Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 401 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Nuts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plant Stress Physiology     Open Access  
Journal of Population Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Resources Development and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Rural and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientific Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Review     Open Access  
Journal of Sugar Beet     Open Access  
Journal of Sugarcane Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University     Open Access  
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Vegetable Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agroekoteknologi     Open Access  
Jurnal AGROSAINS dan TEKNOLOGI     Open Access  
Jurnal Agrotek Tropika     Open Access  
Jurnal Agroteknologi     Open Access  
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian)     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Terapan Universitas Jambi : JIITUJ     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan Spermonde     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Pengabdi     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa dan Manajemen Agroindustri     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Tanah Tropika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Pertanian Lampung (Journal of Agricultural Engineering)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi & Industri Hasil Pertanian     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
La Granja : Revista de Ciencias de la Vida     Open Access  
La Técnica : Revista de las Agrociencias     Open Access  
Laimburg Journal     Open Access  
Landbohistorisk Tidsskrift     Open Access  
Landtechnik : Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Livestock Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Magazín Ruralidades y Territorialidades     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture     Open Access  
Margin The Journal of Applied Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Maskana     Open Access  
Measurement : Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Media, Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Meyve Bilimi     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Science     Open Access  
Millenium : Journal of Education, Technologies, and Health     Open Access  
Mind Culture and Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Molecular Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Mundo Agrario     Open Access  
Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Mycopath     Open Access  
Mycorrhiza     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
National Institute Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nativa     Open Access  
Nature Plants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
New Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nexo Agropecuario     Open Access  
Nigeria Agricultural Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NJAS : Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Open Agriculture Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Organic Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Organic Farming     Open Access  
OUSL Journal     Open Access  
Outlook on Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Outlooks on Pest Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Oxford Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Oxford Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Oxford Review of Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Parallax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Partners in Research for Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Pastura : Journal Of Tropical Forage Science     Open Access  
Pedobiologia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pedosphere     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)     Open Access  
Perspectivas Rurales Nueva Época     Open Access  
Pest Management Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Phytopathology Research     Open Access  
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Phenome Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Phenomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Potato Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practical Hydroponics and Greenhouses     Full-text available via subscription  
Precision Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
PRIMA : Journal of Community Empowering and Services     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Producción Agropecuaria y Desarrollo Sostenible     Open Access  
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal     Open Access  
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Progressive Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quaderns Agraris     Open Access  
Rafidain Journal of Science     Open Access  
Rangeland Ecology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rangelands     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Rangifer     Open Access  
Recent Research in Science and Technology     Open Access  
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Reproduction and Breeding     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
Research in Sierra Leone Studies : Weave     Open Access  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Review of Agrarian Studies     Open Access  
Revista Bio Ciencias     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Agropecuária Sustentável     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Tecnologia Agropecuária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología El Higo     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Investigaciones Agroindustriales     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencia Agrícola     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Agrário e Agroambiental     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación en Agroproducción Sustentable     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Altoandinas - Journal of High Andean Research     Open Access  
Revista de la Ciencia del Suelo y Nutricion Vegetal     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Competências Digitais para Agricultura Familiar     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de las Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologia Postcosecha     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Viticultura, Agroindustria y Ruralidad     Open Access  
Revista Ingeniería Agrícola     Open Access  
Revista Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Rurales     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access  
Revista Mundi Meio Ambiente e Agrárias     Open Access  
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Revista Universitaria del Caribe     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
RIA. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rice Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Rona Teknik Pertanian     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
RURALS : Review of Undergraduate Research in Agricultural and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SAARC Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Science and Technology Indonesia     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-3829 - ISSN (Online) 1861-3837
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Classification of weed using machine learning techniques: a
           review—challenges, current and future potential techniques

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      Abstract: Abstract Weed detection and classification are considered one of the most vital tools in identifying and recognizing plants in agricultural fields. Recently, machine learning techniques have been rapidly growing in the precision farming area related to plants, as well as weed detection and classification techniques. In digital agricultural analysis, these techniques have played and will continue to play a vital role in mitigating health, agricultural, and environmental impacts, improving sustainability, and reducing herbicides. Deep learning-based models are employed to solve the more sophisticated agricultural issues using individual CNN networks and hybrid models. Such models showed promising results. This paper highlights the major trends from the particular review of detection and classification approaches for weed plants. This review elaborates on the aspects of using traditional methods and deep learning-based methods to solve weed detection problems. It provides an overview of various methods for weed detection in recent years, analyzes the benefits and limitations of existing machine learning techniques, including deep learning techniques, and introduces several related plant leaves, weed datasets, and weeding machinery. Evaluation of the existing techniques has been compared, taking into account the real-world dataset used, images’ capacity, and shortcomings. Furthermore, this study helps to introduce the promising results and identify critically the remaining challenges in achieving robust weed detection, which could support noteworthy agricultural problems and assist researchers in the future. The significance of this study is to provide the potential techniques for solving illumination, overlapping, and occlusion issues of leafy plants, as well as other plant issues.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Design of a bistatic LIDAR system and simulating the performance for early
           detection of rice leaf blast from unmanned aircraft

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      Abstract: Abstract Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), also referred to as drones, are capable of autonomously accomplishing an increasing number of duties with basically greater efficiency compared to human involvement. The purposes of UAS researchers are to reinforce the safety levels, mission efficacy and autonomy, in addition to investigate supplementary capacities. Crop health monitoring is an encouraging application of UAS, since the early detection of plant diseases can increase classical crop monitoring methods (i.e. vision inspection) to assist timely alleviation, offering considerable benefits of crop yield and quality, correspondingly. This article introduces a proposed bistatic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) associated with UAS-based Electro-Optics/Infrared (EO/IR) system for early detection of crop diseases. The anomalies in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, which is above the crop canopy, potentially according to disruptions in the plant photosynthesis, are measured over extended observation periods by the proposed bistatic LIDAR system. In particular, this paper discusses the application of the bistatic LIDAR to the early detection of rice leaf blast (RLB) in rice paddy and presents the initial modelling and simulation activities performed to predict the sensor performance. The experimental activities will be conducted as the next stages based on the results of this analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Resistance evaluation of 43 Ethiopian wheat cultivars to crown rot caused
           by Fusarium pseudograminearum

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      Abstract: Abstract Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is the most devastative disease of wheat, causing substantial yield reductions and lowering grain quality by releasing mycotoxins that affect human and animal health. The utilization of genetically resistant cultivars is the most economic and effective method to tackle the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of 43 Ethiopian bread wheat cultivars to FCR at seedling and adult plant stages under greenhouse and field conditions. Based on disease index results, 25 cultivars (59.52%) showed resistance or moderate resistance in the 2019 and 2020 seedling stage experiments. In 2020 and 2021 field adult plant resistance evaluations, 71.42% of the cultivars were grouped into susceptible or highly susceptible. Generally, ten cultivars named Alidoro, Dashen, Dodota, Mekelle1, Mekelle2, Meraro, Ogalcho, Pavon-76, Simba, and Tossa showed consistent resistance or moderate resistance to FCR at seedling and adult plant stages tested in the greenhouse and at field conditions. The cultivars that showed consistent resistance or moderate resistance both at the seedling and adult stages can be considered valuable sources for improving FCR disease resistance for future breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Morphophysiological changes in clearfield oilseed rape as a result of the
           application of ALS-herbicides and weed competition

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      Abstract: Abstract The use of herbicides and weed competition can negatively affect crop yield. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eight ALS-inhibiting herbicides and weed competition on some morphophysiological traits of oilseed rape Hyola 571 CL to determine differential herbicide sensitivity and competition with weeds. Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized block design, with four replicates. Inexperiment I, imazethapyr, imazamox, imazapic+imazethapyr, imazapic+imazapyr, pyroxsulam, and nicosulfuron decreased the photosynthetic rate of oilseed rape at first, which was later recovered. On the other hand, metsulfuron-methyl demonstrated phytotoxicity in oilseed rape and caused a marked decrease in the evaluated morphological variables. In experiment II, altered morphophysiological traits of oilseed rape were observed, with decreasing values after imazamox application and in the presence of ryegrass and/or turnip. Imazamox reduced gas exchange values after seven days, which did not affect morphological traits of oilseed rape plants after 21 days. However, the competition of oilseed rape with ryegrass+turnip caused a drastic decrease in photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency, and morphological traits. Imazethapyr, imazamox, imazapic+imazethapyr, imazapic+imazapyr, pyroxsulam, and nicosulfuron should be studied in other cultivars but showed potential to be used in weed control in oilseed rape. Competition with ryegrass and turnip was more harmful to the oilseed rape than the initial phytotoxicity caused by the herbicide imazamox.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
       
  • Neopestalotiopsis clavispora: a causal agent of twig dieback on highbush
           blueberries in Serbia

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      Abstract: Abstract Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is becoming an important berry fruit in Serbian agriculture, and the areas under blueberries are rapidly expanding. Since 2011, blueberry bushes with the symptoms of twig dieback and shoot canker were noticed in four important producing regions in the country. To identify the causal agent, 40 symptomatic bushes from four districts were sampled and analyzed. Based on morphological characteristics, all analyzed isolates were preliminary identified as Neopestalotiopsis clavispora. Selected isolates were further characterized by sequence analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, and β-tubulin (TUB). Sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all isolates belong to N. clavispora. The pathogenicity tests on blueberry ‘Elliot’ confirmed that tested isolates were pathogenic. The detection of N. clavispora, a causal agent of twig dieback on blueberries in Serbia, is the first report of this pathogen in the country.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Digital plant pathology: a foundation and guide to modern agriculture

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      Abstract: Abstract Over the last 20 years, researchers in the field of digital plant pathology have chased the goal to implement sensors, machine learning and new technologies into knowledge-based methods for plant phenotyping and plant protection. However, the application of swiftly developing technologies has posed many challenges. Greenhouse and field applications are complex and differ in their study design requirements. Selecting a sensor type (e.g., thermography or hyperspectral imaging), sensor platform (e.g., rovers, unmanned aerial vehicles, or satellites), and the problem-specific spatial and temporal scale adds to the challenge as all pathosystems are unique and differ in their interactions and symptoms, or lack thereof. Adding host–pathogen–environment interactions across time and space increases the complexity even further. Large data sets are necessary to enable a deeper understanding of these interactions. Therefore, modern machine learning methods are developed to realize the fast data analysis of such complex data sets. This reduces not only human effort but also enables an objective data perusal. Especially deep learning approaches show a high potential to identify probable cohesive parameters during plant-pathogen-environment interactions. Unfortunately, the performance and reliability of developed methods are often doubted by the potential user. Gaining their trust is thus needed for real field applications. Linking biological causes to machine learning features and a clear communication, even for non-experts of such results, is a crucial task that will bridge the gap between theory and praxis of a newly developed application. Therefore, we suggest a global connection of experts and data as the basis for defining a common and goal-oriented research roadmap. Such high interconnectivity will likely increase the chances of swift, successful progress in research and practice. A coordination within international excellence clusters will be useful to reduce redundancy of research while supporting the creation and progress of complementary research. With this review, we would like to discuss past research, achievements, as well as recurring and new challenges. Having such a retrospect available, we will attempt to reveal future challenges and provide a possible direction elevating the next decade of research in digital plant pathology.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Generating single spore isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi for a better
           understanding of fungicide resistance mechanisms

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      Abstract: Abstract The generation of single spore isolates is usually the first approach to characterize plant fungal pathogens with respect to their specific resistance mechanisms to fungicides. The isolation procedure can be time-consuming and can carry the risk of contamination, but for fungal species with saprophytic growth (e.g., Zymoseptoria tritici) it is simple to perform in most cases. However, for biotrophic fungi such as Phakopsora pachyrhizi the situation is more difficult. This may be the reason why all published studies on fungicide resistance mechanisms of this fungus have been conducted with populations or monouredinial isolates. Monouredinial isolates, in contrast to single spore isolates, are generated from several spores of one uredinium, and thus, it is not ensured that these isolates are clones and therefore genetically identical. Since only dikaryotic uredospores of P. pachyrhizi have been found in the field so far, the mechanisms of fungicide resistance are more complex than for other pathogens. Therefore, the use of clones as a tool for further characterization is mandatory. We established a reliable method to generate single spore isolates of P. pachyrhizi and demonstrated that the isolates are clonal. For this verification, single spore isolates were used in detached leaf tests (DLTs) and treated with two demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) with different selection pattern. These isolates had different frequency values of three relevant mutations in CYP51. Additionally, a population was included in the DLT that represented a mixture of isolates with the respective CYP51 mutations under the detection limit (< 5%). In contrast to the population in which target site mutations were selected after DMI treatments in an expected manner, the single spore isolates showed no change in their mutation frequencies on untreated or treated leaves. This indicates that these isolates are genetically identical and thus valuable for further elucidation of the complex resistance mechanisms, especially against DMIs, in this fungal species.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Origin and potential for overwintering of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
           captured in an official survey in Germany

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      Abstract: Abstract Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a polyphagous plant pest organism causing serious damage on more than 300 fruit types. Although the medfly is present in Europe, it is so far not established in Germany. In the years 2015–2017, an official survey was conducted by the German Federal Plant Protection Organisations to elucidate the current occurrence of this organism in Germany. While in 2015 only small numbers of flies were captured in traps situated in all German Federal States, a peak of 188 specimens could be trapped in 2016 with a decline to 29 specimens in 2017. Highest abundance of the fruit fly was detected in Southern Germany and at a single spot east of Berlin. The present study aimed to identify the origin of the trapped fruit flies and to assess the general potential of the species for overwintering in Germany. Using two approaches with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), Sanger barcoding sequencing first and subsequent analysis of ten small simple repeat microsatellite loci from literature, the worldwide spread of C. capitata describing three phases could be retraced by analysing samples from Germany and 11 other countries. German and French populations were found to build the most recent stage of this species distribution. Specimens trapped in Germany obviously resulted from different introduction events. They most strongly resembled populations from France and Croatia but were not identical to these populations. We found strong evidence that specimens captured between 2016 and 2017 could not overwinter in Germany.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • Use of an abscisic acid-producing Bradyrhizobium japonicum isolate as
           biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia
           solanacearum

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      Abstract: Abstract Bacterial wilt disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a serious threat in agriculture that significantly reduces the production. The aim of the present investigation was to search for an effective biocontrol measure against bacterial wilt disease in tomato. The causative agent (bacterial wilt disease) isolated from infested tomato plants was identified as Ralstonia solanacearum BR-001. Ralstonia solanacearum is considered as one of the most dangerous plant pathogens globally due to its wide host range. The disease progression caused by R. solanacearum is very fast and difficult to control. Several strategies like mineral oil, lytic phages, and antimicrobial metabolites produced by different virulent bacterial strains and medicinal plants have been reported to control the infection/ wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum. However, it is difficult to control the progression once it enters the xylem tissue. Furthermore, R. solanacearum produces two different types of DNases which help the bacteria to escape from the plant defense system. We also have isolated 43 bacterial candidates from the rhizospheres of few unaffected tomato plants from the same field. Interestingly, one out of 43 candidates exhibiting efficacy against R. solanacearum BR-001 in-vivo was identified as Bradyrhizobium japonicum BRC 2485. But no isolate was found to control disease progression effectively during in-vitro condition. To understand the biocontrol potential of B. japonicum BRC 2485, an in-vivo comparative study was conducted with one Bradyrhizobium type strain (MTCC 120) and one Bradyrhizobium reference strain (MCC 2940). The experimental evidence suggests that the priming of tomato plants with B. japonicum BRC 2485 limits the multiplication of R. solanacearum BR-001 therein. The Bradyrhizobium strains were tested for the production of siderophores, ethylene, and abscisic acid (ABA). All the experimental Bradyrhizobium strains were found to be negative for siderophore production and positive for ethylene production. However, only B. japonicum BRC 2485 was found to produce ABA, which plays a major role in triggering induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a strain of B. japonicum with activity against bacterial wilt disease.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Improved detection and identification approach in tomato leaf disease
           using transformation and combination of transfer learning features

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      Abstract: Abstract Research in Artificial Intelligence has helped to achieve significant progress during the last decade, in various sectors. As concern agriculture, tomato is one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetables in the world because of its nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, this crop faces phytosanitary problems. This study contributes to the automatic Disease Detection and Identification (DDI) in tomato plants using neural networks. The proposed model performs the DDI of tomato from the images of tomato leaves or the videos from cameras installed in the plantation. The extraction of the tomato leaves images in the video was done using object recognition by RGB color. We extract the features from the images using transfer learning based on the pre-trained ResNet101 and ResNet152 models, and their classification is done by the multi-layer perceptron. To obtain better accuracy, the characteristics of our images were extracted at several levels from the pre-trained model. We observed that the recognition rate increased with the number of layers except for the last layer for which the accuracy was low. It was also observed that the replacement of the input vectors by the distance from the mean improved the results obtained in the literature. As a result of this work, we obtained an accuracy of 97.26% and 97.5% from transfer learning of the two pre-trained architectures and we improve these state-of-art results to 98.3% using fivefold with the concatenation of two mean deviation features extracted from ResNet101 and ResNet152. In terms of maximum accuracy, we obtained 98.9%. These results will be used to calibrate the automatic mobile camera system moving on rails.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Biocontrol efficacy of antagonistic and endophytic Streptomyces sp.
           against common scab disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Common scab disease in potatoes is caused by several Streptomyces spp. Although this disease does not affect the yield, it severely affects the marketability. Despite the implementation of many control strategies, efficient methods are still under debate owing to difficulty of usage, high-cost, ineffective, and non-persistence. Therefore, biological control methods are an attractive choice, especially in the field of organic potatoes. We investigated new antagonistic and endophytic Streptomyces sp. from medicinal plants. When this Streptomyces sp. strain 503 was co-cultured with a pathogen, it inhibited the production of spores or aerial mycelium of the pathogen, and the mycelial fragmentation was observed under a scanning electron microscope. In addition, strain 503 could completely inhibit the mycelia growth when the pathogen was introduced 3 days later. Strain 503 was identified as S. flavovirens, which is known to produce mureidomycin based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Mureidomycin is a bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis inhibitor, and thus, strain 503 has a role in arresting pathogen growth and causing cell burst by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, we confirmed the endophytic activity using a mCherry-tagged strain in the interior of plant stems and roots. In conclusion, because of its mode of action against pathogen and its ability as an endophyte, strain 503 could be a potential environment-friendly biocontrol agent in potato fields against common scab disease.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
       
  • Field evaluation of repellents against red palm weevil Rhynchophorus
           ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) through trap shutdown
           studies

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      Abstract: Abstract The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of palms in diverse agro-systems worldwide. We carried out four field trials in a date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L plantation in Al-Ghowaybah village of Alahsa, Saudi Arabia to screen 45 known insect repellents categorized based on boiling point into four groups (very low, low, medium and high) against R. ferrugineus by ascertaining the extent of reduction in weevil captures in food baited R. ferrugineus pheromone traps (trap shutdown) additionally emitting candidate repellents. Results indicate that the four high boiling repellents tumerone, vanillin, nepetalactone and cinnamic acid can collectively induce a high degree of stimulo-deterrence against R. ferrugineus, with a trap shutdown of 83.8%. These findings offer the possibility of using R. ferrugineus repellents to protect fresh injury sites on palms especially after frond and offshoot removal and also in devising a broader R. ferrugineus semiochemical mediated control strategy by deploying the above repellents as non-host volatiles in the field in conjunction with pheromone (ferrugineol) traps in area-wide push–pull R. ferrugineus control programs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • Efficacy evaluation of alternative pest control products against
           Drosophila suzukii in Austrian elderberry orchards

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      Abstract: Abstract Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a significant pest in soft fruits such as elderberries. Laying of eggs into fruits shortly before harvest results in fruit decay and quick collapse. Practically oriented field trials were set up in three commercial elderberry farms in Styria and Lower Austria from 2018 to 2020 to test alternative, sustainable pest control options. The effect of combinations of diatomaceous earth, paraffin oil, gum arabic, Ca(OH)2 and maltodextrin with wetting agents based on orange oil/alcohol ethoxylate, polyetherdimethylsiloxanes and terpene oligomers was compared to currently used conventional insecticide treatments (spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid) and to an untreated control. Three to five treatments per orchard were applied from the beginning of infestations until harvest. Microscopic analyses of the berries and visual inspections of the umbels allowed evaluation of oviposition, larval development and overall conditions of the umbels for the individual treatments. Diatomaceous earth combined with a wetting agent based on orange oil/alcohol ethoxylate had the most promising effect: the treatment significantly reduced oviposition, reduced instars in berries and improved the conditions of the umbels in all test years as compared to the control. Moreover, Ca(OH)2 and gum arabic combined with polyetherdimethylsiloxanes lead to a significant reduction of oviposition. Development of flies in the berries was identified as major cause for premature berry drop. These findings may provide a basis for the application of alternative control strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
       
  • Enhancing the performance of transferred efficientnet models in leaf
           image-based plant disease classification

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      Abstract: Abstract Plant-leaf diseases have become a significant threat to food security due to reducing the quantity and quality of agricultural products. Plant disease detection methods are commonly based on experience through manual observations of leaves. Developing fast, accurate, and automated techniques for identifying of crop diseases using computer vision and artificial intelligence (AI) can help overcome human shortcomings. In the current study, the EfficientNet architectures with pre-trained Noisy-Student weights were implemented using the transfer learning approach to classify leaf image-based healthy and diseased plant groups. The deep learning models were performed on the extended and enhanced PlantVillage datasets, consisting of leaf images of 14 different plant species, with background and augmented images. Early stopping and learning rate scheduler techniques were used to speed up learning and improve the efficiency of the training and testing process. The experimental results obtained on the two test sets showed that the EfficientNet-B3 and EfficientNet-B5 architectures achieved the highest performance metrics on the non-augmented and augmented datasets, respectively. The average testing accuracy of both models was up to 99.997% with good precision and sensitivity. The improved networks also revealed an excellent efficacy compared to several popularly convolutional neural networks in the literature, such as AlexNet, GoogleNet, VGGNet, ResNets, DenseNets, and MobileNets. Growingly, the enhanced artificial intelligence models may provide more powerful and practical solutions to the detection of plant-leaf diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • Plasmodiophora brassicae infection threshold—how many resting spores are
           required for generating clubroot galls on canola (Brassica napus)

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      Abstract: Abstract Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease of canola and other brassica crops. Recommending improved management strategies may be guided by an evolving understanding of host and pathogen biology. In order to better understand infection thresholds, clubroot-susceptible canola plants (cultivar Westar) were inoculated with resting spores of P. brassicae in a soil inoculation assay and a plant inoculation assay. In the soil inoculation assay, seven-day-old seedlings were transplanted into soil containing clubroot resting spores at a final concentration of each of the 10× serial dilutions from 1 to 1 × 106 spores/mL soil. In the plant inoculation assay, seven-day-old seedlings were inoculated with 1-µL aliquots of a resting spore suspension at a concentration of each of the 10× serial dilutions from 1 × 103 to 1 × 107 spores/mL, and after 48 h, the inoculated seedlings were transplanted into soil. After 42 days, clubroot development, incidence and severity were visually assessed. From the soil inoculation assay, clubroot was observed to establish in the soil containing as low as 1 spore/mL soil of resting spores. From the plant inoculation assay, very low clubroot incidence was observed when the plants were inoculated with ≤ 100 resting spores total. Our results indicated the urgent need for more sensitive methods of clubroot diagnosis and emphasized the difficulty of the creation of P. brassicae single-spore isolates.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Protective and curative activity of biogenic copper oxide nanoparticles
           against Alternaria blight disease in oilseed crops: a review

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      Abstract: Abstract Alternaria blight of oilseed Brassica crop is most widespread disease caused by necrotrophic ascomycetes fungus such as Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola which cause huge economic loss. Among large reasons, the key reason for Alternaria blight infection is due to nutrients deficiency such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), sulfur (S) and potassium (K). Thus, B. juncea requires different nutrients for improving its health and capability to resist the disease. Since the use of agrochemicals and fungicides is not much efficient, fungal pathogens develop resistance and fungicides have large side effects on human and soil health, there is a need to screen biocidal agents developed through newly advanced and innovative technology known as nanotechnology. Enormous reports have recommended the use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) for disease management such as titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2), iron oxide NPs (Fe3O4), zinc oxide NPs (ZnO NPs), cerium oxide (CeO2) and copper oxide NPs (CuO NPs). Among these, biogenic CuO NPs synthesized from different species of Trichoderma can be considered as promising and most efficient antifungal agent against Alternaria blight. Due to some specific properties, nanoparticles have been used for agricultural needs, among which CuO NPs have special feature as they activate defense system of plants and inhibit spore germination of phytopathogens. The cost effective synthesis and novel properties of CuO NPs makes them an alternative to copper fungicides. Therefore, the following review summarizes an insight into the proposed mechanism of CuO NPs as a protective and curative agent for Alternaria blight disease management. The biogenic CuO NPs monitor the disease development and its control by two methods. One is preventive method in which CuO NPs retard the growth of Alternaria brassicae on susceptible leaf tissues, thus preventing the Alternaria blight, while in another method, CuO NPs act as a curative medicine which kills the pathogen by releasing Alternaria inhibiting compounds and helps in transportation of these compounds at the site of infection. Hence, the current review focused on the properties of CuO NPs for their biocontrol efficacy against Alternaria blight through in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Plant responses upon infection with Verticillium longisporum O1 and
           Verticillium isaacii Vt305: a histochemical study in cauliflower and
           broccoli

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      Abstract: Abstract Variation in life styles occurs in the fungal genus Verticillium. Verticillium longisporum causes diseases on several brassicaceous crops, including cauliflower, but has not been observed causing damage in broccoli. Verticillium isaacii has been frequently isolated from fields of horticultural crops, but the majority of the isolates has exhibited little or no pathogenicity to most of these crops. To broaden the knowledge on plant responses to Verticillium isolates with different life styles on different hosts, we conducted a histochemical study in the stems of cauliflower and broccoli upon infection with the isolates V. longisporum O1 and V. isaacii Vt305, a pathogen and an endophyte in cauliflower, respectively. Vascular occlusions and accumulation of phenolic compounds occurred in stems of both cauliflower (‘susceptible’ host) and broccoli (‘resistant’ host) plants upon infection with the isolate V. longisporum O1. However, such responses were clearly more abundant in cauliflower than in broccoli. Furthermore, in cauliflower plants, V. longisporum O1 altered the xylem structure: proportionally to other cell types, more xylem parenchyma cells were observed in infected plants than in control plants. None of these responses or any other response occurred in cauliflower and broccoli plants inoculated with the isolate V. isaacii Vt305, suggesting a completely different type of interaction compared to the interaction between V. longisporum O1 and the same hosts.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Effect of hellebore (Helleborus odorus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd.) plant
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Plant extracts have been used as pest control tools for years, whole or as the basic element in developed insecticides. Helleborus odorus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd (Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae) extract exhibits pharmaceutical and other properties, but its potential insecticidal property has not been sufficiently investigated. In the present study, H. odorus plant extract was examined as a potential insect-pest control agent for the first time. Insecticidal activity was evaluated against larvae of major beetle pests (Prostephanus truncatus Horn, Sitophilus oryzae L., Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Rhyzopertha dominica F., and Trogoderma granarium Everts) infesting grains, and mortality was recorded in relation to plant extract dosage and duration time of insects’ exposure. Significantly fewer offspring was produced by treated individuals compared to the control. The efficacy of treatment in progeny suppression was also concentration and time dependent. Application of the extract of H. odorus clearly demonstrated remarkable insecticidal action when applied to larval beetle individuals, which was increasing with application dose and exposure time. Our results are discussed on the basis of enhancing the use of H. odorus as pest control agent, in the framework of eco-friendly pest management.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Exogenous application of coat protein-specific dsRNA inhibits cognate
           cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) of ghost pepper

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      Abstract: Abstract Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is the major virus infecting ghost pepper (interspecific hybrid between Capsicum chinense and C. frutescens) that causes considerable yield losses. We hypothesized that the exogenously applied double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in plants can mimic the viral RNA gene that facilitates in-planta virus replication and trigger post-transcriptional gene silencing via the RNAi pathway. The specific objectives of this study were to develop a dsRNA construct for CMV resistance in ghost pepper and to conduct a proof-of-concept study on CMV silencing in ghost pepper using exogenously applied dsRNA targeting the CMV coat protein (CP). CMV-infected leaf samples were collected from ghost pepper fields and CMV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR. In vivo production of dsRNA was successful in E.coli with the use of T7 RNA polymerase. To investigate resistance induction against CMV, crude extracts of dsRNA derived from CMV-CP gene (dsRNA_ CMV-CP) expressed in E. coli were exogenously applied with CMV onto healthy ghost pepper plants and compared with plants inoculated with CMV alone. Exogenously applied dsRNA on leaves inhibited CMV severity on ghost pepper plants relative to plants inoculated with CMV alone. Thus, exogenous application of dsRNA molecules derived from CMV CP gene can be a novel tool to suppress CMV and improve yield in these peppers.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Molecular delineation of a phytoplasma representative of the novel
           16SrVII-G subgroup found in citrus trees with huanglongbing symptoms

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      Abstract: Abstract Leaf symptoms of chlorosis and blotchy mottling, typically associated with agents of huanglongbing, were found in commercial citrus orchard located in the state of São Paulo, the main citrus producer region in Brazil. Affected trees tested negative for bacteria ‘Ca. Liberibacter americanus’ and ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’. So, the total DNA was submitted to nested PCR employing the primer pairs P1/Tint followed by R16F2n/R16R2. Genomic fragments of 1.2 kb were amplified, sequenced and analyzed by computer-simulated RFLP, which confirmed the presence of a 16SrVII phytoplasma in symptomatic plants. Collective restriction patterns allowed distinguish the detected phytoplasma from all other members of the 16SrVII group using enzymes BfaI and MseI. In addition, the citrus phytoplasma showed a similarity coefficient lower than 0.97, when compared with all representative strains of subgroups within of the 16SrVII group, characterizing, therefore, a new subgroup. In agreement, the phylogenetic tree displayed that this strain emerges from a distinct branch in relation to those 16SrVII phytoplasmas currently described. Based on these features, the strain identified in the present study may be delineated as a new phytoplasma representative of the novel 16SrVII-G subgroup. Moreover, the results implicate citrus as a new host for a phytoplasma belonging to the group 16SrVII.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
 
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