Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 963 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (662 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (662 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted by number of followers
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nature Plants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
New Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Italian Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
EU Agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Cubana de Ciencia Agrícola     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Apicultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progressive Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RIA. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Jurnal Agroteknologi     Open Access  
Perspectivas Rurales Nueva Época     Open Access  
Organic Farming     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Landtechnik : Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Agriculture System     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Pastura : Journal Of Tropical Forage Science     Open Access  
Journal of Citrus Pathology     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de las Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports     Open Access  
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Fave : Sección ciencias agrarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Review of Agrarian Studies     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nigeria Agricultural Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nativa     Open Access  
SAARC Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrosearch     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access  
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
Ceiba     Open Access  
Research in Sierra Leone Studies : Weave     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Encuentro     Open Access  
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Landbohistorisk Tidsskrift     Open Access  
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologia Postcosecha     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Bioagro     Open Access  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access  
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.188
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2346-3775
Published by CIAT Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The influence of seed structures on dormancy in seeds of Urochloa hybrid
           cultivar ‘Mulato Ⅱ’

    • Authors: Jinhai Liu, Hehua Wang, Fucheng Luo, Yan Wang, Cui Xu, Jinjuan Jiang
      Pages: 156 - 163
      Abstract: This study determined the effects of seed structures on seed dormancy and tested methods to break dormancy in seeds of Urochloa hybrid cultivar ‘Mulato II’. Seeds stored for 10 months in indoor ambient conditions were studied to determine effects of seed structures on seed germination and their water permeability. Results showed that seed structures presented a barrier to water permeability. Removal of lemmas, puncturing the seed coat, seed structure removal and sulfuric acid immersion all reduced seed dormancy. Water and alcohol extracts from different parts of seeds inhibited seed germination of Brassica pekinensis seeds. There were 3 mechanisms responsible for seed dormancy; first, the mechanical barrier of seed structures, which excluded water and reduced gas exchange as well as restricting growth of the embryo; second, an endogenous germination inhibitor mainly found in lemmas; and third, water permeability of the seed coat (including pericarp and testa). The mechanical removal of lemmas and immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid reduced seed dormancy, although mechanical removal of the lemma alone was effective, convenient and safer.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)156-163
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes Tropicales Vol.10 No.3

    • Authors: TGFT Journal
      Pages: 156 - 301
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)156-301
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Forage characterization of Carajás grass (Cenchrus purpureus × C.
           americanus) fertilized with a range of doses of protected urea under
           irrigation during the growing season

    • Authors: Francisco Gleyson da Silveira Alves, Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro, Marcos Jacome Araújo, Rafael Felippe Ratke, Barbara Silveira Leandro de Lima, Nayrlon de Sampaio Gomes, Rafael Rodrigues da Silva, Ricardo Loiola Edvan
      Pages: 164 - 171
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the agronomic and nutritional responses of Carajás grass (Cenchrus purpureus × C. americanus, syn. Pennisetum purpureum × P. glaucum, cultivar ‘Carajás’) fertilized with protected urea. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks in split-plot arrangement over time. The treatments consisted of 5 levels of nitrogen (0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg N/ha/year) and measurements were made over 2 seasons (spring 2015 and summer 2016), with 8 replicates. Leaf and stem elongation and senescence rate of tillers increased as N dosage increased, while tiller density, leaf:stem ratio, live:dead material ratio and phyllochron declined. Forage biomass increased with N dosage reaching 47 t DM green forage/ha at 800 kg N/ha but DM production per unit of N applied declined dramatically as level of N applied increased. There was no effect of season. For crude protein (CP) and fiber concentrations, a positive effect was observed with increasing N application, with maximum CP% of 172 g/kg with 800 kg N/ha in spring. Further studies are warranted to determine if economics indicate that the higher fertilizer levels are justified and even protected urea should still be applied on a number of occasions, but still less often than conventional urea, rather than as a single dose at the beginning of spring.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)164-171
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Physiological, morphological, and biochemical characterization of Cratylia
           argentea (Desv.) Kuntze seeds

    • Authors: Eduardo Pacca Luna Mattar, Daniel Teixeira Pinheiro, Wander Douglas Pereira, Bruno Portela Brasileiro, Walter José Rodrigues Matrangolo, Paulo César Hilst, Paola Andrea Hormaza Martínez, Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias
      Pages: 172 - 183
      Abstract: Cratylia argentea is a shrub legume native to tropical regions of South America where it is used for animal feed and green manure. In the absence of germination guidelines, the key aim of this study was to define the most suitable temperature for conducting germination and accelerated aging tests. The biochemical attributes of seeds were also assessed. Seeds with 10% moisture from 4 different seed lots were germinated using the between paper method in a germinator at temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and alternating temperatures of 20/30 °C (16 h:8 h), with daily counting until germination was stable (seven days without germination). For the accelerated aging test, two temperatures (41 and 45 °C) and six aging periods (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h) for seeds with between 10–40 % moisture content were used. Carbohydrates (%), ethereal extract (%), crude protein (%) and macro and micronutrient contents of the seeds were measured. Results showed that C. argentea seeds consist predominantly of starch (22.67 %) and protein (26.45 %) reserves with a low percentage of lipids. For the germination test, the temperature of 30 °C is recommended, allowing greater percentage and speed of germination, with seedling evaluation at 10 and 20 days. For the accelerated aging test, aging for 48 h at 41 °C is recommended to discriminate C. argentea seed lots in terms of quality.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)172-183
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Seasonal nutritive value and in vitro fermentation kinetics of foliage of
           some multipurpose shrub species in northeastern Mexico

    • Authors: Miguel Chávez Espinoza, Hugo Bernal Barragán, Maribel Guerrero Cervantes, Israel Cantú Silva, Mauricio Cotera Correa, Humberto González Rodríguez, Andrés Eduardo Estrada Castillón
      Pages: 184 - 194
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine seasonal chemical composition, metabolizable energy (ME) concentration, in vitro gas production patterns, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and in vitro true organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) of foliage from 5 native shrub species (Celtis pallida, Croton suaveolens, Forestiera angustifolia, Guaiacum angustifolium and Parkinsonia aculeata) growing in semi-arid areas of northeastern Mexico between July 2018 and June 2019 at 2 research sites. Crude protein (CP) concentrations (>13.2% DM) found in leaf material should meet or exceed the requirements for maintenance of small ruminants; C. pallida provided the highest CP% (20.8‒29.3%). While CP% varied with season and site, species had a greater effect than either of those factors overall. ME concentrations ranged between 1.2 and 2.0 Mcal/kg DM. Neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations ranged from 29.8 to 51.7% DM and 9.8 to 33.0% DM, respectively. Data obtained for IVOMD (34.5‒58.8%) and IVTOMD (64.1‒88.7%) demonstrate the high nutritive potential of leaf of browse species under study, especially C. pallida, as useful feed supplements for small ruminants in the semi-arid region of northeastern Mexico. Further studies could examine DM yields of browse from the various species, acceptance by small ruminants and their sustainability under regular defoliation under grazing.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)184-194
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Benefit of feeding Urochloa hybrid cultivar ‘Cobra’ on milk production
           in Tanzania

    • Authors: Solomon Mwendia, An Notenbaert, Beatus Nzogela, Angello Mwilawa
      Pages: 195 - 203
      Abstract: Animal genetics, management, diseases, feeds and environment affect milk production in cattle. Feed is the most important and when addressed, cattle show immediate responses. In sub-Saharan Africa, livestock productivity is low largely due to use of low-quality crop residues and natural pastures, often poor in key nutrients for animal performance. In an 8-week on-farm feeding trial with farmers’ participation, milk production under farmers’ practice (FP) was compared with the use of improved Urochloa hybrid cultivar ‘Cobra’ hay (Cobra hay) as an intervention (IN). A crossover design with each cow undergoing FP and IN phases was used. For the initial 2 weeks, the experiment followed FP before shifting to 50-50 FP/IN in week 3 and 100% IN in week 4 and 5, followed by 50-50 FP/IN in week six and 100% FP in week 7 and 8. Milk production increased by 15 % under IN and was associated with better feed utilization efficiency of 2 kg DM Cobra hay/L of milk. The use of Cobra hay has potential to increase dairy productivity in Tanzania and other similar tropical ecologies and contexts in sub-Saharan Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)195-203
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effects of adding agro-industrial by-products and bacterial inoculant at
           ensiling on nutritional quality and bacterial colonization of Tifton 85
           [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] silages

    • Authors: André Sanches de Avila, Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom, Andressa Faccenda, Marcela Abbado Neres, Luana Muxfeldt, Cibele Regina Schneider, Marcelo Martini Stum, Ricardo Dri, Pâmela Rosana Schneider
      Pages: 204 - 213
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of adding agro-industrial by-products (soybean hulls and cornprocessing residue) and bacterial inoculant to Tifton 85 forage at ensiling on nutritional quality and bacterial colonization of resulting silages. The design was completely randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme, with 6 treatments and 4 replicates. Treatments were: Tifton 85 forage; Tifton 85 + soybean hulls; Tifton 85 + corn-processing residue; Tifton 85 + bacterial inoculant; Tifton 85 + soybean hulls + inoculant; and Tifton 85 + corn-processing residue + inoculant. Inclusion of by-products increased dry matter and organic matter percentages of silages, while addition of soybean hulls improved crude protein concentration in silage. Total digestible nutrients in silages containing by-products were higher than in straight Tifton 85 silage. In addition, addition of by-products increased in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of resulting silages. Most treatments showed aerobic stability up to 144 hours after exposure to air, except for Tifton 85 + corn-processing residue without inoculant, which became unstable by 120 hours of exposure. Addition of by-products at ensiling of Tifton 85 forage appears beneficial but there seems little benefit in adding bacterial inoculant. More studies on a larger scale are needed to confirm these preliminary results, while feeding studies would determine any improvement in animal performance when fed silage containing by-products.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)204-213
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Influence of plant population density of Chamaecrista rotundifolia on its
           value for hay making in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    • Authors: Angélica Lucelia da Silva Nascimento, Natan Lima Abreu, Raimundo Vagner de Lima Pantoja, Ingrid Stefanie Queiroz de Oliveira, Josilene Do Nascimento Gomes, René Jean Marie Poccard Chapuis, Letícia de Abreu Faria
      Pages: 214 - 221
      Abstract: Chamaecrista rotundifolia is a forage legume little used with Brazilian livestock; however, it has been studied for this purpose for over 40 years in Australia. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of plant densities of approximately 444,400, 111,100 and 27,800 plants/ha (equivalent to spacings of 0.15 × 0.15; 0.30 × 0.30 and 0.60 × 0.60 m) on quantitative and qualitative parameters of C. rotundifolia grown in pure stands as forage under exclusive cropping for hay. While leaf dry matter yields in the first 93 days after planting ranged from 1.48 to 9.32 t DM/ha, declining to 0.71–4.92 t DM/ha in the subsequent 83 days, crude protein concentration of the material was only 7–8%. Since this species tends to lose leaf during periods of stress, larger paddock studies are needed to determine how well leaf material is retained under conventional hay-making conditions. Optimal stubble height following harvesting should be investigated in an endeavor to increase DM yields at second harvest along with improved survival of plants.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)214-221
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • The role of leucaena in cattle fattening and breeding production systems
           in Eastern Indonesia

    • Authors: Fahrul Irawan, - Dahlanuddin, Michael J. Halliday, Roger S. Hegarty, Frances C. Cowley
      Pages: 222 - 236
      Abstract: Cattle farming in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia (NTB) is essential to support the high demand for beef cattle in Indonesia. Leucaena was introduced to smallholders as a high-quality feed to increase cattle production in NTB. A survey was conducted with both leucaena-using and non-leucaena-using smallholder cattle farmers in Sumbawa and West Sumbawa districts, NTB to understand the role of leucaena in NTB smallholder cattle enterprises (mixed breeding/fattening) and the effect of leucaena toxicity on cattle performance, especially cow-calf production. We found that farmers using leucaena feeding systems were able to keep more cattle than farmers using a traditional feeding system (9.1 vs 6.1 head/household). Many leucaena-using farmers (50.1 %) use leucaena for fattening cattle only. Other cattle classes (growers, breeding cows and bulls) were fed leucaena strategically, such as during the dry season (59 % of leucaena-using farmers) and at specific stages of pregnancy and lactation (41 % of leucaena-using farmers). Leucaenausing farmers in rainfed areas planted more leucaena (4,500 vs 1,984 trees) and fattened more bulls (5.8 vs 3.5 head/ household) than farmers in high-rainfall areas. Transmigrant Balinese farmers planted significantly more leucaena trees (7,500 vs 2,354 trees) and raised more fattening bulls (7.8 vs 3.7 head/household) than the local Sumbawanese farmers. Most Balinese farmers had been practising leucaena feeding systems since they migrated to Sumbawa, for a long as 3 decades. Most leucaena-using farmers (74 %) had observed symptoms of illness associated with leucaena toxicity in their cattle such as hair loss and salivation. Few farmers feeding leucaena to breeding cows (5 %) reported instances of reproductive failure. Almost all non-leucaena-using farmers (93 %) reported symptoms of illnesses associated with plant toxicities (among other potential causes), most commonly skin lesions, diarrhoea, cataract, and listlessness. It was concluded that the priority use of leucaena in Sumbawa was for fattening cattle rather than breeding cattle. Leucaena supports smallholder farmers in Sumbawa to have more intensive, productive and income-earning cattle enterprises, but questions remain over whether it should be used for feeding breeding cows.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)222-236
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • The impact of COVID-19 on the sustainable intensification of forage-based
           beef and dairy value chains in Colombia: a blessing and a curse

    • Authors: Stefan Burkart, Manuel Díaz, Karen Enciso, Andrés Charry, Natalia Triana, Martín Mena, José Luis Urrea-Benítez, Irieleth Gallo Caro, Rein van der Hoek
      Pages: 237 - 248
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the difficulties associated with the need to transition the cattle sector in Latin America towards achieving sustainability and created a “double crisis” of pandemic and climate change. The increasing demand for animal sourced foods and the need to address the negative environmental impacts of cattle production, including greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity loss and deforestation, and the implications of climate change on cattle production (prolonged droughts, prolonged rainy seasons, heat stress), have placed strong emphasis on sustainable intensification of forage-based beef and dairy systems for climate change mitigation and adaptation. This is needed to meet the commitments made by many Latin American countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions under the Paris Agreement. Through a qualitative approach, this perspective paper reviews the present and potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on progress towards sustainable intensification of the Colombian cattle sector. It also outlines new opportunities for sustainable intensification in Colombia that may provide useful examples for other Latin American countries. Short-term impacts such as: (i) increased input prices, (ii) limited access to inputs, credit, and technical assistance, and (iii) reduced incomes, have limited investment in sustainable intensification along the value chains. Reduced resources for research and development funding, unavailability of skilled and experienced staff, restrictions to travel and person-to-person interactions, in tandem, have caused setbacks in the development and application of sustainable technologies and programs. This has been addressed by increased use of technology for communication but there are difficulties with the broad availability of such technologies, especially farmers. A long-term shift of consumer demand towards more sustainable animal products is occurring and expected to continue, and this should lead to new opportunities for sustainable intensification.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)237-248
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Prediction of the nutritional value of sorghum for forage using
           near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and empirical equations

    • Authors: Sonia Pereira-Crespo, Adrián Botana, Marcos Veiga, César Resch, Laura González, Roberto Lorenzana, Valentín García-Souto, María del Pilar Martínez-Diz, Gonzalo Flores-Calvete
      Pages: 249 - 260
      Abstract: In the present work it is studied the predictive ability of NIRS for the estimation of chemical composition (n=171) and organic matter digestibility (n=71) of whole plants forage sorghum and morphological components, being developed empirical equations based on chemical parameters to estimate the organic matter digestibility (OMD) values and compared the predictive ability of empirical models vs. NIRS equations. The predictive ability of NIRS models for estimating the OMD and chemical composition showed high reliability, according to the coefficient of determination in external validation (r²≥0.90), whilst the ratio of the standard deviation of the original data to standard error of external validation (RPD) values were higher than 3.0 for all parameters studied. Applying NIRS models to the prediction of OMD of whole plants and morphological components of forage sorghum led to the reduction in the standard error of external validation, in comparison of the best empirical model based on the chemical composition of samples (from ±3.9 to ±1.9%). It is concluded that the NIRS equations developed in the present work are valuable tools for the fast and accurate assessment of the nutritive value of the whole plant and components of forage sorghum.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)249-260
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Ingestive behavior and dry matter intake of dairy cattle grazing Kikuyu
           grass (Cenchrus clandestinus) pastures

    • Authors: Yesid Avellaneda-Avellaneda, Edgar Mancipe-Muñoz, Juan Vargas-Martínez
      Pages: 261 - 270
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of animal characteristics, grazing management, and supplementation on ingestive behavior and dry matter intake (DMI) of Kikuyu grass in lactating cows. Four trials were conducted with multiparous Holstein dairy cows in non-limiting forage conditions using 9 cows in each trial, 1 cow per paddock. Individual DMI was estimated through forage mass difference (pre- and post-grazing mass), ingestive behavior, and using markers [chromium oxide and undegradable acid detergent fibre (uADF)]. DMI was also estimated using 3 nutritional models (CSIRO, NRC, and AFRC). Grazing time and bite mass were positively related to the cow body weight, while bite rate showed a negative relationship with forage mass. The grazing time on a pasture of 42 d regrowth was less than the time spent grazing on a pasture of 28 or 56 d regrowth. DMI estimated by forage mass difference showed a positive relation with forage mass, supplement intake, and liveweight. DMI estimated using markers showed a positive relation with milk production and liveweight and a negative relationship with forage height. Forage mass difference and ingestive behavior measurements provided good estimates (R²>0.8) of DMI associated with forage mass, liveweight, and supplement intake in cows grazing Kikuyu grass.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)261-270
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Digital imaging outperforms traditional scoring methods for spittlebug
           tolerance in Urochloa humidicola hybrids

    • Authors: Luis Hernández, Paula Espitia, Juan Andrés Cardoso
      Pages: 271 - 279
      Abstract: American spittlebug species (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) are major pests in Urochloa humidicola (syn. Brachiaria humidicola) cultivars in the neotropics. The U. humidicola breeding program of the Alliance Bioversity-CIAT aims to increase tolerance to spittlebugs. To develop tolerant U. humidicola genotypes, adequate screening methods are needed. Currently, visual scores of plant damage by spittlebugs is the standard method to screen for variation in plant tolerance. However, visual scoring is prone to human bias, is of medium throughput and relies on the expertise of well-trained personnel. In this study, estimations of plant damage from SPAD measurements and digital images with visual scoring from an inexpert evaluator and visual scoring from an expert were compared. This information should inform if different methods could be implemented in the U. humidicola breeding program. Time needed to evaluate damage was recorded for each method. Lin’s correlation coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and broad sense heritability values were calculated. Damage estimated from digital images showed the highest throughput (twice as fast as visual scoring from an expert), high correlations with visual scoring (r>0.80, P<0.0001) and heritability values for plant damage as good or better (>0.7) than those obtained by visual scoring from an expert. Results indicate that digital imaging could improve the efficiency of phenotyping in breeding for increased tolerance to spittlebugs in U. humidicola.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)271-279
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application to Elephant grass (Cenchrus
           purpureus syn. Pennisetum purpureum) cultivar ‘Cameroon’ in an
           arenosol in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    • Authors: Luiz E.C. Oliveira, Fábio H.T. Oliveira, Gualter G.C. Silva, Marcio G. Silva Bezerra, Éric G. Morais, Gabriel F.R. Bezerra, Giovana S. Danino, Ermelinda M.M. Oliveira, Francisco V.S. Sá
      Pages: 280 - 287
      Abstract: Elephant grass (Cenchrus purpureus syn. Pennisetum purpureum) stands out for its high dry matter production per unit area and good nutritional value and is cultivated throughout Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of elephant grass cultivar ‘Cameroon’ fertilized with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) at different rates. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 10 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments consisted of 5 doses of N (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 kg N/ha) all with 66 kg P/ha and 5 doses of P (0, 22, 44, 66 and 88 kg P/ha) all with 600 kg N/ha. The variables evaluated during 3 harvests were: shoot dry matter (DM) yield, N and P concentrations in shoots, and uptakes of N and P in forage. Results showed that, in the arenosol of the experimental area, high doses of N and P could produce high yields of the grass (40‒41 t DM/ha) over 260 days. The grass extracted large amounts of N (on average, 800 kg N/ha over 260 days) and P concentrations were significantly affected by P fertilization only in the last harvest, where it increased from 0.27 to 0.78 g P/kg DM. However, application of only 200 kg N/ha will produce more than 60% of the DM yield response achieved with 800 kg N/ha. Similarly, there seems little merit in applying more than 22 kg P/ha with the N. Longer-term studies are needed to test these hypotheses along with economic assessments to determine the financial soundness of such decisions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)280-287
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Forage production and quality of Urochloa decumbens cultivar
           ‘Basilisk’ in Okinawa, Japan

    • Authors: Hanagasaki Takashi
      Pages: 288 - 296
      Abstract: Two studies were conducted to assess forage growth and nutritive value of Urochloa decumbens (syn. Brachiaria decumbens) cultivar ‘Basilisk’ in comparison with other grass species grown in Okinawa during 2002–2005 and 2006–2008. Harvests were performed every 40 days from April to October and every 55 days from November to March. In Experiment 1, from 2002 to 2005 total dry matter (DM) yield of ‘Basilisk’ (119.5 t/ha) was significantly higher than that of Digitaria eriantha cultivar ‘Transvala’ (87.4 t/ha; P = 0.01), one of the most popular recommended grass varieties in Okinawa Prefecture. Mean DM digestibility of ‘Basilisk’ was 56.7%, significantly higher than that of other recommended grass varieties (54.5–51.4%). In addition, total digestible DM yield (64.8 t/ha) and crude protein (CP) yield (13.7 t/ha) of ‘Basilisk’ were significantly higher than those of other varieties including ‘Transvala’ (P<0.01). In Experiment 2, total DM yield of ‘Basilisk’ during 2006–2008 was 93.0 t/ha and significantly higher only than that of Urochloa mutica (syn. Brachiaria mutica) (78.6 t/ha; P<0.01), whereas mean DM digestibility (54.8%) was significantly higher only than that of Chloris gayana cultivar ‘Katambora’ (52.8%; P<0.05). Total digestible DM yield (48.8 t/ha) of ‘Basilisk’ was significantly higher only than that of U. mutica (40.3 t/ha; P<0.01) while its total CP yield (10.4 t/ha) was similar to those of other Urochloa cultivars (P>0.05). As a result, in 2016 ‘Basilisk’ was approved to be added to the list of grasses recommended for sowing in Okinawa Prefecture for improving beef production in the area. A suitable supply of seed to allow this cultivar to be sown widely is essential if its potential for improving beef production in the region is to be realized.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)288-296
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effects of feeding dried olive (Olea europaea) leaves with wheat
           strawconcentrate rations on feed conversion efficiency in Awassi rams

    • Authors: Mazen Alomar, M. Rateb Al-Masri, Moutaz Zarkawi
      Pages: 297 - 301
      Abstract: Three groups of Awassi rams were fed for 6 weeks either a conventional wheat straw-concentrate ration (Control) or 2 experimental rations, where 30 (G1) and 60% (G2) of the wheat straw was replaced with dried olive leaves following oil extraction. All rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Feed intake (FI), bodyweight gain (BWG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were measured. BWG and FI during the 6-week period were not significantly (P>0.05) different for the different rations, averaging 4.75 and 116 kg/animal, respectively. In addition, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences in FCE values between the Control and experimental groups fed wheat straw + olive leaves, averaging 24.6 kg feed/kg gain. These results suggest that dried olive leaves can replace wheat straw in wheat straw-concentrate rations at levels up to 60% without affecting performance. Further studies are needed to determine optimal combinations of straw, olive leaves and concentrate to achieve different goals as well as intakes and performance when offered rations ad lib. Economic assessments would determine if including olive leaves would reduce the costs of feeding.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)297-301
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
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