Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Agricola     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Seed Science Research     Hybrid Journal  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Semiárida     Open Access  
Siembra     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Smart Agricultural Technology     Open Access  
Social & Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Economic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stiinta Agricola     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Tropical Technology Journal     Open Access  
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access  
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Weed Biology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Weed Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World's Poultry Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Universal Journal of Agricultural Research
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2332-2268 - ISSN (Online) 2332-2284
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [50 journals]
  • Trends and Conditions for the Formation of Profitability of Agricultural
           Enterprises: A Case Study of Lviv Region, Ukraine

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Tetiana Shmatkovska   Mykola Dziamulych   Nataliia Vavdiiuk   Serhiy Petrukha   Nataliia Koretska   and Andrii Bilochenko   In the article we investigate the problem of determining the main factors of increasing the profitability of agricultural enterprises in order to effectively use the resource potential of agricultural producers. In this study, we used a set of modern scientific methods, among which we highlight such methods as factor analysis, structural analysis, graphical and tabular methods, grouping methods, regression statistical analysis, etc. In particular, grouping methods are used in the study for the distribution of the researched enterprise's totality according to the special features of their functioning. Also in the process of our study regression, a statistical analysis method was used to build a regression model to assess the relationship of profit and revenue from agricultural enterprises with such factors as a capital ratio, the average annual amount of enterprise assets, the labour costs, and the number of material costs per unit of land area. Besides, in order to study the level of profitability of agricultural enterprises in terms of their organizational and legal forms of management, the scope of financial and economic activities as well as the unit of the occupied area, livestock and taking into account the products produced, we used the structural analysis method. According to the results of the study, we found that the profitability of agricultural enterprises in the Lviv region of Ukraine depends on the characteristics of their versatility. Thus, according to the results of the study we proved, that the constructed multifactorial correlation and regression models allow us to make the conclusion about availability of the significant impact on the profitability of the security of the agricultural enterprises in Lviv region of Ukraine and the level of their intensification of the production activities. Based on the study, it can be argued that the profit of agricultural enterprises is a key indicator for the implementation of the process of agricultural production, and is one of the main criteria for the effectiveness of the agricultural sector. It is determined that the activity of agricultural enterprises is significantly influenced by external factors that are not directly related to the production activities of enterprises.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Formulating Agricultural Extension Planning Based on Farmer Achievement:
           The Case of Organic Rice Farming Risk Mitigation in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Ujang Maman   Yusron Razak   Murodi   Asep Saefuddin   Faisal Hendra   Zirmansyah   Nindyantoro   Lilis Imamah Ichdayati   and Junaidi   Currently, more than 65% of Indonesian farmers are at the age of 45 years or older. In next 30 years, it is estimated that Indonesia will experience a farmers' scarcity. The Indonesian government must raise millennial farmers who are relatively educated and have high creativity. But the coming of "new farmer" should be followed by changing agricultural extension model. The top-down extension is no longer suitable with basic characters of youth; they need a dialogical-participatory extension model which is based on their achievements. Therefore, by the case of mitigating organic rice farming system in Indonesia, this research aims to identify ORFS's risk mitigation attributes; achievement of mitigation implementation; and improvement priorities; and finally arrange agricultural extension planning based on this achievement. The sample of this research, by adopting Slovin Formula with less than 7% error probability, is 109 organic rice farmers in West Java, Indonesia. The in-depth interviews prove six mitigation attributes in cultivation and plant maintenance phase. Assisted by important-performance-analysis to determine farmer's achievement in implementation of these attributes, the agricultural extension planning should maintain the implementation of three attributes; remediate two attributes as main program, and extend the performance of one attribute as secondary program. The three attributes include promoting cultivation plant-based pesticide ingredient, training and outreach on manufacture and use of plant-based pesticides, and weeding plants without herbicides. The two attributes consist of socialization not to pollute organic agricultural land; and collaborate with relevant agencies to participate in the success of organic farming pilot project. The one attribute is giving sanctions for farmers who buy and use chemical inputs. The participatory extension model should be applied to implement above three kinds of extension planning.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Assessment of Prioritized Climate Smart Agricultural Practices and
           Technologies of Household Farmers in Southeast, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Igberi C. O.   Osuji E. E.   Odo N. E.   Ibekwe C. C.   Onyemauwa C. S.   Obi H. O.   Obike K. C.   Obasi I. O.   Ifejimalu A. C.   Ebe F. E.   Ibeagwa O. B.   Chinaka I. C.   Emeka C. P. O.   Orji J. E.   and Ibrahim-Olesin S.   The study assessed prioritized climate smart agricultural (CSA) practices and technologies of household farmers in Southeast, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to isolate 326 household farmers who participated on the study. Data collection was done using research instrument (questionnaire). Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. Results indicated that majority of the respondents were females, had secondary education, and had household size of 9 persons with a mean age of 48 years and 19 years of farming experience. Temperature variation (3.85), increase in number of sunny days (3.50), increase in amount of rainfall (3.10), variation in rainfall pattern (3.56), decrease in total rainfall (3.21), increase in frequency of heavy rains (2.85), etc were seriously perceived as climate change effects in the area. Again, various prioritized CSA practices and technologies such as growing a single crop, using a mixture of appropriately chosen genotypes of a given species (46.6%), use of quality seeds and planting materials of well-adapted crops and varieties (77.9%), crop rotation and diversity (41.1%) integrated pest management (47.5%), improved water use and management (26.4%), etc. were adopted by the farmers in mitigating climate change effects. Climate threats identified in the area include, decrease in overall productivity due to increased extreme weather events (0.97), decrease in crop production due to changes in average rainfall (0.94), decrease crop production due to increase in temperatures and rainfall variability (0.79), rapid migration of some pests and diseases (0.72), etc. Lack of access to up to-date information (2.88), access to micro-finance and insurance (2.57), access to agricultural input and output markets (2.14), etc. constrained the adoption of CSA practices. Age, education, occupation, years in farming experience further influenced the adoption of CSA practices and technologies. Policy motions in propagating climate change awareness through the mass media were recommended.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Efficiency of Some Traps to Measure Flux Dust Suspension Particles by Wind

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Omnia M. Wassif  This study was to analyze the efficiency (E) of traps in holding suspended soil particles that cause dust, environmental and agricultural problems by wind erosion in NWCZ, Egypt. These vertical and passive sediment traps with different design in rotary and fixed reservoir box and different methods of measured soil loss. Rotary Distance (RD), Fixed Distance (FD), Rotary Point (RP) and Fixed Point (FP) traps were compared with traditional trap Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE). The variation between traps’ efficiency as a function of height was significantly (P≤0.05) and was as follow: RD, FD, RP, and FP more increase than BSNE. The performance of the trap types as an efficiency of suspension particles (assumed to possess E=1 for suspended particle sizes) was as follow RD> FD> RP> FP> BSNE; 99%, 98%, 88%, 85%, 65% respectively. The efficiency of traps in suspension particles size (100 µm) were significant (P ≤ 0.05) and the best efficient were RD and FD. Therefore, RD and FD traps have direct methods for measuring soil loss by wind erosion and have the most acceptable, accurate, fastest and easiest in soil particle analyzed and therefore the most effective way to discriminate suspension particles.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Evaluation of Financial Viability of Woodlots and Crops in Coast Region of

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Wekesa L.   Muema K.   and Muthini J.   Majority of farmers in the Coast Region of Kenya practice the agri-silviculture farming system as a source of their livelihood and well-being. However, most of them grow trees and agriculture crops on smallholdings that are characterized by a limited resource base calling for the adoption of enterprises with the potential of optimizing production and economic returns. Thus, financial assessments were carried out for both the trees and agriculture crops to establish profitable ones. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire to collect data from smallholder farmers with woodlots and field crops selected using stratified random sampling procedures. The results reveal that woodlots were more profitable at their biological rotation than commonly grown field crops. Woodlots had average annual net earnings of US$364.46 per acre spread uniformly over their biological rotation. On the other hand, annual earnings from highly ranked field crops averaged US$177.39 per acre. It was, therefore recommended that farmers be encouraged to engage in woodlots but inter-crop them with field crops at the initial stages of establishment to help diversify, and optimize their incomes and food self-sufficiency at the farm level. Farmers are also advised to mechanize and use other technologies that minimize labour usage that was observed to be the highest cost component in woodlot establishment.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Maximization of Strategic Crops Production in Iraq with Fuzzy Goal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Mohd Kamal Mohd Nawawi   Ibrahim Zeghaiton Chaloob   Jehan Saleh Ahmed   Razamin Ramli   and Suliadi Firdaus Sufahani   The need to increase agricultural production has become a challenging task for most countries. Generally, many resource factors affect the deterioration of production level, such as low water level, desertification, soil salinity, low on capital, lack of equipment, the impact of export and import of crops, lack of fertilizers, pesticide, and the ineffective role of agricultural extension services which are significant in this sector. The main objective of this research is to develop fuzzy goal programming (GP) model to improve agricultural crop production, leading to increased agricultural benefits (more tons of produce per acre) based on the minimization of the main resources (water, fertilizer, and pesticide) to determine the weight in the objectives function subject to different constraints (land area, irrigation, labor, fertilizer, pesticide, equipment, and seed). Fuzzy GP (FGP) and GP were utilized to solve multi-objective decision-making (MODM) problems. From the results, this research has successfully presented a new alternative method that introduced multi-interval weights in solving a multi-objective FGP and GP model problem in a fuzzy manner, in the current uncertain decision-making environment for the agricultural sector. The significance of this research lies in the fact that some of the farming zones have resource limitations while others adversely impact their environment due to misuse of resources.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Ecosystem Carbon Stocks of Restored Mangroves and Its Sequestration in
           Northern Sumatra Coast, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Bambang Suprayogi   J. Purbopuspito   Meilinda Suriani Harefa   G.Y. Panjaitan   and Z. Nasution   The 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 30-year restored mangroves were studied through non-destructive method by measuring their stem diameter and tree height. Two allometric references: (a) stem diameter (D30) and (b) combined quadratic stem diameter and tree height (D302H) were used to estimate aboveground and belowground vegetation carbon stocks. The soil samples were collected from different depth and analysed in laboratory for soil carbon. The objective of this study was to estimate ecosystem carbon stocks of restored mangroves and its sequestration. The growth of restored mangroves induced an increase of tree biomass and a corresponding increase in vegetation carbon stocks from 3.7 MgC ha-1 at 2-year to 136.8 MgC ha-1 at 30-years. However, soil carbon stocks among restored mangrove plots spread randomly and didn't follow the sequence of mangrove tree ages. Average (2-30 years) mangrove ecosystem carbon in Northern Sumatra estimated by D302H allometry (362.0 MgC ha-1) was higher than that estimated by D30 allometry (344.1 MgC ha-1). This higher trend was also followed by its carbon sequestration with values of 41.1 MgCO2e ha-1 yr-1 estimated by D302H allometry and 31.5 MgCO2e ha-1 yr-1 estimated by D30 allometry. It is concluded that the values of ecosystem carbon stock of restored mangroves and its sequestration estimated by combined quadratic stem diameter and tree height (D302H) are higher than if it is estimated by stem diameter (D30). The D302H value is higher because this allometry calculates the volume of the tree stem, while D30 allometry only calculates the surface of the stem. The range values of average ecosystem carbon sequestration of this study may be better used as a reference for Afforestation, Reforestation and Re-vegetation (ARR) verification than what has been used as default/conservative values.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Morphological Characteristics of Abaca (Musa textilis Nee') Cultivars
           Grown in Two Municipalities of Aklan, Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Gene T. Señeris   Evelyn P. Vedasto   Malco M. Teodosio   Melba L. Ragaas   and Lelisa J. Teodosio   The present study identified the different abaca (Musa textilis Nee) cultivars grown in the 34 identified abaca producing barangays of Madalag and Libacao, Aklan, Philippines, and evaluated the morphological characteristics of the matured abaca plant such as plant height, number of suckers, number of leaves, the circumference of pseudostem and length of stalks. Stratified random sampling was conducted. From the two municipalities, there were 34 abaca-producing barangays identified, and three abaca plantations were randomly selected to obtain the morphological characteristics of the different abaca cultivars using the prescribed measurement procedures. Distribution of the cultivars determined through geospatial mapping using Geographic Information System (GIS). Statistical analyses employed were single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and T-test to determine significant differences among groups/cultivars at α = 0.05 level of significance. The findings showed that there were four identified abaca cultivars commonly grown in Madalag and Libacao. These were Bisaya, Tabukanon, Agbayanon and Negro cultivars. Moreover, the morphological performance of the different cultivars responded differently. The study will provide relevant data on the distribution and morphological characteristics of abaca cultivars in the province. It could enhance programs and interventions in achieving the local and global demand for high-quality abaca fiber.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Varietal Diversity, Seed Security and Adoption Dynamics of Rice Farmers in
           Eastern India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Swati Nayak   Ritesh Dwivedi   Sk Mosharaf Hossain   Kuntal Das   and Monika Saxena   Rice in Indian state Odisha can contribute more to the agrarian economy if existing low productivity is ameliorated through varietal diversity, improved seed security, and a higher varietal turnover. This exploratory study has found 63% of farmers acquire seeds from farm-managed seed sources. The rice area is dominated by only four mega varieties and a low level of varietal diversity (0.311) was observed. In low land flood-prone areas, such diversity is relatively low (0.25) whereas upland areas have shown higher diversity (0.349). The diversity level increases with the increase in farmers' landholding size. Inter-region variation in varietal diversity is also noticeable indicating gaps in choices and access across regions. Farmers who participated in the varietal demonstration adopted varieties as indicated by increased acreage under those varieties in subsequent years. Farmer to farmer knowledge and seed sharing was found to be strongly present. In respect of varietal traits yield, grain quality, cooking quality, and diseases and pest tolerance are most considered by farmers for variety adoption. Even though seed availability is satisfactory in the state, the seed security dimensions like access, quality, varietal choice, and seed system stability need improvement to better the overall rice seed security at the farm level.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Agro-Morphological Evaluation of Gamma Irradiated Oil Palm (Elaeis
           guineensis, Jacq.) M2 Population at the Nursery Stage

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Samuel Adu Osei   Daniel Agyei-Dwarko   Johnny Sackitey Ossom   Enoch Sapey   Wonder Nunekpeku   and Dickson Osei Darkwah   Morphological characterization is one of the steps that are considered important in the description and classification of cultivated crops. A field evaluation of gamma irradiated oil palm second generation (M2) progenies was carried out at Council for Scientific and Industrial Research – Oil Palm Research Institute (CSIR-OPRI), Kusi, Ghana. This experiment aimed to determine the agro-morphological performances of M2 population at the nursery stage. The entries were made up of eight (8) M2 progenies and a control, using randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, butt circumference, chlorophyll content of the leaves and stomatal conductance. All the characters studied exhibited significant (P < 0.05) variability among genotypes. The mean value (58.45 cm) of plant height for all the M2 progenies studied was 24% lower than that of the check (76.86 cm) and this is an indication of suspected dwarf trait which can be useful in crop improvement programmes. Progeny 14 performed significantly better in leaf production (9.60) and butt circumference (13.24 cm). The performance of progeny 15 was high with respect to leaf area (2135 cm2) and chlorophyll content (32.93 ug/g) while progeny 16 exhibited low stomatal conductance (5.90 m2s/mol), an indication of low transpiration rate and possible drought traits could be exploited in the development of drought tolerant materials.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • The Efficiency of Technical and Economic Utilization of Cagayan Valley
           Green Dairy Technologies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Diosdado C. Cañete   and Ma. Teresa S. Alvarez   The Philippine dairy business, worth Php100 billion, has a far way toward meeting the country's dairy demands. Local dairy farmers fulfill 1% of the need, despite yearly imports of $800 million in dairy goods. Dairy is the third most imported agricultural item, with 85 percent of the country importing it in powder form, which is subsequently processed into a liquid for household usage. Milk manufacturing has a number of environmental consequences. Dairy cows and their dung create greenhouse gases including methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide, which contribute to climate change. The study assessed the technical and economic efficiency of green dairy technology utilization in the Cagayan Valley. Specifically, it analyzed the determinants that affect dairy farmers' technical and economic efficiency by utilizing green technologies. It gathered data and information via a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were processed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis. The majority of the 11 dairy farmers surveyed were male, older farmers, with greater household size, who obtained their 9 years of school and had a lower monthly income of Php13,863.91. The productivity model reveals that the material costs that contributed to increasing milk productivity are significant. The lower cost of materials was due to the adoption of green technologies like silage making, vermiculture/composting, and recycling of farm wastes. The number of dairy animals, pre/post-harvest labor costs, and investment were all negative coefficients that did not affect milk productivity. Furthermore, age, household size, and agricultural years were among the technical inefficiencies that had a substantial impact. Dairy producers' technical inefficiency is aggravated by their age and years of farming. These farmers are getting older, starting at an age of 55.54, deteriorating their technical efficiency performance attributed to physical strength to perform dairying activities, while years of farming experience of 23.32 and above dairy farmers are attributed to their resistance to adopting green technologies. A household with four or fewer family members has fewer technical inefficiencies. The number of workers is usually drawn from the family members that contribute to better technical efficiency performance.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Consumers' Acceptance of Isabela State University-Science and Technology
           (S&T) Based Chevon Products in Baguio City: Market Opportunities and

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  May B. Cayaban   and Ma. Teresa S. Alvarez   In the Philippines, the goat business is very significant to the country's agriculture. Farmers can supplement their income by raising goats for a small investment. The purpose of this study was on consumer acceptance of ISU-S&T chevon products, notably in Baguio City, to provide baseline data for ISU-CVSRRC, private sector, and goat raisers to determine the market potential of canned chevon in the Philippines. Specifically, the demographic profile, level of consumer acceptance in terms of product appearance, flavor, aroma, texture, packaging, and price, and level of influence of health, economic, accessibility, and social factors on the consumer's acceptability of the chevon products were considered by 109 selected respondents. The descriptive-correlational design was used. Frequency and percentage distribution, mean and standard deviation were computed for the profiling of the respondents, and description of the levels of consumer acceptability and its influencing factors, respectively. The inferential part consisted of the computations of correlation coefficients, particularly the Pearson-r, Spearman rho, and eta coefficients, to establish relationships among variables evaluated at 0.05 level of significance. Most of the respondents finished college, were government employees, and were in their twenties. Generally, the chevon products were moderately acceptable to males, with the greatest influencing factors being those related to the health benefits of the chevon products. The least concern of the respondents for its acceptability was the price. Likewise, those with lower income tend to have a higher level of acceptance of the product's appearance compared with those with higher income. The economic and accessibility factors had significant relationships with the acceptability of the chevon products. With the right market value and campaign, the ISU-S&T-based chevon products have the potential to prosper in the market.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Entrepreneurial Skills in Snail Production Required by Youths for Wealth
           Creation in Enugu State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Onah Ogechukwu   Gideon Nwabueze Monday   Ifeanyieze F. O   Ekenta Lilian Ukamaka   F. N. Ezebuiro   Nwankwo Clara Ukamaka   Ogbonnaya Elom   V. C. Asogwa   Francis N. Azunku   and E. C. Isiwu   The study identified entrepreneurial skills in snail production required by youths for wealth creation in Enugu state, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study. Researchers employed a multistage sampling technique in the selection of respondents in the study. The sample size of the study was two hundred and sixteen (216) youths who are into snail farming. Data were voluntarily collected from respondents through the use of an adapted structured questionnaire titled "Snail Production Skill Questionnaire" (SPSQ). Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation. The study identified 15 entrepreneurial skills in selecting and constructing a snail pen, 19 entrepreneurial skills in breeding and feeding of snails, 14 entrepreneurial skills required by youths in routine management practices, 11 entrepreneurial skills required by youths in prevention and control of pests and diseases and 13 entrepreneurial skills required by youths in harvesting, processing and marketing of snails for snail production in Enugu state. It was recommended among others that Agricultural extension agents in collaboration with community leaders in Enugu state should organize a workshop to educate jobless and underemployed youths on the entrepreneurial skills in snail production identified by this study for wealth creation.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Socio-Economic Profile of the Dairy Industry in Cagayan Valley: Potential
           Users of Green Technology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Ma. Teresa S. Alvarez   and Diosdado C. Cañete   Dairy farming plays a vital role in the social and economic livelihood of the farmer households and cooperatives in the Cagayan Valley. For the adoption of new technologies such as greening technology in dairy production, profiling of the dairy farm is an important factor in developing the assessment of the viability of the green tech to be adopted by the farmers as a means to increase their productivity and efficiency in farming. By considering this aspect, the study was undertaken in the Cagayan Valley and the respondents were purposively selected. There were four cooperatives that represented the region, while 10 farmer households were also randomly selected. The data was collected using a predesigned interview schedule on-farm/site. Key informant interviews (KII) and focus group discussion (FGD) will be the means of gathering relevant information. The collected data was analysed using basic descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, percentage, proportions, average, and rating. The results indicate that the majority of the dairy farmers in the Cagayan Valley belonged to the aged group, with an average age of 54 and above, with a degree in college, and a high income of up to P15,001-above/monthly, which represents the large and medium-sized families. The majority of dairy farmers had at least 5 years of experience using green technology, and 60% of them had both cattle and carabao as dairy farm animals. The adoption rate of green technology using vermicomposting and using solar panels by both categories of respondents reveals that there is a potential market expansion for the implementation of green technology for the dairy farming industry and for further improvement of the socio-economic status of the farmers and their stakeholders, which may lead to their embracing green tech culture. Adequate research and a contribution from the NGO's and government in this sector are essential to improve the living conditions of the farmers in Cagayan Valley.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • The Methodical Approach of the Substantiation of the Evaluation Indicators
           System of the Agro-Industrial Complex Development

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Bogdan Iegorov   Yurii Kravchyk   Serhiy Rybalko   Iryna Ivashkiv   and Anton Chub   In this study, the authors propose a methodological approach to substantiate the evaluation indicators system of the regional development of the agro-industrial complex. The methodological basis for establishing the evaluation indicators system is determined, which is based on the principles of systematization, universality and consistency of evaluation indicators. Based on the generalized list of prior evaluation indicators, the evaluation indicators system is substantiated using the expert method. For each indicator, its approval by experts is determined, as an example, the agreement of experts on capital investment in agriculture, hunting and related services, as a percentage of total investment in the region. The structural-logical scheme of the structure of the evaluation system formation of the agro-industrial complex of the regions is offered. The proposed system of evaluation of the agro-industrial complex provides for the definition of such areas as follows: industries that produce means of production for agriculture and other industries that provide services to agriculture; Agriculture; industries for processing and preservation of agricultural products; production and social infrastructure.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Literature Study of Irrigation Management of Irrigation Modernization
           Based to Support the Productivity of Paddy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Muhamad Taufik   and Ruzardi   The availability of irrigation water for agriculture is one of the determinant factors that affect production, so it is important and strategic to support the success of agricultural business, especially in an effort to increase food production and productivity to realize food security. The Indonesian government has already spent considerable funds on the agricultural irrigation sector, but paddy crop production has not increased, so innovative measures are needed in handling it. The use of seeds supports irrigation modernization, and quality fertilizer is the right step to increase paddy production. The irrigation modernization plan will also be directed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the utilization of irrigation management funds through the development and management of participatory irrigation. A literature study is needed to explore the research about the potential, problem, and solution that support the direction of irrigation management system renewal policy in paddy productivity improvement scheme. The result of the analysis based on a previous study on IKMI and IKSI showed that the low score of the indicator (IKMI < 60 percent and IKSI < 55 percent) is on Human Resources, which include human resources institution/manager and human resources community water users (P3A). The use of superior seeds and balanced organic fertilizer will affect paddy productivity by 18.18 percent. The establishment of UPIM will be beneficial in fostering the management of modern irrigation systems and the use of quality seeds and fertilizers so that paddy productivity will be achieved.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Indicators of State Financial Support for Capital Reproduction in the
           Agricultural Economic Sector: The European Union and Russia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Diana Arkadevna Denisova   Natalia Gennadyevna Levanova   Zhanna Nikolaevna Dibrova   Gulizar Kazbekovna Isakova   Dafik Hafizov   and Olga Mikhaylovna Lizina   Financial support of the agricultural sector of the economy in the current context is the leading function of state regulation since it is strategically important for national security. The effectiveness of state financing of the agricultural sector of the economy involves ensuring the positive dynamics of its development and establishing appropriate estimate indicators. In this regard, the cost and streams of state financial support for the agricultural sector of the economy should be as effective as possible. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the priorities of state financial support for the capital reproduction in the agricultural sector of the Russian economy based on a comparison with the European Union. The article clarifies the essence of various approaches and mechanisms, as well as indicators of state support for the agricultural sector of the economy of the EU and Russia, indicators of agricultural production volumes supported by the state, as well as nominal protection coefficients (NPC). The authors conclude that the financial policy of capital reproduction in the agricultural sector of the Russian economy is aimed at ensuring its long-term sustainable expanded intensive innovation-based reproduction. At the same time, the key to its implementation is a clear identification of the mission of financial policy, strategic and tactical tasks, ensuring their feedback and adaptation to changes in the internal and external environment of the agricultural sector of the economy, as well as considering the risks of capital reproduction. At that, the basis for supporting producers in the EU is the financing of capital investments of farmers, while the basis for supporting producers in Russia is providing support based on commodity products.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • GIS Mapping of Land Slopes, Soil Depths, Erosian Classes, Large Soil
           Groups and Some Soil Properties: A Case Study of Kayseri Province in

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  5  M. Cüneyt Bağdatlı   and Yiğitcan Ballı   This study was carried out to determine the spatial distribution of land slopes, soil depths, erosion classes, large soil groups and some soil properties by using Geography Information Systems (GIS) in Kayseri province (Turkey). As a result of the spatial analysis distributions; It has been observed that a large part of the province of Kayseri consists of soils with a depth of C class (50-90 m), and this area covers an area of 9443.95 km2. It is seen that the areas belonging to the E class (0-20 m) soil depth group are very few and this soil depth class covers an area of 6.50 km2. When the spatial analysis results of soil slope classes are examined, it is seen that the largest surface area is between 3-6% slope and this area is 8022.80 km2. It has been determined that the areas in the 30-45% slope class have the smallest surface area and the total of these areas is 5.21 km2. In terms of erosion classification, the lands in Kayseri province are classified as II. classified as areas of high erosion risk. When evaluated in terms of large soil groups, it has been determined that generally limeless brown soils are dominant and the total amount of these areas is 6156.54 km2. It has been determined that the area covered by brown forest soils has a very small share in the whole area. Considering other soil properties, it was determined that slightly salty soils cover a very small area (0.99 km2). It has been determined that stony soils cover an area of 8600.58 km2. As a result of the study, spatial distribution maps were created showing soil depth, slope and erosion classes, large soil groups and other soil characteristics of Kayseri province, which will guide the investor organizations in the region.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Public Participation by Optimizing Rural Spatial Planning to Prevent
           Functional Conversion of Agricultural Land to Non-agricultural Use

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Rofi Wahanisa   Aprila Niravita   Muh. Afif Mahfud   and Siti Aminah   Spatial planning in a region is necessary to be carried out. Spatial planning is a realization of planning a region how it will be developed or maintained. It becomes the basic principle within all sequences of spatial planning in a region. Regional spatial planning can involve urban and rural areas. Good spatial planning can make significant contribution to prevent functional conversion from agricultural land into non-agricultural land which is getting massive. Therefore, this study discusses and analyses the functional conversion from agricultural land into non-agricultural land as well as the strategy of public participation in spatial planning to prevent the conversion, particularly in Munding village in Bergas sub-district in Semarang regency. This study used a qualitative method which revealed truth based on the results of factual data collection during the research. The research is conducted according to observation of natural background or social environment producing descriptive data. The result shows that strategy that can be used to prevent agricultural land conversion is socialization, which educates the people and public participation. Public participation is important to increase the knowledge of people about every stage of spatial planning and license to limit conversion of agricultural land.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Higher Seed Production through IPNM in Cajanas Cajan Linn. (Mill. Sp.)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  2  B. M. Rajurkar   The success of green revolution depends upon the availability of fertilizers, high yielding variety of seeds, improved agronomical practices and timely availability of water. In the present investigation, experimentation was conducted on plant Cajanas cajan of family papilionaceae. An attempt was made through different parameters like height of plants, number of branches per plants, number of pods per plants, dry seed weight per plants. In the experimentation, the effect of biofertilizer individually, in two (twins), and three (thrice) biofertilizers in combinations were observed. The effect of biofertilizer individually, in two, and three biofertilizers in combinations with NPK fertilizers were observed. The effect of biofertilizer individually, in two, and three biofertilizers in combinations with NPK fertilizers and macronutrients were observed. The effect of biofertilizer individually, in two, and three biofertilizers in combinations with NPK fertilizers, macronutrients and micronutrients were observed. Through these observations it had been observed that, in all parameters, biofertilizer individually, in two, and three biofertilizers in combinations with NPK fertilizers, macronutrients and micronutrients were beneficial for plants in achieving the higher production.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
  • Effect of Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) on Indonesian Konjac

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  2  Kisroh Dwiyono   and Maman Abdurachman Djauhari   Indonesian konjac (IK in brief), also known as Amorphophallus muelleri Blume in Latin, is a wild plant growing in several places in Indonesian archipelago. The tuber of IK plant contains a compound called glucomannan which has high economic value since it can be used as a raw material in many industries such as medicine, cosmetic, paper, textile, synthetic rubber, and filming industries. Due to this economic value, this study was carried out in order to increase the productivity of glucomannan and bring IK into mass cultivation. For this purpose, the objective of this study is to increase the productivity of IK tubers by increasing the speed of seeds gemination process and by decreasing the dormancy period. Meanwhile, bringing IK into mass plantation will be put as a package of campaign program to educate people. To speed up the germination process and to decrease the dormancy, the method used in this study period is by improving the soaking process of IK seeds using KNO3 solution. Its effects were investigated using a completely randomized design (CRD) with three treatments, namely, concentration of the solution, soaking time, and plant age. Then, data were collected and analyzed statistically using general linear model, analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test. The results indicate that soaking in that solution has a significant effect on shortening the time period for seeds to germinate. Its optimal effect was reached for 3,000 ppm of concentration with soaking time 3 hours at 14th days after plantation (DAP). Moreover, in terms of dormancy period, that solution has reduced from 5-6 months to 2-4 months. These findings were significantly support the effective use of KNO3 solution to answer the objective of research. The germination period has been reduced from 3-6 months to around 14 days. To the knowledge of the authors, based on the literature used in this study, these are unprecedented findings. Therefore, hopefully, it could contribute to the development of konjac-based industries and to the literature of konjac particularly Indonesian konjac.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
  • Effectiveness of Olive Fruit Polyphenol Extract Combined with Aqueous
           Extracts of Solid Wastes of Pomegranate or/ and Orange Juice Against
           Important Plant Pathogens - Part 2 (in vivo studies)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  2  Stefanos Leontopoulos   Konstantinos Petrotos   Chryssoula Papaioannou   and Ioannis Vasilakoglou   Olive fruit extracts, combined with pomegranate and orange waste extracts, isolated using microwave assisted extraction technique, were used as a potential alternative crop protection method against Verticillium dahliae, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici on tomato plants. For the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity, various mixtures of the extracts were applied on 15 days old tomato plants, variety "Bella Dona", infected by the above-mentioned pathogens. After 40 days of treatments, plant growth parameters such as plant fresh and dry weight, root weight, plant height, number of blossoms and number of formed fruits were calculated in order to assess the extract effectiveness. The results indicated that the four pathogens dramatically reduced tomato growth. In contrast, most of the evaluated extracts provided satisfactory control of the pathogens resulting in tomato growth similar to that of the uninfected control plants. Conclusively, the use of these polyphenolic extracts could protect tomato plants in case of fungal infection.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
  • Forecasting the Selling Price of the Agricultural Products in Ukraine
           Using Deep Learning Algorithms

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  3  Volodymyr A. Viedienieiev   and Olena V. Piskunova   The paper aims to figure out the effectiveness of machine learning algorithms in the price forecasting of agricultural products based on the example of barley prices. In addition, the article provides a comparative analysis of traditional forecasting methods and deep learning algorithms, and also considers the expediency of their use in enterprises and in public administration. The authors use time series forecasting methods and models, in particular, traditional prediction methods (Linear Regression and Fb Prophet) and different strategies of deep learning algorithms (recursive multi-step and Direct-recursive hybrid convolutional neural networks) were used. As a result, the study shows that traditional methods and neural networks show sufficiently greater results than naive forecasts; however, at the same time, traditional models are more effective than deep learning models, and they require less time and fewer resources to implement. It has been established that neural networks, in contrast to traditional forecasting methods, take into account other patterns, so it makes sense to consider the possibility of using neural networks together with traditional forecasting methods using ensemble methods. The article considers the conditions under which it is advisable to use methods in enterprises, as well as in public regulation. Hence, results of the study can be used in the following ways: a) in research activities in the agricultural sector; b) practically in the planning process in enterprises of the agricultural sector; c) companies related to the above industry, such as logistics companies or financial enterprises; 4) in public planning, budgeting and control.
      PubDate: Jun 2021
  • Commercialization of Green Corn-Based Silage Production for Dairy in
           Cagayan Valley: Profitability and Viability Assessment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  3  Diosdado C. Cañete   and Teresa S. Alvarez   This study assessed the profitability and viability for the commercialization of green corn-based silage production for dairy in Cagayan Valley. Specifically, a.) Determine the cost and return analysis of producing corn green silage; b.) Compare the cost and return for the different opportunities of dairy farmers in engaging silage production; and c.) Assess the profitability and viability of dairy as fed with green corn silage. Malaya Development Cooperative (MDC) has operated with Dairy Buffalo while, San Agustin Dairy Cooperative (SADACO) is engaged in Dairy Carabao production. There were various packages of technologies introduced for adoption like green corn production, green corn silage. Option 3 (planting corn, processed as silage, and sold as silage) has contributed with the highest net return of Php145,565.00 annually while, option 4 (plant corn, process it as green corn silage, feed it as silage to 3 heads dairy Carabao) with net income of Php71,184.63 annually. For viability, option 3 has showed with the best viability results, the lowest payback period of 0.82 year; higher net present value of Php459,634.71 and higher Internal rate of return with 124.21%.
      PubDate: Jun 2021
  • Distribution and Regeneration Status of Cordia africana (Lam.) Tree in
           Agroforestry Practices along Agroecology and Farmers' Wealth Status in
           Sidama Zone Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  3  Latamo Lameso Lelamo   and Abdo Wudad Kemal   Cordia africana (Lam.) is one of the indigenous multipurpose tree species which is being endangered and suffering a lot from overexploitation. Nowadays agroforestry is taken as potential ecosystem for counteracting extinction of this tree through providing complementary habitat in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify distribution and regeneration status of Cordia africana tree in agroforestry practices with respect to agroecologies and farmers wealth status. Selection of respondents was done based on the wealth status of households for tree inventory. The total households were categorized into three main wealth categories as wealthy, medium and poor. Accordingly, 72 households were selected by taking three households randomly across wealth categories from eight different villages. Then, tree inventory was done from three different agroforestry practices in each 72 households with big plot size of 20mx20m and 5mx5m nested subplots. The results of the study revealed that mean stems of trees were significantly higher (p
      PubDate: Jun 2021
  • Importance of Biodiagnostics and Irrigation Gray-Brown Soils

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  3  Hasanova Turkan Allahverdi   Mammadova Gunay Israphil   Bunyatova Lala Novruz   and Gahramanova Aida Yarish   A comparative study of the biological parameters of gray-brown soils in natural cenoses and agrocenoses is an actual problem and has great practical importance. The article shows the results of modern scientific research in the field of biodiagnostics of gray-brown soils. These studies make it possible to use biological indicators not only in morphological description, but also systematics and biological diagnostics of gray-brown soils. For the first time in the study area, a comparative study of the number of phytocomplexes was carried out and the importance of studying other diagnostic biological indicators was determined. Biological studies of gray-brown soils can be used as biodiagnostic tests in the systematization and classification of gray-brown soils formed in arid ecosystems. Biological diagnostics are important for conducting biological tests and determining the suitability of the soil for agriculture [10]. Along with the study of biological parameters in moist soils of natural cenoses and irrigated soils of agrocenoses, the total moisture content of these soils was studied in different seasons. The qualitative composition of irrigation water in different seasons has been studied for 3 years and the positive impact on irrigated lands was determined. The article presents some results of studies carried out on the Goychay River and its floodplains over 3 years. In accordance with the hydrographic regime and relief of the Goychay River, the qualitative composition of the water flowing in different parts of the river, dependent particles, impurities, and the degree of clay content were studied. The article shows the bio-diagnostic properties of the soil, the qualitative and microbiological composition of irrigation water in agrocenoses, as well as in natural cenoses of the study area. It was found that irrigation water has a positive effect on soils and plants of agrocenoses.
      PubDate: Jun 2021
  • An Investigation of the Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizers
           on Yield of Rice Varieties in Tons

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  1  Ayobami I. Okegbade   Taiwo J. Adejumo   Dare O. Omonijo   and Olusola B. Okunlola   This study examined the effect of various nitrogen fertilizers in kilograms: 0kg, 30kg, 60kg, and 120kg on varieties of rice: NERICA L-19; NERICA L-20; NERICA L-41; NERICA L-42; and NERICA L-60 from the department of plant physiology and crop production in the college of plant science and crop production Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta (FUNAAB), Ogun State Nigeria. Also, to determine the appropriate fertilizer at different levels and the best variety for optimum yield of rice and to compare the treatment means for each of the crop varieties. Analysis of Variance technique was used to investigate the effect of various kilograms of nitrogen fertilizers on the yield of the five different types of NERICA rice. The findings revealed that at all the levels of nitrogen fertilizers applied, 30kg of nitrogen fertilizer gave the optimum yield. Further to that, the study discovered that different levels of the nitrogen fertilizers applied did not significantly influence the tons of NERICA rice produced, that is the yield of rice in tons is independent of kilograms of nitrogen fertilizers applied. NERICA L-42 of rice is therefore recommended to farmers to be planted with 30kg of nitrogen fertilizers.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
  • Analysis of an Experiment Carried Out on the Lines and Varieties of Fine
           Fiber Cotton

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  1  Nurali Chorshanbiev Esanpulatovich   Surayyo Burieva Zayliyevna   and Erkinjon Khazratkulov Shodmonovich   This paper highlights the results of conducted research on the issues of physiological and morphological features of new lines of fine-fiber cotton such as Gossypium barbadense L. L-2006, L-167, L-5440, L-5445, L-1, L-10, L-663, L-450, and varieties like Marvarid, Surkhan-14 and Termez-31 in different conditions of water regime. In fact, in comparing optimal water supply and modeling drought with studying the lines and varieties of fine fiber cotton depending on individual genotype reaction in different levels indicated decreasing water content and intensity of transpiration in the leaves. Moreover, the water deficiency and improving the water holding capacity and density surface of the leaves are considered as physiological and morphological characteristics which contribute to the adaptation of cotton to water deficiency in drought conditions. Besides, lysimetric experiment was carried out with new lines and varieties of fine fiber cotton at the institute of Genetics and Experimental Plan Biology at the Academy of Sciences in Uzbekistan. According to the analysis, the water supply indicated the plants were determined simultaneously in both backgrounds, when the pre-irrigation soil moisture at an optimal water supply background was 70-72% of the water content (field moisture capacity), and according to the background of a simulated drought, it was 48 -50% from the water supply. As a result, water content and intensity of transpiration in the lines and varieties of fine fiber cotton were widely indicated in the below-mentioned tables and diagrams as well as broadly discussed in the conclusion of the research work.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
  • Econometric Analysis of Agricultural Intensification Techniques of
           Household Farmers in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Osuji E. E.   Onyeneke R. U.   Balogun O. L.   Tim-Ashama A. C.   Onyemauwa C. S.   Praise N. C.   Azuamairo G. C.   Amadi M. U.   Obi J. N.   Ibekwe C. C.   Obasi I. O.   Njoku C. L.   Izuogu C. U.   Ebe F. E.   and Ugochukwu G. C.   Agriculture is the principal source of income for the majority of Nigerian rural households, but it has suffered significant setbacks in recent years, resulting in lower productivity and returns on investment. The study looked at the econometric analysis of household farmers' agricultural intensification strategies in Imo State, Nigeria. With the help of standardized questionnaires, 198 household farmers were selected using a multi-stage sample technique. The Beta regression model and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data collected. Cassava, maize, and pumpkin leaves had the highest average outputs of 88.712kg, 87.901kg, and 85.990kg, respectively, which dominated the entire production cycle. Planting materials, soil nutrients, and land improvement activities cost the most, at 81.637.75, 74, 402.82, and 71, 906.80, respectively. At 1% and 5% levels, the coefficients of age, sex, education, net farm income, farm size, extension contacts, and farming experience were statistically significant and influenced the intensification of sustainable agricultural techniques (SAT) in the area. The study recommends farmers to embrace effective and long-term agricultural technologies in order to boost farm production and output. Extension personnel should also meet with household farmers on a regular basis to communicate important information about new technologies.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • COVID-19 Impacts on Rubber Farmers in Thailand: A Study of Behavioral
           Change and Livelihoods

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Chaiya Kongmanee   and Ferdoushi Ahmed   The impacts of COVID-19 have yet to manifest and are not predictable due to their scale or nature. This is shown in the infection, morbidity, and mortality rates, even more so in the implications on the agriculture sector and agricultural trade. On the other hand, it is well known that these effects will have an impact on both small-scale agriculture and other links in the production chain. This study aims to examine the current situations and problems of households' socio-economic characteristics of Thai rubber farmers. The study correspondingly tries to identify the behavioral changes of rubber farmer households and livelihoods. The study found that many rubber Farmers are going to be hooked on loan from the community source. However, on the contrary, a large number of people become able to adjust and balance their lives in line with their financial aspects. The study found that, 93.6% farmers had decreasing incomes, while 47.7% had adequacy of household incomes, and 38.5% had economic dependency, e.g., borrowing money from the system outside. In contrast, to highlight the positive effects on the economy, the study found that most of the farmers (92.7%) saved money and considered more before spending during the pandemic. Similarly, an overwhelming portion (86.2%) of the farmers applied the philosophy of sufficiency economy for livelihoods, while 74.3% had built institution and culture of saving for households, and 73.4% had attempted to seek more income to support their family.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Awareness on the Benefits of the Adoption of Dairy Vermicomposting
           Technology in Selected Cooperatives in Region 02

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Nilo E. Padilla   Joe Ann G. Payne   Ralph John S. Lapastura   and Errol John A. Cadeliña   There is a lack of information available on dairy vermicomposting technology in the Cagayan Valley Region, which has led to its non-adoption. The Department of Agriculture (DA) and other government organizations, on the other hand, have acknowledged and funded advocacy initiatives to raise awareness about the use of dairy manure in vermicomposting technology. As a result, the goal of this study was to determine the level of awareness, utilization, and adoption of vermicomposting technology using dairy manures, as well as to identify issues and constraints in the utilization and adoption of vermicomposting using dairy waste, and to suggest possible solutions. The Likert scale, frequency, percentage, and average mean were used to assess the data collected during the interview (FGD) and (KII). The average mean of the samples was used to calculate the levels of awareness, adoption, and utilization. According to the findings, Dairy MSMEs have an average level of awareness of 3.2, indicating that most of the respondents have moderately high awareness, while the level of adoption of Dairy MSMEs has an overall scale of 3.6, indicating that most of the respondents have a high level of adoption, resulting in a high level of utilization of vermicompost dairy manure. However, according to the distribution of the respondents' issues and concerns in the vermicomposting technology using dairy animal waste, the respondents' main concern was difficulty in integrating vermicomposting technology, lack of technical know-how, added cost in the production process, costly and limited source of capital and insufficient technical and financial support. As a result, the study suggests that capacity building and access to loan windows are steps that should be taken to increase awareness and utilization of technology to strengthen respondents' knowledge, abilities, skills, behavior, and incomes in determining agricultural long-term strategy.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Effects of Commercial Inorganic and Hog Waste Organic Fertilizer on the
           Growth Performance and Yield of Pechay (Brassica rapa)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Marivel B. Go   Rodolfo A. Golbin Jr.   Feliciana G. Cababat   Severina P. Velos   Johnry P. Dayupay   Alexis P. Ramirez   and Kent Marcial Catubis   This study compares the effect of Hog Waste Organic Fertilizer (HWOF) and Commercial Inorganic Fertilizer (CIF) on the growth performance of pechay (Brassica rapa) in 7 Treatments: T1- pure soil; T2 - soil with CIF; T3- 20% hog waste; T4 - 40% hog waste; T5 - 60% hog waste; T6 - 80% hog waste; T7 – 100% hog waste. The experiment for 30 days was performed on a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The data gathered were analyzed using one-way ANOVA to determine the differences among the growth performances of pechay based on height, leaf width, no. of leaves, weight, and root length. The results present the physico-chemical analyses of both soil and hog waste fertilizers. Regarding the growth performances of pechay (Brassica rapa), T5 obtained the highest plant height - 108.27 cm and leaf width – 112.07 cm, which were significantly higher than T2 using CIF. The highest weight gain was obtained by T6, which was significantly higher than the other treatments followed by T5, but both were comparable to the samples of CIF, while T3 obtained the longest root length. Thus, the application of 60% to 80% HWOF yields comparable results with CIF. Hence, such application is recommended for community organic farming.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Adaptation of Grain Legumes to Transient Water Deficit in Timor-Leste

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Marcal Gusmao   and Lamdor T. Sitorus   In Timor-Leste, it is possible to use residual soil water after rice harvest to produce grain legumes, despite the lack of supplementary irrigation. This study aimed to identify the growth of potential grain legumes adapted to transient water deficit after rice harvest. The experiment was undertaken in 2012 at the Hera Field Research of the National University of Timor Lorosa'e, representing lowland areas, and farmland in Aileu, representing highland areas. The experiment used a completely randomized design with two factors (water treatment and species) and three replications. Both sites had a well-watered control and drought treatment applied at flowering for 15 days before re-watering to maturity at the Hera site or five days when rain interrupted the treatment at the Aileu site. Grain legumes were peanut, soybean, kidney bean, white bean, speckled bean, cowpea (black), cowpea red, mungbean, and grass pea. The measured parameters included soil water content, pH and temperature, crop phenology, plant growth, yield, and yield components. The results showed that the Hera site had significantly lower soil water content than the control; no soil water measurement occurred at Aileu site due to rain interruption. On average, grain legumes at the Hera site germinated, flowered, set pods, and reached physiological maturity earlier than at the Aileu site. The fastest flowering species was soybean (48 DAS) at the Hera site and (winding) white bean at the Aileu site (61 DAS). The first species to set pods were mungbean, soybean, and kidney bean (55 DAS) at the Hera site and white and speckled beans (73 DAS) at the Aileu site. Mungbean matured first at both sites. Drought significantly reduced seed yield by 32.9% and 19.1% at the Hera and Aileu sites, respectively. At the Hera site, cowpea red and mungbean produced the highest seed yields (2.6 t/ha), followed by kidney bean (2.3 t/ha), and soybean (2.0 t/ha). At the Aileu site, cowpea black produced the highest seed yield (1.6 t/ha), with the remaining species between 1.2 t/ha (mungbean) and 0.02 t/ha (grass pea). The experiment identified mungbean, soybean, cowpea red, and kidney bean as the best grain legume options for lowland areas after rice harvest; further study is required for the upland areas. Kidney bean was the novel finding, tested for the first time in lowland areas, which had vigorous growth and high seed yield.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Biotechnological Approaches for Enhancing the Production of Vegetables
           – An Updated Overview

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Ananya Kuanar   Ankita Pati   Bibhudutta Pattnaik   Ruchi Bhuyan   and Dattatreya Kar   Introduction: Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that deals specifically with many aspects of life with genetically modified medicine, food, global warming and energy production. Cultivation of low cost and disease-free crops as well as planting materials such as potatoes and bananas cannot be used for a long term, so through cryopreservation, the conservation of genetic resources is possible. Plant biotechnology has not only increased the scale of attributes that can be addressed but also accelerated the vegetable growing program. Using a biotechnology approach, traditional breeding thresholds such as relationship drag issue, wide cross sexual barrier, nutritional avoidance factor, etc. can be effectively and efficiently overcome. Study objects and methods: A basic and thorough overview of the literature surveyed to identify the application of biotechnology in the yield of vegetables was conducted till 2021. Results and discussion: Recent advances in the field of molecular biology such as genetic engineering (Cisgenesis, transgenic and intragenesis), DNA sequencing, cloning, molecular markers, in-vitro mutagenesis, etc., promote new meanings, modern dimensions and novel capabilities of decrepit biotechnology. It also provided a modern aspect of microbial interference in the agricultural practices, such as bio-control agents, bio-fertilizers and various microbiological products used in the current agricultural sector. Conclusion: Thus, the current biotechnological trends can have a striking impact on the advancement of vegetable crops. The above review concludes with an emphasis on the revolution in the field of biotechnology that highlights advancement of horticulture science, which is accomplished with superior quality and higher productivity of vegetable crops.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Determinants of Farmers' Access to Extension Services and Adoption of
           Technical Inputs: Evidence from India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Ankit Nagar   Dinesh Kumar Nauriyal   and Sukhpal Singh   This paper examines the determinants of farmers' access to agricultural extension services and adoption of technical inputs. It also attempts to identify what works best for Indian agriculture. Based upon all-India unit-level data of 35,200 farming households surveyed by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) under the 70th round in 2013, it applies the binary logistic regression model. The study underlines that the ‘Access' to agricultural extension services does not guarantee ‘Adoption' of the technologies or better farm practices, as all the variables emerging as significant in case of ‘Access' do not emerge as significant for ‘Adoption'. The study finds the strong influence of personal and household characteristics on both ‘Access' and ‘Adoption'. However, socioeconomic and technology variables such as caste, gender, religion, and usage of ICT are found to be important for ‘Access' but not for the ‘Adoption'. The paper underlines that physical forms of extension services are far more important than the modern ICT driven services in the developing countries like India. It, therefore, recommends significant strengthening of these services with more generous government support.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • A Review of Climate Change Impacts on Agribusiness Value Chain in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Toong Hai Sam   Zainab Lawal Gwadabe   Wong Chee Hoo   Whee Yen Wong   Tan Seng Teck   Alex Hou Hong Ng   Asokan Vasudevan   and Alvin Liau Chee How   This paper aims to review the impact of climate change on Nigeria's agribusiness value chain. In this study, the researcher reviewed recent and popular academic journals in the area of climate change and agricultural value chains. This review process aims to strengthen the existing literature in this field of study. After carefully reviewing the literature, the paper revealed that the change in the global climate has a significant impact on the agribusiness value chain. The Nigerian agricultural value chain consists of the pre-upstream, up-stream, mid-stream, and down-stream. All the streams are directly or indirectly affected by climate change. The climate change impact varies across the value chain; it affects each stream with a different magnitude. The review also revealed that climate change has a significant effect on the food production value chain with a higher impact on pre-upstream and upstream when compared to mid and downstream. Suggestions presented in this paper include focusing on greenhouse gas reduction, practicing precision farming, using a reusable source of energy, taking advantage of IoT, and climate-smart agricultural technologies. This review will help the value chain stakeholders to understand how to achieve sustainability on the value chain and understand how to mitigate or adapt to climate change impacts.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Effect of Training Intervention on Knowledge and Attitude towards Giant
           Freshwater Prawn Rearing among Students of Rehabilitation Institute in

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Nur Aidya Hanum Aizam   Mhd Ikhwanuddin Abdullah   Siti Nur’afifah Jaafar   Muhammad Razmee Abd Razak   Mohd Izuddin Mashkor   and Aidilla Mubarak   Aquaculture activity can potentially help in rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of training intervention on knowledge and attitude towards giant freshwater prawn rearing in a rehabilitation institute in Malaysia. The program comprised of knowledge transfer on basic techniques of rearing and feed formulation to the students. Effect of the program was evaluated using a pre- and post-interventions design as well as interview. Seventeen trainees from the rehabilitation institute were requested to respond to a 31 items questionnaire. Principal, staff in charge, counsellor and participating students of the institute were interviewed to obtain feedback on the intervention program. Following implementation of the training intervention, there was a significant increase (p
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Rice Cultivation under Drip Irrigation with Plastic Film Mulch in the
           Kanto Area of Japan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Sangsoo Park   Hiroki Nishikoji   Shotaro Takahashi   Oleasegun Olamide Fawibe   Peiwu Wang   and Akihiro Isoda   A drip irrigation system with plastic mulch film was evaluated in terms of growth, yield, and water productivity (WP) using three leading paddy rice cultivars (Japonica) in the Kanto area of Japan. A cultivation with drip irrigation and plastic film mulch in the upland field (DI) and continuous flooding cultivation in a paddy field (CF) were conducted in 2015 (DI) and 2016 (DI and CF). The amounts of irrigation and total water supply (irrigation and precipitation) were 715 mm, 599 mm, and 905 mm and 1620 mm, 1379 mm, and 1687 mm for DI in 2015, DI in 2016, and CF in 2016, respectively. The percentages of irrigation for DI in 2015 and 2016 compared to those of CF were 79% and 66%, respectively. The grain yields in 2015 were higher than those in 2016 for DI. The DI in 2016 showed significantly lower grain yields compared to those of CF, representing 74% to 85% of the CF which were attributed to lower leaf area indexes in DI. There was no significant difference in WP between DI and CF, between years and among cultivars, ranging from 0.25 to 0.30 kg m-3, showing an offset of the reduction in irrigation water by lower yields in DI. The rice cultivation system under drip irrigation with plastic film mulch showed a large water-saving effect, no physiological damage due to water stress and a slight reduction of grain yield compared to that of the paddy field.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
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