Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted by number of followers
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Nature Plants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
New Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Italian Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
EU Agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Apicultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Cubana de Ciencia Agrícola     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RIA. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Progressive Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture System     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Jurnal Agroteknologi     Open Access  
Perspectivas Rurales Nueva Época     Open Access  
Organic Farming     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Landtechnik : Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Pastura : Journal Of Tropical Forage Science     Open Access  
Journal of Citrus Pathology     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de las Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports     Open Access  
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Fave : Sección ciencias agrarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Review of Agrarian Studies     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nigeria Agricultural Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nativa     Open Access  
SAARC Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrosearch     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access  
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
Ceiba     Open Access  
Research in Sierra Leone Studies : Weave     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Encuentro     Open Access  
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Landbohistorisk Tidsskrift     Open Access  
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologia Postcosecha     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Bioagro     Open Access  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access  
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Nigeria Agricultural Journal
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0300-368X
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Distribution and Perception of Open Grown Trees (OGTs) on Farmlands in Oyo
           State, Nigeria

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      Authors: Q.A. Onilude, S.O. Osundun, A.R. Kilanso, E.D. Adedoyin, O.O. Adeoti, Z.T. Animashaun, A.O. Aina-Oduntan, C.S. Ofordu, O.S. Afolabi
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: The study investigated the distribution of tree species, usefulness and perception of farmers on retention of open grown trees (OGTs) on their farmlands in Oyo State. OGTs are tree species located outside the designated forest reserves. Three stage sampling design was adopted in the selection of 80 farmers from Ibadan and Saki zones of Agricultural Development Programme of Oyo State (OYSADEP). Through field observation and questionnaire sampling, information collected were level of awareness of trees on farmlands, retention of trees during land preparation, farm size, type of farming system and tree species growing of farmlands. The result of the descriptive and inferential test statistics indicated that there are variations in farmers’ perceptions towards the usefulness of trees on their farmlands. In Ibadan Zone, 77.5% of farmers do use and collect products from the trees on their farmlands, while 22.5% do not. In Saki zone, 50% of the farmers were aware of the usefulness of trees growing on their farmlands. Chi-square test of statistics revealed that some socio-economic characteristics of the farmers were significant when tested at α0.05, indicating that they do have influence over retention of trees on farmland. Gmelina arborea Roxb and Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels were the most species identified in Ibadan and Shaki agricultural Zones respectively. The existing forest management regimes will be more significant if trees on farm landscape are also put on board by being given a strong support both politically and financially to reduce over burden of illegal removal of trees from the reserves.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Insecticidal Potential of Two Indigenious Plant Extracts and Synthetic
           Dust on Control of Callosobruchus chinensis (L) in Pigeon Pea Seeds

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      Authors: J.O. Olufelo, R.B. Olayinka
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Synthetic pesticides have proven to be the most effective control agents against all pests of minor pulses. However, considering the drawbacks of pesticide residues in the seed quality, environmental pollution, and damage to natural enemies associated with synthetic pesticide use, integrated pest management schemes for pulses are being developed. The study evaluated the insecticidal potential of two indigenous plant extracts and synthetic dust on control of callosobruchus chinensis in pigeon pea seeds. Two botanicals: Eugenia aromatic and Piper guineese, were used in combination with synthetic dust at different treatment combinations for the control of Callosobruchus chinensis. The Callosobruchus chinensis used was derived from a colony originating from heavily invested pigeon pea seeds in the laboratory, while clean NSWCC-50 pigeon pea seeds were obtained from Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Ibadan, Nigeria. The botanical plant extracts were obtained from a herbal store in Owerri. They were oven- dried at 60oC for 48hrs and grounded to a powder form in an electric mill. The synthetic dust (pirimiphos-methyl and permethrin) were used at a fixed application rate of 0.lg, while the botanical were varied at 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 g/ 20 seeds. Both the synthetic dust and the plant extracts were used singly and in combination. The mortality of Callosobruchus chinensis was monitored within the time intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72hrs. The result showed that a sub-lethal dose of pirimiphos-metyl produced 100% adult mortality of Callosobruchus chinensis. The study also revealed that there is great potential in reducing the rate of application of synthetic organic insecticides by mixing with a sub-lethal dose of insecticidal materials. It is however, recommended that to maintain the optimum quality of pigeon pea seeds in storage, all possible combinations of low dosages of both the insecticidal plant powders and synthetic organic dusts should be tested so that the best mix can be determined.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Impact of NIRSAL's Agro-GEO-Cooperative Model: Case of Poultry
           Farmers in Oshimili South Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria

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      Authors: F.N. Odum, C.O. Chukwuji
      Pages: 14 - 19
      Abstract: The study was carried out on enhancing agricultural production through NIRSAL's funding, the case of poultry farmers in Oshimili South Local Government Area, Delta State. This study specifically examined; the amount of NIRSAL's fund obtained by poultry farmers; profitability of poultry farmers as a result of NIRSAL's funding; and the constraints faced by poultry farmers in accessing NIRSAL's funding. A total of 90 poultry farmers (NIRSAL’s fund beneficiaries) were randomly selected for the study. The result from the study revealed that cost of feeds (₦945,500) and day-old chick (₦279,000) had a huge impact on the total cost of poultry production as represented by 55.9% and 16.5% of the total cost respectively. The average net profit of the poultry farmers was ₦1,086,650. The gross profit ratio of 0.51 showed that poultry production is a profitable venture capable of providing a decent livelihood for the farmers in the study area. The study also revealed that the major constraint to access of NIRSAL’s fund was lack of collateral. The study therefore recommends that poultry egg producers in the area should be encouraged to increase their scale of production for increased profitability, food security and job creation. This could be achieved if small scale farmers can come together and pool their resources as cooperatives following the model of NIRSAL’s Agro-Geo Cooperative.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Assessing Institutional characteristics, Factors influencing Profitability
           and Constraints of Millet Farming in Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba
           State, Nigeria

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      Authors: F.U. Tikon, C.K. Hassan, B. Ahmed, J.P.D. Bako
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: The study assessed institutional characteristics, factors influencing profitability and constraints of millet farming in Wukari Local Government area of Taraba State. Multistage random sampling technique was employed to select 120 respondents for the study. Results showed that family labour (42.5%) was the major source of labour among millet farmers and the mean cost of labour was N9,615.00. About 43.3% of farmers used the mixed farming system compared to mono-cropping (31.6%) and mixed cropping (25.1%). Majority (89.2%) of the millet farmers used fertilizer (both organic and inorganic) and 63.6% used less than 50kg of fertilizer. About 34.7% used agro-chemicals in their millet farms and the average cost of agro-chemicals purchased and quantity of agro-chemicals used was N 16,706.00 and 47.8kg respectively. Using multiple regression analysis to examine factors influencing profitability of millet farming, educational level, farming experience and age had positive significant coefficients, while household size and labour cost had negative significant coefficients. Using principal component analysis, constraints of millet farming were categorized into three main components: institutional factors, cost factors and economic factors. Results show that millet farming is profitable in the study area. The study recommended policies that will boost millet production and provide solutions to challenges militating against millet farming in the country.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Use of Social Media for Marketing of Agricultural Commodities in Selected
           Markets in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

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      Authors: J.O. Ogunsola, A.B. Alarape, O.J. Aluko, O.M. Olaore, A.J. Ogunsola
      Pages: 27 - 34
      Abstract: This study examined the use of social media for marketing agricultural commodities in Nigeria particularly in Ibadan metropolis. Descriptive survey design was used to carry out the study, while 100 questionnaires were used to obtain data from the market traders of Agricultural products in Ibadan. Data was analyzed using descriptive (mean, frequency, standard deviation, percentages) statistics. The result shows that majority of the respondents were female (61%), married (36%) and within the age range of 30-35 years. The findings also revealed that Instagram, Facebook and Youtube are the most used social media App among the respondents and almost all the respondents (96%) spend more than 1 hour daily on social media for advertising their products. The study further revealed that Facebook and Instagram were the most preferred social media tools for product marketing by the respondents. The study therefore shows that social media was used to a very high extent to enhance customer relationship and increase sales due to its mode of operation in marketing agricultural commodities. It’s recommended that agricultural commodities sellers should learn more on how to effectively use social media for agricultural commodity marketing.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Price, Service, and Atmospheric Quality on Brand Switching
           among Dinners in Food Service Outfits in Umuahia, Abia State

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      Authors: I.B. Anyanwu, J.I. Amaechi-Chijioke
      Pages: 35 - 39
      Abstract: This study determined the influence of price, service quality, and atmospheric quality on brand switching in food service establishments in Umuahia metropolis, Abia State. Descriptive survey research with three specific objectives and three research hypotheses guided the study. The researchers purposively selected 300 dinners of six reputable food service establishments in the study area as sample size. The research instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire on a 4-point rating scale which was subjected to reliability test that produced reliability co-efficient of 0.78, proved the usability of the instrument. Accessibility sampling technique was used in the administration of the instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics on SPSS version 25 were used to analyze the data generated. Findings revealed that price has a positive relationship with brand switching but not statistically significant. Furthermore, service quality was found to have a negative relationship with brand switching and significant at 5% level. Similarly, atmospheric quality was found to have a negative relationship with brand switching and not significant. On the strength of the findings of this study, it is recommended that operators of food service establishments in the study area should ensure that their tariff structure reflects quality are made more pocket-friendly, apply total quality management strategy (TQM) in improving service delivery to the delight of the customers, and ensure that environmental and aesthetic features that define atmospheric quality evoke emotional feelings and are perceived to be environmentally friendly.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Role of Information and Communication Technologies towards Sustainability
           Transitions in Agriculture and Food Systems

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      Authors: S.C. Nwafor, S.A. Agba, C. Ugbem-Onah, Q.C. Uwandu
      Pages: 40 - 45
      Abstract: Food sustainability transitions refer to transformation processes necessary to move towards sustainable food systems. Digitization is one of the most important ongoing transformation processes in global agriculture and food chains. The review paper explores the contribution of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to transition towards sustainability along the food chain (production, processing, distribution, consumption). It also reviewed the Challenges to ICT Use in the Food Chain. From the review, it was found that ICT has enormous roles to play in boasting food production and promoting equitable distribution and marketing of food produce. ICTs can contribute to agro-food sustainability transition by increasing resource productivity, reducing inefficiencies, decreasing management costs, and improving food chain coordination. Key challenges to effective utilization of ICT in promoting food security were identified to include lack of access to ICT tools, low literacy level, and inadequate capital among others.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Nexus of Fishing Boat Motorisation, Profitability and Poverty Status of
           Artisanal Fisherfolks on Epe Lagoon, Lagos State: A Multidimensional
           Poverty Index (MPI) Approach

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      Authors: C.F. Abasilim, O.L. Balogun; , I.V. Onyewuchi
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: The study examined the nexus of fishing boat motorisation, profitability and poverty status of artisanal fisherfolks on Epe Lagoon, Lagos State: A MPI approach. Specifically, the study analysed profitability and determined MPI of respondents. The study area was Epe lagoon, with stratified sampling technique adopted. One hundred and sixty (160) respondents were stratified into 2 strata based on craft propulsion: Manual Propulsion Technology (MPT) and Motorized Technology (MT). The sampling unit was the respondents' households. Information obtained using interview schedules were analysed using descriptive statistics, profitability ratios, and Alkire and Foster MPI. Although the MT respondents had higher Net income, the Benefit-Cost ratio was lower due to the cost of maintenance of the outboard engine. Four MPI dimensions: education, health, living standard and financial standard were examined. MPT respondents were more deprived (MPI 27.8%) than the MT respondents (17.87%). The headcount of multidimensionally poor MPT respondents was 86.43%, while MT respondents were 53.4%. Deprivations were in living standards (no electricity, portable water or toilet and clean cooking energy) and financial standards (unreliability of fishing income; no savings, difficulty in credit access, no cooperative society). These deprivations violated some UN SDGs goals. The study recommends rapid intervention by the State government in the living standard of the fishing communities by the provision of basic amenities like potable water, electricity and an access road. The prohibition of discharge of the heated coolant water from the Egbin power plant into the western end of the lagoon because of its heavy metal deposits. Cooperative education should be extended to the fisherfolks.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Determinants of Youth’s Participation in Agricultural Enterprises in
           Rural Communities of Ogun State, Nigeria

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      Authors: J.O. Ogunsola, J.O. Oladeji, A.B. Alarape, O.J. Aluko, A.J. Ogunsola
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Agriculture is a source of livelihoods for most rural people, but majority of the rural populace face many hurdles such as lack of access to credit and other resources necessary to earn a livelihood. However, despite the opportunities available in agriculture, unemployment rate and rural-urban migration is still high and on the increase. This study was designed to identify the determinants of youth participation in agricultural enterprises in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 125 farmers (youths) for the study. A well-structured questionnaire was used in collecting the data and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results show that many (30.4%) were between 30-34 years of age, majority (59.2%) of the respondent recorded household size 1-3 persons. Majority (52.0%) of the respondents are into farming as their primary occupation, 83.2% strongly agree that agricultural enterprise reduced dependency on government and the community, 83.2% noted subsidy on fertilizer is not available, 96.8% indicated highly benefited on increase in self-worth, 79.2% encountered poor returns to investment as the severe constraint, 96.0% were fully involved in cassava production, while 95.2% participated in maize production. These youths are confronted with different challenges constraining their participation in agricultural enterprises. Hence, access to credit facilities, increase in farm size will enable youths to participate in the available enterprises, thereby, increasing youth participation in agricultural enterprises and assist them to attain the efficient point on the production frontier.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Adoption of Ginger Production and Processing Technologies on
           Rural Households’ Productivity in Anambra and Enugu States

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      Authors: J.O. Nwaekpe, H.N. Anyaegbunam, J.E. Ewuziem
      Pages: 64 - 72
      Abstract: This study examined effect of adoption of ginger production and processing technologies on rural households’ productivity in Enugu and Anambra States. The study specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of ginger farmers and processors in the study area, assessed the level of utilization of ginger production and processing technologies, estimated the factors influencing rural households’ utilization of ginger production and processing technologies and determined the effect of utilization of ginger production and processing technologies on production and income. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 192 farmers and processors from Anambra and Enugu States. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean and inferential statistics such as ordinary least squares regression and z-test. Majority of respondents were aware of most of the ginger production and processing technologies that were taken into consideration for this study, and they primarily obtained their information through ADP Extension personnel. In the study area, respondents had high level of use of ginger production technologies, but low level of use of ginger processing technologies. Age, marital status, extension contact, and income were factors influencing whether ginger production technologies were used, while factors influencing ginger processing technologies include; level of education, cooperative membership, processing experience, and extension contact. Following the use of ginger production and processing technologies, ginger farmers experienced a considerable increase in ginger productivity. Therefore, the study suggested that ADPs be strengthened to ensure that they successfully disseminate agricultural information and agricultural technologies developed should take into consideration the heterogeneity in the farmers’ socioeconomic characteristics.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Chrysophyllum albidum Seed Endosperm Extract on Hematologic,
           Hepatic, Nephrotic and Histologic Alterations in Monosodium
           Glutamate-Compromised Rats

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      Authors: A.C.C. Egbuonu, P.O. Alaebo, C.J. Njoku, P. Ugwu, G.C. Njoku, C.I. Anoliefo, I.J. Obidike, E.E. Uba
      Pages: 73 - 79
      Abstract: To minimize its waste burden, underutilized Chrysophyllum albidum (C. albidum) seed could be exploited as a plant-based pharmafood together with widely used but potentially toxic food flavouring, monosodium glutamate (MSG). This study was designed to ascertain the influence of C. albidum seed endosperm extract (CASEE), on the hematologic, hepatic, nephrotic and histologic alterations in MSG-compromised rats. Adult male albino rats (120-160 g) were randomly allotted to six groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 rats received normal saline (1 ml), Group 2 received CASEE (200 mg/kg), Group 3 received MSG (8000 mg/kg), while groups 4, 5 and 6 rats in addition respectively received 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of CASEE. Exposure was orally and daily for 14 days. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) alterations in the hematologic, hepatic, nephrotic and histologic parameters in MSG-treated rats compared to others. CASEE (200 mg/kg)-fed rats had comparable effect as the control and caused significant (P < 0.05) but selective dose dependent reduction in MSG effect. This study demonstrated that CASEE (200 mg/kg) improved but MSG (800 mg/kg) compromised the rats’ hematologic, hepatic, nephrotic and histologic integrity. CASEE reduced the MSG effect in the rats via probable concerted mechanism leading to beneficial response on the rats’ hematology, liver and kidney functions and histology. The dietary and pharmacologic prospects of the results in rats warrant further studies to elucidate the structure of the responsible bioactive compound(s) and confirm the suggested probable mechanism (s) of action.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Control of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:
           Bruchinae) using Ethanolic Extracts of Peels from Five Citrus Species

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      Authors: E.E. Ekoja, S.K. Udofia, E. Okoroafor
      Pages: 80 - 87
      Abstract: Ethanolic extracts of peels from grape (Citrus paradisi), lemon (C. limon), lime (C. aurantifolia), sweet orange (C. sinensis) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata) were investigated for their insecticidal efficacy against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, a cosmopolitan field-to-storage insect pest of cowpea. The insect was exposed to 3% of each extract admixed with 50 g of cowpea. The setup was a Completely Randomized Design in four replications. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and where F-test was significant, means were separated using Student Newman Keul’s test (α = 0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis was also carried out to show the association between C. maculatus mortality, infestation, seed damage and germination variables. Bioassay results showed significant insecticidal activity of all the tested Citrus peel extracts against C. maculatus life stages and a significant reduction in cowpea seed damage. Adult bruchid mortality caused by the extracts exceeded 90% at 120h post-treatment; with C. limon and C. aurantifolia extracts causing 100% of adult bruchid mortality in the same period. About 62.3-76.4% reduction in the insect’s egg production was observed with the use of the extracts. The perforation index obtained from all the treated seeds was below 50%, and it showed a positive protective potential of the extracts against C. maculatus. The loss in seed weight was significantly lower (<10%) in treated seed compared with the control (>20%). Cowpea seed germination was not impaired by any of the extracts, rather germination increased significantly and seeds treated with C. limon and C. aurantifolia had higher viability (>45.5%) compared with the control. Therefore, ethanolic extracts of peels from the five Citrus species could be a potent pest control option against C. maculatus infestation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Economics of Smallholder Rubber Production under Different Tapping
           Arrangements in Delta State, Nigeria

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      Authors: F. Ejenavi, B.F. Adade
      Pages: 88 - 95
      Abstract: The study examined the Economics of smallholder rubber production under different tapping arrangements in Delta State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in the Central Agricultural Zone of the State. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in the collection of data from 110 respondents.  The survey instrument used was a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics and budgetary approach were used in the analysis of the data. The results showed that the rubber farmers were literate and had mean age of about 36 years.  Only 3.6% of the tappers owned plantations tapped, while others operated under sharecropping arrangement or leased/rented plantations; and tappers of different categories had, on the average, four years tapping experience.  Average plantation size was 1.77 hectares.  The mean age of rubber plantations in the area was 35 years.  The mean annual output per hectare was found to be 878.92kg of dry rubber (or 2,197.23kg of wet rubber). The mean net income of tappers from tapping per hectare was N288,557.73 per annum (or N9,6185.91 per tapping week of 3 days).  The factors found to have significantly accounted for the 76 % variation of yield from the double-logarithmic function were age of tappers, tapping experience, age of plantations, variety planted and size of plantations (number of trees tapped for latex).  The study also showed that rubber development was constrained by shortage of tappers, high cost of plantation establishment and long gestation period. The study recommended that unemployed youths should be encouraged to go into rubber tapping to reduce the shortage of tappers and that farmers should be given loans with some period of grace to address the problem of high cost of plantation establishment and the gestation period. Moreover, rubber farmers who lack tapping skills should adopt sharecropping tapping arrangement to ensure their holdings are tapped.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Functional, Physical Properties, Proximate and Sensory
           Characteristics of Cookies Produced from Wheat and Oat Composite Flour
           Sweetened with Date Syrup

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      Authors: N.L. Nwanagba, A.N. Ukom, G. Ifokwe, H. Okudu, J.N. Okoli, I.I. Okparauka
      Pages: 96 - 104
      Abstract: Evaluation of the functional, physical properties, proximate and sensory characteristics of cookies produced from wheat and oat composite flour sweetened with date syrup was investigated. Healthy grains of oat and wheat were purchased from Central Market Katsina State, and date nut purchased from Wuse Modern Market, FCT (Federal Capital Territory), Abuja. The oat grains were sorted, cleaned, washed, steamed, kilned, dried, cooled, milled into flour and packaged in an airtight container. The wheat grains were sorted, cleaned, washed, dried, milled and packaged prior to analysis. The date fruits were washed, soaked in distilled water for easy removal of dates, after removal, the dates were then rinsed, blended and boiled for 15 minutes. The slurry obtained after boiling was sieved with cheesecloth under manual pressure, and then subjected to another boiling under medium low heat for 20 minutes. A thick like liquid dates obtained after cooling was packaged in a plastic container and stored in fridge prior to analysis. The cookies were prepared accordingly using the necessary ingredients. The composite flour samples were evaluated for functional properties, while the cookies produced from these composite flour samples were evaluated for physical properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics. The result of the functional properties of the flour blends of oat and wheat showed that sample 202 and 404 (100% oat meal and 60% wheat with 40% oatmeal) had the highest value (2.37 g/ml) of water absorption capacity (WAC), while sample 505 (50% wheat flour and 30% oat flour) had the lowest value (1.87 g/ml). The functional properties values for the flour blends ranged from 1.87-2.37 g/ml for WAC, 1.37-1.67g/ml for oil absorption capacity, 0.68-0.79g/ml for bulk density, 58.27 to 72.57 0C for gelatinization temperature and 23.67-71.67s for wettability. The result for physical properties ranged from 10.10-10.46g, 3.90-4.37 cm, 0.22-1.17 cm, and 3.34-5.29 for weight, diameter, thickness and spread ratio respectively. The cookies had proximate composition ranging from 5.35-6.75% for moisture, 13.58-18.01% crude protein, 2.91-5.87% crude fiber, 13.23-18.80% fat, 1.48-2.58% ash, 93.25-94.65% dry matter and 50.21-62.06% for carbohydrate. The result of the sensory attributes of the cookies showed that sample 101 (100% wheat flour) was most preferred in terms of general acceptability.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Morphological Characterization, Variability and Traits Association among
           Accessions of Three Species of Crassocephalum (Moench.) S. Moore from
           Nigeria

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      Authors: A.S. Oyelakin, F.O. Oyelakin, A.A. Mustafa, O.J. Joseph, U.T. Sokunbi, I. Ajadi
      Pages: 105 - 115
      Abstract: Crassocephalum species have served as vegetables for decades, yet they remain undomesticated and uncultivated. The knowledge of the variability and traits association of these species could enhance the improvement and thus facilitate their domestication and cultivation. Twenty-one accessions of Crassocephalum species were characterized in a Randomized Complete Block Design to determine intra and inter-specifies variability and traits association for their improvement with a view to facilitate their domestication and cultivation. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. The results revealed significant intra and inter-specifies variability among the accessions characterized. The first three axes of PCA accounted for over 60% of total variation with leaf length, leaf width, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of achenes/head and number of filled achenes/head as discriminants. Positive and significant phenotypic correlations were observed between leaf length and leaf width with petiole length, internode length, peduncle length, and number of days to maturity. High positive correlation was observed for number of capitula/plant with capitulum diameter and number of filled achenes per head. Hence, the principal contributors to total variation which are leaf length, leaf width, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of achenes/head and number of filled achenes/head are hereby suggested to breeders in developing a suitable breeding programme for Crassocephalum crepidioides, C. rubens and C. togoense.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Antifungal Effects of Carica Papaya and Azadirachta indica on Cocoyam
           (Colocassia esculentus L.) corm rot Disease in Umudike, Nigeria

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      Authors: O.O. Kolawole, O.F. Kolawole
      Pages: 116 - 120
      Abstract: Antifungal potency of two crude extracts (A. indica and C. papaya) was studied using four concentrations of aqueous and ethanoic plant extracts at 25, 50, 75 and 100% on cocoyam corms. The extracts were separately amended in potato Dextrose agar (PDA) in in-vitro control of fungal rot causing agents isolated from cocoyam corms  (Botryodiplodia, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma and Rhizopus stolonifer). Infected cocoyam corms were collected from cocoyam program of National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike and taken to Plant protection laboratory of the Institute for analysis. Botryodiplodia, A. niger, Trichoderma and R. Stolonifer proved to be pathogenic from the pathogenicity test carried out since they all incited rots in cocoyam corms. The results further revealed that all the test botanicals were able to significantly (P<0.05) inhibit the mycelia growth of all the four test fungi. A. indica was consistently observed to be more potent to all the four test fungi and followed closely were ethanoic extracts of C. papaya (42.33-61.00%). The findings have shown the potential of plants extracts in the control of cocoyam corm rot caused by B. theobromae, A. niger, Trichoderma sp. and R. stolonifer. These botanicals A.indica and C.papaya will therefore, reduce the use of synthetic chemicals by farmers in controlling pathogens of stored cocoyam corms, cost of production and environmental pollution.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Determinants of Credit Access among Smallholder Women Farmers in Kwara
           State, Nigeria

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      Authors: G.T. Adigun
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: This study examined smallholder women farmers’ access to credit in Irepodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study specifically identified the socio- economic attributes of the rural women smallholder farmers and examined the factors determining their access to credit in the study area. A total of 120 structured questionnaires were administered to women farmers who obtained credit from different sources. Descriptive statistics and probit regression model were used in analyzing the data obtained. The probit model result revealed that significant relationship exists between age, level of education, marital status, main occupation, farming experience, farm size, collateral, interest rate and access to credit at varying probability levels. Gender differences regarding access to credit should be critically checked. Making credit accessible to women will not only boost production in agricultural sector but will also improve livelihood and reduce poverty most especially in the rural areas. The financial institutions need to address the conditions for loan acquisition especially in the area of collateral security and interest rate charged so that the less privileged women farmers can access credit to enhance their productivity.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Different Management Systems and Ejaculation Frequencies on
           Fertility and Hatchability of Turkey Eggs

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      Authors: J.C. Ezike, J. Ezea, R.J. Nosike, J. Nathaniel, S.N. Machebe, S.O.C. Ugwu
      Pages: 129 - 133
      Abstract: A total of 72 local turkeys comprising 24 Toms and 4 hens were used for the study. The males were randomly divided into two groups; M1 and M2. Group M1 males were intensively managed and fed 17% CP and 12.6 MJ/kg Metabolizable energy breeder diet. Group M2 males were semi-intensively managed and subjected to free range management and given concentrates. The males in both groups were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to four ejaculation frequencies/treatments (once, twice, three times and four times) per week using abdominal massage technique. A total of 729 eggs were incubated, candled and analyzed for fertility and hatchability. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance in a 2x4 factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomized Design. Significant means were separated using Duncan's option of SPSS. The results obtained showed significant (p < 0.05) effect of ejaculation frequency and management system on fertility and hatchability in all the parameters measured. The number of fertile eggs (NF) was significantly (P< 0.05) affected by ejaculation frequency and management system. Once and twice per week ejaculation frequency produced the highest number of fertile eggs under M2. The number of infertile eggs was significantly (P<0.05) affected by ejaculation frequency, increasing with increase in ejaculation frequency in both management systems. Similarly, the number of early dead-embryo was significantly (P<0.05) affected by ejaculation frequency. Once per week ejaculation had the highest early dead embryo in both management systems. Percentage fertility ranged from 71 .01 I; 2.65% to 92.18 ± 21.18% in both management systems. Out of a number of 929 eggs incubated, 614 eggs were fertile. Percentage hatchability ranged from 85.1 1 ± 4.20%o to 100 ± 0.00 in both management systems. Therefore, two times per week ejaculation was ideal local forms used for AI, and both management systems could be used for rearing breeder toms.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Off-Farm Income-Generating Activities among Agroforestry
           Farmers in Sakponba Forest Reserve area, Edo State, Nigeria

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      Authors: E.S. Omoghie, A.S. Adeleye, C.A. Ojedokun, A.O. Bamigboye, V.B. Simpson
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: The study evaluated off-farm generating activities among agro-forestry farmers in the Sakponba forest reserve area of Edo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to collect data from one hundred and twenty (120) agroforestry farmers using a structured interview schedule. Percentages and frequency counts were used to analyse the objectives of the study. The result showed that majority 64.2% of the farmers were male. Further analysis indicated that 88.3% of the farmers engaged in cassava processing and 32.5% in okada business as off-farm income-generating activities. Further analysis revealed that 88.3% were involved in off-farm activities to generate additional income. However, 70.8% highlighted that high cost of transportation was a constraint, while, 59.2% indicated that inadequate diversification skills and training opportunities were the main constraints faced in engaging in off-farm income-generating activities. The study recommended that the government provide infrastructure such as a good road network, electricity, potable water, and affordable healthcare system, since they are important indicators for enhancing socio-economic activities in rural areas. It was also recommended that the government initiate policies for reducing risk and uncertainties inherent with agricultural activities such as access to credit to improve their standard of living and increase productivity.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Different Nodumax Stickers on Nutrient Content of Soybean
           (Glycine Max) Varieties Grown on an Ultisol in Derived Savannah Ecology of
           Ishiagu, South-East Nigeria

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      Authors: O.C. Olejeme, S.I. Ogwulumba, I.C. Chinaka
      Pages: 140 - 144
      Abstract: The study was carried out to assess the influence of different nodumax stickers on the nutrient and mineral contents of soybean varieties grown on an ultisol. In the trial, a split plot arrangement fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used. The three varieties (TGX 1 448-2E, TGX 1 445-2E and TGX 1 485-1 D) made up the main plots, while the six nodumax inoculant stickers (gum arabic, milk, vegetable oil, no sticker, water and  control) made up the sub-plots. Pre-planting physico-chemical properties of the soils were determined to know the soil status, while inoculation was done in the field before planting. Grain nutrient and mineral contents such as crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, moisture content, dry matter, % phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were determined from the mature grain obtained at 12% moisture content. After the data analysis, the results revealed that variety significantly (P<0.05) affected the contents studied with variety TGX 1 448-2E giving the highest values, except for protein, fibre, phosphorous, iron calcium and magnesium content which were not significantly different from the others. The effect of sticker was also significant (P>0.05) on the nutrient contents studied except on iron and phosphorous which did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference. The values recorded in plots which had gum arabic as sticker was highest, though statistically similar to those with milk as sticker. Gum arabic, therefore, can be substituted with milk when gum arabic is not available.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Dynamics of Oil Palm Production; Evidence from Nigeria Import/Export
           Inter-relationships

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      Authors: B.A. Oyebamiji, O.D. Obasa, M.A. Ogunbakin, O.D. Alebiosu
      Pages: 145 - 149
      Abstract: The need to meet a growing global and domestic demand for palm oil, conserve foreign exchange, promote inclusive rural development, generate employment, and accelerate domestic infrastructural development necessitated investigating the dynamics of oil palm production, with evidence from Nigeria’s’ import/export inter-relationships. The study adopted secondary data, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics showed that after increasing Nigeria's oil palm fruit area harvested from 2.7million hectares in 1961 to 3.03million hectares in 2004, production increased from 0.67million tonnes to 0.91million tonnes. There is a positive and significant relationship (r=0.898; P<0.01) between the area of palm fruit harvested and palm oil production. A negative and significant relationship (r=-537; P<0.01) was observed between domestic palm oil production and import/export gap. The study concluded that a significant increase is needed in the area of palm fruit cultivated and harvested to reduce domestic import/export gap. The study recommends that the government should stimulate private investment in the sector, encourage the conglomerate of smallholder farmers and review the land tenure system.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Quality Evaluation and Sensory Properties of Gari Enriched with Pigeon Pea
           Flour

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      Authors: D.C. Arukwe, R.C. Arukwe, A.O. Obeta, O.E. Agwo
      Pages: 150 - 155
      Abstract: Gari is a staple food for many families in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries, but it is very low in protein. However, pigeon pea has the potential of increasing its protein content, thereby, improving the protein intake of the people. The study aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, antinutrients content and sensory properties of gari-pigeon pea flour blends. Seven blends were produced from different proportions of gari and pigeon pea flour in the ratios of 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30 and 100:0 (control). The proximate composition, antinutrients content and sensory attributes of the blends were determined using standard methods. Significant differences (p<0.05) exist in the values of the proximate composition, antinutrients content and sensory properties. The proximate composition indicated significant (p<0.05) increase in protein (1.87 – 3.66 %), ash (1.01 – 1.60 %), fat (0.72 – 1.30 %), crude fibre (0.68 – 1.26 %), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in carbohydrate (88.51 – 84.96 %) and energy value (368.0 – 366.18 Kcal/100g) as the inclusion of pigeon pea flour into gari increased. The antinutrients content significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increase in the addition of pigeon pea flour. The sensory scores were significantly (p<0.05) affected with increase in pigeon pea flour inclusion. However, the samples with up to 15% pigeon pea flour inclusion were acceptable to the panelists. The study has shown that enriched gari with increased protein content and acceptable qualities can be produced from gari-pigeon pea flour blends.    
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Contributions of Cooperative Societies to Agricultural Livelihood
           Activities of Female Farmers in Ogbia Local Government Area, Bayelsa
           State, Nigeria

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      Authors: A.G. Ominikari
      Pages: 156 - 159
      Abstract: The study assessed contributions of women cooperative societies to agricultural livelihood activities of female farmers’ in Ogbia Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. Multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to select one hundred (100) respondents’ for the study. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire, and analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and mean scores, while ANOVA was used to test the null hypothesis at 5% level of significance. The result revealed that borrowing from informal money lending institutions (3.20), retained earnings (3.13), membership fee (2.92) and borrowing from microfinance banks (2.65) were the major avenues through which funds are raised by the women cooperative societies. The result also revealed that subsidizing the price of agricultural raw materials to cooperative women members (3.19), bulk buying of essential inputs such as seed, fertilizer and pesticides and sale to members at a price below the price they would pay alone (3.13) and renting out machinery and implements to members at affordable prices (3.00) were the major forms of contributions of women cooperative societies to agricultural livelihood activities of female farmers in the study area. The ANOVA result showed that there were significant differences in the mean ratings of respondents on the contributions of women cooperative societies to agricultural livelihood activities at 1% level. The study concluded that women cooperative societies contributed significantly to the agricultural livelihood activities of women farmers. The study therefore, recommended the need for government to provide credit facilities to the women cooperatives at a reduced/no interest rate in order to boost agricultural livelihood activities and increase agricultural productivity.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Different Processing Techniques on Nutritional and
           Anti-nutritional Composition of Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
           L. Dc.) Seed

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      Authors: O.P. Olaifa, B.F. Sasanya, O. Adeniji, O. Ogundana, M.J. Yahaya
      Pages: 160 - 165
      Abstract: The high cost of plant protein inclusion in human and animal diets and the need to find alternative sources to traditional protein sources is on the increase. Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), a tropical underutilized legume was therefore analysed for its nutritional and anti-nutritional contents using different processing techniques. Two kilograms (2kg) of winged bean seeds were purchased, and samples were divided into different parts and subjected to two different processing techniques; baking at 250oC and boiling at 100oC for 20 minutes. An unprocessed portion was also separated as control. Samples from each processing technique and control were subjected to analysis for nutritional and anti-nutritional factors using standard laboratory methods. The crude protein content of winged beans from baking, boiling and control was 17.93%, 19.59 and 12.55% respectively. Crude fat was 11.25%, 9.25% and 10.40% in that order. The highest anti-nutritional factor of 2788.45 mg/100g and 3254.57 mg/100g was recorded for processed and unprocessed tannin composition also. Oxalate values reduced by 22% and 19.74%, while, phytate content reduced by 20% and 18.12% for the processed boiled and baked after baking and boiling respectively. Nutritive and anti-nutritive compositions of the processed and unprocessed winged beans were significantly different at p>0.05.  Processing is therefore a viable means of increasing the nutritive value and in turn reducing the anti-nutritive values of winged beans.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Conservation Conflicts in Protected Areas in Nigeria: Case Study of Kainji
           Lake National Park

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      Authors: O.R. Jeminiwa, M.S. Jeminiwa, N.O. Haastrup, O.A. Aina-Oduntan, S.O. Olaoti-Laaro, D.M. Taiwo, C.O. Odebunmi
      Pages: 166 - 174
      Abstract: The exploitation of natural resources in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP) had led to conservation conflicts within the environment. Information on conservation conflicts in the park is sparse. Thus, conservation conflicts around KLNP environment were assessed.  A total of 600 structured questionnaires using simple randomized sampling technique were used, 40 copies were administered in each of the 15 communities sampled. Data were analyzed using both descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result revealed that, conservation policies were poorly implemented, only 48% of the people were involved in decision making and 52% excluded. Four causes of conflict were identified: poaching (40%), deforestation (35%), overgrazing (14%) and agricultural practices (11%). Conflict evidence evaluated indicated 80.6% and 19.4% claimed ignorance of conflicts in the study area. ANOVA for conflicts indicated high conflicts with the natural resources of the park. Similarly, the ANOVA for incidence and absence of conflict in the park showed that conflicts have become common phenomena in KLNP environment. Hence, management measures like rural livelihood programs and awareness campaign were suggested to reduce the overdependence of the people on the natural resources and to militate against conservation conflicts in KLNP.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Bioassay of Aqueous Extracts from Six Tropical Plants against Tribolium
           castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

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      Authors: J.A. Ugwu, B.C. Bobadoye, O.J. Aluko
      Pages: 175 - 180
      Abstract: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a very important insect pest of stored products causing economic damage to several stored grains. Laboratory bio-assay of aqueous extracts of six plants namely; Azadirachta indica (Neem), Xylopia aethiopica (Grain of selim), Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass), Piper guineense (African black pepper) Zingiber officinale (Ginger) and Ocimum gratissimum (African basil) were conducted for their contact and residual toxicity to adult T. castaneum under ambient temperatures of 27±2ºC and 80 ±5% relative humidity. Aqueous extracts of the test plant were applied in crude form at1 ml and 2 mls /5adult insects for contact and residual assays respectively. The mortality of adult T. castaneum were recorded at 20 minutes intervals for 24hours, data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance and significant means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that aqueous extracts of all the plants evaluated had toxic effects on adult T. castaneum ranging from 60.0% - 86.6% and 33.4% - 86.6% mortality for contact and residual toxicities, respectively at 24 hours post application. Highest mortality of 86.6% was observed in A. indica and Z. offiinale extracts for contact and residual toxicities, respectively. The aqueous extracts of plant materials evaluated showed great potentials against T. castaneum under laboratory conditions. Hence, their usage should be encouraged as a viable alternate to synthetic insecticide for stored products pest management to mitigate health and environmental hazards associated with synthetic pesticides application. 
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Insecticidal Potential of Some Plant Extracts and Synthetic Dusts for
           Control of Sitophilus zeamais (Motscholsky) Infesting Maize Seeds

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      Authors: J.O. Olufelo
      Pages: 181 - 183
      Abstract: The use of inorganic chemicals has proven to eradicate pests with an efficiency record of up to 100% mortality to target pest, hence, the need to adopt integrated pest management system (IPM). Sequel, to this, bio-insecticidal potentials of some plant extracts and synthetic dust on control of Sitophilus zeamais in maize seeds was investigated. Two botanicals: Eugenia aromatica and Piper guineense, were used in combination with synthetic dust at different treatment combinations for the control of S. zeamais. The S. zeamais used were derived from a culture maintained in Kilner jars under ambient laboratory conditions of 28± 2°C, and relative humidity of 70 ± 2% and maintained on DMR-S-W maize variety. The maize variety seeds were obtained from IAR&T, Ibadan, Nigeria. The botanical plant extracts were obtained from a herbal store in Owerri. They were oven- dried at 60°c for 48hrs and grounded to a powder form in an electric mill. Both the synthetic dust and the plant extracts were used singly and in combination. Exactly 20g of maize grain in a plastic plate (8.5cm diameter) was treated with the plant powders alone and in combination with pirimiphose-methyl or permethrin dust in 20 adults of S. zeamais (less than 1 week old and unsexed) were introduced.  The mortality of S. zeamais was monitored within the time intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72hrs. The result showed that at 72hrs post-treatment, 100% mortality of S.zeamais was recorded in three (3) treatments. Treatment involving Eugenia powder (0.1g) mixed with pirimiphos-methyl (0.1g) was significantly the highest but was not different from mortality in treatments involving Eugenia powder (0.08g) mixed with pirimiphos-methyl (0.1g) and Eugenia powder (0.1g) mixed with permethrin (0.1g). Eighteen treatments, including the control, recorded zero mortality even at 72hrs post infestation. The study revealed that there is great potential in reducing the rate of application of synthetic organic insecticides by mixing with a sub-lethal. The result showed that a sub-lethal dose of Eugenia powder (0.08g) mixed with pirimiphos-methyl (0.1g)/20grams of DMR-S-W maize variety seeds produced 100% adult mortality of S.zeamais at 72hrs post-infestation thus recommended at a dose of insecticidal materials.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of the Effect of Plantain Peel and Tithonia Leaves as Nutrient
           Sources on the Performance and Mineral Accumulation of Tomato (Solanum
           lycopersicum)

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      Authors: C.M. Aboyeji, F.O. Okunlola, C.O. Aremu, J.O. Afolayan
      Pages: 186 - 192
      Abstract: Field experiments were conducted in 2019 and 2020 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farms of Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria to determine the potentials of the application of different rates of plantain peel and Tithomia diversifolia (sole and combined) as organic amendments in comparison with the application of inorganic fertilizer. Treatments consist of two types of organic materials: - plantain peel (0, 10 and 20 t ha-1), and T. diversifolia (0, 10, and 20 t ha-1). In-organic fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10) was also applied for comparison. The treatments were arranged in a Randomised Complete Block Design. Parameters assessed were vegetative, yield and heavy metal composition of tomato fruits. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using SAS Computer Package version 9.0 statistical software. Study revealed that, the combined application of plantain peel and T. diversifolia increased vegetative parameters which were comparable with the application of inorganic fertilizer. There was no significant difference between the yield responses of tomato to the application of NPK fertilizer and combined application of plantain peel and T. diversifolia. Higher rates of plantain peel and T. diversifolia leaves P20T20(T7) resulted in a significant drop in the vegetative parameters, but increased yield parameters which was statistically similar to the application of P10T10(T6). Application of NPK resulted in a significant reduction in the values for heavy metals. Accumulation of the heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) in tomato fruits was lower than the recommended maximum tolerable levels as proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Application of P10T10(T6) is therefore recommended for the growth and yield of tomato in the agro-ecological zone without adversely increasing the heavy metal composition of the fruit.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Development of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and
           Damage to Selected Flours in Storage

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      Authors: C.N. Ehisianya, A.G. Stephen, B.N. Onunka
      Pages: 193 - 198
      Abstract: Flours from maize, millet, sorghum, wheat and cassava, obtained from a local market in Abia State, Nigeria were evaluated for the development of Tribolium castaneum and consequent damage in the laboratory at ambient laboratory conditions of 28-34℃ and 58-75% RH for a period of 63 days. Twenty grams each of these flours were artificially infested with 5 pairs of adult T. castaneum in a 500 mls glass containers with netted lids. The experiment was set-up in a completely randomized design (CRD) and replicated four times. The results showed variations in the pre- and post- treatment proximate composition of the selected flours which influenced the development of the insect and flour damage. Irrespective of flour type, T. castaneum progeny development caused increase in moisture, ash content, and decrease in dry matter, fibre, metabolizable energy, and crude protein after treatment. The tested flours were susceptible to T. castaneum at varying degrees. Flours from wheat and sorghum were significantly (P < 0.05) more susceptible to infestation due to increased progeny development than others, whereas no progeny developed in cassava flours. There were significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean mortality of adult T. castaneum in maize flours (1.90) and least in wheat flours (0.25). Mean weight losses were also significantly (P < 0.05) higher in maize (25%) and least in cassava and millet flours (8.75%). The outcome of this study underscores the need of preventive measures against T. castaneum to avoid economic losses to flours destined for long storage duration.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Competitive Saprophytic Potentials of Microbial Isolates
           from Some Woods exposed to Indoor and Outdoor Atmospheric Conditions in
           Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State

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      Authors: P.H. Dan, S.A. Odeyemi, J.Q Nwachukwu
      Pages: 199 - 203
      Abstract: Wood deterioration is one of the major effects of heavy economic losses. The rate of deterioration of woods stored or piled for sales are widely studied and well known, the agent responsible for decay of woods in suspended or common roofing conditions has not been extensively studied.  This study evaluated the microbial-deteriorating agents that may plausibly influence the strength of woods commonly sold in Uyo timber markets and the effects on the wood when used in roofing. Using standard aerobic culture techniques and analytical procedures, the microbial bio-deterioration   agents   of woods and their saprophytic potentials were investigated. The result revealed that microorganisms are commonly deposited on Gmelina, Obeche and Iroko wood samples exposed in suspended atmospheric conditions. The microbial isolates were comprised of six fungal and seven bacterial species. The fungal community and their percentage occurrences were as follows: Monillia (30.0%), Aspergillus fumigates (16.7%), Aspergillus niger (73.3%), Rhizopus stolonifera (50.0%), Candida utilis (20.0%) and Mucor (56.7%) species, while the bacterial community comprised of Staphylococcus albus (20.0%), Bacillus subtilis (80.0%), Streptococcus (3.33%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.0%), Micrococcus (3.33%), Bacillus cereus (80.0%) and Streptomyces (46.7%) species. The microbial isolates exhibited a weak competitive saprophytic potential under their conditions of exposure. The research findings have shown that though the associated micro-organisms possessed a weak enzymatic potential, the fungal components which exhibited a better hydrolytic enzymes potential may grow and produce pigments that may reduce the quality of woods. It is therefore, recommended that proper treatment with wood preservatives be employed to enhance the usage, life and quality of woods used in suspended platforms.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Morphological Characterization of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Local
           Accessions Collected from Southern Nigeria using Qualitative and
           Quantitative Traits

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      Authors: O.D. Alade, A.C. Odiyi, B.O. Akinyele, L.S. Fayeun, A.B. Obilana
      Pages: 204 - 210
      Abstract: Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a cereal crop grown mainly for food, feed, fodder, and fuel. Fifty sorghum accessions collected from ten southern States in Nigeria were characterized using qualitative and quantitative markers to identify the extent of variability among the accessions. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design with three replicates at FUTA (2019 planting season), FCAI (2018 and 2019 planting seasons) and Ogbomoso ADP (2018 and 2019 planting seasons). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected on 22 morphological traits. Results from the qualitative markers depicted that more than half of the accessions had 75% grain coverage, dull green midrib (52%), medium bloomy waxy bloom (68%), very loose dropping panicle (44%), exerted panicle (76%), good threshability (50%), black glume colour (46%), buff grain colour (48%), intermediate senescence (54%) and low lodging (76%). Analysis of variance for the quantitative traits showed the existence of significant variation among the traits for all the environments, genotype and GEI at p≤0.01 except for leaf length and leaf width, which were not significant for genotype and genotype*environment, respectively. Accessions RI-17-01, EN-17-03, OS-17-05, AB-17-01, EN-17-01, OG-17-02, OY-17-03, EB-17-01 and AK-17-01, which had the highest mean for the eleven quantitative traits, can be selected for a sorghum improvement programme in southern Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Taro Leaf Blight Management using some Botanical Foliar Sprays for High
           Yield and Disease Inhibition in Umudike, South East Nigeria

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      Authors: C.O. Nwadili
      Pages: 211 - 215
      Abstract: The study was carried out in National root Crops Research Institute, Umudike in 2020 and 2021 to evaluate the effect of some botanical foliar sprays for the management of taro leaf blight incidence and severity, enhance disease inhibition in taro fields and, yield improvement in Umudike, South East Nigeria. Available literature showed that Taro Leaf Blight (TLB) has reduced taro production in Northern Nigeria and caused substantial damage to the crop, particularly in Adamawa State, in the past and in the 1990s, the disease became epidemic in Nigeria. The disease was first reported scientifically in Nigeria in 2009. Disease incidence and severity were used to evaluate the fungicide potentials of the botanicals, while yield was used to evaluate the TLB management potentials of the botanicals. The results showed the treatments; water extract of azadiracta indica (T1), water extract of garlic (T2) and mixture of the two extracts (T3) were effective in reducing the TLB incidence at the rate of 16.42%, 15.50% and 36.22% in cocoyam and were significantly different from control at P<0.05. The treatments were also effective in reduction of TLB severity, improved the plant leaf size which directly and indirectly improved the corm number and yield obtained from treated plots compared to the ones obtained from non treated plots (controls). The taro suckers and yields from the control experiments presented the least mean number of suckers and yields which differed significantly at P<0.05 with those of the three fungicide treatments. The average fresh weight of corms obtained from plants in the net plot under the various treatments was 17.40 kg/ha, 15.08 kg/ha and 13.27 kg/ha for water extract of azadiracta indica (T1), water extract of garlic (T2) and mixture of the two extracts (T3) respectively, while, only 5.98 kg/ha was obtained for control treatments. Therefore, these botanicals containing fungicides such as A. indica and garlic can be used by farmers and recommended that farmers should use the botanicals for the management of TLB in cocoyam production as protectant and curative botanical fungicides.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Factors Affecting Women’s Participation in Environmental
           Conservation and Protection

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      Authors: P.H. Dan, J.Q. Nwachukwu
      Pages: 216 - 220
      Abstract: Women play an important role in environmental protection and conservation, hence this study, analysed the factors affecting women’s participation in environmental conservation and protection in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.  Samples for this study were randomly selected from the four clans that make up Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom. The four clans are Etoi, Offot, Oku and Ikono. Oral interview was used to source for information from respondents with little or no education, while for the literate, questionnaires were administered and later retrieved for interpretation. Exactly 120 questionnaires were administered; 30 per clan. Simple statistical tools (frequency, percentage) and charts were used in data analysis. The results showed that, many (45.5%) respondents that participated in environmental conservation and protection were married woman within the age range of 31-40years, had tertiary education (42.8%), were members of NGO (31.8%) and were aware. About 55.5% of respondents confirmed that level of education affect participation, while 44.5% indicated it does not, 59.1% noted that wealth does not stop participation, 27.3% indicated it can affect and 13.6% partially. Majority of respondents (84.6%) said religion was not a barrier to participation in environmental conservation and protection, while 15.5% agreed that, religion partially does, and majority (50.9%) indicated custom/tradition. Therefore, there is need for provision of alternative sources of energy at reduced rate for domestic and industrial use; more awareness through various governmental agencies should be made on the danger of destroying the eco-system and the benefits inherent in participating in environmental conservation and protection. 
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of Women Farmers’ Participation in Youth Team in Action
           Supporting Community Initiated Development (YOTASCID) Microcredit
           Programme, Kaduna State, Nigeria

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      Authors: H.Y. Michael
      Pages: 221 - 226
      Abstract: Agriculture plays a fundamental role in economic growth and development. Over 80% of women in various farming communities in Nigeria depend on agriculture as the main source of livelihood, with majority living below the poverty line. Moreover, problems of accessing credit and farm inputs continue to worsen their welfare. In the face of these challenges, financing women farmers has been one of the major concerns of agricultural development efforts in the country. In an effort to cushion the effects of these challenges, the youth team in action supporting community initiated development (YOTASCID); a non-governmental organization (NGO) has evolved over the years with the sole objective of enhancing women farmers’ welfare. However, despite the availability of microcredit, limited empirical information exists on the factors influencing women farmers’ participation in the (YOTASCID) microcredit programme. Primary data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire among 210 respondents, and employed a logit model in the analysis. The core findings of the study were that accessibility to credit, education, household size, occupation, farming experience, farm size, years of cooperative involvement as well as extension contact were the main factors influencing women participation. The study gives policy insights on the key areas of intervention in ensuring that the (YOTASCID) microcredit programme and other related NGO programmes are given capacity to serve the needs and constraints facing women farmers in Kaduna State.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Post-Harvest Challenges of Marketers of Selected Neglected Crops in
           South-East and South-South, Nigeria

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      Authors: M.K. Elemasho, I.U. Nwaehujor, M.K. Abdulbaki, C.H. Okoroafor, N.C. Ajawanchuku, F.F. Olayemi, P.O. Pessu
      Pages: 227 - 233
      Abstract: Research works on neglected crops have been based on production improvement with little or no attention on other key value chains such as marketing. This study examined the challenges of marketers of selected neglected food crops (Bambara nut: Vigna subterranean; Breadfruit: Artocarpus altilis and Bush-mango: Irvingia gabonensis) in Southern Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 144 respondents from 6 major markets and structured questionnaire administered, while descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data. The results revealed the mean age of the marketers as 40 years, 86.8% females and 83.3% literate. The mean number of house-holds was seven (7) persons and marketing experience of 10.1 years. The average quantities of purchase for each crop were 5131.1250kg (Bambara nut), 77.4288kg (Breadfruit) and 246.7600kg (Bush-mango). The average lengths of storage of these crops before selling were 102, 30 and 77days for Bambara nuts, Breadfruits and Bush-mango respectively. Causes of losses were attributed to the following; 27.7% insect and pest, 42.4% mold, and 29.9% rodents. About 2.8% of the neglected crop marketers used sniper for the preservation of their crops, while 27.8% out of the other 97.2% used bio-insecticide.  Constraints militating against the sale of these neglected food crops in the study area were; lack of organized market, lack of financial support, high cost of transportation, strenuous market purchase, and susceptibility to pests, and lack of storage facility. The study therefore, recommends that marketers be encouraged to form or belong to trade associations or cooperative societies to enhance access to loan, and research into Post-harvest technology related to the selected food crops (such as storage structures and processing equipment) should be developed and disseminated appropriately.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of M6 Ofada Rice Mutant Selections and Parents for Grain
           Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Characters

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      Authors: K.M. Adewusi, F.A. Showemimo, A.L. Nassir, O.A. Oguntade
      Pages: 234 - 243
      Abstract: Rice consumers are becoming more conscious of the varieties they consume in terms of nutritional quality. Selection for quality improvement would benefit from induced variability as innate sources are becoming exhausted. This study was carried out to assess the extent of improvement of rice grain quality yield for the benefit of the farmers and the consumers. Two Ofada rice varieties (FUNAABOR 1 and FUNAABOR 2) were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays to elicit variation towards selection for grain improvement in 2013. Individual seed selections from different treatment levels in M1 and subsequent generations were harvested and replanted for advancement to M6 generation. Harvested seeds from selected promising M6 mutants and parents were subjected to physical, chemical and nutritional analysis.  Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to data to generate character overall mean and variance estimates from which heritability estimates were computed. Means of the different mutants were compared with parents using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Ofada rice mutants and parents varied significantly for all the studied grain traits. The mutants and parents had long grains (6.6mm - 7.1mm). Mutant, OG13602 _100 had high values for amylose content (20.01%), followed by OG13608_300 (19.47%). The two mutants (OG13602_100 and OG13608_300) respectively also recorded the highest values for crude protein (6.41% and 6.28%), fat (3.94% and 3.81%), fibre (2.14% and 2.05%), and ash content (3.92% and 3.71%). Overall, the entries clustered into two groups along the parental lines and present opportunities for hybridization. High heritability with concomitant high genetic advance was recorded for amylose, ash and moisture content. All selected promising Ofada rice mutants and parents had long grains. Specifically, mutants OG13602_100 and OG13608_300 which expressed superior amylose, protein, fat, fibre and ash contents present opportunities for further improvement for grain quality. The significant variability of the studied traits revealed additional gains from further selection.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect and Constraints of Adoption of Recommended Cassava Production
           Practices by Farmers in Bwari And Kuje Area Council Abuja, Nigeria

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      Authors: H.Y. Michael
      Pages: 244 - 248
      Abstract: Farming practices have been poor in Nigeria compared to countries like Brazil, Thailand and Indonesia. Stakeholders in agriculture have made all effort in promoting the adoption of recommended cassava production practices (RCPPs). In spite of this, adoption of RCPPs remains low, resulting to poor farm productivity. Consequently, this study examined the effects of adoption of the recommended cassava production practices (RCPPs) on the yield and income benefit among farmers; as well as the constraints faced by farmers in adoption of the recommended practices. The study used a multi-stage sampling procedure to select 120 registered cassava farmers. Frequencies, percentages, means, and Z – test were employed for data analyses. Result of the Z-test revealed that the mean yield of cassava before and after adoption was 3,832t/ha and 6,387 t/ha respectively; with a differential of 67%. The mean income of farmers before and after the adoption was ₦464, 642.00 and ₦714, 833.00 respectively, with differential as 54%. The major constraints for low and non-adoption of some of the recommended cassava production practices were limited scale and uneven distribution of farmland, insufficient funds and complex nature of technologies disseminated to farmers. The study therefore recommended that technology developers should develop technologies that are simple, cost effective and easily adoptable by farmers. On the other hand, promoters of technology adoption should intensify efforts targeted at improving service delivery and the promotion of the adoption of recommended cassava production practices by the farmers, especially those technologies that recorded low levels of adoption. But more than this, it is recommended that the applicable technologies should be appropriate, easy to adopt and sustainable.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heamatological and Histopathological Assay of Red Sokoto Bucks Fed Varying
           Levels of Energy and Protein Feeds

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      Authors: A.A. Njidda, H. Haruna, A.S. Dankishiya, A.S. Bankole
      Pages: 249 - 261
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the haematological, biochemical and histopathological indices of goats fed energy (molasses) and protein (Groundnut cake) in a mixed ration. The dietary treatments compared were T1 (0% molasses and 40% GNC), T2 (10% molasses and 30% GNC), T3 (20% molasses and 20% GNC), T4 (30% molasses and 10% GNC), and T5 (50% molasses and 0% GNC). The animals were allotted to five (5) dietary treatments in a complete randomized block design with four animals per treatment. The results reveal significantly (p<0.05) higher values for Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Non-fibre carbohydrates and Energy content of the diets (394.00 g kg-1 DM, 341.00 g kg-1 DM and 2668.70 kcal/kg).  Packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Red blood cell count (RBC) were significantly (P<0.05) higher for T4. White blood cell differentials and lymphocytes significantly higher (P>0.05) among treatments. Neutrophils was observed to be highest for T5 compared to other treatment groups. All the parameters studied for serum biochemical indices were significantly (P<0.05) different among treatments except for Sodium (Na2+, K2+, Total Bilirubin, Triglycerol and High Density lipoprotein). Histopathology of the kidney revealed that T1 shows no damage, T2 showed mild necrosis while T3 showed moderate necrosis, atrophy congestion and degeneration of the convoluted tubules. T4 showed severe necrosis, congestion, atrophy degeneration of the convoluted tubules. The result of the micrograph also showed severe congestion, necrosis and degeneration of convoluted tubules. The histopathology of the liver for T1 reveals no expanded portal zones with portal fibrosis with fewer pyknotic nuclei in hepatocytes and lymphocytes infiltration while T2 and T3 were characterized with infiltration by inflammatory cells with multifocal areas of necrosis. The photomicrograph of the liver also reveals severe vescular degeneration of the hepatocytes for T4 and T5. The effect of molasses was also observed on spleen as the level of molasses increase from T1 to T5. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that feeding high energy (40% molasses) and protein (0% GNC) level of inclusion has negative effect on the kidney, liver and spleen.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Ethno- Medicinal Survey of Plants Used For the Management of Diabetes
           Mellitus in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State

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      Authors: O.A. Ogunkalu, D.O. Adelani, O.C. Ariyo, J.A. Ogunsanwo, A.C. Odeyale
      Pages: 262 - 273
      Abstract: The study was carried out to survey ethno-medicinal plants used for the management of diabetes in Kaduna metropolis of Kaduna State. Primary data was used in the study and generated through the use of structured questionnaires. Two-stage sampling techniques were used to selects 60 respondents from four communities in Kaduna metropolis (Tudun wada, Kawo, Mando and Kaduna Central Market). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Result reveals that majority of the respondents (78.4%) were male and 48.3% within the age of 41-50 years. Many of the respondents (43.1%) have secondary education and 48.3% traders, civil servants, while 17.2% each were artisans and farmers. From the study, several plants belonging to different families were identified for the management of diabetes. Majority of the respondents (8.74%) used Azadirachta indica, 6.64% made use of Venonia amygdalina, 6.29% Mangifera indica, 5.9% Citrus auriantum and Zingibe officinale, and 4.9% Allium sativa for the management of diabetes. Other plants identified include; Psidium guajava, Allium cepa, Annacadium occidentale, Adansonia digitata, and Cocciana indica. From the study, different plants parts were identified in relation to the management of diabetes, they include; bark, stems, leaves and roots. The study therefore shows that different plants species were used for the treatment of diabetes. However, present knowledge on medicinal use of these plants needs further scientific investigation to confirm their medicinal efficacy in terms of the gradation and dosage. It is recommended that research be intensified in terms of the corresponding dosage in the phyto-remedy of diabetes and other ailments. Also, there should be coordination between government agencies and herbal organizations to enhance proper utilization of the medicinal plant resources.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Different Processing Methods on Nutrient and Anti-Nutrient
           Compositions of Entada aricana Seed

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      Authors: O.P. Olaifa, A.J. Adeola, O.A. Adeniji, O.S. Ogundana, Y.M. Yuneid
      Pages: 274 - 277
      Abstract: Entada africana belongs to the family Fabaceae which is popularly known as Legumes and third largest order of seed-plants. The study investigated the effects of different processing methods on the nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of Entada africana. Entada africana seed were collected from New-Bussa in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Entada africana were subjected to different processing methods; boiling and toasting, the processed seed were milled into powdered for proximate and photochemical analysis. All determinations were done in triplicates. All data collected was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), while significant means was separated using Duncan multiple range test. The results of the finding indicate that all the processed seed reduced the contents of phytochemicals; tannin was reduced by 62.12%, saponin 76.67%, phytate 60.69%, oxalate 76.40% and trypsin inhibitor by 29.79%. The study concludes that the processing methods have a significant effect on the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of Entada africana seed by increasing the nutrient content and reducing the anti-nutrient composition of the seed. The study therefore, recommends that Etanda africana seed should be boiled before roasting in order to reduce anti-nutritional factors to a tolerable level before being used as animal feed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Correlation between chemical composition and in vitro Dry Matter
           Digestibility of Leaves of Semi-arid Browses of North-East Nigeria

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      Authors: A.A. Njidda, J. Oloche
      Pages: 278 - 283
      Abstract: The potential nutritive values of eight browse forages namely: Olea hochstteteri, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ziziphus spinzchristi, Pterocarpus erinceus, Sterculia setigera, Balanites aegyptiaca, Ficus sycomorus and Adansonia digitata of North-east Nigeria were evaluated by chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The samples were collected and analyzed in triplicates. There were significant differences among species in terms of chemical composition. A range of 2.00 to 6.00% and 12.00 to 18.00% DM were recorded for EE and Ash values for the eight browses. Their fiber parameters showed a range of 34.40 to 54.80, 16.55 to 33.40, 9.70 to 67.17, g/100g DM for NDF, ADF and ADL, respectively. The values reported for anti-nutritive factors range from 0.12 to 0.41 mg/g MD for TCT and 0.24 to 0.81 mg/g MD for phenolic. Dry samples (leaves) of eight semi-arid browses were used as substrates. Crude protein (CP) in leaf dry matter ranged from 13.23 in Olea hochstteteri to 18.31% DM in balanites aegyptiaca. The IVDMD had the lowest IVDMD (45.00% DM) and lowest CP content (13.23%). The result also reveals a negative correlation of IVDMD with cell wall contents (NDF, ADF and ADL) and a positive correlation with TCT, and a positive correlation between CP and phenolic. The result for methane production shows that Ziziphus spinachisti had the highest methane value (4ml/200mg DM). Based on chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility, the browse species forage have high potential nutritive value, especially as protein supplements to poor quality forage for ruminant animals in the tropics and in terms of rumen and whole tract digestibility.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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