19 significantly affects the respiratory and cardiovascular processes. Older individuals are at increased risk of serious illness due to COVID-19, and frequency increases with age. Many with ongoing medical conditions can also have a greater risk of severe illness. Various organs that may induce infection are the lungs, skin, kidneys, liver, heart and GI tract. Thus, the risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 rises in patients with comorbidities linked to these organs. Patients healed after COVID-19 should now be more vigilant in their daily health check-up and surveillance. The present analysis showed a health complication following the recovery of COVID-19 that was required to avoid chronic disease, which would again cause mortality and morbidity in patients. Keywords – covid-19 recovered, secondary illness, health problems of covid-19.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2434
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • The technique of writing a review article: Understanding the past for the
           management of future knowledge

    • Authors: Meenakshi Rathi
      Abstract: A study of past, relevant material is a vital component of every academic research. In the era of rising numbers of research papers, review articles of the good standard are often needed.  A literature review aims to critically evaluate existing research data. Academic writing should not be shaped by technical jargon or limited to a series of tips and tactics aimed at a quick publishing. This brief contribution does not impose stringent regulations on academic publications, but rather helps potential authors prepare and improve their review papers to the advantage of a wide audience .Review articles might suggest new study directions and draw fresh conclusions from current data. Because reviews are important for evaluating results, the value of one is related to the results that have been discovered, as well as how these findings are presented. The issue of “why” is most crucial when writing a review, not “how.” One of the primary and essential reasons for composing a review is to assemble an informative synthesis of the most superior resources.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2802
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • A Review Paper on Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by different
           Allied Materials

    • Authors: Shwetha Prasanna, Arolkar Pawan, Arondekar Kishan, Gaunker Shifa, Fernandes Sheriton, De Melo Aristophanes
      Abstract: Abstract - As results of the fast increase in construction activity, ancient construction materials reminiscent of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate is in short supply. Concrete is that the most significant part in building and is employed in massive quantities. It conjointly necessitates an enormous quantity of sand as a fine aggregate. Natural resources are being depleted by digging up sand from rivers, which poses a major threat to the ecosystem. Experts are therefore now focusing on developing a substitute to concrete and sand. In the manufacturing of concrete, however, a number of wastes and by-products from various industries are employed as substitutes or alternative materials.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2792
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Spatio temporal Distribution of Sericulture Concentration in Western
           Himalayan region of Kashmir valley: A District level Analysis

    • Authors: Ruyida khan
      Abstract: Sericulture is an allied sector of agriculture which includes agro -forestry cottage industry that plays a crucial role in sustainable livelihood generation for economy of Kashmir. It include backward and forward linkage process including cultivation of mulberry plantations, silkworm rearing to produce the silk cocoons, cocoon reeling for untwisting silk filament, yarn making, weaving and silk fabric processing. The present study aims to highlight spatial trends, concentration and distribution of sericulture with respect to mulberry and silk cocoons from 2005-2006 to 2019-2020 in Kashmir valley. To ascertain district wise trends and concentration of sericulture development in Kashmir valley, Compound annual growth rate and Evaluation index model was used to achieve objective of the study. The results reveals that concentration of sericulture is maximum in southern and northern parts of Kashmir valley includes Anantnag, Kupwara, Baramulla and minimum in central parts of Kashmir. Sericulture concentration and spatial distribution in districts of Kashmir was depicted by incorporating Arc GIS 10.4 which aims to identify areas for sericulture development in Kashmir valley. Therefore the need of sericulture policy interventions by the Government and comprehensive strategic approach which is not only important from viewpoint of potential income generating activities but also as the key contribution to the GDP of the J and K economy.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2682
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Gastronomic tourism experiences of Goa: Tapping the potential of Goan
           cuisine as a destination attraction

    • Authors: Mayola Fernandes, Arun Sherkar, Seema Zagade
      Abstract: Abstract Goa has been well renowned for its serene beaches, sunset views, vibrant nightlife, and the easy-going nature that the entire State exudes. Though divided broadly into North Goa and South Goa, this much-sought tourist destination still has plenty of reflections of its rich Portuguese influence, right from its architecture, language, style of dressing, and of course, its food. Every tourist, while planning a trip, be it for business or leisure, indeed also looks into the culinary aspect to further enhance their travel experience. Goan food has an amalgamation of simple flavors consisting of its staple food of unpolished rice and fish curry; its solid Portuguese influence adds to its uniquely complex combination of flavors such as sweetness, spice, salt, and sourness. There are many paths that Goan cuisine has traversed and has tremendous potential of further increasing the tourism potential and acting as a critical player in the State's economic status in a delectable manner. This article aims at presenting a research link between tourism and gastronomy, which seeks to determine the impulses, satisfactions levels, profile, and purchasing power of tourists who visit Goa, with a motivation to understand its cultural heritage, in this case, gastronomy. This study is descriptive in nature in which the data were collected from the 190 tourists who recently visited Goa. A structured questionnaire” containing five-point interval scale was used for data collection. Statistical tools such as mean and one sample t-test were applied to analyze the data. The results revealed that, of late, gastronomy also plays a significant role in the way tourists approach and experience a destination. Keywords: Food tourism, Portuguese - Goan cuisine, Culinary Tourism, Gastronomic Tourism, food, and drink experiences
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2665
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Assessment of Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Various
           Sources in Tukarah Town, NE Libya

    • Authors: Yosra M. Al-sbaihy⃰⃰, Mohamed M. Bumadian, Ismaeel H. Bozakouk, Ali M. Bleiblo, Farag A. Bleiblo, Munay Abdulqadir Alteerah, Hanan Ishtiwi IL Fergani
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate drinking water quality in 21 water sources categorized in three levels. Samples of water were collected from each source for bacteriological examination. The results show there was a significant difference between the three levels 1, 2, and 3 for total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria with p-values (0.026) and (0.003) respectively. Presence of total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria were not reported from level 3 and was zero MPN per 100 ml. However, the high contamination by total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria were observed in samples collected from levels 1 and 2, these were in the range of 2 to 350 MPN/100 ml, 2 to 26 MPN/100 ml respectively. On the other hand, the biochemical identification process using Phoenix identified technique for the six isolated strains as Cedecea lapagel (DW4), Citrobacter freundii (DW9), Ochrobacterum anthroi (DW10) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (S10), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (DW4) and Streptococcus anginosus (DW2), with confidence value identities of 90%, 99%, 90%, 95%, 99% and 91% respectively. The findings showed that water from levels 1 and 2 did not conform to the world health organization (WHO) standard in terms of suitability for drinking purpose.Keywords: drinking water quality, coliform and fecal coliform bacteria, MPN/100ml.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2355
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • An Integrated Study of Natural Springs to sustain water security: Case
           Study of three villages from a Himalayan State of India

    • Authors: NEHA CHAUHAN
      Abstract: Equitable access to water, whether it is quantity or quality, is one of the fundamental rights. It facilitates economic development, gender equality and good human health. But in the last few decades, lack of potable water has caused illness and resulting millions of deaths. In Himalayan Region, springs are the basic water source which fulfills the needs of rural population. The point at which the groundwater emerges over the earth surface and flows naturally is called spring. Drying up of these springs, due to climate change and biophysical landscape change, is not only causing problem to human health, impeding gender equality but also causing nearby bio diversity to lose resilience. Therefore, a basic understanding of springs is required for its further studies and to maintain water security. This present work is focused on the initial steps of Spring Sanctuary development. The present outline emphasized on the spring mapping and has prepared a social database of springs of three villages of Saurakhaal nyay panchayat of jakholi block, Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand. The status of the springs has been assessed by monitoring their discharge data for eight months (Nov, 2020-June, 2021). Also, the endangered and vulnerable springs of the study area has been identified by scoring them on the basis of critical issues.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2651
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Impact of industrialization on heavy metals contamination in agricultural
           soils in Sonepat, Haryana – A National Capital Region of India

    • Authors: Jyoti Rani, Sudesh Chaudhary, Tripti Agarwal
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to assess the impact of industrialization on heavy metals contamination in agricultural soils in Sonepat district, National Capital Region, India. A total of 23 agricultural soil samples collected from different locations of the study area were analyzed for pH, total organic carbon, and heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe). pH and total organic carbon in the soil samples were 7.81±0.25 and 0.59±0.12 percent. Average concentrations of metals in soil were found to be in the order of Fe>Mn> Zn> Ni> Cr> Cu>Pb> Co> Cd with concentration values (mg/kg) as 17977.06> 325.43> 91.31> 51.62> 43.82> 34.37> 32.29> 2.16> 1.19. The contamination factor (CF) and geo-accumulation index analysis revealed that the agricultural soils were contaminated with Cd, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn. A moderate potential ecological risk was found in most of the soil samples due to the presence of Cd. Interpretation of enrichment factor (EF) showed that Cd, Mn, and Zn were mainly anthropogenic in origin while Ni and Pb were both anthropogenic and crustal in origin. The health risk index on inhabitants due to exposure to heavy metals in agricultural soils was calculated for oral, dermal, and inhalation pathways and the values obtained were below 1, showing no significant health effects due to direct exposure.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2436
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Purchasing practice of young consumers towards green packaging: influence
           of value system with the mediating effect of attitude.

    • Authors: A. Kingston, G. Paulraj
      Abstract: The problem of climate change is not just because of utilizing the resources in excess and exploiting the nature, but the preference and consumption pattern of people have got changed in recent times. This consumption pattern has led in producing such large quantities of non-eco-friendly packaging materials that is creating serious environmental issues. The packaging materials are simply thrown out and become a source of massive portion of waste. Therefore, packaging materials should be considered a core factor in a way to deliver products to consumers securely. Understanding this, the knowledge and awareness on different kinds of packaging and their impact on environment the consumption patter of consumer need to be tested exclusively among the young consumers. This study was carried out in Thoothukudi Educational district, covering the schools of five different educational blocks in the district.  Collecting 818 samples, the study aims to understand the knowledge, awareness, consumption pattern, attitude, and the values of 9th to 12th standard students. A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was constructed to test the impact of Packaging Awareness (PKGA), Eco-centric Values (ECCV), Emotional Values (EMOV), and Social Values (SOCV) on the Purchase Decision (PUDE) of young consumers.  The model also tests the mediated effects of attitude on PUDE.  The study has found that the awarenesss on packaging strengthens the purchasing behaviour or the intention in young minds. The awareness on the impairments of polymeric packaging and the positve perception toward eco-friendly packaging drive the consumer intention towards green. In turn, these awarness have higher significant influence on changing the attitude of young consumers positively towards eco-friendly packaging. Hence, it is suggested that spreading awareness on the anti-environmental polymeric packaging and perceived benefits of eco-friendly packaging. Besides, emotional reactios do not significantly influence the purchase decision of them instead it is only expressed as a spur of the moment. In terms of attitude, similar to the previous studies, it was found that it strongly influences purchasing behaviour of the students and it also strongly mediat social, eco-centric values and awareness towards the purchase intention. 
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2622
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Examining the effects of green attitude on the purchase intention of
           sustainable packaging.

    • Authors: A. Kingston, K. Paulraj
      Abstract: Environmental deterioration over the few decades has hugely increased awareness among consumers on environmental problems. Understanding the deterioration, consumers are motivated to make a contribution to the sustainable development. The growing environmental awareness is reflected in every component of modern marketing and more specifically on packaging, as packaging (plastics) causes nearly one-third of the environmental impacts. Green packaging has emerged to be the substitute for polymeric packaging. The study examined the purchase intention of green packed products under three different constructs; environment concern, health hazards, and perceived green values of consumers. Both direct effects of the constructs and effect of the constructs mediated through green attitude was measured using structural equation modelling. SEM was used in the study to analyse the data of 468 respondents and to test the proposed model. The findings of the study confirmed that the purchase intention towards green packaging is significantly influenced by environment concern, health consciousness and perceived values of consumers about green packaging.
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2659
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Marathwada agro-climatic drought detection by utilization of temperature
           and vegetation index records

    • Authors: Mahesh Huchhe, Narsingrao Bandela
      Abstract: Semi-arid Marathwada economy depends on agricultural production and in recent decades the drought has been observed as an all part of the several recurrent climates related environmental hazards in region, frequently destroying livelihood, socio-economy, and food security of region. The economy of the nation affected due to less productivity of crops as well as decreases the soil moisture. In present work the remote sensing, image processing and geospatial techniques effectively using for drought management, mitigation practices, monitoring and assessment. The main objective of study is to analyze VCI and TCI indices. MOD11A2 and MOD13C2 data (year 2000, 2005, 2014 and 2016) is used for derive the TCI and VCI respectively. Time series of TCI and VCI shows that in certain years resembles each other’s and their result helps to determined occurrence and severity drought. The result shows the seasonal VCI is directly related to the seasonal rainfall as well as TCI of region. The analysis reveals that the conformation of demonstrating extension and severity of aridity in the Marathwada region. The motivation behind the examination to compute the vegetation index (NDVI) and Temperature Condition Index helps to review of agricultural practices and water use.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2660
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cotton Cultivating Marginalised Farmers’ Climate Change Perceptions,
           Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Vidarbha Region, Central India

    • Authors: Rahul Kamble, Kumaresh S. Tikadar
      Abstract: This study aimed to assess cotton cultivating marginalised farmers' climate change perceptions, impacts, and adaptation strategies in the Vidarbha region of Central India. Purposive sampling was carried out to identify 70 marginalised farmers from the study area in the year 2020. A specially designed and developed questionnaire was used as a tool to elicit information from the respondent. From the identified sample population, 14.28% are illiterate and 34.28% with primary education and 42.85% don't use a cell phone. Climate change perceptions of these farmers are well understood and clear and reported rain pattern change (100%), wind profile change (81.42%) and high atmospheric temperature (75.71%). Of the different causes responsible for climate change crop residue burning is considered as a major (97.14%). Impacts of climate change on agriculture in general is reported as crop production reduced (95.71%) > crop growth reduction (85.71%) > reduction in soil fertility (81.42%) > irrigation water scarcity (65.71%). Impacts on cotton cultivation in particular include increase in insect/pest attack (90%) > production reduced (62.85%) > crop quality deteriorated (32.85%). The cost of insecticide/pesticide use is increased by 21-40% whereas profit received is decreased (71.42%). Heatstroke is identified as a major (66.66%) impact on livestock and death due to it (23.33%). Farmers willingness for adaptation to new methods is in the order of irrigation (82.85%) > harvest (72.85%) > during sowing (67.14%) > crop growth (51.42%). Future climate change adaptation strategies include high yielding crop varieties (100%) > early maturing crop varieties (60%) > use of organic manure (52.85%) > irrigated crops (48.57%) > drought-resistant crop varieties (45.71%) > crop diversification (37.14%) > water use change (30%). The climate change-induced problems faced by these marginalised farmers are well defined and different from other farmer categories and needs a holistic approach to overcome them. Sustainable adaptation strategies emphasize on climate-smart agriculture is the need of the hour to pave the way for sustainable agriculture and sustainable livelihood. This may be perhaps the first study with this aim from the region. Keywords: Central India, Chandrapur, climate change, climate smart agriculture, cotton, marginalised farmers, Vidarbha
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2430
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Efficacy of biowaste and bioagent on the growth of coriander and rumex

    • Authors: Sarojini Chakravarthy Kolli, Rahel Ratnakumari Y
      Abstract: This investigation was carried out to examine the effect of biowaste (Used Tea powder) and bioagent Trichoderma harzianum (NFCCI 2241) both alone and in combinations on the emergence of seedlings, growth and biomass of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and Green sorrel (Rumex acetosa) plants in a pot experiment. The biowaste and bioagent treatments were compared with chemical fertilizer treatment and control. There is a significant variation in the results among the treatments. Germination percentage of Green sorrel was more in the treatments of T2, T3, T4 when compared with T1 treatment. In Coriander, similar trend was observed but the percentage of emergence of seedlings was very much less when compared with Green sorrel. The growth of root and shoot in length in Rumex plants was recorded more with T3 and T1 treatments in coriander plants, whereas root growth was maximum with T3 and T5. For shoot growth, it was maximum in T1, T2 and T3 treatments. Biomass recorded maximum with T3, T4 and T1 treatments in coriander and Rumex plants. Trichoderma harzianum in combination with used tea powder (biowaste) i.e., T3 treatment showed significant effect on the growth and productivity of coriander and Rumex plants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2326
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • A study on Inclination of People towards Super Foods to Sustain Good
           Health during Pandemic

    • Authors: Dr Anuradha karmarkar, Dr Gauri Shah, Dr Rasika Gumaste, Dr Kiran Shende
      Abstract: At present, Super foods is promoted by most of the countries in the world aiming at sustainable health to fight the Covid 19 pandemic. This is a additional nutrient supplement taken in the natural form by Identifying the Highly Nutritious Ingredients This research intents to show various factors affecting the growth in consumption of Super foods and spreading its awareness due to experiences better health benefits. This inclusion in the diet helps in Sustaining, environment, reducing carbon footprints, uplifting the individuals Health and eventually improving local economy by promoting Indian affordable locally grown Nutritious Ingredients which can be consumed as Super foods. This Research is descriptive form of Qualitative research and the Analysis of received data is done by Implementation Value added method, the respondents were selected from various age groups to identify the awareness of the concept and impact of super food intake daily within in the different age group for Covid 19 pandemic. The Sampling technique undertaken is stratified sampling and random sampling also the data is collected. Through specially carved questionnaire and distributed to 100 respondents and then the secondary data was gathered to support the findings through articles and newsletters.   The findings are listed in the Manuscript but inclusion of these Super foods should be a habit for sustaining good health and better lifestyle.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2621
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effect of different cooking methods on vitamins, minerals and
           antinutritional factors of immature drumstick pods.

    • Authors: Kavita Kachhawa, Pramjit Chawla
      Abstract: Drumstick tree is a miracle source of phytonutrients in the drought prone areas of tropical and subtropical countries. With the emphasis to increase adoption of immature drumstick pods at homestead level, this study was planned to assess the effect of different cooking methods on vitamins (β-carotene; Rangana, 1995) & Ascorbic acid: AOAC 2000), minerals (iron & calcium; AOAC 2000) and antinutritional factors (phytates; Haug and Lantzsch, 1983, total phenols; AOAC method 2000, and oxalates; Abeza et al, 1968). The findings of present study revealed that all the cooking methods led significant decrease (p≤0.01) in nutrients and antinutritional factors of immature drumstick pods except total phenols . In all cooking methods, sauteing resulted in higher retention of β-carotene, iron, calcium and antinutritional factors in immature drumstick pods. In wet cooking methods, both microwave cooking and pressure cooking were found to preserve more nutrients in immature drumstick pods than boiling and blanching. Key words: immature drumstick pods, cooking methods, nutrient retention
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2579
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Scourge of high fluoride in groundwater; its implication on human health
           and mitigation strategies: a case study of Sikar district, Rajasthan,

    • Authors: Subhash Chandra Yadav, B.R. Ambedkar
      Abstract: Water is a crucial natural resource for sustaining life and the environment but over the last few decades, the water quality is deteriorating due to its overexploitation. Fluoride is one of the critical chemical parameters, which impacts the quality of groundwater. Excess ingestion of fluoride (F) through drinking water causes ‘Fluorosis’ on human beings in many states of India, including Rajasthan. Sikar district in Rajasthan is also such a region where a high concentration of fluoride is present in groundwater. Due to the unavailability of surface water in Sikar district, groundwater plays an important role for all uses particularly as a drinking water source. The study was carried out to assess the fluoride contamination status and to understand its spatial variation. The fluoride concentration in groundwater of this region ranged from 0.1 to 9.94 mg/l. Physicochemical settings like decomposition, dissociation and subsequent dissolution with long residence time are responsible for leaching of fluoride into the groundwater. Artificial recharge structures are proposed to minimize the stress on groundwater extraction from deeper aquifers that are discharging fluoride in the area. There is an instant need to take urgent steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis. Keywords: Groundwater, Fluoride, Fluorosis, Sikar District.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2610
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Isolation, production and application of fibrinolytic enzyme from
           fermented rice, pulse and groundnut

    • Authors: Nitika Singh, Shailendra Singh Shera
      Abstract: Accumulation of fibrin in blood vessels usually results in thrombosis, leading to myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular disease. For Thrombolytic therapy, microbial fibrinolytic enzymes have now attracted much more attention than typical thrombolytic agent because of the expensive prices and undesirable side effects of the latter. The fibrinolytic enzymes were successively discovered from different microorganisms. The most important among which is the Genus Bacillus from traditional fermented food. The physiochemical properties of these enzymes have been further identified. Therefore microbial fibrinolytic enzymes, especially those from food grade micro-organism, have the potential to be developed as functional food additive and drugs to prevent or cure other related diseases. In order to obtain Bacillus species producing fibrinolytic enzymes, the fermented food sample such as sprouted grain and processed grain etc were used. The heat tolerant isolates initially were selected for catalase test. Fibrinolytic activity of the selected isolates was determined by using Fibrin plate assay. From the above work, it can be concluded that the fibrinolytic enzyme produced by Bacillus from fermented food samples had the ability to degrade the fibrin and hence can be used for functional food formulation. Keywords: Fibrin, myocardial infarction, thrombolytic agent, Bacillus, Fibrinolytic activity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2403
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sustainable Urban Development of Smart Cities in India-A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Manisha Gupta, himani Gupta
      Abstract: The current accelerated urbanization in India will result in a growth of another 140 million over the current status of 450 million people living in the urban area. This signifies that around 40 percent of India’s population will reside in urban areas of the country. Among the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs)one important goal is to have Sustainable cities and communities in agenda 2030, hence cities have immense potential to contribute to fulfilling sustainable development goals. In India responsible institutes at the state and national level have applied the concept of sustainability with sustainable urban development. The present study aims to analyze works of literature available on both environmental sustainability and smart city concepts and also to understand the relationship between these two. The research methodology used for the objective stated would be qualitative, through a systematic review of the literature using R as a statistical tool. The study intends to provide detailed information on the most recent articles focusing on smart cities and how they would lead to sustainable development. Further, the scope of the current study would give important input to policymakers and researchers seeking information for further investigation and implementation of policies. Keywords: Smart Cities, Urban Development, Sustainable development
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2578
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Influence of Moringa oleifera and Senna occidentalis leaf meal composite
           mixture as alternative to antibiotics on the growth, nutrient
           digestibility, costs and returns of broiler chickens

    • Authors: Stanley O Omoikhoje
      Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) and Senna occidentalis leaf meal (SOLM) composite mixture on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, costs and returns of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty (150) day-old Cobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatment groups (T1, T2, T3 ,T4 and T5) in a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment group contained three (3) replicates with ten (10) birds per replicate and the feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks (56days). The experimental treatment included the control (maize – soya bean meal basal diet with oxytetracyline administered to the birds through drinking water) as T1, T2 (same basal diet was mixed with 0.5% MOLM + 2.0% SOLM), T3 (same basal diet was added with 1.0% MOLM + 1.5% SOLM), T4 (same basal diet was added with 1.5% MOLM + 1.0% SOLM) and T5 (same basal diet was mixed with 2.0% MOLM + 0.5% SOLM). There was no effect of treatments on the live weight, daily weight gain and feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of broiler chickens at the starter phase. At the finisher phase, live weight, daily weight gain and feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were better in broiler chickens that had 1.5% MOLM + 1.0% SOLM (T4) compared to other treatments. Apparent  digestible dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, ether extract and nitrogen free extract (NFE) of broiler chickens were better in MOLM and SOLM mixture than those on the control. The cost incurred per kilogramme weight gain, total cost of production, income and net profit were lower in birds on MOLM and SOLM blend compared to those on the control group. Conclusively, the combination of Moringa oleifera and Senna occidentalis leaf meal was beneficial in improving the growth performance, nutrient utilization and economic value of broiler chickens. Key words: economic value, growth promoters, oxytetracycline, phytobiotics
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2405
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Monsoon associated macroinvertebrate community dynamics in lakes of urban
           and semi-urban areas of Ranchi, North Eastern India.

    • Authors: Amrita Lal, Namita Lal
      Abstract: In Indian subcontinent monsoon affects billions of lives, even modest alterations in spatiotemporal pattern may lead to significant socioeconomic stress in the region. Monsoon also affect creation, rejuvenation, and sustenance of lakes. Freshwater lakes habitats various biological assemblages that translates in ecological quality of water. During monsoon, heavy inflow of runoff water can significantly alter species assemblages and their association with quality of water. This study evaluated changes in macroinvertebrates dynamics of Ranchi (urban) and Kanke (semi-urban) lakes located in Chota Nagpur Plateau, North-eastern India. Results indicated higher abundance of macroinvertebrate in Ranchi lake than Kanke lake. However, taxa richness was greater in Kanke lake in comparison to Ranchi lake. Monsoon had higher impact on abundance of taxonomic order under family Gastropoda. Post-monsoon increase in abundance of Basommatophora (14%), Neotaenioglossa (14%), and Littorinimorpha (13%) were observed. Likewise, Architaeniogiossa, incertae sedis, Haplotaxida were least affected taxonomical orders during investigated seasons. Both lakes were dominated by collector-gatherers (CG), however, Kanke lake indicated richness in diversity of FFGs. CGs were also less motivated by seasonal alteration before, during and after monsoon. In conclusion, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons largely affects abundance of macroinvertebrates in both lakes. Runoff rainwater supports macroinvertebrate development through addition of nutrients. This study indicated that Ranchi lake contains high abundance of scrapers (SC) and grazers (GZ), those are associated with higher anthropogenic activities. Likewise, higher taxonomical richness in Kanke lake indicated more diverse and healthy ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2633
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Exploring Floral Waste into Bio-compost using Microbial Consortium from
           cow dung: A Review

    • Authors: thgorasiya Tejas H Gorasiya
      Abstract: India being a cultural nation with pilgrimage and deities activities as well an arena of myriad social and cultural functional events, leads to floral waste generation as a natural inevitable outcome with a very slow degradation. A huge amounts of flower waste followed by temple offerings, released daily in the water bodies or as dumping off in soil. This leads to a severe environmental pollution and health hazards. Degraded floral waste residues serve to be a cheap & flexible source of choice for bio compost. Presence of a diverse group of microorganisms isolated from rich nutritional source as cow dung helps in an efficient degradation of highly complex organic components into simple stable end product, Bio-Compost Therefore in the present work, an attempt was made, to discuss on an efficient degradation process of floral waste by cow dung driven microbial isolates. 
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2600
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Comparison and evaluation of effect of Chitosan as edible coating to
           maintain the postharvest quality and enhance shelf-life of Psidium guajava
           and Fragaria ananassa fruits

    • Authors: Rama Krishna Konda, Kamala Golla
      Abstract:     Preservation of fruits post-harvest has always been a major problem for farmers and industries because of their short-shelf life and high perishability. Several methods are followed for preservation such as cold storage, use of wax coatings, each of these has their own disadvantages. So, in search of a perfect alternative for these preservative methods, use of edible coatings has shown a significant effect and benefit on fruit preservation. Chitosan, a natural polymer was chosen as an edible coating because of its properties such as biodegradability, non-toxicity. Guava and strawberry are the fruit with short shelf life due to intense metabolic activity. In attempt to minimize these post-harvest problems, chitosan (1%) was used as an edible coating for a period of 96hrs and at a temperature of 25±5 ˚C on guava and strawberry and evaluated its physiochemical characteristics and anti-oxidant system. It was observed that there was a less decrease in total sugar content (simple sugars), increase in peroxidase and catalase activity and also decrease in the fresh weight loss. These results suggested that chitosan effectively prolonged the quality attributes in guava and strawberry post-harvest, by delaying processes like ripening and increase of anti-oxidant activity, upon storing at a temperature of 25±5 ˚C.
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2572
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • High efficiency phytoextraction of barium using Amaranthus viridis L.

    • Authors: Selvaraj Kanagaraj, V. Malathika, V. Ramasubramanian, B. Makesh Kumar
      Abstract: Heavy metal pollutants in the environment are emerging global concern. Barium is one of the heavy metal abundantly used in the manufacture of firecrackers and match industries. This work is aim to eradicate barium from these industrial sites; the new-flanged phytoextraction technology is used to mitigate the metal pollution through hyperaccumulators. Plant used in phytoextraction should accumulate and translocate  specific pollutants especially heavy metals. This work aims to assess the tolerance mechanism of Amaranthus viridis L. a selective native hyperaccumulator under barium chloride stress. Morphometric, biochemical, enzymatic activity, accumulation, translocation and mobility of barium form soil to root and leaves were studied in co-cultivated hyperaccumulator (Amaranthus viridis) and hypoaccumulator (Abelmuscus esculentus) at various concentration levels of barium. Amaranthus viridis accumulated fourfold to fivefold barium in roots, shoots and leaves than Abelmuscus esculentusL. This is well understand that Amaranthus viridis showing higher accumulation of barium, more translocation of barium from root to shoot and good mobility. The mobility of barium was increased form level 1 to level 3. It was revealed that the accumulation of barium was more in root and shoot of Amaranthus viridis. It is inferred from the present study that A.esculentus is a hypoaccumulator and is sensitive to barium. When co-cultivated with Amaranthus viridis showing less of metal toxicity because Amaranthus viridis being hyperaccumulator of barium, accumulate more metal and save Abelmuscus esculentus. It is strongly suggest that the hyperaccumulator Amaranthus viridis L. should grown in the barium polluted sites and make the environment sans heavy metal pollution.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2635
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Assessing the Intensity of Land Surface Temperature in Thiruvarur District

    • Authors: Ashique Vadakkuveettil, Aakriti Grove
      Abstract: Nature gives way to the emergence of concrete jungles as cities grow around them. The majority of these concrete masses are highly reflective, changing the surrounding temperature. Hence, urbanized regions often have higher average temperatures than their surrounding rural areas. This phenomenon is termed Urban Heat Island (UHI). The intensity of UHI depends up on Land Surface Temperature (LST). This paper intends to study the intensity of LST in the Thiruvarur district and its correlation with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) using Landsat 8 Imageries (OLI & TIRS) of January 2018. To calculate the LST, we used the mono-window algorithm. The result shows that LST intensity varies from 20.68°C to 32.3°C, with the maximum being in built-up areas and the minimum being in vegetation areas and water bodies. The Pearson regression shows that there is a negative correlation (r = -0.925, P < 0.5) between LST & NDVI and a positive correlation (r = 0.925, P < 0.5) between LST and NDBI. The strong positive correlation of NDBI confirms the influence of urbanization on Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI). The negative correlation between LST and NDVI shows that green covers can mitigate it. Hence, this study conclusively demonstrates that urbanization can raise temperatures, showing that sustainable development in cities is essential for sustainable growth.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2630
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Study the Sustainability and challenges of farm to fork restaurants in
           Metropolitan city of Maharashtra

    • Authors: shailendra darekar, Sonali Jadhav
      Abstract: Farm to fork concept is established in metropolis cities. The data was collected from 31 farms to fork restaurants to understand the operation out of 48 restaurants. The concept still not getting the amount of sustainable business in the Indian market. Research suggests that there is good protection to successfully run the concept restaurant as the city market demands. The study analyses the challenges faced by the restaurant owners, where creating consistent supply chain management of raw fresh food, control on food cost affects the business sustainability. The study will make understand the new business owners for farm to fork restaurant start-up in India. They will understand the challenges and how to survive in a current market environment.  
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V13N1-art2626
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Assessment of Biomass and Carbon Stock of Trees within the Campus of
           IGNOU, New Delhi (India)

    • Authors: Kumari Anjali, Y.S.C. Khuman, Jaswant Sokhi, Amrita Nigam
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the biomass and carbon stock of the trees within IGNOU campus situated at the Indian national capital, New Delhi for an enhanced understanding about the carbon sequestration potential of the university campuses in urban setting. The aim of the paper is centered on the need to assess terrestrial carbon pools within a campus situated in the semi-arid forests of India which is significant for building suitable action plans for the purpose of managing ecosystems amidst the threat of anthropogenic climate change occurring due to rapid urbanization. The assessment of the biomass and carbon stock of the trees of the selected species within the campus was done by non-destructive method using allometric equations used prominently in previous studies identifying a total of 20 species of the trees comprising 1260 individual trees belonging to 14 different families of the trees. Findings of this study on identified campus trees, which comprised 1,260 individual trees, demonstrated to have moderate maturity in terms of storing carbon in the form of their biomass with the average DBH 25.34 cm. The values of their estimated total biomass and carbon stock were 75.26446 t/tree  and 37.63223 tC/tree respectively. The maximum value of the total biomass 13.01 t/tree was of Ficus recemos, and of the carbon stock 6.50tC/tree was of Ficus recemosa. Azadirachta indica species were found to be the most dominant species and their sampled trees were found to be able to sequester 537.526 tons of carbon in their standing biomass. The Phyllanthus emblica had the lowest carbon sequestration potential with 10.9 tons. This paper offers valuable insight with respect to the carbon sequestration potential of university campus situated in urban settings of a semi-arid forest ecosystem of Delhi by assessing the above- and below ground carbon storage potential of the trees. The findings are of significance for different stakeholders including primarily future researchers, planners and decision-makers engaged in the process of urbanization.  
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2627
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Requirements for implementation of covid-19 vaccine through good

    • Authors: Samin Anis Shaikh, Sanjay Ankush Kale, Sandhya Pundlikrao Sonkamble, Charushila Khanderao Nerkar
      Abstract: Several research institutes and companies are working hard to find a vaccine for COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine are available worldwide in early 2021. The quality of the vaccine on Covid-1 can be very important to rid the world of it. The main objective of this article is to implement the vaccine against COVID-19 infection through good management through social distance, hygiene. Key Words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Vaccination, Vaccine, Social Distancing.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2388
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Observations On The Abundance Of Oligochaeta Along With Some Environmental
           Factors In An Unmanaged Freshwater Wetland Of West Bengal, India.

    • Authors: Subhendu Bikash Patra
      Abstract: ABSTRACT           The present work was undertaked to achieve a comprehensive knowledge on the abundance of oligochaeta species as well as the results of limnological investigation along with the ecohydrologycal status of an unmanaged wetland, in the planes of West Bengal, India. For the purpose of the hydrological study standard methods of American Public Health Association has been followed and the collection of benthic fauna (oligochaeta) was made employing Ekman’s dredge and standard sieve no. 60 having 0.4 mesh size.         During study the water temperature varied from 20oC to 30.25oC. Transparency was higher     (88 cm) in winter and lower (21.15 cm) in post monsoon. pH was found to vary between alkaline (6.67) to acidic (8) in nature. Dissolved oxygen showed maximum fluctuation from 1.2 mg/lit to 11.2 mg/lit. Free CO2 was found to be higher than dissolved oxygen and varied from   2.4 mg/lit to 17 mg/lit. Hardness was always in a lower profile with a minimum of 13 mg/lit and a maximum of 20.7 mg/lit. On the other hand Nitrate nitrogen ranged from 0.03 mg/lit to 0.08 mg/lit while dissolved organic matter varied from 0.61 to 4.13 mg/lit.        While observing the biological components total six species of oligochaeta were identified with a maximum of 3333 ind/m2 and a minimum of 88 ind/m2. Among these six species Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was the largest species which varied between 217 ind/m2and 2756 ind/m2 with a total 7041 ind/m2, comprised 46.81% of the total oligochaeta.  Branchiodrilus sempari, the second largest species formed 22.8% of the total oligochaeta with a variation from 44 ind/m2 to 1820 ind/m2 and a total of 3429 ind/m2. Another species Dero digitata varied between 22 ind/m2 and 1267 ind/m2 and contributed 18.96% to the total oligochaeta with a total of 2852  ind m-2. On the other hand, Aulodrilus sp contained total 835 ind/m2 and ranged from 22 ind/m2 to 222 ind/m2 while Aulophorus farcatus contained total 775 ind/m2 and varied between 20    ind/m2 and 378 ind/m2 contributed 5.15% and 5.57% of total oligochaeta respectively. Branchiura sowerbyi formed only 2.92% of total population with a maximum of 178 ind/m2 and a minimum of 44    ind/m2. During community study it was found that the index of dominance varied from 0.345 to 0.902 and index of dominance from 0.098 to 0.655. Key Words: Abiotic factors, Abundance, Freshwater, Oligochaeta, Unmanaged, Wetland.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2692
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Estimation of Land Surface Temperature of Srinagar City ,India Using
           Landsat 8 Data

    • Authors: Perminder Singh, Sandeep Singla
      Abstract: Land surface tempreature (LST) is a critical parameter for the study of biosphere, cryosphere and climate change.. Thermal infrared remote sensing data can be used to measure Land Surface Temperature (LST). It will measure the energy exiting the Earth's surface and record the apparent temperature of the surface. It is now possible to measure LST due to the advent of satellite imagery and digital image processing applications. The LST for Srinagar city was calculated using the Split Window algorithm (SW) and Landsat-8 (Path-149 and Row-36) Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data with a resolution of 100m. . Emissivity was calculated using the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) proportion of vegetation methodology, with bands 4 and 5 (30 m resolution) from the Operational Land Imager (OLI). Surface temperatures were found to be higher in central  regions and lower in heavily vegetated areas. The LST derived using the SW algorithm was more efficient and precise since it used both OLI and TIRS bands
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2573
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Efficacy of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles using Leaf Extract of
           Melia azedarach against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    • Authors: Rajkumar Sekar Velu, Nallaiyan Alugachamy
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to the study of biosynthesized AgNPs using leaf
      extracts of M. azedarach in S. frugiperda. The UV spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver
      nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 400 nm. FTIR was performed to identify the
      functional groups related to different chemical compounds. XRD pattern confirmed the formation of
      nanocrystals in nature. SEM has been used to investigate the morphology of prepared AgNPs. Third
      instar larvae were exposed to different concentrations of synthesized AgNPs for 24 hrs. The highest
      mortality was observed in aqueous extract and synthesized AgNPs against third instars larvae of S.
      frugiperda of LC50 and LC90 values of 36.83(28.05-57.78), 85.71(55.65-425.73) and 25.44(18.27-
      33.60), 58.65(41.82-143.87) respectively. The silver nanoparticle was found to larvicidal activity against
      S. frugiperda.
      Key words: M. azedarach, UV, FTIR, XRD, SEM
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2734
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Some observations of Zooplankton composition and abundance in river
           Damodar during winter season.

    • Authors: Subhendu Bikash Patra
      Abstract: ABSTRACT   The investigation has been made to examine the hydrological condition of the studied area (some physicochemical parameter of water, zooplankton community and its diversity). During the study it was observed that the trend of variation of water temperature was from 15.9ºc to17.5ºc. pH was found to alkaline ranging from 8.5 to 9.1. During the study there was a fluctuation in O2 level from 3.2 mg/lit. to 5.2 mg/lit. Free CO2 was found to be higher throughout the study with a variation from 14 to 18 mg/lit. In the study of Zooplankton, Cladocera and Rotifera were chiefly present comprising mostly of Daphnia sp, Rotaria sp., Brachionus sp. and Cyclops spp. Besides theae groups of species  Copepoda was also present. A total of 10 genera including one larval form were found during study. Among 10 genera only 5 were dominant ( Daphnia sp., Rotaria sp., Brachionus sp., Mesocyclops sp. and nauplius larvae), within these dominant species the most dominant were Daphnia sp., Rotaria sp. and Brachionus sp. which occur more than three times during study. While the community study was concerned it was found that the species richness ranged from 0.734 to 1.17, Evenness from 0.911 to 0.975 and Shannon-Wiener index value was varied between 1.85 and 2.43. The mean values of them were 0.924, 0.939 and 2.25 respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2437
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Advances in zooplankton studies- An overview

    • Authors: Archana Devi, R.S. Balamurali , S. Thara
      Abstract: Zooplankton are free swimming animals that have a prominent role in the both fresh water and marine ecosystems. They are considered to be bio indicators and since the existence of zooplankton is more important along with their undeniable role in energy transfer through food chains and biogeochemical cycling. To know about different aspects about zooplankton the care should be taken from the level of collection and further in to their preservation, identification, sorting, enumeration and their analysis through different scientific procedures. Studies about zooplankton is still going on all around the world and there have been a lot of advances made at different aspects related to zooplankton study. A nutshell of field as well as laboratory procedures involving different techniques and instrumentation in zooplankton studies and advancements that have been made and currently followed by the researches are included in this review article.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2793
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sustainability and Challenges of rainwater resource exploitation in the
           rural communities of Oyo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Timothy Oyebamiji Ogunbode, Janet T. Asifat, Peter O. Ogungbile
      Abstract: Despite the fact that rainwater is in abundant supply in the humid tropics, this resource is still being underutilized for domestic purposes when compared with other sources of water. A study was thus conducted to assess the sustainability and challenges facing optimal exploitation of rain water. A survey was conducted in 125 rural communities with at least five rural communities selected from 25 rural Local Government Areas. The results showed that people’s perception of rain water, inadequate storage facilities, availability at home during the rain incidence and seasonality of rainfall were the challenges of effective utilization of rainwater in the rural areas. The study further discovered that rain water is dependable as for domestic uses between the months of April and October while the dependence level of rain water from the months of November and March is about zero. A paired sample T-Test results showed that there is a significant difference between the average monthly water demand and the monthly storable water at 1% level of significance. This implies that stored rainwater is not sufficient to cater for the household water demand. Hence, it is suggested that exploitation of rain water should be encouraged by boosting the capacity of the rural dwellers so that they can acquire storage facilities that will enhance sufficient storage. Stakeholders can also support this campaign through economic empowerment of the inhabitants in the rural areas so that underground water can be protected for the purpose of rain water exploitation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2607
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Crossing the Seven Sea: Migration crisis during COVID-19 with reference to
           Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: AAKASH UPADHYAY, Shahid Jamal, Rachna Dua
      Abstract: Wars, conflict and natural disasters displaced 14.6 million people in 127 countries from January-June 2020 (DTE, 2020). Just to elaborate, mankind is facing the worst pandemic ever, leading to huge loss of life and crippling the economy. Among there are the disadvantaged and poor section, who are worst affected in the present times. Union government implementation of lockdown across the country to curtail the transmission of virus and protect people from COVID-19 threat, turned into a major economic crisis for urban poor in general and migrants in particular apart from health hazard. With the announcement of lockdown 1.0, migrant workers from the big cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Bengaluru and Chennai started rushing back to their native place. Uttar Pradesh, houses about 20 million population, provides majority of informal workers to all these large cities. Just to quote from various reports several migrants died due heat (summer time), hunger and thirst. Incidences of administration brutality were also brought to light where some cops and administration were seen showing brutality towards them, including chemical sanitization, which could lead to skin irritation, eye irritation, respiratory system damage and kidney problems. Complete lockdown means no transport facilities were available, forcing large flock of human flow from cities to rural parts on foot or any means possible. Present research looks to analyse the plights of migrant workers during COVID-19 in the face of any pandemic. The study is based on the secondary data analysis, whereby both qualitative and quantitative techniques have been used. It was concluded that despite the lockdown and hardship associated the migrant workers were ready to travel any distance to reach their native place, (sense of belongingness). They were hopeful of reaching their village in whatever way possible, ready to march on cycle, walk back barefoot, buses, trains or any other means possible. The scenes of young people’s dragging their parents and kids caught the eyes of everyone, lifting them on their shoulders, child birth taking place on road and group of people crushed by running vehicle. The mass movement also sent government in wary and frenzy as they were unable to meet the demand for necessary items like food and water. Pandemic followed by delay in planning led migrants questioning their very existence and were jeopardised, fighting against pandemic is secondary and staying alive id primary. Though UP government made efforts to arrange bus services, but more needs to be done so as the migrants can cope up to the challenge’s posed by COVID-19. Keywords: Migrants, COVID-19, Discrimination, Hunger, Lockdown and Social Justice
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2440
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Modeling the Current and future potential distribution of Arabis alpina
           using MaxEnt software in selected mountains areas of Ethiopia

    • Authors: Amare Seifu
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to model the current and future distributions of the plant species, Arabis alpina, using MaxEnt software. Accordingly, a total of 70 locations data were used for this investigation. The occurrence record of this species was obtained from herbarium of Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute and Google Earth version 7 from highland areas of Ethiopia.  Climate data with a spatial resolution of 30 s (approximately 1 km2), was downloaded from world climate database website. The result of this analysis confirmed that the average test of AUC is 0.970. This is an excellent model for the selected variables since the AUC value was more than 0.90. The test of the jackknife indicated the current distribution of Arabis alpina was mainly influenced by Annual Mean Temperature (Bio1) and the Min Temperature of Coldest Month (Bio6) that contributed 74.9% and 17.5% to the MaxEnt model respectively.  Regarding the future climatic condition the result of this investigation indicated that the average test of AUC was 0.959. The jackknife test was also indicated that, Precipitation of Wettest Quarter (bio16) that contributed 95.1% to the MaxEnt model. Generally, from the picture of the model of current climatic conditions indicated that Arabis alpina occurs in most highland areas of Ethiopian but the model for future climatic condition indicated that this plant will be restricted to few areas of the country. This might me due to climate change, anthropogenic degradation and Invasive Alien Species.   In addition from the picture of the model there might be shifting of habitat from the lower altitude to the higher altitude .This might be due to an increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation. Therefore, this study recommends the integration of future climate situation into current restoration and conservation policies to protect ecologically sensitive species of the country.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2680
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • To study the composition of minerals and vitamins of some fresh vegetables
           with special reference to the Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh India

    • Authors: Imtiyaz Rasool parrey, Tanveera Akhter
      Abstract: Aims: This comparative study was carried out to evaluate the vitamin-C and mineral content of twenty-two different sorts of nutritious and low-cost fresh vegetables. Methodology: Vitamin C, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) contents were determined with the flame emission spectrophotometer. Results: Vitamin-C was higher in Momordica charantia (87.0 mg/100g) and lower in Vigna unguiculata (0.10 mg/100g). Calcium and magnesium of the green leafy vegetables were in the range of 191.0 - 12.0 mg/100g and 210.1- 9.0 mg/100g respectively. Sodium content largely varied from 58.1- 2.1 mg/100g in which Amaranthus cruentus content higher and Cucumis sativus had the lower content. The highest potassium content was recorded in Cucurbita pepo (384.0 mg/100g) and the lowest potassium content was found in Cucumis sativus (144.20 mg / 100g). Phosphorus content was ranged between 108.0 -13.0 mg /100 g in all the green leafy vegetables. There were significant correlations between mineral contents. Conclusion: These results revealed that selected vegetables contain an appreciable amount of vitamin C and minerals and should be included in diets as a supplement of daily allowance needed by the body. Keyword:  Fresh vegetable, Vitamin-C, Mineral composition, Kullu.
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2637
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • A A systemic review on total phenolic content present in various drug

    • Authors: Dr.lavanya Sai, Dr.manisha.p.gajendra gadkar, Dr.Tanveer.s.khan
      Abstract: Antioxidant is a solidity which prevents the oxidation of a substrate.They fend off or delay the cell damage precipitated by free radical. The Antioxidant activity of the amalgam can be assessed by standard simple experiments like DPPH and FCR reagents tests .The main objective intent of this study is to evaluate and review the profitability of determining total phenolic content with the help of Folin Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) in any drug material agnate to the antioxidative property. Articles issued between 2004 to 2017 were encompassed in this review. Databases namely google scholar, PubMed were trouped for assemblaging the articles. Keyphrases like total phenolic content, FCR reagent, fruits, antioxidants were accustomed for assemblages of articles. The inspect of studies have stated that 23/30 reported praxis of FCR Reagent to dictate the antioxidative property of various drugs in impetus of qualitative and quantitative assay. The wind up of this study had disclosed that FCR is one of the frequent reagent which was used to determine the antioxidant property Keywords Total Phenolic content, FCR Reagent, Antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2638
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Food and medicinal properties of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa &
           Hibiscus rosa-sinensis).

    • Authors: Suprabha Dey, Avilash Roy, Ankit Paul, Neha Saha, Anupama Tarafdar, Saikat Mazumder
      Abstract: This study is based on the cultivation and scope of Hibiscus species, namely, Hibiscus rosa-Sinensis and Hibiscus sabdariffa. The objective was to find out the history of the production of Hibiscus, usage in different centuries, the most suitable regions for cultivation in India, various nutritive content, different health-related properties and benefits, new products that had been introduced, and abstract on what future may hold for the flowers. The study contains information on the antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cancerous properties along with several benefits like hypolipidemic effect, blood pressure-lowering effect, anti-diabetic activity, effect on lipid metabolism, antihypertensive effect, etc on the concerned flower. We have looked into the limitation of the flower, the need for urgent preservation methods to extend the shelf life of the product. As per our findings roselle leaves are used for their, antimicrobial, emollient, antipyretic, diuretic, anti-helminthic, sedative properties and as a soothing cough remedy.
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2528
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Rural and Urban Household Carbon Footprint: A Comparative Study, West
           Bengal, India

    • Authors: Nanda Dulal Hazra
      Abstract: Rural and Urban Household Carbon Footprint: A Comparative Study, West Bengal, India Abstract Household emission is a significant contributor to total emission in the atmosphere. Household emission is measured in terms of Per Capita Carbon Footprint. Carbon Footprint can be defined as the total amount of greenhouse gases produced directly and indirectly by any individual or organization from its activities and it is expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e). From the latest report of JRC, 2020 per capita global average of CO2 emission in 2019 was 4.93 tCO2 tonne/Per Year and in India it was 1.9 tCO2 tonne/Per Year. In this backdrop the objectives of the article are: i) to measure the activity wise household carbon footprint of the sample households, and ii) to compare the activity wise carbon footprint of rural and urban households during the study period.  Household Per Capita Carbon Footprint has been calculated using the emission factors of different components. From the study it is observed that maximum amount of emission generates from cooking activities for rural households and from food activities for urban households. Per Capita Carbon Footprint of rural household is 0.6071 tCO2e tonne/Per Year and 0.5119 tCO2e tonne/Per Year for urban household. Key words: Carbon footprint, household emission, global warming, fossil fuels, emission factor etc.
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2687
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Impact of pandemic crisis of COVID-19 on construction industry in India.

    • Authors: K.N. Likitha , Kundhena Srinivas, S.C. Gurudev, G.D. Nischith , C. Rajasekaran
      Abstract: The outbreak of COVID-19 has impacted whole world in a huge way which forever buzzed with activities has fallen silent and all the resources are diverted to meeting the never-experienced-before crisis. Today the construction sector is predicted to face simultaneous reduction in both supply and demand on account of this pandemic. This study aims to research the effect of COVID 19 on the construction industry's survival. This study adopted two methods to collect the data. The first method is quantitative data by associating construction practitioners to assess the level of impact using a five Likert scale and Descriptive Analysis was adapted to conduct analysis with MS Excel to find the quantity of impact certain factors display. A total of 30 respondents participated in answering the questionnaire survey. The second method is by conducting an exploratory interview with some experts from the construction industry sectors to share and express experiences and problems they faced and opinion on the condition of the construction industry during and after pandemic. The study found the most prominent impacts of COVID 19 are the suspension of projects, labour impact and job loss, time overrun, cost overrun, and financial implications. The findings also help project stakeholders to realize the sequences of the sudden epidemic and prepare for the worst-case scenario during the planning stage of the construction projects. .
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2784
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Seismic pounding effect on two adjacent RC framed multistorey buildings
           using time history analysis.

    • Authors: Aditi V. Kurd, Jui S. Dixit, Manjiri V. Paraskar, Nitim R. More, Suhasini N. Madhekar
      Abstract: Seismic pounding is defined as the collision of structures during earthquakes when these structures have different dynamic characteristics. It is an instance of rapid strong pulsation like hammering and repeated heavy blows. This pounding of closely spaced buildings can be seen largely in some densely populated urban areas. Some modern codes have included seismic separation gap requirement clauses for adjacent structures but since large parts of metropolitan cities in seismically active regions of India were built before such requirements were introduced, the seismic separation gap requirements have not been fulfilled. Pounding can be catastrophic and even more dangerous than the effect of earthquakes on a single building. Thus, the action of pounding of buildings needs to be mitigated to avoid loss of life and property during earthquakes. The problem of pounding is particularly common in many cities in India, located in seismically active zones, where due to various socio-economic factors and land usage requirements, buildings are often constructed crowded together. This paper is focused on the study of the seismic pounding between two RC buildings with different dynamic characteristics. A systematic study of response of seismic pounding between adjacent buildings and seismic hazard mitigation practices like effect of different separation distances and effect of providing dampers are investigated, using the ETABS software. A 12-storey and a 16-storey building have been considered for the study of pounding. Time history analysis is carried out for seven real earthquake ground motions on the models with varying separation gaps. The results were obtained in the form of pounding force and point displacements. It is revealed that the pounding effect varies inversely with the separation distance. With increasing separation distance pounding effect is reduced greatly and so the damage to the neighbouring buildings is also minimized. Also, the pounding forces are seen to be decreasing considerably between the adjacent buildings due to the provision of dampers at suitable locations, as compared to the case of adjacent buildings without dampers. The study even confirms that the pounding effect can be mitigated considerably by installing dampers between adjacent structures. Dampers modelled in this study prove to be effective in reducing the displacement and drift in the range of 15%-20%.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2782
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • The influence of cbr value on the cost of optimal flexible pavement

    • Authors: Venkatesh Baskaran, Subash Raj C., Subbu Sankar V.R., K. Blessy
      Abstract: Road transport would be arteries for the economy pulse. As a developing nation, India focuses on connecting all parts of the country through this road network. Flexible pavement is generally preferred for the road with low to medium traffic conditions. The flexible pavement design depends on the CBR of subgrade soil and design traffic for the selected road specified in IRC 37-2018. The study is limited to the road link at Tirunelveli City paved with a bituminous surface course with a granular base and sub-base between South Bypass road Junction near New bus stand – NH 44 service road intersection. Effective subgrade CBR value considered from 9% to 15% in the study area. The traffic volume detail and vehicle classification were collected with the help of an automatic vehicle classifier called MetroCount. The design starts with selecting a trial profile by considering CBR and MSA from the appropriate catalog. The stress and strain were estimated at critical locations of pavement by performing Structural Analysis in IITPAVE software. The optimal design is achieved by altering the layer thickness to minimize the gap between actual and allowable strain. An increase in CBR value decreases the thickness of the functional layer of pavement. Cost estimation has arrived from rate analysis for various work items as per IRC specification and schedule of rates. Similar studies were identified in evaluating the construction cost corresponding to different design methods. This study concluded that improvement in 1 % CBR saves about 1 to 2% of overall construction cost in optimal design.   Keyword-- CBR (California bearing ratio); MSA (Million standard axles); Optimal flexible pavement; IITPAVE; MetroCount
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2780
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Experimental investigation on fly ash based self-compacting concrete with

    • Authors: Nazrin Fathima Fazil M, C.J. Chithra
      Abstract: Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a fresh concrete which is highly flowable, and it can flow readily into place, fill the formwork without any compaction and without undergoing any significant segregation. It is used in the construction where it is hard to use vibrators for consolidation of concrete. High amount of cement and chemical admixtures used in SCC reduces its wide scale usage. Metakaolin can be used as a better substitute to cement due to its cementitious properties. Metakaolin combines with Ca(OH)2 produces additional cementation compounds and makes concrete strengthen. This study aims to experimentally investigate the fresh and strength properties of flyash based self-compacting concrete with different percentage replacement levels of metakaolin with cement. To obtain the optimum percentage of metakaolin in flyash based SCC in which metakaolin is partially replacing cement at 10%, 15% and 20% by weight of cement. M40 grade equivalent flyashbased SCC was established based on fresh properties such as flow ability and passing ability and strength parameters like compressive strength, spilt tensile strength and flexural strength. The results showed that fresh properties decreased as the metakaolin content increased. The strength parameters increased about 15.2%, 12.82% and 14.1% for 15% metakaolin.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2783
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Experimental investigations on fibre reinforced geopolymer concrete as
           repair material for pavements

    • Authors: Peter Cibi, Lathi Karthi
      Abstract: Geopolymer is a relatively new construction material which could be produced by the chemical action between alumino-silicate material such as fly ash and alkaline solutions like sodium silicate or sodium hydroxide. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) reduces the CO2 emission by 9 % compared to the concrete made with ordinary portland cement. Fibre reinforced geopolymer concrete (FRGPC) has already been used as a repair material for different construction purposes such as for tunnel linings and sewage pipes repairs due to its improved tensile characteristics and crack control properties. This study involves the experimental investigations on FRGPC as a repair material for rigid pavements. A mixture of sodium silicate and 8M sodium hydroxide solution is used as the alkaline activator to prepare the fly ash based geopolymer concrete. To increase the mechanical properties at ambient temperature calcium additives in the forms of calcium hydroxide and calcium oxide are added separately by replacing fly ash in the proportion 3%, 5% and 7% by weight of fly ash. Further to increase the low tensile strength of GPC, addition of polypropylene fibre in 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% by volume of concrete were also incorporated. The aspect ratio of the polypropylene fibres used is 300. The optimum values were determined based on the fresh concrete properties and mechanical properties. The results showed that the 7 day compressive and tensile strengths of FRGPC were increased by 36% and 14% respectively from fly ash GPC. The bond strength between the pavement substrate and the geopolymer repair material is also studied. The bond strength of the fibre reinforced repair material is found to be more than the permissible values as per relevant codes of practice. Abrasion resistance of the repair material is also tested as a measure of durability aspects to check the suitability for usage on rigid pavements. Keywords—Geopolymer Concrete, Alumino-Silicate, Rigid pavements, Substrate, Alkaline solution, Repair material
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2779
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effect of metakaolin and alccofine in high strength concrete

    • Authors: K.S. Fathima, M. Anjaly
      Abstract: High strength concrete is defined as concrete with characteristic cube strength above 40 MPa. The applications of high strength concrete are bridges, aqueducts, dams, high rise buildings etc. This work involves the comparative study of various mineral admixtures such as alccofine and metakaolin on high strength concrete. Alccofine is a new generation micro fine concrete material which is beneficial with respect to workability as well as strength. The desirable properties of Metakaolin make it mostly preferred additives in high strength concrete. In this study, cement is partially replaced with alccofine, metakaolin at 5, 10 and15%. The mechanical properties like compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength are evaluated and compared. The strength properties are maximum for the concrete mix with alccofine.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2773
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effect of dust pollution from construction sites on on-site construction

    • Authors: Gauri Mohan, Annie Sonia Xavier
      Abstract: The concern for air pollution and its associated problems are increasing day by day. Unfortunately, construction industry is among the top contributors to air pollution since most of the activities like excavation, tile cutting etc taking place in construction sites result in the generation of dust. These emissions cause negative impacts on humans as well as on the environment. A lack of awareness among construction workers, contractors etc regarding the ill-effects of dust pollution result in these problems not being considered seriously or tackled properly. The identification of dust sources as well as its health consequences and other aspects in construction sites can help increase awareness and aid in the execution of control measures. This could help to reduce dust pollution in construction sites. Here, the health impacts that construction dust cause on on-site construction workers were studied by interviewing the workers. From the data obtained from questionnaire survey, it was found that workers directly involved with dust generating construction activities like wall polishing and tile cutting experienced more health problems compared to other workers. Majority of workers experienced respiratory problems. From correlation analysis, it was found that experience of workers and their age had a moderate correlation with health problems experienced. Some of the dust control measures suggested include regular site monitoring, implementation of control measures designed specifically to reduce the generation of dust from activities causing highest quantities of dust and regular site cleaning.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2770
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Behaviour of additively manufactured concrete cellular columns under axial
           loading conditions.

    • Authors: Susan Joseph Nithya, Beegom A. Sajitha
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing techniques have gained significance during the recent years. Most of the traditional construction techniques are more or less subtractive or in other words, they involve the machining away of extras to achieve the final product and hence their performance will be limited to the availability of moulds. Additive manufacturing methods tend to be more efficient and economical as it reduces the wastage of construction material, time and manpower by enabling the freeform printing of parts. This paper focuses on the behaviour of numerical models of simple additively manufactured concrete cellular columns when subjected to axial loading. The three unit cellular topologies adopted were square, triangular and hexagonal in shape. The numerical model was developed using Ansys Design Modeller and validation was carried out using the experimental data available from previous literature. The parametric study was then conducted on the validated models to obtain the optimum unit cellular shape, as well as study the effect of column height and thickness of walls of unit cells on the ultimate load carrying capacities of column. Strength to weight ratio of the cellular models was obtained to be 47-62% of that of solid columns with the optimum results for square concrete cellular columns. The load carrying capacity of columns decreased with increase in height as expected but the rate of decrease in strength was seen to be about 61% and 86% lesser in triangular and square columns respectively when compared to their solid counterpart. The load carrying capacity was seen to increase with increase in wall thickness of cells of column for all models.  
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2776
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Numerical modelling of the stress strain behaviour of Kuttanad clay.

    • Authors: Priyanka P Manjanath, Mary Dhanya
      Abstract: Soil has been used as a construction material since antiquity with both success and failure. As the earth material is widely available and relatively economical, it has been found very useful in the construction of foundations, subgrades, embankments and as backfill. The collapsibility of soil is mainly due to the decrease of shear strength and macro-deformation with the increase of moisture content. This can result in some serious problems, such as the differential settlement of the foundation, landslides, and slope instability, resulting in a series of damages of infrastructures and loss of human lives to some degree. Fine-grained soils are the most complicated engineering material. These clays are characterized by high compressibility, low shear strength and high percentage of organic matter, which are unfavourable from the geotechnical point of view. It is of great importance in civil engineering to make realistic predictions of the behaviour of soil under various conditions. Studying the effect of moisture content on the shear strength of cohesive soil during different confining pressure helps to find a relationship between them. Triaxial tests under unconsolidated undrained conditions are carried out at different moisture contents, each at four different confining pressures (50, 100, 150, and 200 kPa). The relation of stress and strain of soils is analysed using the hyperbolic mathematical model which can provide a brief idea about how soil will behave under different conditions. Mathematical equations were determined based on the hyperbolic mathematical model to predict the stress-strain behaviour of Kuttanad soil. Comparison of measured and predicted stress – strain curves for an additional group of  soil sample with 37.22 % moisture content shows that the proposed moisture content-dependent hyperbolic model provides good prediction of stress-strain behaviour of cohesive Kuttanad soil. The accuracy of the developed model is tested by employing Coefficient of determination (R2). Keywords— Shear strength, Triaxial test, Clay, Hyperbolic, Moisture content
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2771
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Seismic analysis of multi-storeyed building with floating column using
           fluid viscous dampers.

    • Authors: Akhila Prem, Sunitha A. Daniel, Afia S. Hameed
      Abstract: Nowadays many multi-storeyed buildings in India have open ground storey for providing better parking facilities, reception lobbies and other amenities. It is required to have column free space due to shortage of space, increase in population and also for functional and aesthetic requirement.For this purpose, building is provided with floating column at one or more storey.Floating column is a vertical member but its lower end is not connected to the foundation. Its lower end rest on beam which is a horizontal member, this beam transfers the load of floating column to other columns below it.The most common use of a floating column is to build a soft storey on the ground floor to provide extra parking or entrance corridor space.But such features are highly unwanted in seismically active region. The present study proposes a practical solution for reducing the risk of earthquake effects associated with floating column building by strengthening them with using fluid viscous dampers. The main aim of the work is to highlights the performance of floating column building and compare floating column building with and without using fluid viscous dampers. Seismic analysis is carried out by using response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002. The Seismic assessment is executed by using ETABS software.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2769
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Solitary, irregular and focused wave impact on coastal bridge deck for
           different airgaps.

    • Authors: Remeeza Moideen
      Abstract: Coastal bridge decks are subjected to wave impact due to the action of extreme wave events like tsunami and storm surges.  These events are more frequent in recent years and cause deck upliftment and destruction. Past studies mainly considered regular wave types to represent extreme wave events and the impact force is calculated. The main aim of the present study is to generate a focused wave to simulate an extreme wave condition in the numerical wave tank and to study the impact force on coastal bridge deck. Focused wave and irregular wave of same significant wave height and peak period are generated and comparison is done with solitary wave of same crest height to study the effects of different wave types on impact force. Focused wave height is giving higher impact force when comparing the irregular and solitary wave of same crest height.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2777
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Investigations and comparison of a conventional sand filter and a modified
           sand filter for water purification.

    • Authors: Leela Bhargavi Katragadda, D. Ramavedi
      Abstract: Water being a depleting resource needs to be treated in a sustainable way. The oldest-natural method of purifying drinking water is to use sand filters, made by using layers of sand and gravel placed at proportional depths and sizes. A few drawbacks like requirement of further disinfection, bad odour, inefficiency in removing chemicals like cholrine, fertilizers etc,. does not allow the usage of conventional method. Hence in this research work a Modified Sand Filter is constructed by partial replacement of sand with Granulated Activated Carbon in order to overcome all possible drawbacks. GAC is a locally available material made from materials like coal, wood, coconut shell, nutshells or any carbonaceous materials, which makes it a “sustainable, cost efficient and eco friendly material” as it is a reuse material. The principle of water purification through GAC is adsorption of contaminants in the microscopic pores on its surface. GAC has small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. Due to its high degree of micro porosity, one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 3,000 m2 allowing it to remove particles ranging from 0.5 – 10 microns and therefore removes pesticides, chlorides and microplastics as well. It is observed from experimental results that various physical and chemical parameters (taste, odour, pH, turbidity, chloride and hardness) have been improved (IS 10500: 2012) after using the Modified Sand Filter. Therefore further experimentation can be done to check its efficiency in removal of other hazardous substances.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2781
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Proposal of construction material flow index for multi-storey residential

    • Authors: Sruthi Suresh Babu, Sahimol Eldhose
      Abstract: Besides water, construction materials are indeed the major flows that enter the sites. Administration and movement of these supplies are the challenges experienced on sites nowadays due to the scarcity of materials, delays in terms of availability, inefficient transport facilities, damage and waste and limited space for storage. Effective flow of material is very critical for maintaining a productive and cost efficient location. Poor disposal and haulage during site operations is an important issue that jeopards the efficiency of construction projects. Unsatisfactory handling, storage and management of materials on work sites will seriously hinder the performance of the project. In construction site, a new approach is therefore required to analyze the flow of materials. The project deals with the identification of optimum material flow factors identified from literature review and analysed for index generation by developing formula for index. This includes measures of material movement, its consumption and excess disposal of waste. The proposed construction flow index (CFI) is a composite indicator that illustrates the repetitive construction project efficiency of the output flow. The CFI is a powerful instrument for assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of construction projects and monitoring the movement of supplies. An index is generated for the quantitative analysis of the material flow at work sites in this project.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2775
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effect of sintering and coldbonding techniques onlightweight aggregates
           fromindustrial waste – a review

    • Authors: Rhishi Raj K., Vasudev R.
      Abstract: Concrete is a building material which consist major portion of hard inorganic materials called aggregates such as crushed stone aggregate. Due to continuous usage of natural resources within a short length of time these get depleted. Production of concreteby using waste materials from industries is important in this era. The production of light weight aggregate from waste material is done by pellatization and hardened by sintering or cold bonding techniques. Depending upon the hardening methods the properties of concrete is also varied. From previous research works it can be concluded that it is possible to produce structural concrete using sintered fly ash aggregate which are spherical in shape having specific gravity varying from 1.33 to 2.35. According to the literature, the specific gravity of these aggregates was 16 to 46 percent lower than that of standard of weight aggregates, and they might be employed as aggregates in structural concrete production depending on the constituent qualities and the production environment. Cold bonded aggregate concretewith compressive strength 48% lesser compared to normal concrete mix, it exceeds the value of 17 MPa that has been fixed as minimum criteria for concrete to be used as a structural material. This paper mainly focuses on review of artificial light weight aggregate from cold bonding and sintering methods and how these methods affect the concrete properties. From different studies, it is concluded that Cold bonding is an energy saving method and Sintered sludge pellets have a stronger aggregate strength, larger porosity, and lower aggregate density than cold bonded aggregates, exhibiting qualities that are superior to those required of building aggregates. Sustainable development is indeed achievable in this developing era and lightweight aggregate in construction sector is key to achieve this.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2774
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Study on behavior of concrete encased composite columns under axial load

    • Authors: Devika Santhosh, P. Lakshmi
      Abstract: A Concrete encased steel (CES) composite column is an alternative to pure steel reinforced column. The application of such columns can be found in basement construction and metro railway stations. In this study, structural behavior of both partially encased composite (PEC) column and fully encased composite column (FEC) were investigated. A total of 12 specimens of partially encased steel composite column and fully encased composite column were analyzed. Analysis of columns was done in Ansys workbench. Steel profile used in the columns is H-section and cruciform section. The effects of some key parameters such as steel contribution ratio, end condition, and thickness of steel profiles on the performance of proposed column sections were investigated in terms of load-deformation relationship and strain behavior. Partially encased composite columns are found to be most efficient compared to fully encased composite columns. Flange thickness has a greater influence on load carrying capacity of the composite columns.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2766
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Soil stabilization using micro silica

    • Authors: R.S. Muralitharan, S. Sowmya Ramani, G. Madhumita, M. Srinivasan
      Abstract: Soil can make or break the structures. The ability of any soil depends on its properties. Soil stabilization in a broader sense, incorporates various methods employed for modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance. This project deals with the usage of micro silica for stabilization of a hilly soil sample. An attempt has been made to stabilize the soil sample with an addition of 10% of micro silica. The properties of soil have been tested for its shear strength, compressive strength, etc. And the results have been found to be productive. Keywords: casagrande apparatus, direct shear test, compressive strength test, specific gravity.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2764
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Laboratory investigations on bituminous concrete mixtures utilizing
           foundry sand

    • Authors: Chavan Ravishankar, M.S. Nagakumar
      Abstract: Foundry sand is a byproduct of the molding industry, produced during the molding and core-making production processes. Sands are reused several times before being discarded. This research work reports the effect of foundry sand (FS) mineral filler (MF) aggregate on characteristics of bituminous concrete grading-2 (BC-2) mixtures and compares the test results with the traditional BC-2 mixtures. The Marshall mixture design method is adopted to assess the optimal bitumen content at 4% air voids for bituminous concrete grading-2 specimens prepared using 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 percent FSMF (Foundry Sand Mineral Filler) content. Split tensile strength test and water resistivity test were conducted to study the performance characteristics of
      BC-2 mixes. Laboratory test results showed that by increasing percentage of foundry sand mineral filler (FSMF) aggregate in bituminous grading – 2 mixtures, stability, split tensile strength, and moisture resistance augmented.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2762
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Hybrid offshore wave energy platform

    • Authors: Sahil Thakur
      Abstract: Ocean waves are the greatest unexploited renewable energy resource which would reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. It can be harnessed throughout the year using a hybrid offshore platform. In this paper, hybrid offshore wave energy platform and its working principle, is explained explicitly. These devices when use independently are found to be not very efficient in terms of generating energy in a given time when compared to the resources used in establishing them. This in turn discourages the investments which can be made in them. This paper addresses the above issue and provides a solution with the use of hybrid offshore platforms as a step towards exploiting open seawater in a sustainable way to generate energy in a much more efficient way. Combining multiple renewable energy devices in such a manner could potentially offer stable electricity production, despite seasonal changes. The hybrid offshore platforms are conceptual and are undergoing R&D or are in the pre-commercial prototype and demonstration stage. This paper aims to discuss about one such innovative design for a hybrid offshore platform and assess the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of constructing such a platform.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2759
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Particle board using rice husk and coconut fibre

    • Authors: Ajay Chandran, Althaf Ismail, Bestin Charles, Thejal Tom
      Abstract: Particle boards are one of the primary products used in buildings and furniture sectors. These materials are manufactured under pressure, by combining wood particles and other lignocellulosic fibrous materials by using an adhesive. The extensive use of particle boards can add to the economic advantage of low-cost wood raw material, inexpensive agents and, simple processing. For the manufacturing of particle boards based on renewable resources, the search for lignocellulosic substitutes for wood is one of the biggest challenges that the wood industry is facing. In this project, particle boards were made using rice husk and coconut fibre, as a substitute for wood. Rice husk is the hard-protective shell of grains, obtained from rice mill.  Coconut fibre is the natural fibre extracted from the coconut husk. Three boards of different coconut fibre content (15%, 20%, and 25%) were casted. The coconut fibre and rice husk were exposed to Alkali Treatment to make the fibre free from hydrophobic substances. They were then processed into particle board using poly-ester resin as binder. The effect of fibre content on Density, Water Absorption (WA), Thickness Swelling (TS), Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) were analyzed. This investigation appears as a better solution for environmental problems associated with wastes and it is economical to use for the manufacturing of composite fibre boards.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2757
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Seismic performance of RC frame retrofitted using steel bracing.

    • Authors: Arya Viji, Sunitha Daniel, Afia S. Haamed
      Abstract: High rise buildings which are very common nowadays are subjected to problems due to lateral loads. Due to lateral loads like wind, earthquake etc. the structural stability of the structure is reduced. The lateral loads produce sway moment and induce high stresses in the structure. In order to reduce these effects of lateral loads bracings are efficient and effective. Bracings can be used for seismic retrofitting due to their high stiffness. Retrofitting approaches can be used to improve the seismic performance of the existing structures, before that are subjected to an earthquake. There are two retrofitting approaches, first is to add a new structural element like steel braces or shear wall and second is to provide concrete or steel jacketing. In this work steel bracings are used to retrofit the structure and they are provided in both concentric and eccentric manner. The main aim of the work is to analyze the performance of the building when the bracings are provided in eccentric manner. This study also focuses on performance of building with mega braced frame. Braced frames reduce lateral displacement and the bending moment in columns. Steel bracing is economical, easy to erect, occupies less space and has flexibility to design for meeting the required strength and stiffness. Different types of bracing such as V bracing, X bracing and diagonal bracing are provided. Seismic analysis is done using ETABS software. Keywords— Steel bracing, ETABS, Seismic analysis
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2767
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Carbon footprint levels and recommendations for sustainable shipping

    • Authors: V.P. Arya, Akshara Priya Vinod, Satheesh Babu P.K
      Abstract: Maritime transportation account for the most efficient and economic transportation of goods across the globe but many environmental impacts are to be considered. According to the latest International Maritime Organization (IMO) reports, maritime transportation accounts for 2-3% of all global greenhouse gas emissions. IMO has recommended bringing down 50% of these emission levels by 2050. This has created a greater demand among shipbuilders and industry to adopt sustainable methods that can reduce carbon emissions. This study aims at bringing a sustainable alternative approach that can be implemented in the shipping industry to bring down carbon emissions. Carbon footprint (CF) is the tool used here to study the sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their quantities. Analysis of carbon footprint during each stage of the ship’s lifecycle is carried out and alternative approaches are implemented at three levels. The first approach is applied on operation level, second on type of fuel used, and third on powering. The result shows that streamlining the ship’s hull brings a 1% reduction in total carbon emission. Switching from fossil fuel to biofuel and renewable fuel shows a significant reduction in GHGs, also renewable alternatives are highly effective and go at pace with environmental sustainability. Reducing the shipping speed and slow steaming can bring down two-third of the total carbon emission. Electric propulsion not only serves as a reduction in carbon intensity but also has immense potential for future developments.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2765
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Experimental Investigation on Pervious concrete with Metakaolin

    • Authors: Aaliya Navaz, Anju Paul
      Abstract: Pervious concrete is a type of light weight porous concrete with no fine or with small percentage of fine aggregate. It is generally used for flatwork applications, which allows water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing the runoff from a site and allowing ground water recharge. This study aims to experimentally investigate the mechanical and hydraulic properties of pervious concrete with different replacement levels of metakaolin. Pervious concrete for pavement applications having a porosity of 20-25% with cement-aggregate ratio of 1:4 and w/c ratio of 0.36 is established based on permeability, porosity and strength parameters.  Metakaolin were incorporated in pervious concrete by replacing cement at 5%, 10% and 15% by weight of cement which helps in increasing the mechanical properties of pervious concrete. The strength parameters increased about 12.24%, 23.95%, 13.97% for compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength respectively for 10% metakaolin replacement and hydraulic properties decreased as the percentage of metakaolin increased.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2761
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Numerical analysis of cement panels reinforced with galvanized iron or
           polypropylene meshes

    • Authors: Sherry Rose Jose, Job Thomas
      Abstract: This paper deals with the numerical analysis of panels reinforced with galvanized iron (GI) or polypropylene (PP) meshes. It has been a common practice to use galvanized iron meshes as reinforcement in panels and is popularly called as ferrocement panels. Elevated humidity level and presence of salts can lead to corrosion of these galvanized iron meshes, leading to reduced service life. A rust-freepolypropylene mesh can be used as an alternate to the steel mesh. This paper presents numerical analysis in ANSYS Workbench based on an experimental study published in the literature” Comparative study of ferrocement panels reinforced with galvanized iron and polypropylene meshes”. A total of 16 rectangular panels tested in flexure was analyzed. Out of 16 panels, 8 were reinforced with GI mesh and 8 with PP mesh. The specimens were simply supported on two short edges and subjected to four-point bending. The parameters investigated include thickness of panels, volume fraction and the material of the mesh. All the GI mesh panels showed better strength than the corresponding PP mesh reinforcedcement panels. However, PP mesh panels exhibited better ductility as compared to GI mesh panels. An increase of 54% is noticed in 40mm thick panels reinforced with GI mesh, when compared to 20mm thick panels. Similarly, an increase of 83% is noticed in 40mm thick panels reinforced with PP mesh, when compared to 20mm thick panels. The results of numerical analysis were found to be comparable with the corresponding experimental results.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2758
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sustainable shipping through alternate fuels and renewable technology

    • Authors: Jishnu S. Sarma, Athul Vinod, Ann Mary, Sunil Kumar P.G.
      Abstract: The present use of fossil fuels for maritime applications is environmentally disastrous, and calls for decarbonization processes. A shift from existing energy technologies is essential since they prove to be an inefficient methodology toward carbon free environment. This necessitates the need of alternate ideology for achieving the same. Maritime authorities such as International Maritime Organization (IMO) in conjunction with classification societies like Det Norske Veritas (DNV GL), American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Bureau Veritas (BV), Lloyd’s Register (LR) etc. work on various techniques to bring out efficient strategies to create a possible outlook. The 75th session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO stipulatesa 50% reduction of GHGs, to be achieved by 2050 through sustainable shipping compared to 2008. The latest mandate by regulatory agencies is the stepping stone towards sustainable shipping across the globe. The focus has now deviated to renewable energy alternatives such as solar energy, wind energy, zero emission fuels etc, with the ultimate goal of developing a ship into a sustainable entity, which would not only comply with the new environmental regulations but would also result in least possible carbon emissions. India’s first solar ferry Aditya, wind propelled ship developed by Wallenium Marine etc are the leading milestones in sustainable shipping. Along with alternate fuels, efficient design alternatives like cross bow, hull vane, flettner rotor etc contribute to energy efficient operation. Various researches are in progress around the globe to develop more and more efficient technologies to accomplish the targets.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.7770/safer-V12N1-art2763
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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