Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 963 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (662 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (662 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted by number of followers
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nature Plants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
New Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Italian Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
EU Agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Cubana de Ciencia Agrícola     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Apicultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progressive Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RIA. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Jurnal Agroteknologi     Open Access  
Perspectivas Rurales Nueva Época     Open Access  
Organic Farming     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Landtechnik : Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Agriculture System     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Pastura : Journal Of Tropical Forage Science     Open Access  
Journal of Citrus Pathology     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de las Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports     Open Access  
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Fave : Sección ciencias agrarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Review of Agrarian Studies     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nigeria Agricultural Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nativa     Open Access  
SAARC Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrosearch     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access  
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
Ceiba     Open Access  
Research in Sierra Leone Studies : Weave     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Encuentro     Open Access  
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Landbohistorisk Tidsskrift     Open Access  
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologia Postcosecha     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Bioagro     Open Access  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access  
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Journal Cover
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2378-5977
Published by New Prairie Press Homepage  [17 journals]
  • Foreword, Swine Day 2022

    • Abstract: This file includes the 2022 Swine Day Research Report introduction, standard abbreviations, K-State Vitamin and Trace Mineral Premixes statement, biological variability and chances of error explanation, and acknowledgments of our supporters. We hope that the information in the 2022 Swine Day Research Report will be of benefit as we attempt to meet the needs of the Kansas swine industry.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 13:05:26 PST
       
  • Development of a Self-Emulsifying Adjuvant for Use in Swine Vaccines

    • Authors: Rachel Madera et al.
      Abstract: Emulsion-based adjuvants are commonly used in animal vaccine formulations for several reasons including affordability, stability, and efficacy in inducing disease-protecting immune responses. Here we report a novel, cost-effective, stable, self-emulsifying adjuvant (SEA1) that is prepared by a simple low shear process or low-energy mixing without the use of expensive and complex proprietary equipment. Characterization of the SEA1 adjuvant showed good stability at different temperatures (4°C, 20°C, and 37°C) after one month of storage. Minimal changes in droplet size distribution, polydispersity index, Zeta potential and pH in 1-month-old SEA1 preparations were observed when compared with a fresh SEA1 preparation. SEA1 emulsion-based experimental vaccine preparations effectively stimulated humoral immunoglobulin (IgG) responses in mice and swine and were comparable to commercially available adjuvants Montanide ISA 201 and 206.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 13:05:25 PST
       
  • Persistence of African Swine Fever Virus in Feed and Feed Mill Environment
           over Time after Manufacture of Experimentally Inoculated Feed

    • Authors: Grace E. Houston et al.
      Abstract: To reduce the risk of disease from harmful feed-based pathogens, some feed manufacturers quarantine high-risk ingredients prior to their inclusion in feed. Data exist that confirms this practice is effective, but to our knowledge there is no information about porcine pathogen survival in mill environments. The objective of this study was to determine survival of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in swine feed and on mill surfaces after manufacture of experimentally inoculated swine feed. A pilot-scale feed mill was placed within a biosecurity level (BSL) 3 facility to manufacture batches of feed. The priming batch, Batch 1, was ASFV-free feed and was followed with Batch 2 which was experimentally inoculated with ASFV (5.6 × 104 TCID50/gram). Four subsequent ASFV-free batches were then manufactured (Batch 3-6). After each batch of feed, 10 feed samples were aseptically collected in a double ‘X’ pattern. During feed manufacturing, 24 steel coupons were placed on the floor of the manufacturing area and feed dust was allowed to settle onto them overnight. Once feed manufacturing was completed, feed samples and steel coupons were stored at room temperature. On the day of (day 0) and d 3, 7, 14, 28, 60, 90, and 180 after feed manufacturing, feed samples and 3 steel coupons were randomly selected, taken out of storage, and analyzed for ASFV DNA. For feed samples there was a statistically significant (P = 0.023) batch × day interaction for log10 genomic copies per gram of feed, and a marginal statistical significance (P = 0.072) for batch × day interaction for cycle threshold (Ct) values. This indicates that the batch of feed and days held at room temperature impacted the amount of the detectable ASFV DNA in feed samples. There was no evidence (P = 0.433) of ASFV degradation on environmental coupons over the 180-d storage period. This study found that quarantine time can help reduce, but not eliminate ASFV DNA in feed over time. Surprisingly, ASFV DNA is detectable on feed manufacturing surfaces for at least 180 days.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 13:05:24 PST
       
  • Inoculation of Weaned Pigs by Feed, Water, and Airborne Transmission of
           Salmonella enterica Serotype 4,[5],12:i:-

    • Authors: Olivia L. Harrison et al.
      Abstract: Salmonella enterica serotype 4,[5],12:i:- (STM) has become an increasing problem for food safety and has been often detected in pork products. For this study, weanling pigs were exposed to STM-contaminated feed, water, or air to determine possible STM transmission routes. An uninoculated control group of pigs was included. The STM was monitored daily in feces and rectal and nasal swabs. The STM colonization was most prevalent in tissues from tonsil, lower intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes. No differences in lesion severity were observed between inoculated and control pigs. Contaminated feed, water, and aerosolized particles caused infection in weaned pigs; however, no STM colonization was observed in skeletal muscle destined for human consumption. Based on the results from this study, STM contamination in pork products most likely results from cross-contamination of meat by digesta or lymph node tissue during processing.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 13:05:23 PST
       
  • Evaluating a Dry vs. Wet Disinfection in Boot Baths on Detection of
           Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory
           Syndrome Virus RNA

    • Authors: Olivia L. Harrison et al.
      Abstract: Maintaining biosecurity between swine barns is challenging, and boot baths are an easily implementable option some utilize to limit pathogen spread. However, there are concerns regarding their efficacy, especially when comparing wet or dry disinfectants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of boot baths in reducing the quantity of detectable porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genetic material using wet or dry disinfectants. Treatments included 1) control; 2) dry chlorine powder (Traffic C.O.P., PSP, LLC, Rainsville, AL); and 3) wet quaternary ammonium/glutaraldehyde liquid (1:256 Synergize, Neogen, Lexington, KY). Prior to disinfection, rubber boots were inoculated with 1 mL of co-inoculants of PRRSV (1×105TCID50/mL) and PEDV (1×105 TCID50/mL) and dried for 15 min. After the drying period, a researcher placed the boot on the right foot and stepped directly on a stainless steel coupon (control). Alternatively, the researcher stepped first into a boot bath containing either the wet or dry sanitizer, stood for 3 s, and then stepped onto a steel coupon. After one min, an environmental swab was then collected and processed from each boot and steel coupon. The procedure was replicated 12 times per disinfectant treatment. Samples were analyzed using a duplex qPCR at the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Cycle threshold values, which indicate the presence or absence of the inoculants and their relative concentrations when present, were analyzed using SAS GLIMMIX (v. 9.4, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). There was no evidence of a disinfectant × surface × virus interaction (P > 0.10). An interaction between disinfectant × surface impacted (P < 0.05) the quantity of detectable viral RNA. As expected, the quantity of the viruses on the coupon were greatest in the control, indicating that a contaminated boot has the ability to transfer viruses from a contaminated surface to a clean surface. Comparatively, the dry disinfectant treatment resulted in no detectable viral RNA on either the boot or subsequent coupon. The wet disinfectant treatment had statistically similar (P > 0.05) viral contamination to the control on the boot, but less viral contamination compared to the control on the metal coupon. In this experiment, a boot bath with dry powder was the most efficacious in reducing the detectable viral RNA on both boots and subsequent surfaces.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 13:05:22 PST
       
  • Prevalence of Escherichia coli in a Swine Nursery Facility Pre- and
           Post-Disinfection

    • Authors: Macie E. Reeb et al.
      Abstract: During the spring of 2021, the Kansas State University Swine Early Wean Facility (SEW) experienced a notable increase in piglet morbidity and mortality. Piglet diarrhea was observed approximately 2 to 3 weeks post-weaning along with an increase in number of sudden mortalities. Necropsy samples were collected and confirmed for clinical diagnosis of Escherichia coli K88 infection by the Kansas State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. E. coli K88 can negatively impact performance of pigs and typically manifests as diarrhea, which can continue until death because of severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis or from terminal septicemia. Once present, E. coli, including E. coli K88, tends to persist in the environment unless vigorous efforts are successful at sanitation and disinfection. Therefore, the overall objective of this study was to determine the critical areas in need of improved disinfection at the nursery facility and to make recommendations based on environmental sampling results. The research team surveyed the most probable areas of contamination before sampling and identified six locations from which to collect environmental samples in each pen. These six locations, in addition to other common-use areas in the barn, were sampled using sponges and swabs from 10 pens at random both pre- and post-disinfection. After the completion of sampling, samples were enumerated using Sorbitol MacConkey Agar with cefixime and tellurite (CT-SMAC). E. coli was not detected from the common-use areas such as the water lines, office water faucets, and feed buckets. The dirtiest pen sample areas pre-disinfection included under rubber mats, inside and outside of waterers, and the floor slats. Disinfection significantly reduced (P < 0.05) contamination of the floor slats and the waterer (inside and outside). While the slats were initially among the dirtiest samples, after cleaning, a 6.5 log reduction was observed. Conversely, contamination on the feeder surface and lip of the feeder was not significantly reduced post-disinfection (P> 0.05). E. coli was recovered from every sample type post-sanitation. While the current cleaning process was successful in reducing bacterial contamination, these data suggest it could be further improved by using a more effective and thorough cleaning process, as some residual contamination remained. Recommendations might include the use of a stronger disinfectant with power washing, higher water pressure, and increased water temperatures, among others. Perhaps physical scrubbing in hard-to-reach locations, such as rubber mats and water cups might also be helpful.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 13:05:21 PST
       
  • Characterizing Variation in Nursery Pig Growth Performance Based on
           Different Allotment Strategies

    • Authors: Jenna J. Bromm et al.
      Abstract: A total of 360 pigs (200 × 400, DNA; initially 13.8 ± 1.83 lb BW) were used in a 42-d nursery trial to evaluate multiple procedures to allot pigs to pens and pens to treatment in swine nursery research. At placement, pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 different allotment strategies. For the first strategy (random), pigs were allotted to pens using a completely randomized design. For strategy 2 (body weight distribution), pigs were sorted by body weight into 1 of 5 groups. Pigs were then randomly assigned to pen so there was 1 pig from each weight group in each pen to ensure that distribution of body weights within pen was relatively consistent across pens. For strategy 3 (body weight group), pigs were sorted by body weight to create 3 body weight categories: light, medium, and heavy. Within each group, pigs were randomized to pen such that each pen consisted of pigs from a single body weight group (pens of light pigs, pens of medium pigs, pens of heavy pigs). There were 72 pens on test with 5 pigs per pen and 24 pens per allotment strategy. For all allotment strategies, once pigs were allotted to pens, pens were allotted to 1 of 2 environmental enrichment treatments for a concurrent trial. There were no allotment × enrichment treatment interactions (P> 0.10), so only effects of allotment strategy will be described herein. There were no statistical differences in ADG, ADFI, and F/G between allotment strategies at any point in the study or overall. When looking at the coefficient of variation (CV) for pig body weight within each pen, the random or body weight distribution allotment strategies remained relatively consistent over the course of the experiment. Pigs that were grouped by body weight had the lowest within-pen CV at allotment, with CV increasing over the course of the experiment but still being lower than the other two allotment strategies at the conclusion of the trial. For between-pen CV, pigs allotted using the body weight distribution or body weight grouping strategy had the lowest CV on d 0. Pigs allotted using the random strategy had the highest CVs for the entire trial, and pigs allotted using the body weight grouping strategy remained intermediate for the remainder of the trial. The CV of pig body weight within the population was approximately the same for all treatments at allotment. Between d 3 to 21, CV increased the most in pigs allotted using the random strategy, peaking at approximately d 21 and remaining higher than other allotment strategies at the end of the study. The CV for pigs allotted using the body weight distribution and grouping strategies were relatively consistent over the course of the study. Results were used to estimate the replication required with each allotment strategy to obtain significant differences with different percentage responses. The body weight distribution and body weight grouping allotment strategies would require the fewest replications for most response criteria tested. In conclusion, different allotment strategies did not influence average growth performance in any of the 3 phases during the nursery period. However, fewer replications would be required to find similar percentage responses when allotting pigs using the body weight distribution and body weight grouping techniques as compared to the other allotment strategy. When conducting nursery research with pen serving as the experimental unit, the data herein would support that a body weight distribution allotment strategy or body weight grouping strategy would result in the least pen-to-pen variation depending on response.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 10:42:18 PST
       
  • Effects of L-Carnitine Supplemented Throughout all Grow-Finish Phases or
           Only in Late Finishing on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics
           of Pigs

    • Authors: Jamil E. G. Faccin et al.
      Abstract: A total of 1,833 mixed-sex growing-finishing pigs (PIC, 337 × 1050; initially 58.5 ± 1.62 lb) were used in a 112-d growth trial to determine the effects of adding L-Carnitine throughout the entire grow-finishing period or for just the last 28 d before marketing on growth performance and carcass characteristics. There were 26 replicate pens per treatment and 20 (group 1) or 27 (group 2) pigs per pen in a completely randomized design. There were three treatment diets: 1) control with no added L-Carnitine; 2) diets containing 50 ppm of L-Carnitine for the entire trial; and 3) control diet until d 84 and then a diet containing 50 ppm of L-Carnitine. On day 84, half of the control pens were randomly assigned to the diet containing 50 ppm of L-Carnitine. The experimental diets were corn-soybean meal-DDGS-based and were fed in 4 phases. From d 0 to 84, statistical analyses compared the 52 pens of pigs fed the control diets to the 26 pens of pigs that were fed diets with L-Carnitine. From d 85 until market, comparisons were made using all 3 treatments. In the first 28 d, pigs fed L-Carnitine had greater (P < 0.002) BW, ADG, and ADFI and similar F/G (P = 0.459) as those fed the control diet. No evidence for differences (P> 0.13) were observed in growth performance from d 29 to 56 and from d 57 to 84. From d 0 to 84, pigs fed L-Carnitine had a tendency (P = 0.052) for greater ADFI, but there was no evidence (P> 0.14) of differences for ADG, F/G, removals, and mortalities. From d 85 to market and overall, there was no evidence of differences (P> 0.22) for ADG, ADFI, F/G, or removals and mortalities. For carcass traits, no difference (P> 0.54) in HCW, yield, backfat, lean, and loin depth were detected between treatments. In conclusion, added L-Carnitine improved performance in the early grow-finishing phase, but due to greater variation, this statistical difference did not last until market, resulting in the same overall performance. Feeding L-Carnitine only for the last 28 d also did not elicit growth and carcass improvements.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 10:42:17 PST
       
  • Evaluation of In-Barn Feeder Management Prior to Marketing to Reduce Feed
           Cost, Improve Carcass Yield, and Impact on Economic Return

    • Authors: Hilario M. Cordoba et al.
      Abstract: A total of 695 mixed sex growing-finishing pigs (600 × 241, DNA; initially 242.7 ± 1.36 lb) were used in a 14-d trial to determine the effects of feed withdrawal before the first and final marketing event on carcass weight, carcass yield, and economics. Pens of pigs were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were 24 pens per treatment and 9 or 10 pigs per pen. Treatments consisted of none, 6, or 12 h of feeder closure prior to loading pigs on the truck at both the first (2 weeks before final marketing) and final marketing to achieve approximately 12, 18, and 24 h of feed withdrawal prior to harvest at the processing plant. There was no evidence of differences (P ≥ 0.10) for ADG, ADFI, or F/G during the 14-d period between the first and final marketing event. However, pig BW at time of loadout, with 24-h of feed withdrawal prior to harvest were lighter (P < 0.05) than those with only 12 h of feed withdrawal both at first marketing event and the last. Pigs that had access to feed (12 h withdrawal prior to harvest) gained weight during the marketing day, while pigs with 18 or 24 h of feed withdrawal lost weight. For carcass characteristics, pigs at final marketing with 12 h feed withdrawal prior to harvest had increased (P < 0.05) HCW compared to those with 24 h feed withdrawal. There was a tendency (P = 0.055) for a treatment effect with pigs undergoing 12 h feed withdrawal prior to harvest having a 1.1 lb heavier HCW than those with 24 h feed withdrawal. When evaluating carcass yield, using live weights for all pigs 24 h prior to harvest, pigs in the final marketing group with 12 h of feed withdrawal prior to harvest had greater yield (P < 0.05) than those marketed with 24 h of feed withdrawal. However, when evaluating carcass yield using live weights 12 h prior to harvest for the final marketing and overall, pigs marketed at 24 h of feed withdrawal had greater yield (P < 0.05) than the other two treatments. Conversely, in the first marketing event, pigs with 12 h of feed withdrawal had decreased yield compared to pigs with the 18 and 24 h of feed withdrawal treatment. There were no differences in backfat, loin depth, and lean % between treatments. Feed consumed on the day of marketing and feed cost per pig were increased (P< 0.05) for pigs marketed with 12 or 18 h of feed withdrawal prior to harvest compared to those with 24 h feed withdrawal. In conclusion, there were no differences between the treatments on HCW and carcass yield at the first marketing event. However, in the final marketing event, differences were observed between the 12 h feed withdrawal prior to harvest and 24 h feed withdrawal prior to harvest treatments on HCW and carcass yield. Carcass yield was greatest for those with 12 h of feed withdrawal prior to harvest at the final marketing event. Also, as expected, pigs with a longer time of feed withdrawal had reduced feed consumption and feed cost/pig on the day of marketing. Thus, saving in feed cost would have to offset the reduction in carcass weight value to justify withholding feed for greater than 12 h prior to harvest.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 10:42:17 PST
       
  • Effect of Increasing Manganese from Manganese Hydroxychloride on Growth
           Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Economics of Grow-Finish Pigs

    • Authors: Hilario M. Cordoba et al.
      Abstract: A total of 2,025 grow-finish pigs (337 × 1050, PIC; initially 88.0 ± 2.68 lb) were used in a 95-d trial to determine the impact on growth by increasing Mn from Mn hydroxychloride compared to a control diet containing MnSO4. Pigs were housed in mixed gender pens with 27 pigs per pen and 15 pens per treatment. The treatments were structured as a completely randomized design and consisted of a control diet containing 30 ppm of Mn from MnSO4 (Eurochem, Veracruz, Mexico) or 15, 30, 45, or 65 ppm of Mn from Mn hydroxychloride (IBM; IntelliBond M, Micronutrients USA, LLC, Indianapolis, IN). Experimental diets were corn-soybean meal-DDGS-based and were formulated with a premix without Mn and containing 150 ppm of Cu from IntelliBond C (Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN) and 100 ppm of Zn from IntelliBond Z (Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN). Diets were fed in four phases from 88 to 110, 110 to 165, 165 to 220, and 220 to 294 lb. In the grower period (d 0 to 43), F/G was improved (quadratic, P = 0.036) when IBM level increased up to 45 ppm but then worsened thereafter. Overall (d 0 to 95), there was no evidence of difference for any growth or carcass response criteria when comparing the Mn sources at 30 ppm of Mn or when increasing the level of IBM in diets. In conclusion, no differences were observed in this trial with the exception of an improvement in F/G observed in the grower phase as IBM increased up to 45 ppm.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 10:42:16 PST
       
  • A Survey of Added Vitamins and Trace Minerals in Diets Utilized in the
           U.S. Swine Industry

    • Authors: Jamil E. G. Faccin et al.
      Abstract: From November 2021 to February 2022, 37 swine nutritionists representing 29 production systems and 8 nutrition supplier companies in the United States were surveyed about added vitamins and trace mineral concentrations in swine diets. Respondents were asked to provide vitamin and trace mineral inclusion rates, weight ranges associated with each dietary phase, and number of sows utilizing their nutritional recommendations. Survey participants represented 4.38 million sows, or 72% of the U.S. industry. Data were compiled into 3 nursery phases (weaning to 15 lb; 15 to 25 lb; and 25 to 50 lb), 3 finishing phases (50 to 120; 120 to 220; and 220 lb to market), gilt development, gestation, lactation, and boar diets. Within each dietary phase, the vitamins and trace minerals of interest included: vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12, choline, vitamin C, carnitine, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc, cobalt, and chromium. Descriptive statistics used included: average, weighted average (determined by the total number of sows), median, minimum, maximum, 25th percentile (lowest quartile), and 75th percentile (highest quartile). In addition, all average vitamin and trace mineral concentrations within each phase of production were compared to the requirement estimates reported in the NRC. The results of this survey follow similar trends observed in a previous survey in 2016. Nutritionists generally supplemented vitamins and trace minerals well above the NRC (2012) requirements. However, greater variation among respondents was observed in all vitamins and trace minerals, particularly in the fat soluble vitamins. Also, the use of alternative sources of vitamin D (25-OH-D3), E (natural, d-alpha-tocopherol), and organic or chelated minerals like copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc is becoming more frequent. In addition, comparisons to the most recent NRC (2012) requirement estimates highlight the necessity of future research to better understand vitamin and trace mineral requirements in swine diets.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 16:04:52 PST
       
  • Effects of Increased Vitamin Premix Inclusion Rate on Growth Performance
           of Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Hilario M. Cordoba et al.
      Abstract: A total of 1,080 mixed sex pigs (337 × 1050, PIC; initially 63.1 ± 0.87 lb) were used in a 123-d growth trial to determine the effects of vitamin premix inclusion rate on growing-finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. Pens of pigs were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design. There were 20 replicate pens/treatment and 27 pigs/pen. The experimental diets were corn-soybean meal-based and were fed in 4 phases from 63 to 110, 110 to 160, 160 to 220, and 220 to 293 lb. Pigs were fed 1 of 2 levels of a vitamin premix (control and double) that contained: 750,000 IU vitamin A acetate; 300,000 IU vitamin D; 8,000 mg vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate); 600 mg vitamin K (menadione); 6 mg vitamin B₁₂; 9,000 mg niacin; 5,000 mg pantothenic acid; and 1,500 mg riboflavin per lb. The inclusion rate per phase was 3, 2.5, 2, and 1.5 lb/ton, respectively, for the control, or the same premix added at double rate in each phase for the high vitamin fortification. Overall (d 0 to 123), there was no evidence for difference (P> 0.10) in ADG, ADFI, and F/G. Also, no statistical difference was observed (P> 0.10) for final BW, HCW, or any carcass characteristic. In conclusion, doubling the inclusion rate of a common vitamin premix did not influence growth and carcass traits in growing-finishing pigs.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 16:04:52 PST
       
  • Effects of Fat Source and Level on Growth Performance, Carcass
           Characteristics, Carcass Iodine Value and Economics of Finishing Pigs in a
           Commercial Environment

    • Authors: Jenna J. Bromm et al.
      Abstract: A total of 2,011 pigs (PIC 1050 × DNA 600; initially 62.4 ± 4.6 lb) were used in a 113-d finishing trial to evaluate the effects of two different fat sources fed at two different levels on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass iodine value, and economics of finishing pigs raised in a commercial environment. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 21 to 27 pigs per pen and 16 pens per treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of fat source and fat inclusion level. Dietary treatments included a control diet containing no added fat. The other 4 dietary treatments included two different fat sources, choice white grease or corn oil, included at either 1 or 3% of the diet. Experimental diets were fed based on a feed budget from d 0 to 113 in 6 phases. For overall growth performance, pigs fed increasing dietary fat from 0 to 3% had increased (linear, P < 0.001) ADG and decreased (linear, P = 0.013) ADFI, which led to an improvement (linear, P < 0.001) in F/G. There was no difference in growth performance between pigs fed choice white grease or corn oil. For carcass characteristics, increasing fat increased (linear, P ≤ 0.017) HCW, carcass yield, and backfat. For carcass fat iodine value, there was a fat source × level interaction (P < 0.001) where iodine value increased linearly as corn oil increased in the diet with only a small increase in iodine value when diets with choice white grease were fed. For economics, increasing fat, regardless of fat source, increased feed cost (linear, P < 0.001) and revenue (linear, P = 0.003). Increasing fat reduced (linear, P < 0.001) IOFC in the high feed cost, low revenue scenario, and tended to increase (P = 0.060) IOFC in the low feed cost, high revenue scenario. In conclusion, increasing fat from 0 to 3% of the diet, regardless of fat source, increased overall ADG, reduced ADFI, and improved F/G. Increasing fat also increased HCW, carcass yield, and backfat, while pigs fed diets containing corn oil had higher carcass fat iodine values. When feed costs are high and revenue is low, the improvement in growth performance does not justify the extra diet cost from increasing added fat from 0 to 3% in the diet. However, adding fat in the diet is justifiable when feed costs are low and revenue is high, regardless of fat source used.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 16:04:51 PST
       
  • Effects of Extruded-Expelled Soybean Meal and Benzoic Acid on Growth
           Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Carcass Iodine Value of
           Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Jenna J. Bromm et al.
      Abstract: A total of 2,162 pigs (PIC 1050 × DNA 600; initially 69.2 ± 4.9 lb) were used in a 109-d finishing trial to evaluate the effects of extruded-expelled soybean meal (EESBM) and benzoic acid on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass iodine value. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 27 to 28 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of soybean meal source and benzoic acid. Diets contained either conventional soybean meal (SBM) or extruded-expelled soybean meal (EESBM; Lester Feed and Grain, Lester, IA) with or without 0.25% VevoVitall (DSM Products; Parsippany, NJ), a source of benzoic acid. The EESBM was analyzed to be 43.2% CP and 7.73% fat (acid hydrolysis). Experimental diets were not balanced for energy, but rather formulated to the same SID Lys:ME ratio and fed based on a feed budget from d 0 to 109 in 6 phases. Overall (d 0 to 109), there were no interactions between soybean meal source and benzoic acid addition. There was a main effect of soybean meal source where pigs fed conventional SBM had greater (P = 0.01) ADFI compared to pigs fed EESBM without influencing ADG, resulting in improved (P
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 16:04:50 PST
       
  • Effects of Increasing Fat Levels in Diets Containing 40% Distillers Dried
           Grains with Solubles on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in
           Commercial Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Jenna J. Bromm et al.
      Abstract: A total of 2,160 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 82.26 lb) were used in two groups to evaluate the effects of increasing added fat levels in diets containing high levels of DDGS on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were blocked by initial BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 27 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Three of the four dietary treatments included increasing percentages of added fat (choice white grease; 0, 1, or 3%). The final treatment was fed the control diet without added fat until pigs were approximately 220 lb and then pigs were fed a diet containing 3% added fat until market. Overall, increasing fat from 0 to 3% of the diet led to a decrease (linear, P = 0.006) in ADFI and improvement (linear, P = 0.007) in overall F/G. Pigs fed diets containing 3% added fat had the lowest ADFI and improved F/G compared to pigs fed diets containing 0% fat, with the other treatments intermediate. There was a tendency for a linear increase (P = 0.055) in HCW with increasing fat, where pigs fed the 3% fat diet for the entire trial tended to have the heaviest HCW. Increasing fat increased (linear, P < 0.001) feed cost per pig and feed cost per lb of gain. This ultimately reduced (linear, P < 0.001) income over feed cost (IOFC) for both the low and high cost scenarios. Pigs fed diets containing 3% added fat had the lowest IOFC compared to pigs fed diets containing no added fat, with the other two treatments intermediate. In conclusion, increasing levels of added fat in the diet from 0 to 3% throughout the duration of the study reduced ADFI with no effect on ADG, resulting in an improvement in F/G. When pigs fed the diet without added fat were transitioned to a diet containing 3% added fat on d 69, they had similar F/G compared to pigs fed 3% added fat during the remainder of the trial. Under both low and high cost scenarios tested, the improvement in feed efficiency does not justify the extra diet cost from increasing added fat in the diet for the entire trial or in late finishing.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 16:04:50 PST
       
  • Effects of Increasing Soybean Meal and Valine:Lysine and Tryptophan:Lysine
           Ratios on Finishing Pig Performance

    • Authors: Macie E. Reeb et al.
      Abstract: A total of 621 pigs (DNA 241 × 600; initially 138.0 ± 5.5 lb) were used in a 65-d growth trial to determine the effect of increasing soybean meal (SBM) and Val:Lys and Trp:Lys ratios on finishing pig performance. Experimental diets were corn-soybean meal-DDGS-based and fed in 3 phases. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial with main effects of SBM level (low, medium, high) and Val:Lys and Trp:Lys ratios (standard and high). The additional amino acids (AA) provided by increasing levels of SBM in diets with standard AA ratios were expected to result in a higher ADG by balancing out the high leucine from corn. Conversely, ADG was expected to stay the same as SBM increased when the Val:Lys and Trp:Lys ratios in the feed were increased. Pens of pigs were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design with BW as a blocking factor. There were approximately 8 or 9 pigs per pen and 12 replicate pens per treatment. No evidence (P> 0.05) of SBM × AA ratio interactions or treatment differences were observed for any response criteria for phases 1 and 2 of the study. In phase 3, a marginally significant (P = 0.084) SBM × AA ratio interaction was observed for ADG. The medium level of SBM with standard Val:Lys and Trp:Lys ratios resulted in greater (quadratic, P = 0.003) ADG compared to other SBM levels. No differences in ADG were observed with increasing SBM when Val:Lys and Trp:Lys ratios were increased (P = 0.501). Additionally, F/G improved (quadratic, P = 0.007) at the medium level of SBM in phase 3. In spite of the improvement observed in phase 3, there were no significant differences (P> 0.10) observed in overall ADG or ADFI. A marginally significant (P = 0.052) SBM × AA ratio interaction was observed for overall F/G. Increasing SBM in diets with greater Val:Lys and Trp:Lys ratios resulted in poorer (P = 0.049) F/G. There was no difference (P = 0.435) in F/G observed with increasing SBM in feeds with standard Val:Lys and Trp:Lys ratios. In conclusion, in early finishing there were no responses to increasing SBM; however, in the late finishing period when diets included 0, 4, or 8% SBM, pigs fed 4% SBM diets with standard BCAA ratios had improved ADG and F/G. Throughout the study, increasing Val:Lys and Trp:Lys ratios had little effect on pig performance.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 16:04:49 PST
       
  • Comparing Increasing Tryptophan:Lysine Ratios in DDGS-Based Diets with or
           without a DDGS Withdrawal Strategy on Growth Performance and Iodine Value
           of Growing-Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Mikayla S. Spinler et al.
      Abstract: A total of 6,240 pigs (DNA 600 × PIC 1050; initially 49.7 × 2.23 lb), divided into 2 groups, were used in a 119- or 120-d study to compare increasing the Trp:Lys ratio in diets with DDGS or a DDGS withdrawal strategy on growth performance and carcass fat iodine value of grow-finish pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 7 dietary treatments with 30 to 36 pigs per pen and 26 replications per treatment. Diets were fed in 4 phases (approximately 50 to 96, 96 to 157, 157 to 220, and 220 lb to market). Diets included a control corn-soybean meal-based diet formulated to a 19% SID Trp:Lys ratio; 4 diets with 30% DDGS fed in all four phases and formulated to achieve a 16%, 19%, 22%, or 25% SID Trp:Lys ratio, respectively; and 2 DDGS withdrawal strategy diets: 19% SID Trp:Lys with 30% DDGS in phases 1 through 3 and then 0% DDGS in phase 4 with either a 19 or 25% Trp:Lys ratio. Overall, BW, ADG, ADFI, and F/G improved (linear, P < 0.05) as the SID Trp:Lys ratio increased in diets with 30% DDGS fed in all 4 phases. Hot carcass weight and carcass yield increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as the Trp:Lys ratio increased along with backfat depth (linear, P = 0.040). Pigs fed diets containing a SID Trp:Lys ratio of 19% and 30% DDGS from phases 1 through 3 and 0% DDGS in phase 4 had the greatest numeric ADG and ADFI for the overall study, but were not different than pigs fed the control, the 25% Trp:Lys withdrawal treatment, or the 30% DDGS diets with 25% Trp:Lys ratio throughout the study. Pigs fed the control diet had decreased (P < 0.05) carcass fat iodine value compared to pigs fed DDGS throughout the study, with pigs fed the two DDGS withdrawal strategies having lower (P < 0.05) iodine values compared to pigs fed 30% DDGS in all 4 phases. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in revenue per pen or IOFC per pen were observed, however, feed cost per lb of gain (quadratic, P = 0.001) and feed cost per pig placed (linear, P = 0.002) increased and revenue per pig placed tended to increase (P = 0.064) as the Trp:Lys ratio increased. In summary, increasing the SID Trp:Lys ratio in diets with 30% DDGS resulted in a linear improvement in ADG, ADFI, F/G, and BW but did not influence iodine values. Removing DDGS from the diet in the last period reduced carcass fat iodine value and increased growth rate during the withdrawal period compared to pigs fed 30% DDGS throughout, indicating value in a withdrawal strategy.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 16:04:48 PST
       
  • Effects of Added Potassium to Diets with High or and Low Crystalline
           Lysine on Finishing Pig Growth Performance

    • Authors: Rafe Q. Royall et al.
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of balancing dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) levels, via added potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), to diets containing low or high levels of L-Lys HCL on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 1,944 pigs (PIC L337 × 1050; initially 77.6 ± 1.88 lb BW) were used in a 120-d study to determine the effect of added potassium bicarbonate to diets containing low or high levels of crystalline lysine on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of KHCO3 (0 vs. 0.4%), and L-Lys HCl level (low vs. high). There were 27 pigs per pen and 18 replicates per treatment and a similar number of barrows and gilts placed in each pen. Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal-based and formulated in four dietary phases (approximately 80 to 130 lb, 130 to 185 lb, 185 to 230 lb, and 230 to 285 lb). Dietary treatments were formulated such that in each phase the diet containing a low level of L-Lys HCl without KHCO3 and the diet containing a high level of L-Lys HCl with KHCO3, had similar calculated DCAD values. Additionally, the diet with a low level of L-Lys HCl with KHCO3 was formulated to have the highest DCAD in each phase, while the diet with a high level of L-Lys HCl without KHCO3 was formulated to have the lowest DCAD. Overall, there was no evidence (P> 0.10) for a KHCO3 × L-Lys HCl interaction or main effect for final BW or any observed growth response or carcass characteristics. The results of this study suggest that supplementing KHCO3 to finishing pig diets with either high or low levels of L-Lys HCl and the corresponding changes in DCAD values did not impact growth performance or carcass characteristics.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:52:30 PST
       
  • Effects of Feeding Increasing Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine on
           Growth Performance of 26- to 300-lb PIC Line 800-Sired Pigs

    • Authors: Katelyn N. Gaffield et al.
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and economic returns of PIC 800 × 1050 pigs fed increasing SID Lys from approximately 26 to 300 lb. Pens of pigs were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 26 pigs per pen and 16 pens per treatment. Pens were provided 1 of 5 dietary treatments with increasing SID Lys at 85, 93, 100, 107, and 115% of current PIC recommendations within 6 different phases. Two base diets containing low Lys and high Lys were blended to meet target SID Lys levels for each treatment diet within phase. For the overall experimental period (d 0 to 143), feeding increasing SID Lys improved (linear, P ≤ 0.007) ADG and F/G, but did not impact ADFI (P> 0.10). For carcass characteristics, a tendency (linear, P = 0.067) for increased HCW of pigs that were provided increasing SID Lys was observed. However, there was no evidence for differences (P> 0.10) across treatments in carcass yield, backfat depth, loin depth, or carcass lean percentage. Increasing SID Lys of the diets increased (linear, P 0.10) in revenue for either ingredient price scenario, thus, feeding increasing levels of SID Lys reduced (linear, P < 0.001) income over feed cost (IOFC) in both scenarios. The linear model (LM) served as the best fit for both growth and economic parameters. The LM model predicted maximum ADG and minimal F/G at levels greater than 115% of PIC’s current SID Lys recommendations. For IOFC, the LM model predicted maximum profitability at or below 85% of PIC’s current Lys recommendations. In conclusion, the optimal SID Lys level for PIC 800 × 1050 pigs from 26- to 300-lb depends upon the response criteria, with growth performance maximized at levels at or above 115% of PIC’s recommendation for SID Lys; however, economic responses were maximized at or below 85% of PIC’s current SID Lys recommendations.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:52:29 PST
       
  • Effects of Increasing Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine on Growth
           Performance of 40- to 90-Pound DNA Pigs

    • Authors: Rafe Q. Royall et al.
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate the SID Lys requirement for growth and feed efficiency of 40- to 90-lb DNA pigs. A total of 300 pigs (600 × 241, DNA; initially 40.6 ± 1.11 lb) were used in a 24-d trial. Pens of pigs were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based and formulated to contain 1.00, 1.10, 1.20, 1.30, 1.40, and 1.50% SID Lys. Increasing SID Lys increased (linear, P = 0.003) ADG, decreased (linear, P = 0.012) ADFI, and improved (linear, P < 0.001) feed efficiency. While these responses were linear, the greatest improvement in growth performance was observed as SID Lys increased from 1.00 to 1.10%. Although increasing SID Lys further slightly improved performance, the change was not great enough to economically justify feeding greater than 1.10% SID Lys. The quadratic polynomial model to maximize ADG predicted the maximum growth at 1.41% SID Lys. For F/G, the broken-line linear model predicted no further improvement past 1.35% SID Lys, while a similar fitting quadratic polynomial model predicted the optimum feed efficiency beyond the highest tested level of SID Lys. Additionally, the broken-line linear model for income over feed cost (IOFC) predicted maximum economic return at or below 1.12% SID Lys. In summary, the optimal SID Lys level for DNA pigs from 40 to 90 lb depends upon the response criteria, with growth performance maximized between 1.35 and> 1.50% SID Lys; however, economic responses were maximized at or below 1.12% SID Lys.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:52:28 PST
       
  • Modeling Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine to Calorie Ratio in 27- to
           260-lb Genesus Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Hilario M. Cordoba et al.
      Abstract: The first of two objectives of this study was to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys to calorie ratio (SID Lys:NE) for optimal performance of Genesus (Oakville, Manitoba, Canada) pigs from 27 to 260 lb. A second objective was to build a calculator tool to help nutritionists and producers when formulating diets with Genesus pigs. A total of 4,485 late nursery and 5,200 grow-finishing mixed-gender pigs were used in 4 and 5 studies, respectively. Studies were conducted by Genesus and results of these experiments were provided to the Kansas State University Applied Swine Nutrition Team for analysis and modeling. Diets from each trial were reformulated to obtain the dietary nutrient content using the NRC 2012 ingredient library. Growth performance and diet nutrient content were used in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to determine grams of SID Lys intake per kilogram of gain, SID Lys:NE, and NE intake. To select the optimum Lys level from each phase of the trials, ADG and F/G were evaluated. Regression equations for SID Lys per kilogram of gain, SID Lys:NE, and NE intake were generated by using the performance at the optimum Lys values in each phase. The equation for the optimal Lys:calorie ratio is: SID Lys:NE (g/Mcal) = -0.0112195247 × Average BW (lb) + 5.3408676477. The developed equations were then used to build the calculator tool available at www.KSUswine.org. In conclusion, the results showed a quadratic response when calculating Lys intake per kilogram of gain and NE intake (kcal/d), and a linear response in the SID Lys:NE for pigs between 27 to 260 lb of BW. The calculator tool provides information about SID Lys requirements to formulate diets for maximum performance for Genesus pigs from 27 to 260 lb. Further research is needed to accurately estimate the SID Lys requirements of pigs beyond 260 lb.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:52:28 PST
       
  • Determining the Phosphorus Release Curve for Smizyme TS G5 2,500 Phytase
           from 500 to 2,500 FTU/kg in Nursery Pig Diets

    • Authors: Katelyn N. Gaffield et al.
      Abstract: A total of 320 pigs (DNA 241 × 600; initially 26.2 ± 0.48 lb BW) were used in a 21-d growth study to determine the available P (aP) release curve for Smizyme TS G5 2,500 (Barentz, Woodbury, MN). At approximately 19 d of age, pigs were weaned, randomly allotted to pens, and fed common starter diets. Pigs were blocked by average pen body weight (BW) and randomly allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments on d 18 post-weaning, considered d 0 of the study. Dietary treatments were derived from a single basal diet and ingredients including phytase, monocalcium P, limestone, and sand were added to create the treatment diets. Treatments included 3 diets containing increasing (0.11, 0.19, and 0.27%) inorganic P from monocalcium P, or 5 diets with increasing phytase (500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, or 2,500 FTU/kg) added to the diet containing 0.11% aP. All diets were corn-soybean meal-canola meal-based and were formulated to contain 1.24% SID Lys and an analyzed Ca:P ratio of 1.10:1. Prior to the beginning of the study, all pigs were fed a diet containing 0.11% aP for a 2-d period (d 16 to 18 post-weaning). At the conclusion of the study, 1 pig, closest to the mean weight of each pen, was euthanized and the right fibula, rib, and metacarpal were collected to determine bone ash, density, and total bone P. For the overall experimental period, pigs fed increasing inorganic P had improved (quadratic, P ≤ 0.053) ADG, ADFI, F/G, and final BW. Pigs fed increasing phytase had improved (quadratic, P ≤ 0.004) ADG, F/G, and final BW and increased (linear, P = 0.019) ADFI. For fibula, rib, and metacarpal characteristics, pigs fed increasing levels of aP from inorganic P had increased (linear, P < 0.001) bone ash weight, bone ash percentage, bone density, and bone P. Additionally, pigs fed increasing phytase had increased (P < 0.05) bone ash weight, bone ash percentage, bone density, and bone P in either a linear or quadratic manner depending upon bone. The available P release curve generated for Smizyme TS G5 2,500 for percentage bone ash is: aP = (0.219 × FTU) ÷ (993.238 + FTU).
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:52:27 PST
       
  • The Impact of Dietary Analyzed Calcium to Phosphorus Ratios and
           Standardized Total Tract Digestible Phosphorus to Net Energy Ratios on
           Growth Performance, Bone, and Carcass Characteristics of Pigs

    • Authors: Hadley R. Williams et al.
      Abstract: A total of 2,184 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 27.3 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding varying analyzed calcium to phosphorus (Ca:P) ratios at two levels of standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P:NE. Pens of pigs (26 pigs per pen) were assigned to 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 14 pens per treatment. Diets consisted of two levels of STTD P:NE, including the PIC recommendation (1.8, 1.62, 1.43, 1.25, 1.10, and 0.99 g STTD P/Mcal NE from 25 to 50, 50 to 90, 90 to 130, 130 to 180, 180 to 230, and 230 to 280 lb, respectively); or 75% of the PIC recommendation, and 3 analyzed Ca:P ratios: 0.90:1, 1.30:1, and 1.75:1. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based and contained phytase (Quantum Blue G, AB Vista, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK); 500 to 210 FTU/kg with release values from 0.13 to 0.07% STTD P. There was a Ca:P × STTD P:NE interaction (P < 0.05) observed for average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (F/G), and final body weight (BW). For ADG and final BW, when feeding 75% of PIC STTD P recommendation, increasing the analyzed Ca:P ratio decreased ADG and final BW (linear, P < 0.001). However, when feeding the PIC STTD P recommendation, increasing the analyzed Ca:P ratio tended to improve ADG and final BW (linear, P < 0.10). For F/G, when feeding 75% of the PIC STTD P recommendation, increasing the analyzed Ca:P ratio tended to worsen F/G (linear, P < 0.10), whereas in pigs fed diets that met PIC STTD P recommendations, increasing the analyzed Ca:P ratio tended to improve F/G in a quadratic (P < 0.10) manner. Despite the interactions, pigs fed the PIC STTD P recommendations had increased ADG, final BW, and improved F/G compared to pigs fed 75% of PIC STTD P recommendations (P < 0.001). In summary, pigs fed at PIC STTD P recommendations had improved overall ADG and F/G compared to pigs fed diets at 75% of PIC STTD P recommendations. Additionally, increasing the analyzed Ca:P ratio worsened ADG and F/G when STTD P was below PIC recommendations but had marginal impacts when adequate STTD P was fed.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:52:26 PST
       
  • The Effect of Different Bone and Analytical Methods on the Assessment of
           Bone Mineralization to Dietary Phosphorus, Phytase, and Vitamin D in
           Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Hadley R. Williams et al.
      Abstract: Eight hundred eighty-two pigs (initially 73.2 ± 0.7 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of different bones and analytical methods on the assessment of bone mineralization response to dietary P and vitamin D in growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs (20 pigs per pen) were randomized to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with 9 pens per treatment. Treatments were formulated to have varying levels of P, phytase, and vitamin D to potentially provide wide differences in bone characteristics. After feeding diets for 112 d, nine pigs per treatment were euthanized for bone, blood, and urine analysis. There were no significant differences for final BW, ADG, ADFI, F/G (P > 0.10), or bone ash (bone ash × bone interaction, P > 0.10) regardless of the ashing method. The response to treatment for bone density and bone mineral content was dependent upon the bone (density interaction, P = 0.053; mineral interaction, P = 0.078). There were no treatment differences for bone density and bone mineral content for metacarpals, fibulas, and 2nd rib (P> 0.05). For 10th rib bone density, pigs fed industry levels of P and vitamin D had increased (P < 0.05) bone density compared to pigs fed NRC levels with phytase, with pigs fed deficient P, NRC levels of P with no phytase, and extra 25(OH)D3 vitamin D (HyD) intermediate. Pigs fed extra vitamin D from HyD had increased (P < 0.05) 10th rib bone mineral content compared to pigs fed deficient P and NRC levels of P with phytase, with pigs fed industry P and vitamin D, and NRC P with monocalcium intermediate. In summary, bone density and bone mineral content responses varied depending on the bone. The difference between bone ash procedures was more apparent than the differences between diets. Differences in bone density and mineral content in response to P and vitamin D were most apparent with the 10th ribs.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:52:25 PST
       
  • The Effect of Bone and Analytical Methods on the Assessment of Bone
           Mineralization Response to Dietary Phosphorus, Phytase, and Vitamin D in
           Nursery Pigs

    • Authors: Hadley R. Williams et al.
      Abstract: Three hundred-fifty pigs (initially 26.2 ± 1.23 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of bone and analytical methods on the assessment of bone mineralization response to dietary P and vitamin D in nursery pigs. Pens of pigs (5 or 6 pigs/pen) were randomized to 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 10 pens per treatment. Treatments were formulated to have varying levels of P, phytase, and vitamin D to provide differences in bone characteristics. After feeding diets for 28 d, eight pigs per treatment were euthanized for bone, blood, and urine analysis. The response to treatment for bone density and ash was dependent upon the bone analyzed (density × bone interaction, P = 0.044; non-defatted bone ash × bone interaction, P = 0.060; defatted bone ash × bone interaction, P = 0.068). Pigs fed 0.19% STTD P had decreased (P < 0.05) bone density and ash (non-defatted and defatted) for all bones compared to 0.44% STTD P, with 0.33% STTD P generally intermediate or similar to 0.44% STTD P. Pigs fed 0.44% STTD P with no vitamin D had greater (P < 0.05) non-defatted fibula ash compared to all treatments other than 0.44% STTD P with added HyD. Pigs fed the three diets with 0.44% STTD P had greater (P < 0.05) defatted 2nd rib ash compared to pigs fed 0.19% STTD P or 0.33% STTD P with no phytase. In summary, bone density and ash responses varied depending on the bone analyzed. Differences in bone density and ash in response to P and vitamin D were most apparent with fibulas and 2nd ribs. The difference between bone ash procedures was more apparent than the differences between treatments. For histopathology, 10th ribs were more sensitive than 2nd ribs or fibulas for detection of lesions.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:52:24 PST
       
  • Evaluation of a Dried Fermentation Product Administered Through Drinking
           Water on Nursery Pig Growth Performance, Fecal Consistency, and Antibiotic
           Injections

    • Authors: Alan J. Warner et al.
      Abstract: A total of 350 barrows (DNA 200 × 400; initially 13.5 ± 0.02 lb) were used in a 42-d study to evaluate the effects of a dried fermentation product administered through drinking water on nursery pig growth performance, antibiotic injection frequency, fecal consistency, and fecal Escherichia coli presence. Upon arrival to the nursery research facility, pigs were randomly assigned to pens (5 pigs per pen) and pens were allotted to 1 of 2 water treatments with 35 pens per treatment. Water treatments were provided with or without a fermentation product administered through the water lines at a 1:128 dilution rate from d 0 to 14 after weaning. From d 0 to 14, 14 to 42, and for the overall experiment, there was no evidence (P> 0.10) for differences observed for any growth performance criteria. There was evidence (P < 0.05) for day effect on diarrhea presence. Diarrhea presence increased on d 4 and 6, then decreased to low levels. There was no evidence for the fermentation product to influence diarrhea incidence. For antibiotic injections, there was no evidence (P> 0.10) for differences observed between treatments. Mortalities were low, with no evidence (P> 0.10) for differences observed between treatments for removals or mortalities. For fecal dry matter on d 7 and 14, there was no evidence (P> 0.10) for differences observed between treatments. In summary, under these experimental conditions, administering a dried fermentation product for the first 14 d in the nursery through the drinking water did not improve growth performance, fecal dry matter, diarrhea presence, antibiotic injections, or removals and mortalities in nursery pigs. Further evaluation of the dried fermentation product in commercial facilities with greater diarrhea and mortality is needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 15:30:46 PST
       
  • Evaluation of a Dried Fermentation Product Administered Through Drinking
           Water in a Commercial Environment on Nursery Pig Mortalities, Antibiotic
           Injections, and Growth Performance

    • Authors: Alan J. Warner et al.
      Abstract: A total of 34,399 commercial nursery pigs (initially 12.2 lb) were used in 20 nursery barns with 10 barns per treatment to determine the effectiveness of a dried fermentation product (DFP) on nursery pig mortalities, antibiotic injection frequency, and close-out growth performance. The target dosage of the DFP for the first 14 d was 35 mg/kg BW based on the actual dosage of a previous experiment. Following the 14-d supplementation period, pigs continued to be monitored until they were moved from the barn at approximately d 45. The first 6 replicates consisted of the DFP as the sole source of water additive from d 0 to 14, while the last 4 replicates included water-soluble antibiotics with the DFP. During the supplementation period, there was no evidence that the DFP influenced the percentage of pigs that died or total mortality. However, the DFP reduced the percentage of pigs that were euthanized. During the common period, the DFP increased the percentage of pigs euthanized and tended to increase mortality percentage. For the overall experiment, providing the DFP did not influence growth performance. When providing the DFP, there was an increase in the percentage of pigs requiring euthanasia and therefore an increase in overall mortality. For injections, providing the DFP for the first 14 d reduced the number of pigs injected from d 14 to d 45 by the end of the nursery and the overall nursery period.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 15:30:44 PST
       
  • Evaluating the Effects of Benzoic Acid on Finishing Pig Growth Performance

    • Authors: Katelyn N. Gaffield et al.
      Abstract: A total of 2,106 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 73.5 ± 4.21 lb) were used in a 101-d growth study to evaluate the effects of dietary benzoic acid level on grow-finish pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. Pens of pigs (27 pigs per pen) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 13 pens per treatment. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-DDGS-based with an inclusion of none, 0.25, or 0.50% benzoic acid (VevoVitall, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ). Diets were fed in 4 phases from 74 to 110, 110 to 165, 165 to 220, and 220 to 290 lb body weight. In the grower period (d 0 to 44), there was no evidence of differences (P > 0.10) for pigs fed increasing benzoic acid for any growth response criteria. For the finisher period (d 44 to 101) and overall (d 0 to 101), increasing benzoic acid tended to increase ADFI (linear, P < 0.10) and worsen F/G (linear, P 0.10) for the overall experimental period. For carcass characteristics, no evidence of differences (P > 0.10) were observed. In conclusion, these data suggest that feeding benzoic acid in the grow-finish period had no impact on ADG, but tended to increase ADFI and worsen F/G.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 15:30:43 PST
       
  • Effect of Benzoic Acid Feeding Strategy on Weanling Pig Growth Performance
           and Fecal Dry Matter

    • Authors: Katelyn N. Gaffield et al.
      Abstract: A total of 350 weanling barrows (DNA 200 × 400, DNA; initially 13.0 ± 0.08 lb) were used in a 38-d study to evaluate the effects of different benzoic acid feeding strategies on nursery growth performance and fecal dry matter. Pigs were randomly assigned to pens (5 pigs per pen) and pens were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 14 pens per treatment. Diets were fed in 3 phases: phase 1 from weaning to d 10, phase 2 from d 10 to 18, and phase 3 from d 18 to 38. Dietary treatments were formulated to provide 0, 0.25, or 0.50% benzoic acid (VevoVitall, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ) added at the expense of corn. Treatment 1 served as the control without benzoic acid throughout all three dietary phases. Inversely, treatment 2 included 0.50% benzoic acid throughout all three phases. Treatment 3 contained 0.50% benzoic acid for phase 1 and phase 2, and 0.25% benzoic acid in phase 3. Treatment 4 contained 0.50% benzoic acid for phase 1 and phase 2, but no benzoic acid in phase 3. Finally, treatment 5 contained 0.50% benzoic acid in phase 1, 0.25% benzoic acid in phase 2, and no benzoic acid in phase 3. From d 0 to 10 (phase 1), pigs fed 0.50% benzoic acid had increased (P = 0.034) ADG, improved (P = 0.049) F/G, and were heavier (P = 0.040) on d 10 than those fed the control diet. From d 10 to 18 (phase 2), pigs fed 0.50% benzoic acid had increased (P < 0.01) ADG compared to pigs fed either none or 0.25% benzoic acid, while pigs fed 0.25% benzoic acid had poorer (P < 0.001) feed efficiency compared to pigs fed 0 or 0.50% benzoic acid. From d 18 to 38 (phase 3), pigs fed 0.50% and 0.25% benzoic acid had increased (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI compared with pigs fed no benzoic acid. For the overall experimental period (d 0 to 38), pigs fed 0.50% in the first two phases and 0.25% benzoic acid in the final phase had a greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed no benzoic acid through all three phases, or pigs fed 0.50% in the first two phases and no benzoic acid in the final phase, with the other treatments intermediate. Additionally, pigs fed 0.50% in the first two phases and 0.25% benzoic acid in the final phase had improved (P < 0.05) F/G compared with pigs fed no benzoic acid throughout all three phases, pigs fed 0.50% in the first two phases and no benzoic acid in the third phase, or pigs fed 0.50%, 0.25%, and no benzoic acid, respectively. There was no evidence for differences (P > 0.10) in fecal DM among treatments for samples collected on d 10 or d 18. These data suggests that nursery pigs fed benzoic acid had improved growth performance compared to control pigs. However, when the benzoic acid was removed from the diet before the end of the nursery phase, the pigs experienced a reduction in performance which resulted in similar overall nursery performance to the control diet without benzoic acid.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 13:17:13 PST
       
  • Effects of Varying the Acid-Binding Capacity-4 in Diets Utilizing
           Specialty Soy Products with or without Pharmacological Levels of Zinc on
           Nursery Pig Performance

    • Authors: Ethan B. Stas et al.
      Abstract: A total of 1,057 pigs (PIC TR4 × [Fast LW × PIC L02]; initially 13.7 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of acid-binding capacity-4 (ABC-4) with or without pharmacological levels of Zn on nursery pig performance. At weaning, pigs were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on initial weight. There were 22 pigs per pen and 12 replications per treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial consisting of a low and high ABC-4 level with or without pharmacological levels of Zn provided by ZnO. The low ABC-4 diets contained 13.0 and 10.75% novel soy protein concentrate (AX3 Digest; Protekta; Plainfield, IN) in phase 1 and 2, respectively. The high ABC-4 diets contained 15.85 and 13.15% enzymatically treated soybean meal (HP 300; Hamlet Protein; Findlay, OH) in phase 1 and 2, respectively, replacing the soy protein concentrate on an SID Lys basis. The low ABC-4 diets without ZnO were formulated to 150 and 200 meq in phase 1 and 2, respectively. Replacing novel soy protein concentrate with enzymatically treated soybean meal increased the ABC-4 of the diet by approximately 104 to 127 meq/kg. Diets with added ZnO increased the ABC-4 of the diet by approximately 60 to 65 meq/kg. Pigs were fed experimental diets during phase 1 (d 0 to 7) and phase 2 (d 7 to 21). Following phase 2, pigs were placed on a common diet for an additional 21 d (d 21 to 42). During the experimental period, ABC-4 × ZnO interactions were observed (P ≤ 0.026) where pigs fed a low ABC-4 diet had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and F/G when ZnO was not present, but no differences (P> 0.10) were observed based on ABC-4 level when ZnO was added. Overall, there was an ABC-4 × ZnO interaction (P = 0.002) observed where pigs fed a high ABC-4 had increased (P < 0.05) removals and mortalities when ZnO was not present, and no differences (P> 0.10) due to ABC-4 level were observed when ZnO was added. For economics, there was an ABC-4 × ZnO interaction (P ≤ 0.039) where pigs fed low ABC-4 diets had increased (P < 0.05) gain value, feed cost, and IOFC when ZnO was not present, and no differences (P> 0.10) due to ABC-4 level were observed when ZnO was added. In summary, a low ABC-4 diet can improve growth performance, reduce the instance of removals and mortalities, and improve economics in nursery pigs when ZnO is not present in the diet.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 13:17:12 PST
       
  • Measurement of the Acid-Binding Capacity of Common Ingredients and
           Complete Diets Intended for Weanling Pigs

    • Authors: Ethan B. Stas et al.
      Abstract: Some ingredients bind more acid in the stomach than others which can increase gastric pH in weaned pigs, causing decreased protein digestion and allowing pathogenic microorganisms to proliferate. The objective of this experiment was to measure acid-binding capacity at a pH of 4 (ABC-4) of common nursery ingredients and determine additivity in diets. Ingredient categories included: cereal grains, vegetable proteins, animal proteins and milk, vitamin premixes and minerals, amino acids, and fiber sources. A 0.5 g sample of each ingredient was suspended in 50 mL of distilled deionized water and titrated with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. Sample ABC-4 was calculated as the amount of acid in milliequivalents (meq) required to lower 1 kg of a sample to a pH of 4. Cereal grains were found to have lower ABC-4 compared to other ingredients. Vegetable proteins had higher ABC-4 with more variation than cereal grains. Soy protein concentrate and enzymatically treated soybean meal (ESBM) had higher ABC-4 compared to SBM while fermented soybean meal (FSBM) was lower. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) had the highest ABC-4 among all ingredients. Following ingredient analysis, a series of complete diets were analyzed to determine ingredient additivity by comparing the differences between calculated and analyzed ABC-4. Perfect ABC-4 additivity was not found, with all diets having lower analyzed ABC-4 than calculated values; however, the analyzed ABC-4 followed dietary calculated values for higher or lower ABC-4 diet values. These data suggest that ABC-4 diet can be adjusted through selection of ingredients, but feeding trials are needed to determine the impact on pig performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 13:17:11 PST
       
  • Evaluation of Clay-Based Binders and In-Feed Antimicrobials on Growth
           Performance and Biological Measurements in Nursery Pigs

    • Authors: Larissa L. Becker et al.
      Abstract: A total of 360 barrows (DNA 200 × 400; initially 14.2 ± 0.08 lb) were used in a 42-d growth study to evaluate clay-based binders or an in-feed antimicrobial on growth performance and biological measurements including fecal and blood analysis in nursery pigs. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. There were 5 pigs per pen and 18 replications per treatment. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based and fed in two phases from d 0 to 9 (phase 1) and 9 to 21 (phase 2) after weaning. Either Protek (0.40% of the diet; Nutriquest, Mason City, IA); Protect-8 Plus (0.10% of the diet; Essential Ag Solutions, Sioux Falls, SD); or Kavault (0.04% of the diet; Avilamycin; Elanco, Greenfield, IN) were added to the control diet to create the experimental treatments. A common phase 3 diet was fed to all pigs from d 21 to 42. Overall (d 0 to 42), pigs fed Kavault had increased (P < 0.05) final BW, ADG, and ADFI compared to all other treatments. There was evidence that frequency of fecal scores with softer feces increased over time (P < 0.001), with d 21 having the greatest frequency of diarrhea and soft feces. Fecal Escherichia coli colony count was lower (P < 0.001) on d 21 compared to d 9. For fecal myeloperoxidase (MPO), concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) on d 21 compared to d 6 and 9. For fecal DM, pigs fed Kavault had decreased (P < 0.05) DM percentage compared to all other treatments. Fecal DM percentage was higher (P < 0.05) on d 6 and 9 compared to d 21. No differences (P > 0.10) were observed across treatments for fecal scores, fecal E. coli colony count, fecal MPO or virulence genes associated with E. coli. Similarly, no differences (P > 0.10) were observed across treatments for TNF-alpha and IL-6 blood assays. For IL-6, concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) on d 9 compared to d 21. In summary, pigs fed Kavault had increased BW, ADG, and ADFI, compared to those fed the 2 clay-based additives or the control diet. There were no treatment effects on fecal score, fecal MPO, or blood measurements. However, we observed a day effect indicating that feces were softer and had less DM on d 21 compared to d 6 and 9. Additionally, fecal E. coli colony count and MPO had lower concentrations of d 21 compared to d 9. There was a strong negative correlation between fecal DM and score (P < 0.001) on d 6, 9, and 21 indicating that as fecal DM increased, the score became closer to 0, representing a firmer fecal sample. Fecal DM on d 6 and fecal DM on d 9 were negatively correlated with ADG from d 0 to 9 meaning that as growth rate increased, fecal DM decreased.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 13:17:10 PST
       
  • Effects of Folic Acid and Zinc Oxide on Nursery Pig Growth Performance

    • Authors: Larissa L. Becker et al.
      Abstract: A total of 360 barrows (DNA 600 × 241; initially 12.1 ± 0.07 lb) were used in a 38-d growth study to evaluate the effects of including folic acid (Rovimix Folic Acid, DSM, Parsippany, NJ) with or without pharmacological levels of Zn provided by zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance and fecal characteristics in nursery pigs. Pigs were weaned at approximately 19 d of age and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. A total of 72 pens were used with 5 pigs per pen and 12 replications per treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial with main effects of folic acid (0, 20, or 40 ppm) and ZnO (3,000 ppm of Zn in phase 1, 2,000 ppm in phase 2, or no Zn other than 110 ppm from the trace mineral premix). Diets were corn-soybean meal-based and fed in 2 phases. A common phase 3 diet was fed to all pigs. For the experimental period (d 0 to 24), pigs fed diets with pharmacological levels of Zn had improved (P £ 0.030) d 24 BW, ADG, and ADFI. There was a quadratic (P < 0.05) response for d 24 BW, ADG, and ADFI when pigs were fed folic acid with pigs fed 0 or 40 ppm having improved performance compared with pigs fed 20 ppm. For the common period (d 24 to 38), pigs previously fed pharmacological levels of Zn had poorer (P = 0.028) feed efficiency compared to pigs previously fed diets without pharmacological Zn. Additionally, a quadratic (P = 0.008) response was observed in ADG and ADFI when pigs were previously fed folic acid with pigs fed 0 or 40 ppm having improved performance compared with pigs fed 20 ppm. Overall (d 0 to 38), there was a quadratic (P < 0.05) response in final BW, ADG, and ADFI when pigs were fed folic acid, with pigs fed 0 or 40 ppm having improved performance compared to pigs fed 20 ppm. However, no overall differences (P> 0.10) were observed when pigs were fed diets with or without pharmacological levels of Zn in phase 1 and 2 diets. Additionally, no statistical differences (P> 0.10) in mortality were observed when pigs were fed diets with or without pharmacological levels of Zn although pigs fed no folic acid had numerically the lowest mortality. In conclusion, the addition of folic acid did not improve nursery pig performance with a negative response observed at 20 ppm, regardless of Zn inclusion in the diet.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 10:38:42 PST
       
  • Effects of Bovine Plasma and Pharmacological Zinc Level on Nursery Pig
           Growth Performance and Fecal Characteristics

    • Authors: Zhong-Xing Rao et al.
      Abstract: A total of 300 pigs (241 × 600, DNA; initially 12.9 lb) were used in a 38-d trial to evaluate the effect of Zn level and bovine plasma in nursery pig diets. At the time of placement, pens of pigs were weighed and allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with barn as the blocking factor. There was a total of 60 pens with 5 pigs per pen and 15 replicates per dietary treatment. The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of Zn level (high and low) and spray-dried bovine plasma inclusion (with or without; APC Inc., Ankeny, IA). Diets with pharmacological levels of Zn had 3,000 and 2,000 ppm of Zn in phase 1 and 2 diets, respectively. Diets with low level of Zn had 110 ppm of Zn in phase 1 and 2 diets. Bovine plasma replaced a portion of a fermented vegetable protein source (MEpro, Prairie Aquatech, Brookings, SD) in diet formulation with bovine plasma included at 5% and 2% in the phase 1 and 2 diets, respectively. Treatment diets were fed in 2 phases (phase 1: d 0 to 9; phase 2: d 9 to 24) with a common diet (110 ppm of Zn without plasma) fed from d 24 to 38. Fecal samples and scores were collected on d 9 and 24 for determination of fecal dry matter. There was no evidence of Zn × plasma interactions (P> 0.10) throughout the trial for any growth criteria. From d 0 to 9, pigs fed bovine plasma tended to have improved ADG (P = 0.066) and had improved (P ≤ 0.035) ADFI and BW, while pigs fed high Zn had improved (P ≤ 0.018) ADG, BW and F/G. From d 9 to 24, pig fed high Zn had improved (P
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 10:38:41 PST
       
  • Effects of Replacing Lactose with Novel Carbohydrate Sources on Nursery
           Pig Growth Performance

    • Authors: Rafe Q. Royall et al.
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of replacing lactose in Phase 1 and 2 nursery pig diets with 1 of 2 novel carbohydrate (CHO) products (CHO-D and CHO-L; Cargill Starches, Sweeteners, & Texturizers, Blair, NE) on growth performance and fecal dry matter. A total of 360 barrows (DNA 200 × 400; initially 13.2 ± 0.10 lb) were used in a 42-d growth trial. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d of age, randomly allotted to pens in 1 of 2 weight blocks based on initial BW (initially 12.0 and 14.5 lb), and then allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. There were 5 pigs per pen and 12 pens per treatment across 2 barns. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based with 5 to 7.5% DDGS and included: 1) negative control (NC; containing 0.08 and 0.04% lactose, phase 1 and 2, respectively); 2) positive control (PC; containing 10 and 5% lactose, phase 1 and 2, respectively); 3) 50% of lactose replaced with the dry novel CHO (50% CHO-D; containing 5 and 2.5% lactose, phase 1 and 2, respectively); 4) 100% of lactose replaced with CHO-D (100% CHO-D; containing 0.09 and 0.05% lactose, phase 1 and 2 respectively); 5) 50% of lactose replaced with the liquid novel CHO (50% CHO-L; containing 5 and 2.5% lactose, phase 1 and 2, respectively); or 6) 100% of lactose replaced with CHO-L (100% CHO-L; containing 0.09 and 0.05% lactose, phase 1 and 2, respectively).Treatment diets were formulated in two dietary phases and fed from d 0 to 10 and d 10 to 24, respectively, with a common phase 3 diet fed for the remainder of the study. During the treatment period (d 0 to 24) there was a weight block × CHO source interaction (P = 0.045) on ADFI, in which heavyweight pigs fed the PC diet had greater (P = 0.001) ADFI than lightweight pigs fed the same diet, while there was no significant difference due to weight block among any other CHO sources. Furthermore, overall (d 0 to 42) there was a tendency for a weight block × CHO source interaction (P= 0.067) on ADFI. Additionally, pigs in the heavyweight block had greater (P ≤ 0.001) BW, ADG, and ADFI compared to pigs in the lightweight block throughout the experiment. However, overall, pigs from the lightweight block had improved (P = 0.033) feed efficiency compared to pigs in the heavyweight block. There was a tendency for a main effect of CHO source (P = 0.057) on feed efficiency during the treatment period, in which pigs fed the NC diet had the lowest numeric F/G and pigs fed the 100% CHO-L diet had the highest numeric F/G. However, this did not persist throughout the overall study (P = 0.329). Additionally, there was no observed main effect of CHO source (P> 0.100) on ADG or ADFI throughout the overall study. In summary, feeding either of the novel CHO sources did not significantly affect growth performance, percentage of pigs that lost weight post-weaning, or fecal dry matter during nursery period compared with those pigs fed a traditional lactose source or a diet that did not contain any lactose. Based on the results herein, pigs fed diets containing either novel CHO product had equivalent performance to those on the PC treatment, but we were unable to detect incremental value as the PC treatment did not significantly differ from the NC treatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 10:38:40 PST
       
  • Use of Specialty Soy Products to Replace Poultry Meal and Spray-Dried
           Blood Plasma in Diets Provided to Nursery Pigs Housed in Commercial
           Conditions

    • Authors: Ethan B. Stas et al.
      Abstract: A total of 2,260 pigs (PIC TR4 × [Fast LW × PIC L02]; initially 14.8 lb) were used to evaluate a specialty soy protein source as an alternative to poultry meal and spray-dried blood plasma on nursery pig performance in a commercial environment. At weaning, pigs were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments based on initial weight in two research nurseries. In the first facility there were 20 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment. In the second facility, there were 21 pigs per pen and 12 replications per treatment for a total of 22 replications per treatment. Dietary treatments included a control diet containing 9.5% poultry meal (AV-E Digest, XFE Products, Des Moines, IA) and 4.13 (phase 1) or 2.75% (phase 2) spray-dried blood plasma (Appetein, APC Inc., Ankeny, IA). The four additional diets were set up in a 2 × 2 factorial with a novel soy protein concentrate (AX3 Digest; Protekta; Plainfield, IN) or fermented soybean meal (MEPro; Prairie Aquatech; Brookings, SD) replacing poultry meal or poultry meal and spray-dried blood plasma in the control diet. Pigs were fed experimental diets during phase 1 (d 0 to 7) and phase 2 (d 7 to 21). Following phase 2, pigs were fed a common diet for an additional 21 d (d 21 to 42). During the experimental period (d 0 to 21), pigs fed the novel soy protein concentrate had improved (P < 0.001) F/G with no differences in ADG or ADFI compared to pigs fed fermented soybean meal. During the experimental period (d 0 to 21) and overall (d 0 to 42), pigs fed soy protein as a replacement to poultry meal had increased (P ≤ 0.016) ADG and ADFI compared to pigs fed the control diet. During the experimental period (d 0 to 21), pigs fed soy protein as a replacement to spray-dried blood plasma had improved (P = 0.044) F/G compared to pigs fed soy protein without replacing spray-dried blood plasma, with no differences in ADG or ADFI. In summary, utilizing a specialty soy protein source as a replacement for poultry meal improved growth performance. Replacing poultry meal and spray-dried blood plasma with soy protein improved feed efficiency when treatment diets were fed, but not overall. In addition, the novel soy protein concentrate improved feed efficiency compared to fermented soybean meal during the experimental period with no effect on ADG or ADFI.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 15:09:53 PST
       
  • Influence of Protein Source on Growth Performance in Nursery Pigs

    • Authors: Ethan B. Stas et al.
      Abstract: A total of 330 pigs (241 × 600, DNA; initially 10.7 lb) were used to determine the influence of dietary protein source on growth performance in nursery pigs. At weaning, pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 4 or 5 pigs per pen and 12 replications per treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a one-way treatment structure with diets containing different protein sources; enzymatically treated soybean meal (HP 300; Hamlet Protein, Findlay, OH), spray-dried bovine plasma (APC Corp, Ankeny, IA), fermented soybean meal (ME-PRO; Prairie Aquatech, Brookings, SD) with or without fish solubles (TASA, Lima, Peru), fish meal (TASA Prime meal; TASA, Lima, Peru), and custom-made fish meal (TASA Swine; TASA, Lima, Peru). Because of a delay in arrival of the fish meal source, all pigs were placed on a common phase 1 diet for 3 d after weaning. On d 3, all feeders were weighed, dumped, and refilled with experimental diets. Pigs were fed experimental phase 1 diets for 9 d (d 3 to 12) followed by phase 2 diets for 15 d. Following phase 2, all pigs were fed a common diet for an additional 15 d. In all weigh periods and overall, there were no significant differences between treatments for BW, ADG, ADFI, and F/G. For economic analysis (d 0 to 40), pigs fed spray-dried bovine plasma had the greatest (P ≤ 0.001) feed cost and feed cost per lb of gain compared to all other treatments. There were no differences in revenue or IOFC between treatments. In summary, utilizing alternative protein sources in phase 1 and 2 nursery pigs’ diets had no effect on growth performance. However, there was a 5 to 7% improvement in ADG for pigs fed spray-dried bovine plasma and custom-made fish meal.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 15:09:52 PST
       
  • Evaluation of Corn Protein Source on Feed Intake Preference in Nursery
           Pigs

    • Authors: Ethan B. Stas et al.
      Abstract: A total of 180 pigs (241 × 600, DNA; initially 17.0 ±1.6 lb) were used to determine feed intake preference from various corn protein sources. A series of 5-day preference trials were used with two diets offered within each comparison with feeder location rotated daily within each pen. Feed consumption was used to determine preference between each diet comparison. There were 6 replicates of each diet comparison. The corn protein sources utilized in this experiment included: fermented corn protein, high protein distillers dried grains with solubles (HPDDGs), whole stillage solids (approximately 2/3 content of fermented corn protein), and thin stillage solids (approximately 1/3 content of fermented corn protein). Fermented corn protein and HPDDGs were included in the diet at 15% as a replacement for corn. Whole stillage solids and thin stillage solids were included in the diet at 10% and 5%, respectively, as a replacement to corn to match its contribution in fermented corn protein. The control diet was a standard nursery diet. Diet comparisons included: 1) Control vs. Fermented corn protein; 2) Whole stillage solids vs. Fermented corn protein; 3) Thin stillage solids vs. Fermented corn protein; 4) HPDDGs vs. Fermented corn protein; 5) Control vs. Whole stillage solids; 6) Control vs. Thin stillage solids. For comparison 1, pigs preferred (P < 0.001) the control diet by consuming 82.5% of their intake with this diet compared with the diet containing fermented corn protein. For comparison 2, there was no difference (P> 0.05) in feed consumption of diets containing whole stillage solids and the fermented corn protein. For comparison 3, pigs preferred (P = 0.001) the diet containing thin stillage solids by consuming 75.8% of their intake with this diet compared to the diet containing fermented corn protein. There was no difference when comparing fermented corn protein and whole stillage solids, but thin stillage solids had a higher percentage intake than fermented corn protein. Therefore, it is likely that whole stillage solids are the component of fermented corn protein that negatively affect feed consumption.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 14:12:15 PST
       
  • Effect of Increasing the Level of a Modified Corn Protein on Nursery Pig
           Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency, and Fecal Dry Matter

    • Authors: Alan J. Warner et al.
      Abstract: A total of 360 barrows (DNA 200 × 400; initially 13.4 ± 0.12 lb) were used in a 38-d study to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of a modified corn protein product on nursery pig growth performance and fecal dry matter. Upon arrival to the nursery research facility, pigs were randomly assigned to pens (5 pigs per pen) and pens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 12 pens per treatment. Experimental diets were fed in two phases with phase 1 fed from d 0 to 10 and phase 2 fed from d 10 to 25. Phase 1 diets were formulated with 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% of a modified corn protein or 6% enzymatically treated soybean meal (ESBM). The inclusion level of the test protein source and ESBM for the phase 2 diets were: 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5, and 3%, respec­tively. A common phase 3 diet was fed from d 25 to 38. Phase 1 treatment diets were fed in pellet form, with phases 2 and 3 fed in meal form. During the phase 1 period, there was no evidence (P > 0.10) for differences in ADG, ADFI, or F/G. There was a tendency (linear, P = 0.092) for increased d 10 BW as the level of the modified corn protein increased. From d 10 to 25 (phase 2 period), increasing the level of modified corn protein increased (quadratic, P = 0.037) d 25 BW, ADG (quadratic, P = 0.026) and ADFI (quadratic, P = 0.034). Feed efficiency worsened (linear, P = 0.063) with increasing levels of modified corn protein source. From d 0 to 25 (experimental period), ADG (quadratic, P = 0.030) and ADFI (quadratic, P = 0.036) increased, and F/G worsened (linear, P = 0.006). From d 25 to 38 (common period), there was no evidence (P > 0.10) for differences in growth performance. For the overall experiment, ADG (quadratic, P = 0.028) and ADFI (quadratic, P = 0.032) increased then decreased, with pigs fed the intermediate inclusion of modified corn protein (6.0 and 3.0% in phases 1 and 2, respectively) having the best performance. There was also evidence (linear, P = 0.066) for F/G to worsen as the inclusion level of modified corn protein increased and this may be reflective of lower energy diets and/or overestimation of the energy value of the modified corn protein product. Fecal DM on d 25 tended to increase (quadratic, P = 0.051) as the level of the modified corn protein was increased, although no evidence of a difference (P > 0.10) was observed between treatments on d 10. There was greater (P = 0.004) fecal DM on d 25 compared to d 10. These data suggest that the modified corn protein tested in this trial may be an alternative protein source to consider for nursery pig diets, when fed up to 12% in phase 1 and 6% in phase 2. Addi­tional research should be conducted to confirm the energy value of the modified corn protein product utilized in this study.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 14:12:14 PST
       
  • Evaluation of Environmental Enrichment on Feed Intake and Growth
           Performance of Weanling Pigs

    • Authors: Jenna J. Bromm et al.
      Abstract: A total of 360 pigs (DNA 200 × 400; initially 13.8 ± 1.83 lb BW) were used in a 42-d nursery trial to determine the effects of the addition of an environmental enrichment, in the form of ropes tied to the feeder dividers, on feed intake and growth performance of weanling pigs. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21-d of age and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments with 5 pigs per pen and 36 pens per treatment. At placement, a rope was secured to each of the dividers in the feed pans of the feeder (3 ropes/feeder) and remained tied to the feeders from d 0 to 10. There was no statistical difference (P> 0.10) in ADG, ADFI, or F/G in phases 1 or 2 for pigs in pens with or without ropes tied to the dividers in the feed pan. Feed intake was not recorded for phase 3, but there was no evidence of a difference in phase 3 ADG or final BW between treatments (P> 0.10). There was no observed difference in daily feed disappearance from d 0 to 14 based on the presence or absence of the environmental enrichment used in this trial. These results indicate that exposing newly weaned pigs to an environmental enrichment, in the form of ropes tied in the divider of the feed pan, at placement into the nursery did not impact growth performance or feed intake.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 14:12:13 PST
       
  • Effects of Gruel Feeding and Oral Dextrose on the Survivability of Pigs
           After Weaning

    • Authors: Madie R. Wensley et al.
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted using 3,087 (Exp. 1) and 988 (Exp. 2) pigs to determine the effect of gruel feeding (Exp. 1) and administering oral dextrose (Exp. 2) on pig survivability after weaning. Upon arrival to the nursery, the smallest 10% of pigs were selected and randomly placed in designated pens with 61 to 108 pigs per pen. Pens of small pigs were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of gruel feeding two or four times per day starting 14-d post-placement. At each gruel feeding, approximately 2.5 lb of solid feed was added to a round Rotecna bowl (Rotecna S.A., Agramunt, Spain) located at the front of the pen. Water was added to feed at a decreasing rate over time such that d 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 14 the ratio of water to feed was 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3, respectively. In Exp. 2, every other pig removed from general population or pens of small pigs for welfare considerations (lameness, sick, or fallback) received a single 10 mL oral dose of a 50% dextrose solution (Vet One, MWI Animal Health, Boise, ID), as a source of glucose, before being placed in a removal pen. All removed pigs were tagged and weighed, blood glucose measured prior to and 30 min after entering removal pens, and their body temperature recorded. Overall, gruel feeding the small pigs two or four times per day for 14-d post-placement did not influence (P> 0.10) mortality from weaning to the end of gruel feeding (3.78 vs. 4.25%, respectively). Likewise, dextrose administration did not influence (P> 0.10) pig mortality after removal to approximately d 38 after weaning (21.4 vs. 23.4% respectively), even though blood glucose levels increased (P < 0.001) for pigs administered dextrose compared to pigs not administered dextrose (increased by 11.4 vs. 19.1 mg/dL). An interaction was observed for blood glucose and body temperature (P < 0.001). Pigs with a blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL had increased mortality as body temperature at removal increased. In contrast, pigs with a blood glucose between 70 and 120 mg/dL or greater than 120 mg/dL had decreased mortality as body temperature increased. Pigs weighing less than 10 lb at removal had an increased mortality (P < 0.001) compared to pigs weighing greater than 10 lb at removal. In summary, gruel feeding four times per day vs. two times per day or providing removed pigs glucose supplementation did not improve survivability of pigs after weaning. Additionally, removed pigs with low body weight, body temperature below or above the normal range, or high blood glucose had decreased survivability.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 14:12:12 PST
       
  • Effect of Early vs. Late Maturing Sire Lines and Creep Feeding on the
           Stress Response, Intestinal Permeability, and Growth Performance of
           Nursery and Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Madie R. Wensley et al.
      Abstract: A total of 21 litters (early or late maturing Duroc × DNA 241) and 247 pigs were used in 170-d trial to determine the effect of sire line growth pattern (early vs. late maturing) and creep feeding on the stress response, intestinal permeability, and growth performance of nursery and finishing pigs.Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effect of Duroc sire line (early or late maturing) and lactation creep feeding (with or without). Immediately after weaning (initially 14.0 lb), blood cortisol levels were increased (P < 0.01) in late maturing pigs compared to early maturing pigs, indicating an increased stress response. A greater percentage (P < 0.001) of late maturing pigs lost weight from d 0 to 3 post-weaning compared to early maturing pigs. Likewise, early maturing pigs had improved ADG (P < 0.001) and ADFI (P < 0.001) during the first 3 d in the nursery. A similar response was observed in daily feed intake with early maturing pigs having increased daily feed intake (P < 0.001) for the first 14 d in the nursery. However, no differences were observed in intestinal permeability between treatments. For overall nursery growth performance, a significant interaction was observed for ADG (P = 0.007) and ADFI (P < 0.001). Early maturing pigs that did or did not receive creep feed had increased ADG and ADFI compared to late maturing pigs that did not receive creep feed, with late maturing pigs that received creep feed intermediate. For overall nursery feed efficiency, early maturing pigs had poorer F/G (P < 0.001) than late maturing pigs. For overall finishing growth performance, a significant interaction was observed for ADG (P = 0.007), with late maturing pigs that received creep feed prior to weaning having increased ADG compared to the other 3 treatment combinations. A significant interaction was also observed for ADFI (P < 0.007), with late maturing pigs that received creep feed or early maturing pigs having increased ADFI compared to late maturing pigs that did not receive creep feed. This resulted in a significant interaction for final BW (P = 0.005), with late maturing pigs that did not receive creep feed having decreased weights at market. In summary, early maturing pigs had improved ADG and ADFI until approximately 220 lb, at which point late maturing pigs began to exhibit improved ADG. Late maturing pigs also had improved feed efficiency throughout much of the experiment. Interestingly, creep feeding the late maturing pigs resulted in improved growth performance compared to providing no creep feed, whereas creep feed did not impact the early maturing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 14:12:11 PST
       
  • Pigs Weaned from Sows Fed a Feed Flavor Had Improved Nursery Performance,
           but Feed Flavor in the Nursery Diets did not Impact Performance

    • Authors: Mikayla S. Spinler et al.
      Abstract: A total of 360 weaned pigs (DNA 241 × 600: initially 12.6 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of previous sow feed flavoring treatment (control vs. flavor) and nursery diets formulated with or without a feed flavor on growth performance in a 38-d trial. Pigs were weaned at approximately 19 d from sows fed diets with or without 0.05% of the feed flavor (Krave AP, Adisseo, Alpharetta, GA). Pigs were placed in pens (5 to 6 pigs per pen) within sow treatment and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary nursery treatments. There were 14 to 17 replications per treatment. Nursery treatments were either a control diet or a diet containing a feed flavor (Delistart #NA 21, Adisseo, Alpharetta, GA) added at 0.05% of the diet. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of sow and nursery treatment. Offspring from sows fed the flavor diet had a higher (P < 0.001) BW at weaning, which was maintained throughout the study. No significant differences were observed for ADG, ADFI, or F/G during phase 1. During phase 2, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) for a main effect of both nursery and sow diet on ADG. Pigs from sows fed the flavor diet had greater ADG compared to pigs from sows fed the control diet, and pigs fed the control diet had increased ADG compared to those fed the flavor diet. During phase 2, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) observed for a main effect of sow treatment on ADFI, with pigs from sows fed the flavor diet having greater ADFI. During phase 3, there was a main effect (P < 0.05) of nursery treatment on both ADFI and F/G where pigs fed the feed flavor diet had greater ADFI but poorer F/G. A tendency (P < 0.10) was observed for an interaction between sow and nursery diet for ADG with pigs fed the flavor diet that were obtained from sows fed the flavor diet having greater ADG but no difference was observed when pigs were obtained from sows fed the control diet. Overall, progeny from sows fed a diet containing a feed flavor had greater ADG (P = 0.038) and ADFI (P = 0.043) and final BW (P < 0.001) during the trial. In conclusion, offspring from sows fed a feed flavor had increased ADG, ADFI, and BW, but the presence of a feed flavor in the nursery did not elicit better overall nursery performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 10:12:52 PST
       
  • The Effect of Lactation Diets Supplemented with Krave AP on Sow and Litter
           Performance

    • Authors: Mikayla S. Spinler et al.
      Abstract: A total of 105 sows (Line 241, DNA) were used across four batch farrowing groups to evaluate the effects of feeding a feed flavor in lactation diets on sow and litter performance. Sow groups 1 and 2 farrowed in an old farrowing house during the summer months and groups 3 and 4 farrowed in a new farrowing house during the winter months. The farrowing house used for groups 1 and 2 was environmentally regulated by fans and drip coolers to adjust ambient temperature. The farrowing house used for groups 3 and 4 was environmentally controlled to maintain a target temperature by cool cells and fans. Sows were blocked by BW within parity on d 110 of gestation and allotted to 1 of 2 dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were a standard corn-soybean-based lactation diet (control) or the control diet with the addition of 0.05% feed flavor (Krave AP, Adisseo, Alpharetta, GA). Sows were fed their treatment diet from entry to the farrowing house (d 110 of gestation) until weaning at around 19 days of age. Farrowing house environment had a large impact and resulted in many interactions with the lactation feed flavor treatment. Sows fed the flavor treatment had a tendency (P = 0.093) for a higher ADFI overall compared with control fed sows. Adding the feed flavor to the diet increased feed intake and piglet ADG in an environment that was warmer where feed intake was suppressed, but had no effect in the new farrowing house where feed intake of all sows was much greater.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 10:12:51 PST
       
  • Evaluation of Essential Fatty Acids in Lactating Sow Diets on Sow
           Reproductive Performance, Colostrum and Milk Composition, and Piglet
           Survivability

    • Authors: Julia P. Holen et al.
      Abstract: A total of 3,451 mixed parity sows and their litters were used to evaluate the effects of essential fatty acid intake on sow reproductive performance, piglet growth and survivability, and colostrum and milk composition. At approximately d 112 of gestation, sows were blocked by parity within farrowing room and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments. Lactation diets were corn-soybean meal-wheat-based and included 0.5 (Control) or 3% choice white grease (CWG), 3% soybean oil (SO), or a combination of 3% soybean oil and 2% choice white grease (Combination). Thus, sows were provided diets with low essential fatty acid (EFA; as linoleic [LA] and α-linolenic acid [ALA]) in diets with choice white grease or high EFA in diets with soybean oil. Prior to farrowing, sows were provided 4 lb/d of their assigned lactation diet and then allowed ad libitum access after parturition. Overall lactation ADFI increased (P < 0.001) when sows were fed the Combination and CWG treatments compared to sows fed the Control or diet with 3% SO. Regardless of differences among ADFI, daily LA and ALA intake of sows assigned to the Combination and SO treatments were greater (P < 0.001) than sows fed diets with lower EFA provided as CWG. There was no effect of sow EFA intake on piglet survivability from birth to 24 h or from 24 h to weaning (P > 0.10). Overall, sows consuming high EFA provided in the Combination and SO diets produced litters with greater (P < 0.05) litter gain and litter ADG during the lactation period and heavier (P < 0.001) piglet weaning weights when compared to litters from sows fed diets with low EFA provided through CWG. Lactation diet EFA composition did not influence colostrum or milk dry matter, crude protein, or crude fat content (P > 0.10). However, LA and ALA content in both colostrum and milk at weaning increased (P < 0.05) in response to increased EFA levels in diets that contained SO. There was no evidence for differences (P > 0.10) in wean-to-estrus interval, percentage of sows bred by d 7, percentage of sows bred by d 12, farrowing rate, or subsequent farrowing performance due to sow lactation EFA intake. In conclusion, increased LA and ALA intake during the lactation period from soybean oil addition increased overall litter growth and average weaning weights of pigs but did not affect piglet survivability or subsequent reproductive performance of sows.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 10:12:50 PST
       
  • Effect of Sow Feeder Type and Drip Cooling on Sow Body Weight, Litter
           Performance, and Feeder Cleaning Criteria

    • Authors: Zhong-Xing Rao et al.
      Abstract: A total of 600 mixed parity sows (PIC, Line 3) were used to evaluate the effect of different lactation feeders and drip cooling on lactating sow farrowing performance and litter growth performance during summer conditions. For the lactation feeder evaluation, the trial was conducted in 2 sequential groups with 300 sows per group in the same facility in central Arkansas. Five rooms with 60 farrowing stalls per room were used for each group. At approximately d 110 to 112 of gestation, sows were blocked by body condition score (BCS), parity, and offspring genetics (Line 2 or Line 3 sires). Sows were then randomly allotted to 1 of 3 feeder designs: 1) PVC tube feeder; 2) Rotecna ball feeder (Rotecna, Agramunt, Spain); or 3) SowMax rod feeder (Hog Slat, Newton Grove, NC). The three feeder designs were placed in one of 3 farrowing stalls with the same sequence (Rotecna, SowMax, and then PVC tube feeder) from the front to the end of all farrowing rooms to balance the environmental effect in each room. For the drip cooling evaluation, the trial was conducted during the second group of 300 sows. Water drippers were blocked in 3 of every 6 farrowing stalls to balance the feeder types and the environmental effect in each room. Sows were weighed before entering the farrowing house and at weaning. Sows were provided approximately 4 lb per day of the lactation diet pre-farrowing. After farrowing, sows were provided ad libitum access to lactation feed. The weaning age was between 19 to 22 d. Viable piglets from sows bred to line 2 boars (7,562 piglets from 441 sows) were individually tagged with an RFID tag within 24 h after birth. Line 3 piglets were not tagged and not included in the litter performance data, but the sows of these piglets were included in the sow BW and feed disappearance data. After weaning, the cleaning times for each feeder type were recorded on a subsample of feeders (n = 67). For the effect of lactation feeders, there was no evidence of difference (P> 0.05) in sow entry BW, exit BW, BW change, and litter performance between sow lactation feeders. However, sows on SowMax feeders had lower (P < 0.05) total feed disappearance, average daily feed disappearance, and total feed cost than sows on the tube feeders. Therefore, the feed cost per pig weaned from sows on the SowMax feeder was improved (P
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 10:12:49 PST
       
 
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