Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 963 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (662 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (662 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
RURALS : Review of Undergraduate Research in Agricultural and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SAARC Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Science and Technology Indonesia     Open Access  
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Agricola     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Seed Science Research     Hybrid Journal  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Semiárida     Open Access  
Siembra     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Smart Agricultural Technology     Open Access  
Social & Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Economic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stiinta Agricola     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Tropical Technology Journal     Open Access  
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weed Biology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weed Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Welwitschia International Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World's Poultry Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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  • Prevalence of subclinical abortions in cows due to mycotoxicosis

    • Authors: O. M. Chekan
      Pages: 3 - 7
      Abstract: The article presents data on the distribution and seasonal dynamics of subclinical abortions in cows with mycotoxin poisoning, particularly zearalenone. Subclinical abortion is a common phenomenon among cows in dairy farms and causes significant economic losses due to multiple unsuccessful inseminations, reduced animal productivity, and premature culling. The research aimed to study the seasonal fluctuations of hidden abortions in cows and the influence of the method of keeping in the conditions of feed contamination with microscopic fungi and their toxins. To diagnose hidden abortions, cows were diagnosed with the pregnancy on the 32nd day after insemination. When pregnancy was confirmed, the animals were examined for 92 days. At the same time, if the pregnancy was not confirmed, it was considered that an abortion had occurred. Seasonal fluctuations of subclinical abortions were established - the most significant number (up to 13.6 %) was diagnosed at the end of spring, associated with many animals entering the hunt after the transit period. It is also important that at that time, the number of mycotoxins in feed reached record values, which led to abortions due to toxic effects on the organs of the reproductive system in particular and the body in general. A large number of abortions (11.2 %) in the summer season was also confirmed. At the same time, animals kept free all year received a similar diet containing mycotoxins. At the same time, a concomitant negative factor was temperature shock at this time of year. This whole complex of reasons led to subclinical abortions followed by the resorption of the fetus. Sonographically, areas of reduced echogenicity of the uterus in cows after abortions were detected, which is evidence of the development of subclinical endometritis, confirmed by the uterus's heterogeneous echogenicity. In infertile animals, the presence of follicles with cavities and small yellow bodies that did not extend beyond the surface of the ovary was established sonographically. This indicates a hypofunctional state and impaired folliculogenesis and luteogenesis.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.01
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Pharmacological evaluation and preclinical studies of hypochlorous acid

    • Authors: O. M. Brezvyn, I. Ya. Kotsiumbas, O. B. Velichenko, O. B. Shmychkova, T. V. Luk'yanenko, D. V. Girenko, L. V. Dmitrikova
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: The article presents materials on the electrochemical synthesis of hypochlorous acid and its pharmacological and toxicological evaluation. In the market of veterinary drugs, special attention has been paid to long-known, potent detoxifying antimicrobial agents based on active oxygen obtained by the electrolysis method. In addition to a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action, such drugs have several other advantages, especially the biogenic nature, which causes the absence of allergic reactions. New electrocatalysts were proposed for the electrochemical synthesis of hypochlorous acid, which was produced according to the following method using a combined electrochemical-pyrolytic method. VT1-0 technical titanium was used as a current collector. The current collectors were subjected to several preliminary preparation steps, such as NaOH degreasing and etching in 6 M HCl. Initial nanotubes were obtained by anodizing Ti foil in ethylene glycol with 0.3 wt.% ammonium fluoride and 2 vol.% water for 4 hours. The electrochemical reduction was carried out in 1 M HClO4 by cathodic polarization for 1 hour. Later, a thin discontinuous layer of platinum or consecutive layers of platinum-palladium were applied to the base by electrodeposition. Nitrite electrolytes for platinization and phosphate-palladation were used for this purpose. Depending on the task, platinum, and palladium on the ground's surface varied from 0.1 to 2.0 mg/cm2. The obtained material was heat-treated in an air atmosphere. At this stage, the surface layers of composites were formed due to the oxidation of the base and encapsulation of platinum and palladium particles in titanium oxide. It was established that the solution of hypochlorous acid, obtained by the electrolysis method, is a low-hazard substance that belongs to the fourth class of toxicity. Its half-lethal dose (DL50) is not determined. The fact that, in nature, hypochlorite acid is formed by granulocytes of neutrophils involved in the last link of phagocytosis confirms that the resulting solution is low-toxic, environmentally safe, and incapable of causing side effects and distant consequences. The obtained results proved the perspective of using new technology for producing hypochlorite acid for veterinary medicine; its development is highly relevant, clinically expedient, and economically justified.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.02
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effects of leonardite and lignite on blood parameters in rats exposed to
           lead acetate

    • Authors: M. Varava
      Pages: 14 - 18
      Abstract: The study aimed to research in vivo changes in the hematological and biochemical parameters of laboratory rats' blood when they were continuously exposed to a moderate dose of lead acetate while receiving humic feed additives made of leonardite and lignite. Two-month-old white rats were used to assess the detoxifying properties of the humic compounds leonardite and lignite. The analog pair approach was used to create four groups of eight animals from 32 male laboratory rats for the study. Rats received a pre-meal injection of lead acetate at a dose of 7 mg/100 g of animal weight (1/110 LD50) using a veterinary feeding needle. By creating solutions from lignite and leonardite at a dosage of 18 and 25 mg/kg depending on the active ingredient, humic feed additives were supplied to animals. It has been demonstrated that lignite- and leonardite-based feed additives may affect the morphological parameters of lead acetate-treated rats' blood, including hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte, and platelet count. These parameters were very near to the levels of the intact rats, which suggests that these humic feed additives may have an anti-anemic impact. The effects of feed additives from leonardite and lignite on laboratory rats in groups that were also exposed to a toxic agent for all 21 days of the experiment led to the normalization of markers of the state of protein metabolism in the group of intact animals (serum protein, albumins, urea, creatinine), particularly activity of the enzyme’s aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. As one of the most crucial indicators of lipid metabolism together with cholesterol, the concentration of triglycerides was slightly lower in the humic substances treated groups than in the intact animals. It was discovered that using a feed supplement made from leonardite in a dosage of 18 mg/kg, which contained more fulvic acids than lignite, led to more favorable blood test results in the research group.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.03
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Microscopic fungi of wheat grain in the Polissya zone

    • Authors: D. M. Ostrovskiy, V. M. Zotsenko, V. A. Gryshko
      Pages: 19 - 25
      Abstract: The article presents the data on the quantitative and qualitative composition of micromycetes of wheat grain grown in the Polissya region. During the research period, an average of 2.88-104 ± 3.62-103 colony forming units (CFU) per 1 g of grain was found in wheat grain samples collected in the Polissya region. Twenty species of microscopic fungi belonging to 9 genera were isolated from the wheat grain of the Polissya zone. Among them were the genera Alternaria (92.5 %), Mucor (92.5 %), Aspergillus (83.0 %), Penicillium (47.2 %), Fusarium (60.4 %), Phoma (15,.1 %), Mycelia (15.1 %), Trichotecium (1.9 %) and Monascus (1.9 %) of the samples. Aspergillus niger (17.0 %), Aspergillus candidus (9.4 %), and Aspergillus terreus (1.9 %) were detected less frequently among Aspergillus. Fusarium spp. (17.0 %), Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium semitectum in (5.7 %), and Fusarium culmorum (3.8 %) of the samples were identified among Fusarium. A smaller number of microscopic fungi species represents the endophytic mycobiota of wheat grain. Among the isolates of micromycetes isolated from the Polissya zone, pure cultures were obtained from F. sporotrichiella var. tricinctum isolate 1218/4, and F. sporotrichiella isolate 1218/5. These isolates were atoxic against the test culture Candida pseudotropicalis strain 44 PC, but F. sporotrichiella var. tricinctum 1218/4 produced a growth retardation zone with Rf 0.05 and produced an unidentified trichothecene mycotoxin (TTMT). Among the isolated fungi, Aspergillus flavus isolate 1219/3 and Aspergillus flavus isolate 1221/1 were the first to produce kojic and aspergillic acids and the second to synthesize penicillic and aspergillic acids. To reduce the negative effect of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on the body of chickens of the meat and egg breed Adler Silver, the birds were fed the sorbent “Mikosorb”. It was found that when added to the diet, the sorbent “Mikosorb” in the amount of 2.0 % of the total feed weight reduces the negative effect of deoxynivalenol on the body of chickens of the experimental group. This was confirmed by a 12.0 % reduction in bird mortality. Feeding “Microsorb” in the amount of 2.0 % by weight of complete feed contributed to an increase in the average daily weight gain of poultry during the experiment by 5.43 % compared to the experimental group that consumed feed with the toxin deoxynivalenol (DON). During the experiment, the birds of the experimental group No. 2 consumed 28.91 kg of feed more than group No. 2. Feeding the sorbent “Mikosorb” in the amount of 2.0 % of the feed weight to chickens of the meat and egg breed Adler silver contributes to an increase in gross weight gain by 9.69 kg during the experiment. The use of “Mikosorb” in the technology of feeding chickens of experimental group No. 2 contributed to an increase in the profitability of poultry production by up to 12.0 % compared to poultry that consumed feed affected by DON toxin. After analyzing the scientific results from the literature and our research results, we concluded that the abovementioned studies on wheat grain should be carried out throughout Ukraine during harvesting and storage in warehouses or storages.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.04
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • A study on obesity and risk factors among leisure and polo horses in
           Kaduna State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Olumide Odunayo Akinniyi, Anthony Kojo Beku Sackey, Gabriel Enenche Ochube, Philip Wayuta Mshelia
      Pages: 26 - 29
      Abstract: Despite the growing concern about the impact of obesity on equine health, little information is available on equine obesity in Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity in leisure and polo horses as well as associated risk factors in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 116 horses were selected for the study, and the modified Henneke method (1–9 scale) was used to assess body condition scores, with animals having a score of ≥ 7 classified as obese. Information regarding age, breed, and sex was documented, while information regarding feeding and management was obtained from a structured questionnaire. Factors associated with obesity were assessed using logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of obesity in horses sampled was 12.1 % (14/116). The prevalence of obesity in leisure horses (21.4 %) was higher than in polo horses (3.3 %). Factors associated with increased odds of obesity were being a local breed of horse (18.6 %), being a stallion (21.4 %), horses not being exercised (66.7 %), horses tethered to a stake in the ground (23.2 %), and horses fed ad libitum on concentrates (21.4 %). Knowing the prevalence of obesity in this population and associated risk factors will enable optimal targeting of owner education regarding management strategies to reduce the prevalence of equine obesity, reducing the risk of conditions such as laminitis and insulin dysregulation.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.05
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Dynamics of acute-phase and endothelial reactions and immune complex
           formation during bone replacement with germanium-doped calcium-phosphate
           ceramics of bone fragment fractures in dogs

    • Authors: T. P. Todosiuk, M. V. Rublenko
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: Bone defects that occur with fragment fractures lead to an increase in the number of postoperative complications. Therefore, to restore the structure and function of the bone, there is a need for bone replacement, in particular doped calcium-phosphate ceramics. The purpose of the work is the biochemical assessment of acute-phase and endothelial reactions and immune complex formation during bone replacement with germanium-doped calcium-phosphate ceramics of bone fragment fractures in dogs. Dogs with fragment fractures of long tubular bones and plate osteosynthesis were included in the study. In the experimental group (n = 10), bone defects were replaced with germanium-doped calcium-phosphate ceramics (HА/β-TCP/l-Gе-700), in the control group (n = 10) – unalloyed (HА/β-TCP-700). Blood samples were taken after the injury and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 30th, and 60th days after osteosynthesis. Partial recovery of limb function in the experimental group was faster by 1.3 times (P < 0.001) and full by 1.2 times (P < 0.01) compared to the control. On the 60th day, in experimental animals, the defect was filled with a regenerate of high X-ray density without a periosteal reaction, while in the control animals, the bone regenerate did not have sufficient density with a significant periosteal reaction. In both groups, total protein and albumin content varied within the normal range. The activity of protein C on the 3rd day in the experimental group was 1.3 times higher (Р ˂ 0.001), and on the 7th day, it was twice as high (P ˂ 0.001) compared to the control group with normalization by the 14th day. The concentration of ceruloplasmin from the 7th day in the control animals was 1.1 times higher (Р ˂ 0.001) than in the experimental animals, with normalization in the latter by the 60th day. The level of small molecular circulating immune complexes (CIC) after the injury increased by 1.1 times (Р ˂ 0.001) and reached a peak in the control and experimental groups on the 14th day, with an increase in indicators by 2.1 and 1.4 times (Р ˂ 0.001), respectively, with normalization in the experimental group on the 60th day. The level of nitric oxide (NO) in the control group increased from the 7th to the 60th day, with a peak on the 30th day, and in the experimental group – from the 3rd to the 30th, with a peak on the seventh day. Osteoreplacement of fragment fractures of long tubular bones in dogs with calcium-phosphate ceramics doped with germanium is accompanied by a moderate level of the acute phase reaction and immune complex formation, an increase in the endothelial reaction and the anticoagulant potential of the blood, which contributes to a decrease in the intensity of the inflammatory-resorptive stage of reparative osteogenesis and an increase in its proliferative phase, which, respectively, accelerates the consolidation of fractures.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.06
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • The influence of piglet weight placed for rearing on their productive
           quality and efficiency of rearing

    • Authors: M. G. Povod, O. G. Mykhalko, О. O. Izhboldina, B. V. Gutyj, T. V. Verbelchuk, V. V. Borshchenko, V. V. Koberniuk
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: The article studied the effect of the initial weight of piglets when placed on rearing on their growth intensity, average daily feed consumption and feed conversion, cost indicators of the rearing process, and the cost structure of rearing piglets. It was established that an increase in the initial weight of piglets when placed on rearing by 1.1 kg caused a decrease in the rearing duration by 3.17 %, and when it increased above 8 kg by 15.81 %. At the same time, an increase in average daily gains by 1.76 % and 10.13 % and an increase in the weight of piglets when transferred to fattening was noted by 2.03 % and 2.63 %, respectively. At the same time, it caused a decrease in absolute growth by 1.46 and 7.28 %. With an increase in the weight of piglets when they were placed on rearing, their average daily feed consumption increased by 8.43 and 18.07 %, but feed conversion worsened by 5.43 % and 7.61 %. Feed consumption per piglet during the rearing period did not depend on the initial live weight during rearing. With an increase in the initial live weight of piglets in rearing above 7.0 and 8.0 kg, their value also increased by 6.22 and 19.88 %. Whereas, when transferred to fattening, the cost of one pig in all groups was almost equalized, although it exceeded the cost of animals with less than 7 kg of initial live weight by 2.28 and 2.36 %, respectively. At the same time, the cost of growing one head, on the contrary, decreased by 2.77 and 20.12 %, with an increase in the initial weight when setting up for growth. The cost of rearing piglets that weighed more than 8 kg at birth was 17.84 % lower than the counterparts whose initial weight at rearing was 7–8 kg and by 20.12 % compared to animals whose live weight at the beginning of rearing was less than 7 kg The cost of feed spent on growing one piglet and obtaining 1 kg of growth did not have a clear trend of dependence on the initial live weight of piglets on growing. The share of feed in the cost of rearing one piglet increased with an increase in the live weight of piglets by 2.33 and 9.41 %, while the costs of veterinary care did not depend on the weight of piglets at the beginning of rearing. The weight of piglets at the time of rearing had a probable influence of 14.2 % on the average daily growth but did not significantly affect the preservation of piglets and the cost of their rearing.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.07
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Comprehensive characteristics of rectal morphology in chickens with
           different types of autonomous regulation

    • Authors: A. M. Tybinka
      Pages: 44 - 55
      Abstract: The influence of typological features of autonomous regulation on the dimensions, structure, and blood supply of the rectum in chickens has been studied. The experimental group consisted of clinically healthy adult chickens of the Isa-Brown breed, divided into two groups using electrocardiography and variation pulsometry methods: chickens with sympathetic-tonic regulation and chickens with sympathetic-normotonic regulation. In each group, the length and diameter of the rectum, the branching of its arterial vessels, and the microscopic structure of the intestinal wall were examined. The corresponding artery provides the blood supply to the rectum, the branching of which showed no significant differences between the poultry groups. The peculiarities of autonomous regulation significantly influence the morphological structure of the intestinal wall’s mucous and muscular membranes. The serous membrane does not respond to these features. Chickens with sympathetic-tonic regulation (ST chickens) are characterized by a greater thickness of all indicated membranes and, consequently, the entire intestinal wall. Chickens with sympathetic-normotonic regulation (ST-NT chickens) have a greater thickness only in the muscular plate of the mucous membrane and its longitudinal layer. Regarding the quantity of collagen and elastic fibers, ST chickens dominate the mucous membrane’s crypt area, while ST-NT chickens dominate the muscular membrane. However, the density of connective tissue fibers in the mucous membrane is much lower than in the muscular one. The quantity and distribution of plasma cells have similar patterns in both groups. Specific morphometric compensation between two functionally related indicators is also an important aspect. In this case, larger values of one indicator are combined with smaller values of another. For example, a smaller diameter of the rectum in ST chickens is associated with its greater length; a smaller number of goblet cells on one villus corresponds to a larger area of their secretory section; a larger area of the nerve node of the intramuscular nerve plexus is combined with a smaller number of these nodes per 1 cm² of the intestinal wall. Thus, the structure of the rectum in chickens, adapting to the corresponding type of autonomous regulation, maintains the balance at the level of individual membranes and the entire intestinal wall.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.08
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Biochemical screening of Hisex brown cross chickens after multiple

    • Authors: T. S. Budnik, S. V. Guralska
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: It is impossible to imagine the epizootic well-being of poultry without immunoprophylaxis. Today, there are many vaccines to prevent infectious diseases in poultry. Our work aimed to determine how repeated vaccination affects the biochemical parameters of poultry serum. The post-vaccination changes in the protein, lipid, and enzyme metabolism of the poultry of the experimental group, which received repeated vaccine prophylaxis, are highlighted in the work. The obtained blood serum samples on the 1st, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 100th, and 120th days of the chickens' life were analyzed using a semi-automatic biochemical analyzer for the content of glucose, total protein, albumins, globulins, bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, and alpha-amylase activity, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamine transferase, and creatinine kinase. The conducted studies established an increase in indicators in the research group of 100-day-old chickens after the last vaccine prophylaxis complex compared to the control group, namely: hyperpotenemia by 8.6 %, hyperbilirubinemia by 19.6 %, hyperglycemia by 20.3 %, hyperenzymemia of alanine aminotransferase by 31 %, gamma glutamine transferase by 21.2 %, aspartate aminotransferase by 7.9 %, alpha-amylase by 3.9 %, alkaline phosphatase by 11.9 %, lactate dehydrogenase by 18.2 %. In connection with this, we can assume the stimulation of biochemical processes in the poultry's body against the background of vaccine prophylaxis.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.09
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Paratuberculosis Cases in the Livestock Industry in Nigeria: A Review

    • Authors: Samuel Ndakotsu Gana, Zigwai Gloria Kuyet, Hassan Jibril Abdurrahman
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Paratuberculosis, also known as Johne’s (Yo’-ness) disease, is a significant bacterial disease of large and small ruminants, including other animals, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Due to its impact on animal health and severe economic loss, the disease is recognized and reported in developed countries as a significant disease of livestock importance. The paper aims to review the current information about paratuberculosis in Nigeria. About 95 research articles were downloaded from various online journals databases such as Scopus, Google Scholar, Research Gate, PubMed, and CABI abstracts based on the following keywords: Johne’s disease, paratuberculosis, Africa, prevalence, Nigeria, report, occurrence, and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. In addition to the perusal of organization databases, 60 research articles were used in writing this review article. Few cases and suspected cases of paraTB were reported in Nigeria by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Despite growing global concerns, Johne's disease can be considered an unreported disease of livestock animals in Nigeria based on the knowledge gap and lack of reports about this significant disease of livestock animals. Studies need to be carried out to address the knowledge gaps before the disease becomes endemic and causes severe economic and public health menace in Nigeria and, by extension, Sub-Saharan Africa.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.10
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Biochemical, clinical manifestation of vitamin D deficiency in calves

    • Authors: І. P. Ligomina, V. M. Sokolyuk, I. M. Sokulskyi, B. V. Gutyj, V. B. Dukhnytskyi
      Pages: 68 - 75
      Abstract: Today, one of the priority tasks in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine is the creation of a highly productive, stable herd with a stable level of metabolism. A large load on the animal's body reveals high milk productivity; in connection with this, metabolic processes slow down, directly reducing milk productivity and requiring a balanced diet and high-quality feed. An increase in milk productivity is often directly related to metabolic disorders and the appearance of diseases, including the intensity of physiological and biochemical metabolic processes associated with converting a significant amount of energy and nutrients from feed into milk. Metabolic pathologies in animals can be caused by hereditary defects in the metabolism of nucleic acids, congenital insufficiency of enzymes responsible for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids, disorders of organic acid metabolism, fatty acid deficiency, etc. Timely diagnosis of rickets and rapid therapy in the initial period is essential in treatment because the earlier the diagnosis is made, the easier it is to treat the disease. This will lead to the termination of the further destructive process, the occurrence of bone deformations, and changes in internal organs. The article deals with the issue of vitamin D deficiency in young cattle from a modern perspective. Materials on the classification, etiology, and pathogenesis of vitamin D-deficient rickets in calves are covered. The role of vitamin D in the prevention of rickets and its importance for general animal health and welfare are summarized. It is noted that this disease's characteristic feature is mainly the course's hidden stages. Clinical symptoms of D-hypovitaminosis appear in the late stages of the disease when restoring the animal's health is impossible. The essence of the pathology is a violation of mineralization of the organic matrix of bone tissues (D-hypovitaminosis) or osteolysis of already formed structures. The work aimed to find out the distribution, etiology, biochemical and clinical manifestation of D-hypovitaminosis in calves in one of the farms of the northern districts of Zhytomyr region, which belongs to the natural-geographical zone of Zhytomyr Polissia. The material for the study was clinically healthy calves and calves with rickets aged 1–3 months. The conditions of keeping and feeding animals on the farm were studied. Diagnosis and spread of D-hypovitaminosis among calves 1–3 months old were carried out with the help of clinical and unique methods; first, preference was given to laboratory studies. Clinical manifestations are described, and laboratory features of the course of vitamin D deficiency in animals are presented. It has been established that vitamin D deficiency in calves is quite widespread on the farm. Thus, the subclinical (hidden) course was registered in 45.8 % of animals and the clinical – in 24.1 %. The disease was more often registered in the winter-spring period. The leading cause of the disease in calves is insufficient motor activity (hypodynamia) in the absence of insolation, as well as a low level of feeding: reduced provision of cholecalciferol (25.8 %), violation of the calcium-phosphorus ratio (2.7–4.2:1 versus 1.5–2.0:1), deficiency of microelements – cobalt, zinc, copper, the provision of which was, respectively, 57.6, 85.6 and 96.2 % of the need. Pathognomotic manifestations of the disease in calves are licking, allotriophagia, thickening of carpal joints, partial resorption of the last ribs and tail vertebrae, and loose teeth. Vitamin D deficiency prevents the efficient absorption of calcium and phosphorus in feed. With vitamin D deficiency, only 10–15 % of feed calcium and 50–60 % of phosphorus are absorbed. The most informative laboratory markers for diagnosing pathology are determining cholecalciferol content, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase activity, and its bone isoenzyme in blood serum.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.32718/ujvas6-2.11
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
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