Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
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    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Science and Technology Indonesia     Open Access  
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Agricola     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Seed Science Research     Hybrid Journal  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Semiárida     Open Access  
Siembra     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Smart Agricultural Technology     Open Access  
Social & Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Economic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stiinta Agricola     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Tropical Technology Journal     Open Access  
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access  
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Weed Biology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weed Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World's Poultry Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Translational Animal Science
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2573-2102
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • Beef Quality Assurance national rancher survey: program participation,
           best management practices, and motivations for joining future
           sustainability programs

    • Abstract: AbstractTill date, with over 137,000 certified members, the most successful rancher educational program has been the Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) program. The BQA program was established in the mid-1990’s to improve animal health and welfare with a primary objective to reduce the incidence of injection site lesions by instructing producers to administer injections in the neck only. The present study investigated the drivers of this success to inform future rancher education programs around agricultural sustainability. An online multistate survey was administered to cattle ranchers in collaboration with state cattlemen’s associations to better understand rancher motivations for adopting new practices and to gain insight on current involvement in BQA. In total, the survey consisted of 45 questions and was divided into 3 sections: (1) rancher demographics, (2) BQA participation and current best management practice (BMP) application, and (3) willingness to join new rancher educational programs. Data from 842 respondents are including in this study. Of the survey participants, 70% were currently BQA certified or had been BQA certified at one time, and 30% had never been certified. Ranchers who were BQA certified at any time were less likely to administer injections in areas other than the neck compared to ranchers who were not certified (P < 0.05), demonstrating the effectiveness of the BQA program. More than 80% of survey respondents who joined the BQA program stated they believed the BQA program improved animal health and welfare on their operation (n = 617). Among those who had not joined the BQA program, 40% believed BQA practices did not align with their ranching operation, while 38% had not heard of the BQA program (n = 256). The survey indicated that male ranchers, those with more years ranching, those with a larger percent of income coming from ranching, and ranches with larger total acres grazed were more likely to be BQA certified at any time (P < 0.05). Finally, ranchers who were BQA certified at any time were more likely to state that joining a rancher sustainability program would be beneficial to their operation. In conclusion, not only did the survey provide valuable insight into BQA program adoption but highlighted how BQA pedagogy and program structure may be a suitable framework for creating future rancher sustainability programs.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac094
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The effects of varying levels of trace mineral supplementation on
           performance, carcass characteristics, mineral balance, and antibody
           concentrations in feedlot cattle

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of increasing trace mineral (TM) supplementation on finishing cattle performance, carcass characteristics, TM balance, and antibody concentrations. Commercial Angus steers (n = 240; body weight, BW = 291 kg ± 27.4) were stratified by arrival BW and source and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a randomized complete block design (12 pens/treatment; 5 steers/pen). All steers underwent a TM depletion period for a minimum of 42-d prior to the administration experimental treatments. Treatments included a negative control (CON) in which cattle received no additional TM supplementation or TM supplementation treatments in which cattle received added Co, Cu, I, Mn, Se, or Zn from inorganic TM sources at 2016 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (NASEM) requirement levels (1X), at 2 times NASEM requirements (2X), or at 4 times NASEM requirements (4X). Selenium was included at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/kg for 1X, 2X, and 4X respectively, based on federal law. There was no difference in overall BW, average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), or gain to feed (G:F) due to TM supplementation (CON vs. SUPP P ≥ 0.47). There was no difference in hot carcass weight, rib eye area, fat thickness, dressing percentage, marbling score, or USDA Yield Grade due to TM supplementation (CON vs. SUPP P ≥ 0.30). One steer was chosen at random from each pen to be evaluated for serum and liver TM status and antibody concentrations to common respiratory viruses. There was a treatment × day interaction for serum Co and liver Cu and Se (P < 0.0001). Serum Co was greatest for the 4X treatment from d 28 through harvest. Liver Cu was greatest for the 2X and 4X treatments from d 56 through harvest. Liver Se was greatest for 2X and 4X from d 28 through harvest. Serum Zn was greatest for the 4X treatment (P = 0.02). There was an effect of day on liver Co, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn (P ≤ 0.0001) and serum Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn (P ≤ 0.002). Concentrations for individual TM had different trends over time, however, all reported values were within normal ranges. There was an effect of time on bovine viral diarrhea virus Type 1A, bovine herpesvirus type 1, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus antibody concentrations (P ≤ 0.0001). Supplementation of TM above NASEM requirements did not affect overall cattle performance, carcass characteristics, or antibody concentrations, but did affect the storage and circulation of certain TM.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac093
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Effects of calcium-magnesium carbonate and calcium-magnesium hydroxide as
           supplemental sources of magnesium on ruminal microbiome

    • Abstract: AbstractOur objective was to evaluate the inclusion of calcium-magnesium carbonate [CaMg(CO3)2] and calcium-magnesium hydroxide [CaMg(OH)4] in corn silage-based diets and their impact on ruminal microbiome. Our previous work showed a lower pH and molar proportion of butyrate from diets supplemented with [CaMg(CO3)2] compared to [CaMg(OH)4]; therefore, we hypothesized that ruminal microbiome would be affected by Mg source. Four continuous culture fermenters were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square with the following treatments defined by the supplemental source of Mg: 1) Control (100% MgO, plus sodium sesquicarbonate as a buffer); 2) CO3 [100% CaMg(CO3)2]; 3) OH [100% CaMg(OH)4]; and 4) CO3/OH [50% Mg from CaMg(CO3)2, 50% Mg from CaMg(OH)4]. Diet nutrient concentration was held constant across treatments (16% CP, 30% NDF, 1.66 MCal NEl/kg, 0.67% Ca, and 0.25% Mg). We conducted four fermentation periods of 10 d, with the last 3 d for collection of samples of solid and liquid digesta effluents for DNA extraction. Overall, 16 solid and 16 liquid samples were analyzed by amplification of the V4 variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA. Data were analyzed with R and SAS to determine treatment effects on taxa relative abundance of liquid and solid fractions. Correlation of butyrate molar proportion with taxa relative abundance was also analyzed. Treatments did not affect alpha and beta diversities or relative abundance of phylum, class and order in either liquid or solid fractions. At the family level, relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae in solid fraction was lower for CO3 and CO3/OH compared to OH and Control (P < 0.01). For genera, abundance of Butyrivibrio (P = 0.01) and Lachnospiraceae ND3007 (P < 0.01) (both from Lachnospiraceae family) was lower and unclassified Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.03) was greater in CO3 than Control and OH in solid fraction; while abundance of Pseudobutyrivibrio (P = 0.10) and Lachnospiraceae FD2005 (P = 0.09) (both from Lachnospiraceae family) and Ruminobacter (P = 0.09) tended to decrease in CO3 compared to Control in liquid fraction. Butyrate molar proportion was negatively correlated to Ruminococcaceae (r = –0.55) in solid fraction and positively correlated to Pseudobutyrivibrio (r = 0.61) and Lachnospiraceae FD2005 (r = 0.61) in liquid. Our results indicate that source of Mg has an impact on bacterial taxa associated with ruminal butyrate synthesis, which is important for epithelial health and fatty acid synthesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac092
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of the association between plasma glucose-dependent
           insulinotropic polypeptide, respiratory quotient, and intramuscular fat
           deposition in feedlot cattle fed different levels of dry matter intake

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objectives of this trial were to evaluate the association between different levels of dry matter intake (DMI) on gas exchange, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentration, and intramuscular (IM) fat deposition. We used 60 individually fed backgrounded Angus × SimAngus-crossbred steers (n = 30) in a randomized complete block design. Steers (paired by body weight [BW] and gain to feed ratio [G:F]) were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: ad libitum intake (AI) or restricted intake (RI; the same diet fed at 85% of the AI) of a finishing diet. The diet contained 61% cracked corn, 9% corn silage, 15% distillers’ dried grains with solubles, 5% soyhulls, and 10% of a protein-mineral-vitamin premix. Measurements of CO2 emission and consumption of O2, and respiratory quotient (RQ) were taken using the GreenFeed system (n = 15/treatment). Plasma and gas samples were collected 10 d before slaughter, 1 h before and 2 h after feeding. Plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, GIP, and insulin concentration and gasses (O2, CO2, and RQ) were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS evaluating the fixed effect of treatment, time (repeated measurement) and their interaction, and the random effect of the block. Final BW and carcass characteristics were analyzed with a similar model, without the time statement and its interaction. Compared with RI, AI steers had greater (P < 0.01) DMI and average daily gain (ADG). Steers on AI had greater final BW (P = 0.02), tended to have a greater ribeye area (P = 0.09), and had lower plasma GIP concentration (P = 0.04). There was no treatment effect (P ≥ 0.11) on G:F, subcutaneous backfat (BF), and IM fat, O2 consumption, CO2 emission, and RQ. Plasma glucose concentration of AI steers was greater before and after feeding than RI (P < 0.05). In conclusion, feeding steers ad libitum increased DMI, ADG, and plasma glucose and GIP concentration but does not affect G:F, BF, IM fat, CO2 emission, and O2 consumption. Plasma GIP concentration and RQ are not associated with IM fat deposition.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac089
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Assessing a pilot co-operative-based workshop-subsidy model toward
           improving small-scale chicken production in peri-urban Nepal

    • Abstract: AbstractFarmers in Nepal face many of the same global challenges associated with initiating and scaling poultry husbandry as many other developing countries. These include access to innovative approaches in finance, credit, coop design, marketing, and sales. As with most low-income countries, Nepalese poultry farmers also lack adequate training in poultry husbandry including biosecurity. In this paper, we describe a collaborative workshop-subsidy approach to addressing these challenges conducted by a partnership with the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, the College of Engineering, the School of Education, and a farming co-operative based in the semi-rural area of Bhaktapur, Nepal. The program included two workshops covering aspects of poultry rearing including coop construction, chick rearing, biosecurity, and husbandry. Both workshops were a combination of lectures and hands-on learning. Following completion of the workshops, each farmer received subsidized materials for coop construction and poultry rearing. The co-operative provided training facilities and a market for selling eggs. Despite an outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), which affected the scale of program implementation, our results suggest that the workshop subsidy collaborative approach can be successful in reducing market entry barriers. Our 6-mo post-workshop survey showed that two-thirds of the workshop participants ultimately built their own coop and raised chicks. Half of these participants reported market available egg production and a doubling of egg consumption at home.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac071
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Impacts of including Sweet Bran and wet distillers grains with solubles
           alone or in combination in finishing cattle diets on physically effective
           fiber concentrations and rumen buffering characteristics of feedlot cattle
           

    • Abstract: AbstractThis study evaluated the effects of Sweet Bran (SB) and wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in the diet alone or in combination on physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF), ruminal pH, and rumination behavior of finishing beef cattle. For this study, 455 steers (373 ± 15.5 kg) were allocated to 48 pens in a randomized complete block design. Treatments (n = 12 pens per treatment) were one of four steam-flaked corn-based diets containing no corn-milling products (CON), 20% WDGS (WDGS20), 20% SB (SB20), or 20% SB and 10% WDGS (COMBO). Within each pen, two steers were randomly selected to receive an indwelling ruminal pH bolus to quantify ruminal pH and a 3-axis accelerometer tag to measure rumination for the first 92 d of the study. Diet samples were collected weekly to determine particle size, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration, and peNDF. Physically effective NDF was calculated using both the proportion of particles > 4.0 mm (peNDF4.0) and the proportion of particles > 8.0 mm (peNDF8.0). The percentage of particles > 4.0 mm was greatest (P < 0.01) for CON, intermediate for SB20, and least for WDGS20 and COMBO. Both NDF (P < 0.01) and peNDF4.0 (P < 0.01) were greatest for COMBO, intermediate for WDGS20 and SB20, and least for CON. The percentage of particles > 8.0 was greatest (P < 0.01) for CON, intermediate for WDGS20 and SB20, and least for COMBO, but peNDF8.0 did not differ (P = 0.40). A diet × day interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for daily rumination minutes per kg of DMI, NDF, peNDF4.0, and peNDF8.0. A diet × hour interaction (P < 0.01) was observed where CON cattle spent less time ruminating at 0800 and 1000 h in a 24 h period. Daily ruminal pH was greatest (P < 0.01) for COMBO, intermediate for SB20 and WDGS20, and least for CON. A diet × hour interaction (P < 0.01) was also observed for circadian ruminal pH, where pH was least for CON from 0800 to 1800 h. Relationships between peNDF, rumination behavior, and ruminal pH observed in this study suggest that SB and WDGS similarly enhance rumen buffering capacity when steam-flaked corn is replaced in the diet.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac091
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Production cow-calf responses from perennial forage-based and integrated
           beef-cropping systems

    • Abstract: AbstractAn experiment was conducted to measure production responses of an alternative cow-calf production system integrated into a cropping system without access to perennial forage compared to a traditional cow-calf system utilizing perennial forage. Multiparous, cross-bred beef cows (n = 160; average age = 6.2 ± 2.8 yr) were utilized in a randomized complete block experimental design and unstructured treatment design. Upon initiation, cows were blocked by age and stratified by source, assigned randomly to one of two production systems, each with four replicates (n = 20 cows/replicate). Once allotted to their treatment groups, cows remained in their experimental units for the duration of the experiment. Treatments were: 1) a traditional system consisting of April to May calving with smooth bromegrass pasture and grazed corn residue as forage resources (TRAD); 2) an alternative system consisting of July to August calving utilizing partial-drylot feeding, summer-planted oats, and corn residue grazing (ALT). There were no differences (P ≥ 0.27) in calving rates (91.8 vs. 86.7 ± 2.92%), pregnancy rates (89.3 vs. 89.9 ± 2.66%), and weaning rates (87.2 vs. 82.3 ± 3.29%) for TRAD vs. ALT, respectively. However, there was an increase (P = 0.04) in the rate of twin offspring in ALT (2.9 vs. 9.4 ± 2.36% for TRAD vs. ALT, respectively). One calf from the set of twins was selected randomly at birth to be removed from the experiment, so the production data are only from single calves. There was no difference (P = 0.47) in calf body weight at birth (40 vs. 39 ± 0.7 kg for TRAD vs. ALT, respectively). At weaning, calves in the ALT system were lighter (P < 0.01) at the same day of age (184 vs. 229 ± 5.5 kg) compared to TRAD calves. Cows from the ALT system had fewer (P < 0.01) kg weaned per cow exposed to bull (150 vs. 199 ± 7.2 kg) compared to TRAD cows. Apart from the twinning rate, no differences in reproductive performance were observed among systems. However, reduced weaning weights and kilogram of weaned calf per cow exposed may negatively impact revenue to the cow-calf enterprise of the ALT system.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac090
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Standardized ileal digestible amino acids and digestible energy contents
           in two modified soy protein concentrates and soybean meal fed to growing
           pigs1

    • Abstract: AbstractSix ileal-cannulated barrows (28.0 ± 1.3 kg initial BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with one additional period (n = 7 or 6) to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and digestible energy of two modified soy protein concentrates [MSPC1 and MSPC2] and soybean meal (SBM). Pigs were fed one of three cornstarch-based diets with either MSPC1 or MSPC2 or SBM as the sole source of AA at a rate of 2.8 times the estimated maintenance energy requirement. In each period, pigs were adapted to diets for 7 d followed by 2 d of fecal collection and subsequently, 2 d of continuous ileal digesta collection for 8 h. The SID of AA was calculated using basal endogenous losses from a previous study for pigs fed a nitrogen-free diet. The digestible energy of the ingredients was calculated according to the difference method using a nitrogen-free diet that contained the same cornstarch:sucrose:oil ratio as the three test diets. The total Lys content was 33% and 38% greater for MSPC1 vs. MSPC2 and SBM, respectively. The SID of crude protein was greater for MSPC1 (96.9%) than for SBM (91.3%; P < 0.05), whereas an intermediate value was observed for MSPC2 (94.3% ± 1.2%). The SID of Ile (93.8%), Leu (93.6%), Lys (93.9%), Phe (96.7%), and Val (93.2%) were not different between MSPC1 and MSPC2 but greater than for SBM (88.8% ± 1.3%, 87.8% ± 1.2%, 84.5% ± 1.7%, 92.9% ± 1.0%, 86.5% ± 1.7% for Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, and Val, respectively; P < 0.05). The SID of His and Thr was greater for MSPC1 than MSPC2 and SBM (P < 0.05), which were not different. The SID of Met was greater for MSPC1 and SBM vs. MSPC2 (P < 0.05). The SID of Arg was greater for MSPC1 than MSPC2 and SBM (P < 0.05), and greater for MSPC2 than SBM (P < 0.05). The digestible energy was greater for MSPC1 (4,677 kcal/kg) than MSPC2 and SBM (average; 3,896 ± 239 kcal/kg; P < 0.05), which were not different. Therefore, the MSPC1 was a better source of SID Lys and digestible energy than either MSPC2 or SBM and could be used as a highly digestible protein ingredient in swine rations.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac088
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Immunomodulatory potential of black soldier fly larvae: applications
           beyond nutrition in animal feeding programs

    • Abstract: AbstractInsect-derived ingredients, including whole larvae, protein-rich meal, and oil, have been extensively studied in recent years and shown to be a sustainable source of quality nutrition for virtually all animal species and life stages. In addition to the ability to use these ingredients as a source of essential nutrition, more recent research has demonstrated the potential for the immunomodulatory activity of various components of insect-derived ingredients. For all insects studied, antimicrobial peptides make up a critical part of the insects’ innate immune system and these peptides have antimicrobial efficacy when purified from hemolymph and tested in vitro. From black soldier fly larvae, in particular, lauric acid is a predominant fatty acid deposited into the insect, and lauric acid also has potential antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the chitin and chitosan components of the insect exoskeleton may modulate microbial activity in a variety of ways. In companion animals, poultry, and livestock species, insect-derived ingredients have shown the potential to reduce the impact of actual or simulated disease challenge on several parameters of animal health and well-being. This review describes the current state of knowledge of the immunomodulatory potential of insect-derived ingredients.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac084
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Meta-analysis of the effects of monensin on performance of beef
           replacement heifers and beef cows

    • Abstract: AbstractAlthough performance benefits of monensin have been extensively studied in finishing cattle, growing cattle, and dairy cows, considerably less published work is available evaluating response to monensin supplementation in cow-calf production systems. This meta-analysis investigated the impacts of monensin on performance of beef cows and developing replacement heifers. The replacement heifer analysis was conducted using data from 18 different peer-reviewed publications and experiment station reports. The mature cow analysis included 21 different publications and experiment station reports. The metaphor package (version 2.4-0; Viechtbauer, 2010) for R (version 4.0.3; www.r-project.org) was used to determine the overall effect size of monensin compared to a negative control. Each study’s n, means, and SEM or P value was used to calculate the mean difference and estimate of within study variance for responses of interest. In replacement heifers, monensin treatment increased (P < 0.01); average daily gain (+0.03 ± 0.008 kg/d), feed efficiency (+0.013 ± 0.008 gain:feed), and percentage cycling before the breeding season (+15.9 ± 5.13%); while decreasing (P < 0.01): dry matter intake (0.293 ± 0.081 kg), and age at puberty (‐8.9 ± 1.48 d). Six studies reporting ad libitum forage intake for mature cows showed decreased (P = 0.008) DMI by 0.85 ± 0.32 kg/d. Six studies reported milk yield and revealed an increase (P = 0.01) of 0.39 ± 0.15 kg/d when cows were supplemented with monensin. Monensin supplementation resulted in a reduction (P = 0.02) in days to first estrus by 18 ± 8.2 d and percentage of cows exhibiting estrus prior to the breeding season was increased by 19 ± 8% (P = 0.03). There were no differences in artificial insemination pregnancy nor total pregnancy for either the heifer or mature cow data sets. This analysis indicates potential for use of monensin in heifer development and beef cow production systems. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects on reproductive efficiency, DMI, milk production, weight, and body composition change.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac086
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Impacts of a post-transport/pre-processing rest period on the growth
           performance, anthelmintic efficacy, and serum metabolite changes in cattle
           entering a feed yard

    • Abstract: AbstractA total of 80 crossbred, high-risk heifers (initially 250 ± 4.2 kg BW), were transported from an Oklahoma City, Oklahoma sale barn to the Kansas State University Beef Cattle Research Center. Cattle were unloaded and randomly placed into one of four receiving pens and provided ad libitum hay and water. Each pen was randomly assigned to one of the four rest times before processing: (1) immediately upon arrival (0); (2) after a 6-h rest period (6); (3) after a 24-h rest period (24); and (4) after a 48-h rest period (48). After all cattle were processed, heifers were allotted into individual pens with ad libitum access to a receiving ration and water. Heifers were weighed individually on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 to calculate average daily gain (ADG). Feed added and refusals were measured daily to determine dry matter intake (DMI). A fecal egg count reduction test and analysis of blood serum metabolites were also conducted. All data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (v. 9.4, Cary, NC) with individual animal as the experimental unit. Processing time did not impact (P > 0.05) heifer BW or ADG. From d 0 to 35, DMI decreased linearly (P = 0.027) as rest time increased. The number of days for heifers to reach a DMI of 2.5% BW was linearly increased (P = 0.023) as rest time increased. There was no evidence of differences (P ≥ 0.703) among rest times for feed efficiency. While morbidity did not differ between treatments (P > 0.10), mortality increased linearly (P = 0.026) as the time of rest increased. A significant processing time × day interaction (P < 0.0001) was observed for the prevalence of fecal parasites, where the percentage of positive samples was significantly lower 14-d after anthelmintic treatment, regardless of the processing time. Serum IBR titer for heifers processed at either 0 or 6-h upon arrival was significantly higher (P < 0.01) on d 35 compared to d 0. Heifers processed after a 48-h rest period had significantly higher glucose values (P < 0.01) on d 0 compared to heifers processed at 0, 6, or 24-h. In summary, rest time prior to processing did not impact receiving calf growth performance. A 6-h rest period upon arrival appeared to be most beneficial to DMI. Anthelmintic treatment at processing reduced the parasitic load in heifers processed at all times. Vaccine titer did not increase after initial processing in heifers processed 24- or 48-h after arrival, indicating the seroconversion of IBR antibodies during the longer rest period.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac085
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbial on
           immunity markers and intestinal morphology in diets fed to weanling pigs

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a multi-strain Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on nursery pig health as indicated by intestinal mucosal and blood plasma immunological markers and intestinal morphology. Eighty pigs, of equal number of barrows and gilts (initial BW: 7.0 ± 0.60 kg), weaned at 21 ± 1 d of age were randomly allotted to sixteen pens, with five pigs per pen. Two dietary treatments were implemented, a basal control (CON) and a basal control plus DFM (CDFM). Both diets were corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains based and were formulated to meet or exceed all nutritional requirements (NRC, 2012) and manufactured on site. Diets were fed for 42 d. On d 21 and 42 of the experiment, one pig per pen was randomly selected and euthanized, with equal number of males and females represented. Blood samples were collected prior to euthanasia for assessment of plasma concentrations of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Segments of the gastrointestinal tract including duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ascending and distal colon were removed for analysis of intestinal morphology, and levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Jejunal villus height was greater in the CDFM pigs as compared with CON pigs (P = 0.02) and ascending colon crypt depth tended to be greater on d 21 (P = 0.10). Compared to CON, CDFM significantly increased overall plasma IgA (P = 0.03) (0.58 vs. 0.73 0.05 mg/mL, respectively), while it tended to increase plasma IgA (P = 0.06) on d 21 (0.34 vs. 0.54 ± 0.07 mg/mL, respectively) and tended to increase overall IL-10 (P = 0.10) in the jejunum (113 vs. 195 ± 35 pg/mL, respectively). Addition of a multi-strain Bacillus subtilis-based DFM may have an early benefit to nursery pig health status, observed through specific changes in morphology and both systemic and localized immunological markers.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac083
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of a novel computer vision-based livestock monitoring system to
           identify and track specific behaviors of individual nursery pigs within a
           group-housed environment

    • Abstract: AbstractAnimal behavior is indicative of health status and changes in behavior can indicate health issues (i.e., illness, stress, or injury). Currently, human observation (HO) is the only method for detecting behavior changes that may indicate problems in group-housed pigs. While HO is effective, limitations exist. Limitations include HO being time consuming, HO obfuscates natural behaviors, and it is not possible to maintain continuous HO. To address these limitations, a computer vision platform (NUtrack) was developed to identify (ID) and continuously monitor specific behaviors of group-housed pigs on an individual basis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capabilities of the NUtrack system and evaluate changes in behavior patterns over time of group-housed nursery pigs. The NUtrack system was installed above four nursery pens to monitor the behavior of 28 newly weaned pigs during a 42-d nursery period. Pigs were stratified by sex, litter, and randomly assigned to one of two pens (14 pigs/pen) for the first 22 d. On day 23, pigs were split into four pens (7 pigs/pen). To evaluate the NUtrack system’s capabilities, 800 video frames containing 11,200 individual observations were randomly selected across the nursery period. Each frame was visually evaluated to verify the NUtrack system’s accuracy for ID and classification of behavior. The NUtrack system achieved an overall accuracy for ID of 95.6%. This accuracy for ID was 93.5% during the first 22 d and increased (P < 0.001) to 98.2% for the final 20 d. Of the ID errors, 72.2% were due to mislabeled ID and 27.8% were due to loss of ID. The NUtrack system classified lying, standing, walking, at the feeder (ATF), and at the waterer (ATW) behaviors accurately at a rate of 98.7%, 89.7%, 88.5%, 95.6%, and 79.9%, respectively. Behavior data indicated that the time budget for lying, standing, and walking in nursery pigs was 77.7% ± 1.6%, 8.5% ± 1.1%, and 2.9% ± 0.4%, respectively. In addition, behavior data indicated that nursery pigs spent 9.9% ± 1.7% and 1.0% ± 0.3% time ATF and ATW, respectively. Results suggest that the NUtrack system can detect, identify, maintain ID, and classify specific behavior of group-housed nursery pigs for the duration of the 42-d nursery period. Overall, results suggest that, with continued research, the NUtrack system may provide a viable real-time precision livestock tool with the ability to assist producers in monitoring behaviors and potential changes in the behavior of group-housed pigs.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac082
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Oral supplementation of alkaline phosphatase in poultry and swine

    • Abstract: AbstractThe importance of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in maintaining gut health and intestinal homeostasis is well established. The objective of this study was to investigate the tolerance of poultry and swine to dietary supplementation of a novel microbial-derived alkaline phosphatase (AP; E.C. 3.1.3.1 produced by Paenibacillus lentus strain CMG3709). Studies were conducted on day-old Ross 308 chicken (n = 1,000; Study 1) and weaned piglets (n = 180; Study 2) for a duration of 42 d; and consisted of four treatment groups (TG) based on the concentration of microbial-derived AP supplemented in their diet at 0; 12,000; 20,000; and 200,000 U/kg of feed. Parameters such as animal survival, hematology, coagulation, and biochemical indices were assessed at the end of the study. The effect of microbial AP on nutrient absorption through skin pigmentation and intestinal permeability were also investigated in broilers (n = 600; Study 3). In poultry (Study 1), there were no statistically significant differences between control and TG for any of the hematological and biochemical parameters, except for a marginal increase (P < 0.05) in serum phosphorus at the highest dose. This variation was not dose-dependent, was well within the reference range, and was not associated with any clinical correlates. In swine (Study 2), hematological parameters such as leukocyte, basophil, and lymphocyte counts were lower (P < 0.05) for the two highest doses but were traced back to individual variations within the group. The biochemical indices in piglets showed no significant differences between control and supplemental groups except for glucose (P = 0.0005), which showed a high effect (P = 0.008) of the random blood collection order. Nonetheless, glucose was within the normal reference range, and were not related to in-feed supplementation of AP as they had no biological significance. The survival rate in all three studies was over 98%. Dietary supplementation of microbial-derived AP up to 16.7 times the intended use (12,000 U/kg feed) level had no negative effects in both poultry and swine. In-feed supplementation of microbial-derived AP for 28 d improved intestinal pigment absorption (P < 0.0001) and reduced intestinal paracellular permeability (P = 0.0001) in broilers (Study 3). Based on these results, it can be concluded that oral supplementation of microbial-derived AP is safe for poultry and swine and effective at improving gut health in poultry.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac079
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of dietary mycotoxin control strategies on nursery pig growth
           performance and blood measures

    • Abstract: AbstractA total of 4,318 pigs (337 × 1,050, PIC; initially 6.5 ± 0.08 kg) were used in a 35-day study to evaluate dietary mycotoxin control strategies on nursery pig performance and blood measures. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with blocking structure including sow farm origin, date of entry into facility, and average pen BW. A total of 160 pens were used with 80 double-sided 5-hole stainless steel fence line feeders, with feeder serving as the experimental unit. For each feeder, 1 pen contained 27 gilts and 1 pen contained 27 barrows. There were 16 replications per dietary treatment. A common phase 1 diet was fed to all pigs in pelleted form for 7 day prior to treatment diets. Experimental treatments were fed from days 7 to 42 after weaning (days 0 to 35 of the study) and included a low deoxynivalenol (DON) diet (1.12 ± 0.623 mg/kg), high DON diet (2.34 ± 1.809 mg/kg), high DON+ 0.50% sodium metabisulfite (SMB), high DON+ one of two mitigating products; 0.30% Technology1, or 0.30% Technology1+. Technology1 and 1+ are comprised of clays, yeast cell wall components, and a blend of plant extracts. Technology1+ also contains SMB. Overall (days 0 to 35), pigs fed high DON had decreased (P < 0.05) final BW, ADG, and ADFI compared with low DON. Additionally, pigs fed high DON+SMB had increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared with all other treatments. An improvement (P < 0.05) in G:F was observed in pigs fed high DON + SMB or high DON + Technology1+ compared with the low DON or high DON + Technology1 diets with high DON diets intermediate. Pigs fed high DON + SMB or high DON + Technology1 diets had reduced (P < 0.05) total removals and mortality compared with pigs fed low DON diets with high DON and high DON + Technology1+ intermediate. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of circulating blood collected on day 35 revealed that pigs fed high DON or high DON + Technology1 had increased (P < 0.05) DON concentrations compared to low DON with high DON + SMB and high DON + Technology1+ intermediate. In summary, pigs fed high DON diets had reduced performance compared with pigs fed low DON. Sodium metabisulfite in high DON diets provided a benefit in growth performance with ADG and G:F exceeding growth performance in the low DON diet while, the improved G:F ratio combined with other immunometabolic changes (gamma glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase) associated with Technology1+ warrant further investigation.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac081
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The female to male calf sex ratio is associated with the number of
           services to achieve a calf and parity of lactating dairy cows

    • Abstract: AbstractCommercial dairy producers may get frustrated by the lower ratio of female to male calves born because female calves are more valuable than bull calves. Our objective was to determine if parity or stage of lactation at the time of breeding, using conventional semen, influenced the sex of the calf. Data from the University of Illinois and the University of New Hampshire dairy herds were collected and summarized for calf sex, the number of services to achieve a calf and the lactation number when conception of that calf occurred. Logistical regression procedures were used to analyze the dataset via version 9.4 of SAS. The final dataset contained 2,987 calvings, which consisted of 1,406 females and 1,581 males (47.1% and 52.9% for females and males, respectively). The frequency distribution of the number of services to achieve a calf was highest for the first service and progressively declined with increasing services (52.06%, 21.66%, 10.75%, 6.66%, 4.22%, and 4.65% for 1 to 6 services, respectively). The frequency distribution of calvings by lactation number was greatest for first lactation cows becoming pregnant with their second calf and declined with increasing parity (35.49%, 28.22%, 17.01%, 9.61%, 5.02%, 2.51%, 1.14%, 0.70%, and 0.30% for lactation numbers 1 to 9, respectively). Logistic stepwise regression indicated that the number of services to achieve a calf was significant in predicting the ratio of female to male calves. Calculation of odds ratios indicated that as the lactation number increased the likelihood of getting a bull calf decreased. Parity, services, and parity by services interaction were significant for cows having a greater number of parities and cows with a greater number of services yielding more heifer calves. However, an interaction occurred where cows with greater number of services along with greater parities more likely to have a bull calf. These data provide evidence that increasing the number of services to achieve a calf and increasing age of the cow increased the probability of a heifer calf being born. These data indicate that cows with greater parties (lesser cull rate) are more likely to produce heifer calves.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac080
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • A porous ceramic particle with or without a preservative blend did not
           impair apparent digestibility of macro- and micro-nutrients of postweaned
           pigs

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing a commercial porous ceramic clay particle, with or without a blend of preservatives, on the performance and nutrient digestibility of weanling pigs. Fifteen weanling pigs of the Yorkshire, Landrace, and Duroc breeds were blocked by breed and randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 5): (1) Control, non-medicated diet with no additional feed additives (CON); (2) PowerGuard, basal diet with 0.25% of the DM consisting of a ceramic particle mixed into the pelleted feed (PG; MB Nutritional Sciences, Lubbock, TX, 79403); or (3) Power Guard + a blend of preservatives, basal diet with 0.3% of the DM consisting of the ceramic clay and preservatives mixed into the pelleted feed (PG-D). The facility was temperature controlled with an average temperature of 28.5 °C. Pigs were offered ad libitum access to feed and water and were housed individually in elevated crates. Body weights were collected upon enrollment on day 0 and at the end of the observation period on day 18. On day 15 , a 72-h total feed and fecal collection period began. Feed and fecal samples were analyzed for DM, CP, Ash, OM, ADF, NDF, zinc, copper, thiamin (vitamin B1), and retinol (vitamin A). Liver samples were collected immediately after harvest and frozen for later mineral analysis. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS with dietary group as the main effect and block as the random effect (SAS 9.4, Cary, NC). There were no treatment differences in performance measures including final BW, ADG, or G:F (P ≥ 0.701). There were no treatment differences in diet nutrient digestibility for DM, CP, Ash, OM, ADF, or NDF (P ≥ 0.312). Additionally, there were no treatment effects on zinc, copper, or retinol digestibility (P ≥ .298); however, thiamin inclusion rate was increased for the PG-D treatment, thus leading to an increased digestibility for thiamin (P = 0.018) in the PG-D treatment. There were no treatment differences in hepatic mineral concentrations (P ≥ 0.532); however, there was a tendency for pigs fed PG-D to have increased hepatic concentrations of lead and mercury when compared with both PG and CON pigs (P ≤ 0.066). In summary, supplementation of a commercial ceramic particle with or without a blend of preservatives to weaned pigs did not affect performance or apparent nutrient digestibility.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac078
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Economic assessments from experimental research trials of feedlot cattle
           health and performance: a scoping review

    • Abstract: AbstractAnimal husbandry decisions for feedlot cattle may be based on economic or financial impacts reported from livestock research trials comparing interventions such as health practices or performance technologies. Despite the importance of economic assessments to production management decisions, there are no consensus guidelines for their methods or reporting. Thus, we hypothesized that methods and reporting of economic assessments in the scientific literature are inconsistent. This scoping review describes the types of economic assessments used to evaluate the costs and benefits of interventions in feedlot trials, how measured health and performance outcomes are utilized in economic evaluations, and the completeness of reporting. A structured search was used to retrieve peer-reviewed articles (published in English) on experimental trials performed in Australia, North America, or South Africa, which reported feedlot cattle health, performance, or carcass characteristics and included an economic outcome. A total of 7,086 articles were screened for eligibility; 91 articles (comprising 113 trials) met the inclusion criteria. Trial characteristics, methods, and reporting data were extracted. A primary outcome was stated in only 36% (41/113) of the trials. Of these 41 trials, an economic outcome was reported as a primary outcome in 18 (44%). Methodology for the economic assessment was reported for 54 trials (48%), the type of economic assessment was explicitly stated for 21 trials (19%), and both the type of economic assessment and methodology used were reported for 29 trials (26%); neither were reported for nine trials (8%). Eight types of economic assessments were explicitly reported: cost-effectiveness, cost–benefit analysis, enterprise analysis, partial budget, break-even analysis, profitability, decision analysis, and economic advantage. From the trials that did not report an assessment type, three were identified: partial budget, enterprise analysis, and gross margin analysis. Overall, only 32 trials (28%) reported economics as an outcome of interest, the methodology used or the type of assessment, and values, sources, and dates for at least some of the price data used in the analysis. Given the variability in methods and inconsistent reporting for feedlot trials identified by this scoping review, a guideline to facilitate consistency on appropriate methods and reporting is warranted.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac077
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Environmental performance of commercial beef production systems utilizing
           conventional productivity-enhancing technologies

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of using conventional productivity-enhancing technologies (PETs) with or without other natural PETs on the growth performance, carcass traits, and environmental impacts of feedlot cattle. A total of 768 cross-bred yearling steers (499 ± 28.6 kg; n = 384) and heifers (390 ± 34.9 kg; n = 384) were offered a barley grain-based basal diet and divided into implanted or non-implanted groups. Steers were then allocated to diets that contained either: (i) no additive (control); natural feed additives including (ii) fibrolytic enzymes (Enz), (iii) essential oil (Oleo), (iv) direct-fed microbial (DFM), (v) DFM + Enz + Oleo combination; conventional feed additives including (vi) Conv (monensin, tylosin, and beta-adrenergic agonists [βAA]); or Conv with natural feed additives including (vii) Conv + DFM + Enz; (viii) Conv + DFM + Enz + Oleo. Heifers received one of the first three dietary treatments or the following: (iv) probiotic (Citr); (v) Oleo + Citr; (vi) Melengesterol acetate (MGA) + Oleo + βAA; (vii) Conv (monensin, tylosin, βAA, and MGA); or (viii) Conv + Oleo (ConvOleo). Data were used to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, as well as land and water use. Implant and Conv-treated cattle exhibited improvements in growth and carcass traits as compared to the other treatments (P < 0.05). Improvements in the performance of Conv-cattle illustrated that replacing conventional feed additives with natural feed additives would increase both the land and water required to satisfy the feed demand of steers and heifers by 7.9% and 10.5%, respectively. Further, GHG emission intensity for steers and heifers increased by 5.8% and 6.7%, and NH3 emission intensity by 4.3% and 6.7%, respectively. Eliminating the use of implants in cattle increased both land and water use by 14.6% and 19.5%, GHG emission intensity by 10.5% and 15.8%, and NH3 emission intensity by 3.4% and 11.0% for heifers and steers, respectively. These results demonstrate that the use of conventional PETs increases animal performance while reducing the environmental impacts of beef production. Restricting use would increase the environmental footprint of beef produced for both domestic and international markets.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac074
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Impact of protein supplementation on semen quality, fertility, and BMP1R
           gene expression in sheep of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: AbstractA study was carried out to know the impact of protein supplementation on fertility and expressions of the fertility gene BMP1R. Three International Organization for Standardization (ISO), isocaloric but different levels of protein supplement ration (11.70% crude protein [CP] for control/To, 12.99% CP for T1, and 13.86% CP for T2) were fed to three different groups of sheep. DNA was extracted from the whole blood sample for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the BMP1R fertility gene, and purified PCR products were sequenced by a Sanger sequencer. Sequence alignment, pair, and multi-alignment comparison of the BMP1R gene of the species were done with MEGA6. The semen volume (1.0 mL), sperm counts (4.2 × 107 million), and percentage of normal (94.3%) and viable sperm (3.7%) were higher in treatment 2 than in the other two groups. The semen volume (1.0 mL), sperm counts (4.2 × 107 million), and the percentage of normal (94.3%) and viable sperm (3.7%) were higher in treatment 2 than in the other two groups. Ewes treated with supplemented, protein concentrate reached the conception at an earlier age (treatment 1, 9.5 ± 0.16 mo and treatment 2, 10.3 ± 0.04 mo) than control (9.8 ± 0.15 mo). The lambing interval varied, from 198 to 202 d. Lamb’s birth weights in three treated groups were ranging from 1.2 to 1.39 kg. The designated sequences of BMP1R gene revealed 100% homology with the sequence of Kazakh sheep. The present study indicated that the influence of nutrition on reproductive performance and genomic study will be helpful for the genetic improvement of low-productive sheep.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac072
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Effect of a direct-fed microbial (10-G Armor) on feedlot performance,
           

    • Abstract: AbstractCrossbred beef heifers (N = 1,394; initial shrunk body weight [BW] 291 ± 9.9 kg) were used to investigate the efficacy of 10-G Armor (Life Products, Inc., Norfolk, NE; 10-G) upon feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and fecal and subiliac lymph nodes Salmonella prevalence. Heifers were blocked by day of arrival and allocated to 1 of 20 pens (N = 70 heifers/pen) and assigned one of two treatments (10 pens/treatment): no direct-fed microbial (CON) or 2 g/heifer/d of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum, respectively (Life Products, Inc., Norfolk, NE; 10-G). Twenty-four animals were randomly selected from each pen for Salmonella sampling. Recto-anal mucosal swab samples (RAMS) were obtained at initial processing and harvest; subiliac lymph nodes were collected at harvest. In addition, pen surface fecal pats were collected and composited by pen (10 pats per composite, 5 composites per pen) on days 0, 52, 120, and 192. Data were analyzed as a generalized complete block design, and pen served as the experimental unit. No differences were observed in live growth performance metrics (P ≥ 0.55). Yield grade distributions did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.62); however, cattle fed 10-G tended (P = 0.06; 14.6% vs. 18.9%) to have fewer USDA Select carcasses and more (P = 0.09; 73.6% vs. 78.0%) USDA Choice carcasses. Cattle fed 10-G tended (P = 0.10; 9.2% vs. 12.3%) to have fewer liver abscesses and had fewer (P = 0.04; 5.3% vs. 8.5%) severe liver abscesses. Salmonella prevalence of RAMS did not differ between treatments at initial processing (P = 0.97; CON = 11.6%, 10-G = 11.5%) or at harvest (P = 0.91; CON = 99.0%, 10-G = 98.6%); however, RAMS differed (P < 0.01) in Salmonella prevalence between the two collection times. Cattle fed 10-G had a lower frequency of Salmonella positive lymph nodes (P = 0.01; CON = 15.8%, 10-G = 7.4%) than CON. However, Salmonella log (mpn/g) of lymph nodes did not differ between treatments at harvest (P = 0.34; CON = 0.73, 10-G = 0.34). These data indicate that cattle fed 10-G have decreased rates of severe liver abscesses without altering live animal performance or carcass characteristics. Supplementation of 10-G significantly reduced the prevalence rate of Salmonella recovered from the subiliac lymph nodes. The factors responsible for the observed difference in the effects of 10-G on Salmonella warrant further investigation
      PubDate: Thu, 26 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac073
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Invited review: strategic adoption of antibiotic-free pork production: the
           importance of a holistic approach

    • Abstract: AbstractThe discovery of the use of antibiotics to enhance growth in the 1950s proved to be one of the most dramatic and influential in the history of animal agriculture. Antibiotics have served animal agriculture, as well as human and animal medicine, well for more than seven decades, but emerging from this tremendous success has been the phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance. Consequently, human medicine and animal agriculture are being called upon, through legislation and/or marketplace demands, to reduce or eliminate antibiotics as growth promotants and even as therapeutics. As explained in this review, adoption of antibiotic-free (ABF) pork production would represent a sea change. By identifying key areas requiring attention, the clear message of this review is that success with ABF production, also referred to as “no antibiotics ever,” demands a multifaceted and multidisciplinary approach. Too frequently, the topic has been approached in a piecemeal fashion by considering only one aspect of production, such as the use of certain feed additives or the adjustment in health management. Based on the literature and on practical experience, a more holistic approach is essential. It will require the modification of diet formulations to not only provide essential nutrients and energy, but to also maximize the effectiveness of normal immunological and physiological capabilities that support good health. It must also include the selection of effective non-antibiotic feed additives along with functional ingredients that have been shown to improve the utility and architecture of the gastrointestinal tract, to improve the microbiome, and to support the immune system. This holistic approach will require refining animal management strategies, including selection for more robust genetics, greater focus on care during the particularly sensitive perinatal and post-weaning periods, and practices that minimize social and environmental stressors. A clear strategy is needed to reduce pathogen load in the barn, such as greater emphasis on hygiene and biosecurity, adoption of a strategic vaccine program and the universal adoption of all-in-all-out housing. Of course, overall health management of the herd, as well as the details of animal flows, cannot be ignored. These management areas will support the basic biology of the pig in avoiding or, where necessary, overcoming pathogen challenges without the need for antibiotics, or at least with reduced usage.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac063
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
 
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