Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Agricola     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Seed Science Research     Hybrid Journal  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Semiárida     Open Access  
Siembra     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Smart Agricultural Technology     Open Access  
Social & Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Economic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stiinta Agricola     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Tropical Technology Journal     Open Access  
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access  
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Weed Biology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Weed Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World's Poultry Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0856-668X
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Awareness and screening practices for gestational diabetes mellitus among
           pregnant women in Arusha Urban, Tanzania

    • Authors: S.S. Msollo, H.D. Martin, A.W. Mwanri, P. Petrucka
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Awareness is an important aspect for seeking self-prevention, diagnosis, and management of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to assess awareness and history of screening practices for gestational diabetes mellitus among pregnant women in Arusha Urban District of Arusha City Council, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018, among 468 randomly selected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Ngarenaro and Kaloleni Health Centers in urban areas of Arusha District. Data collection was done through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSSTM version 20. Almost 60% of the participants completed primary school and were self-employed (55.8%) basically in small business. Few women were aware of the existence of gestational diabetes mellitus (10.7%). Among the aware women, 36, 23, 26 and 30% knew the meaning, effects, symptoms and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus respectively. Twelve (24%) of these women, obtained this information from the antenatal clinic while 38(76%) from different media. Awareness was positively associated with post-secondary (AOR 13.7, 95% CI: 4.07-46.15) and secondary education levels (AOR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.78-16.76). About 8.2% of the women were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus in their previous pregnancy in urine whereby 13.2% reported to have high urine glucose and provided with nutrition counselling without further follow up from the antenatal care. Therefore, awareness and screening practices for gestational diabetes mellitus are insufficient in the study area which may be attributed to low prioritization and limited resources.
      PubDate: 2021-11-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Indigenous and scientific evidence on climate change effects on cereal
           crops production in semi-arid areas of Central Tanzania

    • Authors: H.E. Myeya, C.A. Mulungu
      Pages: 12 - 23
      Abstract: Changes in temperature and rainfall have been reported at both local and global level with negative influence on crop yields. This article attempts to investigate the effects of climate change on cereal crops in semi-arid areas of Dodoma region, Tanzania. To achieve the research objectives, mixed method research approach under cross-sectional design was used. A total of 366 heads of households and 36 key informants were involved in this study. The study further used archival data on rainfall, temperature and crop yields of maize, sorghum and bulrush millet for the past 27 years (1984 to 2011). Simple linear trend analysis and Mann-Kendall test were used to establish and test for rainfall, temperature and crop yield trends. Linear regression analysis was applied in establishing the relationship between climate variables and crop yields. Findings from this study reveal increased temperature and reduced rainfall and crop yields as perceived by smallholder farmers and verified by archival data. Results for both minimum and maximum temperature indicate significant increased trends (p=0.000, p=0.000) respectively. Conversely, non-significant decreasing trends for rainfall were noted for Bahi, Mpwapwa and Dodoma stations (p=0.505, p=0.911, p=0.474) respectively. The findings on correlation analysis indicate both positive and negative influence of temperature and rainfall on cereal crop yields. The study concludes that, climate change has impacted cereal crop yields in the study area calling for implementation of more viable adaptation strategies in order to reduce the adverse effects of the changing climate. The study recommends on the use of more drought tolerant crop varieties of cereal seeds that can suit the changing climate.
      PubDate: 2021-11-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Analysis of competitiveness of textile industries in Morogoro and Dar Es
           Salaam regions, Tanzania

    • Authors: G.S. Fasha, D. Itika
      Pages: 24 - 41
      Abstract: Tanzania is promoting industrialization with a motive to attain the middle economy status and broaden employment opportunities to the country’s population. This study analysed the competitiveness of textile industries in Morogoro and Dar es Salaam regions, Tanzania. More specifically, the overview of textile industries, their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOC). Furthermore, were analysed by examining the competitiveness score among the firms in the area of study. The study used both primary and secondary data, secondary data were collected from official publications and records provided from the respective firms, while and primary data were collected from seven operating textile industries in the study area. The data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and observation. Descriptive analysis was used to examine the firm’s performance, SWOC analysis was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses and the GEM Model was used to examine the competitiveness score. The results showed that, privately owned firms had a competitive advantage as opposed to public owned firms. Furthermore, the overall average GEM scores for competitiveness of the textile industries was 178 and industries with below 178 were considered as having competitive disadvantage. On the other hand, industries above 178 were considered as having a competitive advantage of above the national level. Hence, such textile industries were more competitive than was the case with the rest of textile industries and possesses the nationwide competitive advantage. Privately owned firms had a higher GEM competitive score than public owned firms. From the study, it is recommended that the textile and apparel firms need to consider adopting competitive strategies to enable them compete in a sustainable manner. Thereby, firms need to take into consideration the dimensions of diamond conditions in preparing for the corporate strategies that aim at attaining sustainable competitive advantage.
      PubDate: 2021-11-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Can Sub-Saharan Africa become food self-sufficient' Analyzing the
           market demand for sunflower edible oil in Tanzania

    • Authors: C.P. Mgeni, Z.T. Mpenda
      Pages: 42 - 53
      Abstract: Deficit in food supply, edible oil in particular is a common occurrence in Tanzania. The deficit in edible oil from the domestic supply is mainly due to use of poor production technology, that include use of unimproved seed coupled with dependent on rain fed agriculture leads to low productivity. However, the high rates of population growth and industrialization increase demand for edible oil both for home consumption and industrial use. Despite Tanzania having comparative advantage in the production of edible oil particularly from sunflower still this opportunity has not fully exploited. Currently, Tanzania, is revitalizing its edible oil sub-sector in order to reduce its dependency on imported edible oil. The sunflower sub-sector in Tanzania is deemed as key to industrialization, thus a potential contributor to economic growth and development, especially for smallholder farmers and small-to medium-size processors. This study aims at discerning the response of sunflower edible oil subsector to fulfill the edible oil demand in Tanzania. The study uses annual time series data from 1995 to 2019. A partial adjustment model is used to determine the relationship between edible oil demand, and its determinants, that are sunflower and palm oil prices, and per capita income. Findings from this study indicate that the demand for edible oil is inelastic for increase in palm oil price but elastic for the increase in domestic sunflower edible oil prices. This implies, as the price of sunflower edible oil increases per capita edible oil decreases. In contrast, increase in imported palm oil price per capita oil demand increases, implying the price for the imported palm oil are extremely low compared to the domestically produced sunflower edible oil. The current speed of adjustment in production of sunflower edible oil is low per year that indicate that it will take many years for Tanzania to be self-sufficient. This situation calls for the government and development agencies to intervene and improve the available technologies thus raise farmers productivity in terms of sunflower seed production as well as efficiency in processing. To improve the productivity of the agro processors, the Tanzania Government will need to reconsider the tax rates imposed on imported technologies and other materials required for processors, making sure they do not actually harm the country’s goal of self-sufficiency in production of edible oils.
      PubDate: 2021-11-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Quality of milk from Norwegian dairy goats bred and raised in Mgeta
           Division, Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    • Authors: G.M. Msalya, F.E. Urassa, G.C. Kifaro
      Pages: 54 - 62
      Abstract: Milk from goats has uplifted the nutritional standards of many poor households in rural communities in developing countries. In Tanzania, consumption of milk in these communities has increased since introduction of dairy goats in 1960s. Nutritional composition including carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals and associated quality attributes are important factors of milk for human consumption. Also, milk should be obtained from health animals in order to safeguard the health of consumers. These parameters are affected by many factors including management, production level, breed, parity and stage of lactation, as well as processing and handling conditions. We carried out this study to evaluate the composition of milk from dairy goats namely Norwegian Landrace (NL), mainly crosses with indigenous Small East African (SEA) goats which are bred and managed in Mgeta division, Morogoro region, Eastern Tanzania. We collected 75 milk samples considering various factors. These samples were analysed for somatic cell count (SCC), crude protein (CP), butterfat (BF), lactose, total solids (TS), solids-not-fat (SNF), Chloride (Cl) as well as milk density. We obtained averages of each parameter for each factor and made statistical based on analyses which were performed general linear model procedures of the statistical analysis system. Averages for milk yield (MY), SSC, CP, BF, lactose, Cl, TS, SNF and milk density were 1.32 litres/day, 1.48x105 cells/ml, 3.65, 4.34, 4.20, 0.15, 12.29, 7.95 and 27.98% respectively. Conclusively, values of parameters were within the recommended ranges and milk from NL goats is good for consumption.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predicting soil ECe based on values of EC1:2.5 as an indicator of soil
           salinity at Magozi Irrigation Scheme, Iringa, Tanzania

    • Authors: D.P. Isdory, B.H.J. Massawe, B.M. Msanya
      Pages: 63 - 71
      Abstract: Soil salinity is one of the limitations to sustainable production of rice and other crops in many irrigation schemes in Tanzania. Soil salinity can be assessed from electrical conductivity (EC) measurements. Most soil laboratories in Tanzania appraise soil salinity from measurements of electrical conductivity of 1:2.5 soil:water suspensions (EC1:2.5) by virtue of their simplicity. However, the influence of soil salinity on plant growth is mainly based on electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract (ECe), so it is necessary to convert EC1:2.5 to ECe in order to assess plant response to salinity. This study was conducted at Magozi Irrigation Scheme in Iringa Region, Tanzania to establish regression model for predicting ECe from EC1:2.5 values. A total of 60 soil samples (45 samples for model training and 15 samples for model validation) were collected and analyzed for soil EC1:2.5, ECe and soil texture. Results showed that EC1:2.5 ranged from 0.1 to 4.2 dS m-1 with a mean value of 0.71 dS m-1. ECe obtained ranged from 0.3 (non-saline) to 12 dS m-1 (very saline) with a mean of 2.4 dS m-1 (slightly saline). In order of dominance, soil textural classes were sandy clay loam, clay, sandy clay, sandy loam and clay loam. Strong linear relationships between ECe and EC1:2.5 were observed in the developed linear regression equations. After validation, the study selected equation ECe = 3.4954*EC1:2.5 with R2 of 0.956 for combined soil textures to be used for prediction of ECe from EC1:2.5 at Magozi Irrigation Scheme. This model can be tested for its applicability to other similar soils in Tanzania in further studies.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Integrating smallholder dairy farmers into formal milk markets in
           Tanzania: Key lessons and policy implications

    • Authors: F.T.M. Kilima
      Pages: 72 - 81
      Abstract: There have been remarkable efforts to promote innovation and inclusive value chain development so as to facilitate the integration of smallholder dairy farmers into high value chains. In Tanzania this endeavour has mainly focused on enhancing linkages between small holder dairy farmers and milk processors. This article compares and contrast the way small scale dairy farmer-processor relationships affect chain upgrading in two milk shed areas in Tanzania. Findings reveal that well-managed dairy co-operatives are appropriate means for enhancing horizontal co-ordination in the dairy industry and could be more relevant for achieving the upgrading through efficient and effective management of production and marketing functions to make the entities more competitive and resilient to market shocks. Ensuring dedicated technical support towards identifying appropriate business models for more effective engagement with milk processors and other chain actors is the best strategy to enhance the performance of dairy co-operatives and promote farmers’ linkage to milk processing plants. The findings show that value chain champions can leverage livestock extension services and support smallholder dairy farmers to upgrade. Interventions pioneered by value chain champions are seen to be more effective when geared towards self-selected and committed dairy farmers than generic interventions targeting all smallholder dairy farmers.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Response rate, incentives and timing of online surveys: A study of
           agriculture researchers in Kenya

    • Authors: S.K. Mailu, A. Adem, D.K. Mbugua, P. Gathuka, T. Mwogoi
      Pages: 82 - 93
      Abstract: With the increase in internet connectivity, web-based surveys will increasingly be used as a tool for data collection characterized by low financial resource implication, quick response time, and no need for separate data entry. This study had the objective of learning how different survey window lengths and incentives affect responses to online surveys. The study was carried out in the context of an online conjoint survey involving the ranking of different domestic biogas plant attributes presented to 345 respondents from the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO). Email invitations to the survey were sent in three waves spaced one week apart. The respondents were assigned to 4 blocks composed of an incentive in the form of a lottery of either (zero, $50, $100, or $150) for having completed the survey. Within these groups, a timing (one, two, or three weeks) by which the survey would be opened to receive responses was included as an additional treatment. With a response rate of 11.8 percent, neither the incentive nor the time to respond had an impact (p<0.05) on the decision to respond. Sixty-five percent of those responses were received within the window indicated in the email invitation. The distribution- free Kruskal-Wallis H test revealed no jointly significant association between the response speed and the incentive nor the time granted treatments. Similar results are obtained through the non-parametric equivalent of the ANOVA (Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test) which reveals that neither of the treatments separately or jointly influenced response speed. However, longer deadlines may induce some response. Results also show an effect suspected to be that of a reminder.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The contribution of improved chicken strains in promoting women
           empowerment in Bariadi and Muheza Districts, Tanzania

    • Authors: R.M. Maunde, J.G. Lyimo-Macha, J.N. Jeckoniah
      Pages: 94 - 100
      Abstract: Increasing number of development projects espouse objectives of women’s empowerment. However, mechanism by which agricultural development projects can enhance women empowerment is scantly documented. Therefore, this paper aimed at assessing the role of improved chicken strains in promoting women empowerment. The study which this paper is based on, involved 240 women (120 beneficiaries of African Chicken Genetic Gain [ACGG] and 120 non-beneficiaries) from Bariadi and Muheza districts. Cross-sectional research and mixed methods of data collection were used. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire, Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Extent of women empowerment among beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of ACGG project was measured using a Composite Empowerment Index (CEI). Content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Quantitative data were analysed by using descriptive statistics. Results showed that ACGG project provided women’s access to initial stock of improved chicks and vaccines as well as extension and training services. Women who benefited from ACGG were more empowered (CEI = 0.714) as compared to non-beneficiaries (CEI = 0.529). Based on the findings, women empowerment has been realised through the intervention of the improved chicken which were sponsored by the ACGG project. However, the ACGG project focused more on creating an enabling environment for women’s access to productive resources than on addressing social settings that influence women’s status. It was thus recommended to the ACGG project, Local Government Authorities and development partners to scale up improved chicken interventions to other areas and promote initiatives to challenge social institutions that have an impact on women’s life.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of live weight and carcass characteristics of local cattle in
           Zanzibar

    • Authors: K.M. Khamis, H.S. Baalawy, F.A. Kesi, A.H. Hamad
      Pages: 101 - 105
      Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate live weight and carcass characteristics of cattle in Zanzibar. Forty eight indigenous bulls aged 2–2.5 years with live body weight of 106.75 ± 10.23 to 186.17 ±10.23 kg were purchased from four Districts of Micheweni, Chake-Chake, of Pemba region and Central and North “A”, Unguja region for slaughter. The body condition score and initial body weight of animals were recorded before slaughtering process. All appendages were removed, weighed and recorded separately. Carcass was incised through median plan and the abdominal cavity contents were weighed individually and recorded separately. The dressing-out percentage was estimated as the hot carcass weight divided by the final body weight in percentage. Killing out parameters of cattle from North “A” were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from Central, Micheweni and Chake-Chake. Weight of carcass joints of the cattle from Chake-Chake and Micheweni were significantly lower (p<0.05) than North “A” and Central. Animals from North “A” and Central were significantly (p<0.05) high in total weight of tissues than Micheweni and Chake-Chake. The lean: fat ratio of 43.31:1 was significant higher (p<0.05) for Chake Chake district, while Central district had significant higher (p<0.05) lean: bone ratio of 1.77:1. Generally; the study showed differences in live weight of cattle reared within the four Districts in Zanzibar. However the average dressing percentage of 48% obtained from this study is within range of 47 – 53 % reported on other studies conducted in Tanzania Mainland.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recent development of Tanzania feed industry through improvement of the
           feed analytical facility

    • Authors: S.P. Doto, P.C. Malamsha, W.A. Maulaga, L.G. Robin
      Pages: 106 - 110
      Abstract: The quality and supply of conventional feed ingredients in Tanzania is expected to decrease due to climate change’s negative effect on crop, livestock and fish yields. In order to maintain a high quality and supply of feed, the feed industry may have to adapt by making frequent modifications to feed formulations and use alternative feed ingredients. This strategy requires the services of a reliable and trustworthy feed analytical facility. In efforts to regulate the feed industry, the government of Tanzania appointed the feed laboratory at Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency to be the Government Analyst for livestock feeds. The capacity of this analytical facility was strengthened with support from the US Grains Council. Currently, the analytical facility has the capacity to do basic nutrient analysis and mineral analysis of feeds; it can also perform the Urease test to determine levels of anti-nutritional factors in Soya. The efficiency of service provision has improved; however, the capacity of the analytical facility needs to be strengthened further because it has no equipment for determining levels of mycotoxin in feeds and has to depend on outsourcing for feed safety analysis. Climate change conditions are expected to increase the incidence of mycotoxin contamination of feeds. Although there has been an increase in demand for the services of the analytical facility, more can be done to increase awareness on available services and the importance of feed analysis to the production of quality feeds.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Performance of dairy goat genotypes in different production systems in
           Kenya

    • Authors: R.W. Waineina, K. Ngeno, T.O. Okeno, E.D. Ilatsia
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: Dairy goat population in Kenya is estimated to be 175,000 heads which mainly consist of exotic breeds such as Toggenburg, Anglo-Nubian, German Alpines, Saanen, Boer and their crosses with indigenous goats. Genetic improvement efforts have mainly been focused on crossbreeding between the exotic breeds and local populations to improve both milk and meat. Previous crossbreeding programmes were initiated by interest groups such as Non-Governmental Organizations. Knowledge on productivity for different dairy goat genotypes is, however, still limited. The aim of this study was to document performance of dairy goat genotypes in different production systems. A baseline study was conducted in Homa Bay, Nyeri and Meru Counties which were the entry points of Saanen, Alpine and Toggenburg dairy goats in Kenya. A structured questionnaire was administered to a total of 147 household farms. The three genotypes per County with combinations of 30 households with Saanen, 58 Alpine and 59 Toggenburg were randomly sampled from Homa Bay, Nyeri and Meru Counties respectively. Data analysis were performed using SAS v2008 software. The results showed that all households in the three Counties practiced semi-intensive production system. The mean flock size was 4.5 ± 3.5, 5.2 ±2.4 and 6.9±3.2 per household for Saanen, Alpine and Toggenburg respectively. The average milk production per doe/day was 1.70±0.13 L, 1.83 ±0.12L and 2.52±0.18L for Toggenburg, Alpine and Saanen, respectively. Overall, age at first service, age at weaning and kidding interval for does were 1.1 years, 3.3 months, and 9.1 months respectively. The results from the study revealed the need for further research on profitability analysis per genotype.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Antifungal effect of a local Bacillus subtilis, isolate TM07, on Fusarium
           oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici in Morogoro, Tanzania

    • Authors: R. Machang’u, A. Maerere, B. Mwinuka, J. Nashon, G. Makingi
      Pages: 118 - 125
      Abstract: Fusarium oxyporum f.sp. lycopersici causes tomato wilt, a severe disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of tomatoes in Tanzania. Management of Fusarium infection is particularly challenging given the health and environmental concerns over continued use of chemical pesticides on horticultural food crops. However, there is an increasing focus towards the use of biocontrol agents to combat phytopathogens worldwide. In this study, bacterial isolates from tomato rhizosphere were screened for their antagonistic activity in vitro on F. oxysporum. Based on its superior effectiveness, one isolate, designated TM07, was selected and characterized as Bacillus subtilis by morphological, biochemical and molecular procedures. On potato dextrose agar (PDA) the isolate showed an appreciable degree of radial growth inhibition (RGI) of 40.5% of the Fusarium, compared to control (55.9%). Further investigations are recommended to elucidate on the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of isolate TM07. In vivo studies are also recommended to assess the possibility of applying the B. subtilis, isolate TM07, as a local biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt of tomato and other susceptible crops.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Changes in the agricultural sector and extension workers roles:
           Implications to training sector in Tanzania

    • Authors: C.P. Msuya
      Pages: 126 - 137
      Abstract: In Tanzania and elsewhere, extension workers roles have been focusing mainly on transfer of technologies from research centers to farmers and train them on the same for improving agricultural production. However, agricultural extension system has been criticized as not effective in improving the agricultural sector. This is mainly caused by changes that are taking place in and outside the agricultural sector like technological, climate, and others that affect performance of extension workers roles. The objective of this paper is to present these changes and their implications to the training sector. The information presented in this paper was obtained from author’s long experience in the topic, literature review and synthesis of the collected information from various sources like Journals, books and reports. The collected information show that there are various changes that are taking place in the agricultural sector like technological, social, climatic and political that require extension workers to change their roles in line with these changes. These include shifting from technology transfer to facilitation, beyond training to learning, lobbying and advocacy, networking and partnering, coaching, negotiation, problem-solving, capacity to reflect and considering value chain aspects. These changes should be well addressed through long and short term training programmes involving new curriculum development and review and organizing short courses. It is recommended that training organs should conduct training needs assessment through participatory approaches to identify relevant knowledge, skills, attitudes and new ways of extension service delivery needed to build capacity of extension workers for them to perform their roles effectively for improving performance of the agricultural sector in general.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Interdisciplinary approach to combat food and nutrition insecurity in
           rural resource-poor settings of Central Tanzania

    • Authors: M. Kalloka, W. Maulaga, S. Komba, E. Kileo, E. Rukambile, B. Bagnol, R. Alders
      Pages: 138 - 145
      Abstract: Rural resource-poor settings of central depend largely on crop and livestock production for the livelihood. Lack of diversity and adequate food is an important problem affecting a substantial number of communities in Tanzania especially children aged between six months and one year. Poultry and crop production interventions were part of the project titled “strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia" that aimed at utilizing locally available resources to mitigate food and nutrition insecurity. Interdisciplinary approach to combat food and nutrition insecurity was conducted in Iwondo Ward located in Mpwapwa District in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. The crop production interventions were introduction of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and poultry production interventions were vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND) based on vaccination calendar and good husbandry. The data in poultry and crop production were collected before introduction of the interventions as the baseline and after introduction of GAP and vaccination of chickens. The harvest of crops was increased as compared to baseline year. The yield of sorghum increased from 200 to 1206.5kg, sesame from 150 to 504kg, and green gram from 80 to 644kg per acre. The proportion of households experiencing hunger for two to three months declined from 58% during baseline to 16% in 2017.The proportion of households keeping chickens increased during the period 2016 to 2018, from 47.3% (n=280) to 82.1% (n=276). The average number of chickens raised by households also increased from 9 to 13, and the average flock structure comprising of chickens of different age categories also demonstrated an increase, adults, 3 to 5, growers, 3 to 4 and chicks, 2 to 4.Most households (89%) reported to provide sorghum, maize/maize bran and finger millet as additional feed to chickens. Adopting interdisciplinary interventions can assist to improve agricultural production and hence increase resilience to food and nutrition insecurity.
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of Baobab seed cake based diets for growth performance and
           carcass quality of pig in Central Zone, Tanzania

    • Authors: J.M. Magonka, D.M. Komwihangilo, J. Malago
      Pages: 146 - 152
      Abstract: This study was carried out in Central Tanzania and aimed at evaluating the effect of Baobab seed cake (BSC) on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Twenty-four (24) weaners of both sexes were involved in the study which lasted for 84 days. Four diets were formulated with BSC replacing sunflower seed cake at four levels of 0, 7, 14 and 21% and allotted to four dietary treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively, in a completely randomized design. Results showed that the four levels of replacement had no significant effect on body weight gains although T2 outperformed the others in terms of weight gain with 23.19kg whereby T1 (20.54kg) and T3 (20.21kg) had almost similar weights and T4 had the lowest weight gain (15.52kg). The cost of production, carcass weights, and dressing percentages varied significantly (P≤ 0.05) whereby costs of production (in Tshs) were 151,643.28, 162,965.52, 150,820.03 and 117,646.74 for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Carcass weight and dressing percentages were 23kg, 20.5kg, 18.50kg, 9.50kgs and 55.4, 53.9, 51.4 and 48.7% for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Histopathology analyses of the carcasses indicated that there were no any detrimental changes resulting from an inclusion of BSC in pig diets thus the pork was fit for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Research note: Effect of vine age and storage duration on regeneration
           potential of sweetpotato vines in drier areas of Tanzania

    • Authors: A. Rwebangila, G.M. Rwegasira
      Pages: 153 - 159
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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