Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Science and Technology Indonesia     Open Access  
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Agricola     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Seed Science Research     Hybrid Journal  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Semiárida     Open Access  
Siembra     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Smart Agricultural Technology     Open Access  
Social & Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Economic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stiinta Agricola     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Tropical Technology Journal     Open Access  
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access  
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Weed Biology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weed Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World's Poultry Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0856-668X
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Market performance of dairy goats and its products in Kongwa and Mvomero
           Districts, Tanzania

    • Authors: E.M. Mpelangwa, J.R. Makindara
      Pages: 160 - 169
      Abstract: Despite the potential of dairy goat in the reduction of rural malnutrition and poverty, the dairy goat sub-sector still faces poor development in both input and output markets. The poor development of these markets has partly been contributed by the direction of past researches on dairy goats, which were focusing on increasing milk production, thus, leaving institutional and community based challenges unresolved. This study therefore, examined market performance of dairy goats and its product in Kongwa and Mvomero districts where the dairy goats were introduced under Crop and Goat Project (CGP) of Sokoine University of Agriculture - Tanzania. Specifically, the study assessed market operations as institutional issues in the project villages of Ihanda and Masinyeti (in Kongwa District) and Kunke and Wami Luhindo (in Mvomero district). Primary data was obtained by surveying 106 project farmers and 60 consumers who were selected randomly in the project villages. Secondary data were collected from project reports and other various sources. The structure-conduct-performance (S-C-P) model was used to assess market performance whereby gross and net margins (GM and NM) were determined. The findings show that dairy goat milk was preferred due to its nutritious value. The price for dairy goat milk prevailed was generally 17% higher than the cow's milk. The supply and demand for dairy goat milk was poor thus, affecting both market performances. There were no actual or specified places for commodity exchange hence affecting market conduct of dairy goat milk and its products. The findings also show further that about 30% of farmers were producing milk which contributed about 64% of the total household revenue. In the case of monthly earnings per individual farmers, the revenue estimated was Tsh. 35 200 for Ihanda; Tsh. 36 000 for Masinyeti; Tsh. 33 100 for Kunke and Tsh. 37 500 for Wami Luhindo. The main cost driver in dairy goat keeping was the feed cost which was estimated to be 76% of the total variable cost. Although the overall GM determined was positive, about 70% of all farmers had negative GM while only 20% experienced positive NM. Therefore, in order to improve the situation, both supply and demand sides should be strengthened through farmers educational and promotional activities. Besides, sensitization on consuming of dairy goat milk is required while the supply side can be strengthened by encouraging farmers to increase the number of dairy goats kept and improvement of management practices.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • The role of peasantry women initiated networks in the promotion of
           Community Development in Mkalama District, Tanzania

    • Authors: R. Madaha, R. Shayo, R. Mwaipopo
      Pages: 170 - 184
      Abstract: Community development is a phenomenon referring to communities that can attain and sustain a better standard of living for every community member. Although the thinking is advocated by the proponents of community development, the opponents throw their trust and thrust on the market. They are of opinion that the market is the driver and engine of development, not communities. Individuals are driven by self-interest and not those of the community. On the contrary, the proponents of community development assert that communities are drivers of their development. They advocate for the development of the capabilities of communities for them to collectively take care of their development. Networking is one of the community-centred strategies to deal with the shortfalls of the market and to promote community development. However, the literature focusing on the role of women networking in addressing some of the shortfalls of the market economy is scant. As such, this study employed an exploratory research design and, an embedded multiple-case study research method, to explore the role of Village Community Networks (VCONEs), as self-initiated peasantry women’s networks, in the promotion of community development at selected wards of Mkalama District. VCONEs are networks of female peasants who engage in agricultural production during the rainy season and petty businesses during the rainy and dry season. Overall, the findings indicate that VCONEs serve as tools which enable community members to address some of the challenges of the market by collectively working together to build a better standard of living, increasing access to modern technologies, recognizing their problems, as well as attaining self-reliance and empowerment. It is recommended that the government, in collaboration with other stakeholders, need to create a platform to up-scale VCONEs to the rest of farming communities in Tanzania to boost community development and agricultural development through the mitigation of some of the shortfalls of the market economy.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact of supervised enterprise projects component of Sokoine University
           of Agriculture BSc. Applied agricultural extension programme on farmers in

    • Authors: C.P. Msuya, M. Akerederu, K. Mapunda
      Pages: 185 - 193
      Abstract: In response to inadequate knowledge, skills and attitudes by agricultural extension staff, the Midcareer BSc. Applied Agricultural extension was developed and implemented in 1998 by the Sokoine University of agriculture (SUA), in collaboration with Sasakawa Africa Fund for Extension Education (SAFE).The Supervised Enterprise Project (SEP) is an innovative component of the programme that employs experiential and action research principles. Since the implementation of the midcareer programme and its SEPs component in Tanzania, the programme impact on farmers has not been established and therefore the paper intends to fill the gap. Data were collected from 100 graduates and 105 farmers from selected regions in Tanzania. Focus group discussion and observations were used to supplement the collected information. The quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and content analysis, respectively. The findings show that SEP introduced practices mainly related to livestock and crop production, post-harvest handling and agricultural marketing. Generally, SEP was identified as the strongest component within the BSc. AEE programme that has impact on farmers. This has been justified by the fact that farmers had positive perception and high expectations from practices implemented by SEP, which resulted to diffusion of implemented practices and their adoption by farmers. Farmers were assisted to improve their yield, food security, income and livelihood. Challenges that affected implementation of SEP include inadequate funds and time, low involvement of stakeholders and inadequate follow up by students after their graduation. This calls the need for allocation of adequate resources to the program, involving of important stakeholders as well as smooth hand over of the implemented SEP to the field extension staff for its sustainability.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Comparative analysis of household consumption of beef and chevon in Ibadan
           Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A. Adesope, O. Oguntoye, O. Fatoki, F. Odediran, G. Bello
      Pages: 194 - 201
      Abstract: This study was conducted to compare the consumption for beef and chevon as two major sources of protein in the metropolis of Ibadan. Primary data was used for the study and multi-stage sampling method was used to select 150 respondents in the study area. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, likert scale and linear regression. The results revealed that majority of the beef and chevon consumers sampled were female, married with the mean age of 42 years. Beef had a higher demand in terms of meat preferred and frequency of purchase than chevon. Majority of the respondents prefer beef to chevon in terms of taste, market price and availability with weighted score of 219, 212 and 224 respectively. Chevon was preferred to beef in terms of odour and health benefits with weighted score of 225 and 223 respectively. Income and education were the significant variables that explained household expenditure on beef while age, education and chevon preference were the significant variables that explained household expenditure on chevon. The study therefore concluded that hygienic environment in abattoirs and markets where meats are sold should be encouraged in other to increase consumption of meat. Price intervention programmes should be introduced to stabilize fluctuation in meat prices.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • From a loser to a winner: How can collective marketing increase market
           access among smallholder farmers in Tanzania'

    • Authors: J.I. Ismail
      Pages: 202 - 216
      Abstract: This study was designed to determine the influence of production, socio-economic, and marketing factors on market access among smallholder farmers when mediated by collective marketing. Most smallholder farmers are losers because of various marketing challenges. However, to make them winners is to increase their market access. This means a broad range of factors needs to be mediated by collective marketing. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze relationships. The findings of the study were in favor of the hypotheses. This is because all the results showed a positive and significant relationship (production factors β=0.191, p=0.017, socio-economic factors β=0.251, p=0.000, marketing factors β=0.663, p=0.000, and collective marketing β=0.653, p=0.000). Hence, all the variables were important in explaining the market access decisions among smallholder farmers. Also, the SOBEL test was conducted to test the mediating effect of collective marketing, and the findings indicate that it is a partial mediator. The study makes both practical and theoretical contributions to smallholder farmers and market access in the study field. It argues that smallholder farmers have to develop skills related to collective marketing to increase market access.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Do grassroots institutions promote household food security' Evidence
           from cooperative membership in the Southern Highland Regions of Tanzania

    • Authors: F.M. Mapunda
      Pages: 217 - 236
      Abstract: This study investigated the impact of Agricultural Marketing Cooperative Society (AMCOS) membership on household food security. The Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and Endogenous Switching Regression (ESR) models were used to evaluate whether changes in the treated group attributed to their membership. The study used cross-section data collected in 2016 from 1400 households in the southern highland regions of Mbeya and Songwe in Tanzania. The outcome variable of interest was the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). The logit estimates indicated that age of the household head, total land owned, land cultivated, and whether a household head accessed credit from microfinance institutions significantly predicted the likelihood of joining a cooperative membership. Results of PSM show that ATT was negative (-0.039) implying that being treated cooperative members were likely to improve household food security. On the contrary, the result from ESR suggested that being treated cooperative membership a had negative impact on reducing household food insecurity status. The differences in ATT from PSM and that from ESR models suggest that both observed and unobserved factors influence the decision to join cooperative membership and household food security outcome given the joining decisions. However, the Transitional Heterogeneity effect was negative (TH= -0.486) implying that the impact on reducing food insecurity was much higher to rural farm household that did receive intervention compared to untreated cooperative members. The study recommends the need to promote policies that aim to strengthen cooperatives and their functioning for the rural farming households to boost their income and improve household food security.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Silicon status in soil and its effect on growth and yield of rice under
           the system of rice intensification and continuous flooding in Mkindo
           Irrigation Scheme, Morogoro, Tanzania

    • Authors: G.E. Gowele, H.F. Mahoo, F.C. Kahimba
      Pages: 237 - 244
      Abstract: Silicon (Si) improves physical, chemical and biological properties of soil, enhances growth and rice yield. Hence, Si deficiency in the soil may lead to decline in rice yields. A study was undertaken to assess Si status in soils and its relation to growth and yield parameters of rice plant grown under the system of rice intensification (SRI) and continuous flooding regime in Mkindo Irrigation Scheme, Morogoro, Tanzania. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two treatments replicated three times was employed for the experiment. The treatments were two water application regimes (T1 and T2). T1 was alternate wetting and drying using SRI technology and T2 was continuous flooding. Rice variety SARO 5 (TXD 306) was used as a test crop. The experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons from October 2019 to January 2020 and from March 2020 to June 2020. The objectives of the study were to assess the Si status in soils of the experimental site and to examine growth (in terms of plant height, number of tillers, number of productive tillers and number of panicles per hill) and grain yield in relation to soil Si status. Results showed that the soils of the study area had sufficient amount of available Si content (235.5 mg kg-1). Plots under SRI technology recorded higher plant height (147 cm), number of tillers per hill (54), number of productive tillers per hill (46), number of panicles per hill (31) and grain yield (8 tons ha-1). On the other hand plots under continuous flooding gave lower plant height (129 cm), number of tillers per hill (27), number of productive tillers per hill (22), number of panicles per hill (27) and grain yield (3 tons ha-1). It was thus concluded that, SRI enhanced higher uptake of soil Si which in turn improved significantly crop growth and rice yield.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption and willingness to pay for
           improved legume technologies in Tanzania

    • Authors: C.B. Lugamara, J.K. Urassa, P.M. Dontsop Nguezet, C. Masso
      Pages: 245 - 260
      Abstract: Generally, legumes are critical in improving nutritional status, enhancement of ecosystem resilience and reduction of poverty for rural households. However, limited information is available concerning smallholder farmers’ adoption and their willingness to pay for improved legume technologies in Tanzania. Therefore, this paper assesses the determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption of improved common bean seeds (Uyole Njano, Lyamungo 90 and Rose-coco/Red bean) and willingness to pay for improved common bean seeds, Basal fertilizers (NPK; DAP), Boosting fertilizers (UREA), Pesticides, Herbicides and Anti-fungal). The study adopted a cross-sectional research design whereby data from 400 respondents were collected once from Gairo and Mvomero districts, Tanzania through a questionnaire, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A third of the respondents were from the non-intervention area. Data were analysed using SPSS and STATA whereby descriptive and inferential statistics were determined. The results show that there were statistically significant associations between the adoption of improved common bean seeds and availability of legume technology intervention (p<0.05), the total area cultivated (p<0.01) and size of the household (p<0.05). In addition, being a member of a farmers’ association (p<0.05) and visits by extension officers (p<0.01) were statistically and significantly associated with willingness to pay for improved legume technologies available in the study area. It can be concluded that, availability of legume technology intervention, the total area cultivated and size of the household determines adoption of improved legume technology, being a member of a farmers’ association and visits by extension officers determines willingness to pay for improved legume technologies. Therefore, the government and other stakeholders need to further promote improved legume technologies’ intervention, formation of farmers association as well as extension services to enhance adoption and willingness to pay for improved legume technologies.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Compliance by SMEs to existing Tanzania standards with respect Escherichia
           coli and Staphylococcus aureus in Cultured Milk: a Case of Dar Es Salaam,

    • Authors: J. Samwel, L.M. Chove
      Pages: 261 - 267
      Abstract: Small and medium enterprises are important for economic growth not only in Tanzania but all over the world. Most of them are informal, without official registration. However, they provide tremendous contribution to food security, nutrition, income generation and poverty reduction in the country. Therefore, upgrading and modernization of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to ensure food security, safety and quality of food has becomes one of the priorities of Tanzania development visions of 2025, which is the blueprint of structural economic transformation of the country. To help achieve this, the present study was conducted to assess the safety of cultured milk. A total of 33 cultured milk samples were collected from 11 SMEs which were analyzed in triplicate to make 99. Two microorganisms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were analysed in cultured milk. Results were compared against the existing Tanzania standards. The isolates had an overall mean of 2.02 × 102 ± 1.73 × 102CFU/g, 1.91×102 ± 1.85 ×102CFU/g respectively for E. coli and S. aureusc count. The results obtained were higher than the limits set by the Tanzanian Standard (TZS1625:2013). It may thus be concluded that sampled cultured milk was of poor microbial quality and hence not safe for consumption. Poor hygienic practices during milk handling pose a high risk to cultured milk and render it unsafe for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Morphological characterization of selected ecotypes of African foxtail
           grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) from selected areas of Tanzania

    • Authors: D.L. Lutatenekwa, E.J. Mtengeti, G.M. Msalya
      Pages: 268 - 277
      Abstract: This study was conducted to assess morphological variation of African foxtail grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) ecotypes in natural habitats from three selected districts namely; Kilolo, Mpwapwa and Kiteto in Tanzania. In each district two villages were selected and assessment of morphological traits was done at one site for each village. Three plots of 10 m diameter, 40 m apart were made in each site. Ten tussocks of African foxtail grass were randomly selected from each plot to assess height, tiller number, leaf number, leaf length and inflorescence length. Environmental characteristics like altitude, vegetation and soil types were also assessed because they affect morphological traits of African foxtail grass. The lowest altitude was in Kilolo (Malolo village) at 528 masl and the highest was at 1613 masl in Kiteto (Twanga village). The soil texture was primarily sandy clay, with pH ranging from moderate acidic of 5.6 to moderate alkaline of 8.3. The recorded average annual rainfall and temperature ranged from 643 – 1157 mm and 19.4 to 24oC respectively in study areas. The vegetation was influenced by anthropogenic activities mainly grazing and farming. The study found a significant variation for all morphological traits assessed across the selected ecotypes. Ecotypes from Kilolo and Mpwapwa districts had relatively higher mean values for all traits assessed except tiller numbers while ecotypes from Kiteto district had low mean values for all traits except tiller numbers. The study concludes that African foxtail grass is morphologically variant among and within ecotypes. Further assessment of these ecotypes when grown under similar environmental conditions is recommended to reaffirm the morphological variation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Preliminary study on slaughter and meat quality characteristics of
           selected strains of Tanzania shorthorn zebu

    • Authors: D.E. Mushi, J.M. Baruani
      Pages: 278 - 294
      Abstract: A study was carried out to assess slaughter characteristics and meat quality of five strains of Tanzanian shorthorn zebu (TSZ): Singida white (SW), Gogo (GG), Iringa red (IR), Maasai (MS) and Mbulu (MB). A total of 50 animals (25 entire bulls and 25 castrates) aged 3-4 years were sampled from five slaughter facilities in Tanzania. Slaughter traits, physicochemical properties and the response of beef from the five strains to post-mortem ageing were assessed. IR strain had the highest (P<0.05) values for estimated slaughter weight (ESW), empty body weight (EBW), hot carcass weight (HCW) and linear carcass measurements while MB strain had the lowest values for these parameters. IR strain was 48, 64, 25 kg heavier than MB in terms of ESW, EBW and HCW, respectively. MB strain had the least (P<0.05) proportion of bone in the carcass with about 3% unit less than the rest of the strains. SW strain had the highest (P<0.05) ultimate pH (5.9) while GG had the lowest (5.6). Meat from the GG strain had higher (P<0.05) values for relative redness (15.9) and yellowness (9.8) than that of other strains. Meat from the GG strain had the highest colour stability with only 0.5 units decrease in a* value even after 14 days of ageing. Meat from SW and GG strains became sufficiently tender (<55 N) just after 7 days of ageing whereas that from IR and MB became only moderately tender (55 – 75 N) even after 14 days of ageing. It is concluded that beef from GG strain is the most suitable for processing into high quality meat products owing to its high relative redness (a*), colour stability, tenderness and low pHu.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Formulation and sensory evaluation of complementary foods from low-cost,

    • Authors: A.P. Tesha, C.N. Nyaruhucha, A.W. Mwanri
      Pages: 295 - 308
      Abstract: Meeting energy and micronutrient requirements during complementary feeding period especially in developing countries is limited by many factors one of them being poverty. This study was carried out in Rombo district, Kilimanjaro region with the aim of developing low-cost complementary foods using locally available ingredients by linear programming. Frequently used complementary foods and their ingredients were identified by using 24-hour dietary-recall questionnaire. Market and field survey was done to identify available ingredients and their monetary values. Linear programming was used to identify the cheapest possible combination of food ingredients that meet a set of nutritional requirements. Data was analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model using R software (Ri386) version 3.3.1. Means and standard deviations were calculated for acceptability of the sensory attributes of the complementary foods and for categorical variables frequencies and percentages were used. Seven recipes (banana puree with either minced beef, fish, pumpkins or milk as well as maize and composite flour porridges) were developed, prepared and then subjected to sensory evaluation using 5-point Likert scale. Banana porridge with minced beef was highly acceptable. There was no significant difference in terms of acceptability between banana porridge with fish, maize porridge, composite flour porridge and banana porridge with pumpkins. Banana porridge with milk had the least score. Linear programming was found to be a good method to improve nutrient content of complementary foods using low cost, locally available and culturally acceptable ingredients.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Efficacy of emamectin benzoate (3.4 ME) in the control of caterpillar
           (Spodoptera litura F) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) crop in Tanzania

    • Authors: J.B. Lisuma, A.F. Mbwambo, Z.A. Erick, A.E. Pessa, A.J. Philip, E.S. Maerere
      Pages: 309 - 316
      Abstract: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plant leaf is affected by both abiotic and biotic factors of which caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) is the main pest. The control of caterpillar in tobacco has been through deltamethrin. Following the introduction of new insecticide Sumectin 3.4 ME with active ingredient ‘emamectin benzoate’, initiated a need to study its efficacy on caterpillar and other pests. The research was conducted in Chunya, Tabora and Kahama in Tanzania to test three rates of emamectin benzoate of 4, 8, 10 ml and an absolute control treatment. The emamectin benzoate rates were compared with the control treatment of 10 ml Decis 2.5 EC (Deltamethrin) mixed in 20 L of water. Results showed that emamectin benzoate at the rate of 10 ml in 20 L of water decreased significantly (P<0.001) levels of tobacco caterpillar (S. litura), other pests (aphids, beetles and grasshoppers) and also contributed on increased leaf yields than the control treatment at a similar rate. Therefore, the rate of 10 ml of emamectin benzoate per 20 L of water is recommended to control S. litura and other pests in tobacco plant to both seedbed and field.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessment of harvesting and post-harvest handling practices on
           organically grown cloves and black pepper in Tawa Ward, Morogoro

    • Authors: B.T. Mkojera, B. Chove
      Pages: 317 - 325
      Abstract: Post-harvest management of spices is crucial in minimizing losses and upholding quality and safety along the value chain. This study assessed harvesting and post-harvest handling practices of clove and black pepper organically grown in Tawa Ward, Morogoro; to establish the quality compromising stages. A total of 107 clove and black pepper farmers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess harvesting, drying and storage practices. Thirty-four spice samples from 34-randomly selected farmers were collected in airtight bags for moisture content determination. Data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 20. Farmers in this study practice mixed farming, and handpicking harvesting to manageable amounts of spices (<100 kg/year). Spice drying is done on the ground by 80% of the farmers. Poor storage methods, mixing spice batches and attempts to treat spoiled spices were noticed as critical points that could compromise final quality. More than 46% of black pepper farmers acknowledged post-storage treatment of spoiled and contaminated spices including rubbing spices with cooking-oil and blanching. Such treatments along with higher moisture contents were related to farmers’ unawareness on post-harvest management. Moisture content of the final dried spices ranged from 23.9-14.8 (clove) and 13.8-10.1 (black pepper) indicating that farmers are struggling to achieve the recommended moisture content of 12% as per TZS 357:2012 and TZS 30:2013. This study calls for interventions of improving farmer’s knowledge and making use of simple but effective methods; like drying of spices on raised platforms and use moisture meter to determine the final level of dryness.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
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