Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 963 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (662 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (662 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted by number of followers
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nature Plants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
New Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Italian Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
EU Agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Cubana de Ciencia Agrícola     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Apicultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progressive Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RIA. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Jurnal Agroteknologi     Open Access  
Perspectivas Rurales Nueva Época     Open Access  
Organic Farming     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Landtechnik : Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Agriculture System     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Pastura : Journal Of Tropical Forage Science     Open Access  
Journal of Citrus Pathology     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de las Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports     Open Access  
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Fave : Sección ciencias agrarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Review of Agrarian Studies     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nigeria Agricultural Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nativa     Open Access  
SAARC Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrosearch     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access  
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
Ceiba     Open Access  
Research in Sierra Leone Studies : Weave     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Encuentro     Open Access  
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Landbohistorisk Tidsskrift     Open Access  
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologia Postcosecha     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Bioagro     Open Access  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access  
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Journal Cover
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2332-2268 - ISSN (Online) 2332-2284
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [51 journals]
  • Assessment of Land Suitability Evaluation for Plantation Crops Using
           AHP-GIS Integration in the Wonosalam Forest Area, East Java

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Maroeto   Akhmad Fauzi   Wahyu Santoso   Siswanto   M. Idhom   and Rossyda Priyadharsini   Plantation land expansion in forest areas has been a problem for some time as an effort to meet rising food demands, so land suitability measures are required. The development of the Analythical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) combination has been found to be effective in determining land suitability, but still rarely to determining plantation crops in forest areas. The study's goal was to integrate AHP and GIS methods to evaluate the land suitability class for plantation crops in the Wonosalam forest area. The findings revealed that the land suitability class assessment obtained S3 results, or results that were slightly in accordance with the erosion hazard constraint, to potentially S2 results, or results that were quite in accordance with many constraints such as retention factors, nutrients, erosion hazard, and land preparation. Furthermore, the expert decision-making hierarchy concluded that topography, climate, soil physical properties, and nutrient retention can consistently influence the direction of land suitability assessment policies for durian, clove, and coffee species. Rainfall, altitude, land preparation, and c-organic content are all important priority parameters in determining land suitability for durian plants. In contrast to cloves, temperature, surface rock, erosion, and pH are known to be important factors in determining land suitability. Experts also consider humidity, altitude, land preparation, and C-Organic as a land suitability assessment for the different types of coffee plants in the Wonosalam Forest Area.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • Response of String Beans (Vigna unguiculata subsp sesquipedalis L.) on
           Saline Soil Amended with Vermicompost

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Leilidyn Y. Zurbano   Jessa B. Cabanela   Nesza P. Orijuela   and Jhomari B. Villanueva   Vigna unguiculata subsp sesquipedalis L. also known as string beans/pole sitao is one of the major vegetable crop produced in the Philippines all year round because of its adaptability to all types of soils except for saline soil. Thus, its response to saline soil amended with vermicompost was determined. Growth and yield of pole sitao in saline soil applied with varying amount of vermicompost was obtained. Level of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and pH were also tested before and after vermicompost application. The study was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design, composed of 5 treatments and replicated 4 times. The treatments were: T1-100% Garden soil, T2-100% Saline soil, T3-75% Saline soil and 25% Vermicompost, T4-50% Saline soil and 50% Vermicompost, and T5-75% Vermicompost and 25% Saline soil. All the data gathered were analyzed using T-test and ANOVA. Generally, vermicompost helps in decreasing soil salinity, increasing potassium content of the soil and increasing root length. To increase pole sitao's yield and biomass, addition of 75% vermicompost to 25% saline soil is recommended.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • Influence of Poultry Manure Application Rates on Red and Yellow Varieties
           of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the Marginal Mineral Soil of Bukit
           Kor (Marang)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Tahir Dalorima   Siti Zaharah Sakimin   Rudiyanto   and Ramisah Binti Mohd Shah   Increased crop yields and higher soil quality can be achieved by using the appropriate amount of fertiliser at the right time. A study on optimal poultry fertiliser rates for watermelon development on nutrient deficient soil, contributes to the current knowledge base. Thus, this paper intends to ascertain the effect of different application rates of poultry fertilizer on growth and yield properties of two cultivars of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) on soil with marginal nutrients. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted at Universiti Malaysia Terengganu's research farm at Bukit Kor (Marang) to compare the effects of various application rates (T1: 0T/Ha, T2: 10T/Ha, T3: 20T/Ha, T4: 30T/Ha) of poultry manure on the performance of two watermelon varieties (V1:yellow variety (golden delight) and V2:red variety (new dragon)). Several growth and yield parameters were determined, of which the treatments on the red variety at 20THa-1 and 30THa-1 produced the significant higher results for vine length (189.38 & 189.43cm), number of leaves (61 & 63), number of lateral branches (2.5 & 2.33), leaf area index (0.12 & 0.13), chlorophyll content SPAD (36.32 & 37.03), fruit weight (10.23 & 9.84THa-1) and number of flowers (8.33 & 11.7). The present research, therefore, contributes to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the red variety of watermelon treated with 20THa-1 or 30THa-1 presented the best results.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • Farmers' Interest in Implementing Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Supports
           Increasing Paddy Productivity in Northern Sumatra

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Nurliana Harahap   Elrisa Rahmadani   Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar   Yusra Muharami Lestari   and Novitasari Napitupulu   This study examines farmers' interest in implementing Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) in Northern Sumatra. Climate change is one of the environmental factors that can have a negative impact on lowland rice productivity due to several abiotic factors such as rainfall, drought, flooding, temperature and solar radiation that affect rice production. The aim of this study is to examine the level of interest of lowland rice farmers in implementing CSA and to examine the factors that influence the interest of lowland rice farmers in implementing CSA in Northern Sumatra. This type of research is descriptive quantitative by testing 5 variables X (education, farming experience, characteristics of innovation, the role of government, and role extension) and Variable Y (Farmers interest). Respondents were 44 farmers and the sampling technique was Non Probability Random Sampling. Data were analyzed by Multiple Linear Regression. The result of the analysis is that the influence of variable X simultaneously is 62.3% on variable Y (farmers' interest). The influences of partial variables are X1 (14.7%), X2 (33.5%), X3 (40.6%), X4 (35.5%) and X5 (2.7%). The level of interest of farmers to the application of CSA in increasing rice production in the sub-district is 76.3% or in high category.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • Potential of Liquid Organic Fertilizer on Flowering, Yield of Shallots
           (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum) and Soil Quality

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Eddy Triharyanto   Desy Setyaningrum   and Daffa Maulana Muhammad   Continuous intensification of agriculture with inorganic fertilizers causes a decrease in soil quality; grumusol soil has high clay content and low organic matter. This study aims to examine the effect of liquid organic fertilizer on flowering, shallot yield, and the ability to improve soil quality. The research used a completely randomized block design with one factor, namely fertilization with six levels: 100% inorganic fertilizer; 75% inorganic fertilizer and 25% liquid organic fertilizer; 50% inorganic fertilizer and 50% liquid organic fertilizer; 25% inorganic fertilizer and 75% liquid organic fertilizer; 100% liquid organic fertilizer; 100% solid organic fertilizer. Repeat three times. Fertilization has a significant effect on the flowering of shallots. Liquid organic fertilizer can support shallot flowering with the highest number of flowers, namely 8 flowers. However, fertilization did not affect the yield of shallots. Liquid organic fertilizer can increase carbon organic and soil organic matter, exchangeable potassium content, exchangeable sodium content, and the number of bacteria. The highest number of fungi was fertilized with 50% inorganic fertilizer, and 50% liquid organic fertilizer, namely 2.0.105 cfu/gr. Substitution of inorganic fertilizers with liquid organic fertilizers can support soil nutrients so that liquid organic fertilizers have the potential to replace inorganic fertilizers to stimulate flowering and increase the growth and yield of shallots.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • In vitro Rapid Regeneration of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L.) Using
           Direct Organogenesis in Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Labode Hospice Naitchede   Steven Runo   and Aggrey Bernard Nyende   Bitter melon is a traditional therapeutic vegetable in tropical and subtropical countries due to its carotenoid content, which provides health advantages. However, the production is significantly impacted by the poor seed germination rate and variability of progenies associated with the cultivation of this plant. Clonal propagation would increase the yield and usefulness of bitter melon. Momordica charantia was micropropagated using nodal explants in a modified MS medium containing vitamins (Glycine, myo-inositol, nicotinic acid pyridoxine HCl). Nodal explants were obtained from in vivo seedlings grown for 30 days in a greenhouse and then cultured on MS media with a range of BAP or KIN concentrations (0.50 - 2.5 mg/L), either alone or in combination. Shoots were induced within a minimum (6.33±0.58) day when 0.5 mg/L BAP was coupled with 0.50 mg/L KIN, resulting in the maximum shoot induction frequency (72.17±2.83%), 4.40±0.17 shoots/explant and 4.13±0.98 cm shoot length. Then, shoots were inoculated on 1/2 strength MS media either without growth regulator or with a supplement of IBA, NAA, and IAA in various concentrations (0.5 - 1.5 mg/L) to promote root induction. MS medium without growth regulator induced maximum rooting rates (93.33±2.66%) with 12.33 roots/shoot and 23.33 cm of root length. Rooted plantlets were successfully established in greenhouses after undergoing a hardening period in a regulated environment. The combination of BAP and KIN (0.50 mg/L and 0.50 mg/L) was most suitable for bitter melon shoot formation, whereas MS medium without growth regulator was optimal for rooting. This reproducible protocol for the regeneration of bitter melon plantlets would allow for rapid mass multiplication, conservation, and genetic manipulation for its agronomic improvement.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • Analysis of Spray Droplet and Deposition of Selected Nozzles Using Image
           Processing Techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Kailashkumar B   S. S. Sivakumar   J. John Gunasekar   P. K. Padmanathan   V. Alex Albert   and R. Ravikumar   Chemicals are used to improve the quality and productivity of crops. Contrarily, it can cause severe ecological and civic well-being difficulties owing to spray drift. The drift can be reduced by choosing a nozzle that yields the largest droplet dimension, and providing acceptable coverage at the anticipated claim rate and pressure. Droplet dimension distribution depended on nozzle type, which confirmed the potential of these factors for reducing spray drift. As a consequence of spray drift, residents, livestock, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem may get exposed to toxic elements. On the other hand, aerial spraying has its advantages like greater efficiency, mobility, and more extensive area coverage in less time. An experimental setup was framed to select a nozzle suitable for UAV spraying in coconut palms, and a series of experiments were conducted to identify better deposition and droplet density of spray liquids at different operating pressures. The setup consists of a spray lance with a universal connector to attach the selected nozzle and a stand to hold the nozzle orientation, height, angle, and direction of the spray. The experiments were conducted with combinations of different levels of variables. For all the combinations of variables, samples were drawn to quantify the effect of selected variables on the droplet size generated. The selected nozzle's discharge rate gradually increases with increasing pressure. ImageJ is a Java-based image handling publicly accessible software developed by the US Institutes of Health (NIH) and the DepositScan provides a wide range of attributes of droplets, such as the number of droplets, equivalent diameter, droplet area, etc., measured by using the program. The pre-determined area for determination of the size of droplets was selected, copied, and pasted into a new file, then the image was binarized. The best treatment result was observed in hollow cone nozzle and NTM nozzle, which is suitable for UAV coconut sprayer based on the deposition and droplet density.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • Physiological and Biochemical Evaluations for Identification of Drought
           Tolerance Potential in Doum Palms (Hyphaene Compressa) under Water Deficit

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Allen Johnny Borlay   Cecilia Mbithe Mweu   Steven Ger Nyanjom   and Kevin Mbogo Omolo   There is an increasing concern over global warming, which has changed climate and weather patterns resulting in adverse abiotic situations such as drought stress to crop plants and the general vegetation area. This has posed a threat to food security and ecosystem structure, thus it's needed to identify resistant cultivars that can survive the propagation stress. Three (3) varieties (H1, H2, and H3) of Doum palms were subjected to water regimes: sufficiently irrigated, moderate, and severe water shortage conditions for 65 days to assess the drought adaptation ability. Findings revealed that the water status of the plant was noticeably affected by water shortage in all the studied genotypes. Drought stress imposed for 65 days significantly reduced (P ≤0.05) the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the experimental Doum plant, such as relative leaf water content (RLWC), membrane stability index (MSI), starch content, and a relative decrease in chlorophyll content. Water stress induced a significant (P ≤0.05) increase in leaf proline, total soluble sugar (TSS), total free amino acid (TFAA), and glycine betaine. The findings, therefore, present the first step in understanding how doum palms react to harsh water conditions. Physiological and biochemical characteristics such as RLWC, MSI, leaf proline, TSS, TFAA, glycine betaine, and starch content are indicators when prospecting for drought tolerance doum palms.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • Analysis of Methods of Machine Learning Techniques for Detection and
           Classification of Brown Spot (Rice) Disease

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Shashank Chaudhary   and Upendra kumar   Rice is a major crop and the increased production is pertinent to ensure our food security. Modern techniques and advancements are required in agriculture to enable us to improve productivity and environment-friendliness as well as improve their farming conditions. Automatic disease detection techniques can help in identifying the various rice plant diseases. In agriculture, image processing is commonly used to obtain valuable information about crops. Images are often considered a source of information and data. Machine learning (ML) is a promising modern technique for image processing, and it has been successfully used in various areas such as agriculture. This paper aims to study the various research efforts that are focused on this technology in the field of agriculture. One particular class of ML that is commonly used in this work is convolutional neural networks. Here convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been developed over the support vector machine (SVM) techniques to identify rice diseases (Brown spot) and measure their accuracy. Their potential applications include the development of screening tools and solutions for agricultural production. This paper presents an overview and research outcomes using SVM and CNN techniques in the study of agricultural problems. This study includes a dataset of 1488 healthy leaves and 523 brown spot leaf data samples. The research outcomes are based on studies and development using SVM and CNN. ML techniques give 82% accuracy using the SVM classification method, while the CNN method gives 95% accuracy.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • Initiating Model of Agricultural Development Based on Local Wisdom: The
           Case of Risk Mitigation of Organic Rice Farming in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  5  Ujang Maman   Abuddin Nata   Djawahir Hejazziey   Yusron Razak   Asep Usman Ismail   Armaeni Dwi Humaerah   Muksin   Irwa Rochimah Zarkasi   and Bambang Eko Samiono   Agricultural development in Indonesia still depends on ideas and practices taken from outside or international agency. By the less successful integrated pest management in Indonesia encouraged by FAO, and the imperfection of organic rice farming (ORF) is still one stretch and has the same water flow with the conventional farming, it could be probably contaminated by chemical residue, and therefore, the agricultural development based on local wisdom can be a valuable alternative. Pleasantly, Indonesia is rich with farming local wisdom, and the research about this local practice is frequently conducted. But, unfortunately, this research is merely to describe it case by case in local context and does not yet become a systematic planning for agricultural development. Therefore, the aim of this research is not only to explore farmer local wisdom in mitigating risk of organic rice farming especially in pre-planting period, but to formulate the items of this mitigation into a planning which could gradually be implemented as the first & second priority, the items that have been completely implemented, and as the aspects of mitigation which are not important to develop. By in-depth interview with the prominent farmer, this research finds five items of local wisdom to mitigate the risk of organic rice farming, in which part of them are making a filter tub upstream into organic rice fields, topped with water hyacinth (eceng gondok); providing rice seeds by themselves; and the seed to be planted should come from organic seedbeds. Adopting the Importance Performance Analysis to the 109 samples in Tasikmalaya, West java -- which the sample size is determined by Slovin formula with below 7% of error probability and adopts stratified proportional random sampling -- this research which proves eceng gondok planting in the upstream is one of the local wisdom that is usually practiced to mitigate ORF, and it should be maintained. Another action that should be maintained is the awareness that the seeds should come from organic seedbeds. While, the agreement that farmer group association should provide rice seeds themselves is one of local wisdom that should be prioritized in agricultural extension. Based on this research, the model of agricultural development could be on the basis of local practices, and it could be implemented in Indonesia as well as in other countries that have local wisdom.
      PubDate: Oct 2022
  • A Comprehensive Review on Machine Learning Approaches for Yield Prediction
           Using Essential Soil Nutrients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  June 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  3  R. Prabavathi   and Balika J Chelliah   Agriculture is the backbone of India's economy, as it is the most important factor in the country's socio-economic development. Because of the rapid expansion in human population, the "Green Revolution" introduced high yield variety (HYV) seeds, which increased crop productivity but degraded crop and soil quality. This is due to the use of excessive amounts of chemical fertilizers in HYV seeds, as well as the irrigation system utilized to grow these seeds. This stunts the growth of the crops, resulting in financial and productivity losses. Because of field surveys, traditional ways to crop production prediction will take longer, and contemporary agriculture will face certain obstacles. As a result, a comprehensive review of various crop key factors such as climatic factors, soil nutrients, production factors, and environmental factors is conducted using a variety of machine learning approaches such as Support Vector Machine, bayes classifier, decision tree, random forest, linear regression and Extreme Learning Machines. The accuracy measures such as root mean square error, coefficient of determination and mean absolute error are used for comparing the performance of the system. Based on the findings of the reviews, an intelligent and robust machine learning technique provides the optimum option for achieving (i) soil fertility, (ii) crop prediction, and (iii) yield prediction. The importance of soil variables and the amount of nutrients available in the soil for growing crops has been found, according to an examination of 51 peer-reviewed studies, to create qualitative yield prediction. Furthermore, the investigations will yield recommendations for future fertilizer research.
      PubDate: June 2022
  • Prevalence of Insect Pests, Beneficial Organisms and Diseases of Abaca
           (Musa textilis Nee) in Two Municipalities of Aklan, Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  June 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  3  Gene T. Señeris   Evelyn P. Vedasto   and Melba L. Ragaas   The study aims to assess and evaluate the occurrence, diversity and distribution of beneficial organisms, insect pests, and the prevalence of diseases in the 34 identified abaca-producing barangays of Madalag and Libacao, Aklan, Philippines. The descriptive and inferential research methods were employed in the study that generated both qualitative and quantitative data. A research-made questionnaire was distributed to 408 randomly selected farmers and a stratified sampling method was used as the study methodology. In the 34 identified abaca-producing barangays, three sampling plots were employed to gather data with regard the diversity and distribution of beneficial organisms, insect pests, and prevalence of diseases. All the species of beneficial organisms and insect pests were classified according to their order and the species diversity was computed using the Shannon-Wienner Index calculations. Results showed that the common beneficial organisms observed by the farmers are frogs which have two species (tree frog and cane frog) and the major insect pest infestation observed was banana skipper (larva). Based on Shannon-Wienner Index calculations, results indicate that the prevalence of beneficial organisms in both municipalities is more diverse than the insect pests which provide effective management of destructive insect pests through biological control. Data also reveal that the most prevalent diseases observed in the two municipalities are leaf blotch and cordana leaf spots. These diseases are found most active during the southwest monsoon which affects the Philippines from June to September.
      PubDate: June 2022
  • Silvofishery: In What Mangrove Coverage Condition Can this System Provide
           Benefits for the Community'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  June 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  3  Meilinda Suriani Harefa   Zulkifli Nasution   Miswar Budi Mulya   and Azhar Maksum   This article aims to explore and discuss silvofishery pond management and aquaculture by providing space for mangroves in ponds. This study focuses on the management of ponds for milkfish, crab, and shrimp cultivation in Tanjung Rejo Village, Percut Sei Tuan District, Deli Serdang Regency. A field study has been conducted for 6 months, during which data were collected from 21 silvofishery ponds using a non-probability convenience sampling method. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) series analysis. Results show that the existence of extensive mangroves in ponds leads to good production in mangrove crab cultivation, which is supported by the natural shrimp and fish populations that enter at high tide in ponds, due to the benefits of mangroves as a habitat for mangrove crabs and brackish water fisheries. A small amount of mangrove area is concentrated on milkfish cultivation, which is supported by the addition of natural fish from outside the pond at high tide. The average income from silvofishery ponds, in Indonesian Rupiahs (IDR), is IDR 13,201,243 per ha. From this, it can be ascertained that the mangrove area is related to the amount of production in silvofishery ponds: the greater the use of mangroves in ponds, the more effective the cultivation and the greater the impact on fishermen's incomes. At an alpha level of 10%, all the direct hypotheses tested have a significant effect.
      PubDate: June 2022
  • Ways to Improve the Adaptability of Winter Wheat in the Eastern Part of
           the Northern Steppe of Ukraine

    • Abstract: Publication date:  June 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  3  Oleksander Vinyukov   Hanna Chuhrii   Anatoliy Gyrka   Roman Vyskub   and Olha Bondareva   The research was conducted to study the impact of new nutrient complexes on improving the yield of winter wheat and its adaptability in the eastern part of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine. The article aimed to determine the adaptive properties of winter wheat plants of various breeding centers in the eastern Northern Steppe of Ukraine, as well as to improve the technology of growing winter wheat through the use of new nutrient complexes. To achieve this goal, an algorithm of graphical analysis was used. It is established that the introduction of a new nutrient Complex 3 into the winter wheat cultivation technology, which includes: Sizam (250 g/t), Phosphoenterin (133.3 g/t), Diazophyte (133.3 g/t) Biopolicide (133.3 g/t) in the conditions of the eastern part of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine provides a yield increase on a mineral (N30Р30К30) nutrition background of 1.22 t/ha, on organo-mineral (N15Р15К15+biohumus (250 kg/ha)) — 0.78 t/ha and organic (biohumus — 250 kg/ha) nutrition background compared to the control. There was also a significant improvement in biometrics and the structure of winter wheat yields. A method for analysing the elements of productivity and plasticity of winter wheat is proposed, which allows the selection of drought-resistant varieties suitable for cultivation in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine. Also, it is determined that using a patented graphical algorithm for analyzing the level of ecological plasticity of cereal varieties due to the uniformity of environmental factors on the productivity of cereals allows for determining the most adapted plants. Thus, the varieties of winter wheat Bohynia and Oleksiivka were identified as the most flexible.
      PubDate: June 2022
  • Enabling Agricultural Sector through Blockchain Technology – Farmers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  June 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  3  Seranmadevi R.   Senthil Kumar A.   and Hariharan R.   The agricultural sectors in India and abroad have been affected extensively due to the Covid-19 pandemic. It is necessary to provide solutions for the availability of resources, controlling the cost, quality in production, transparent food supply, fulfilling demand, and removing intermediaries. The structural reforms in the agricultural sector by adopting emerging technologies, especially blockchain technology (BCT) and the robotics automation process, are inevitable during the pandemic and future development. To study the impact of blockchain on the Agriculture sector, the farmer's level of awareness of the blockchain technology, its methodological influence, the inclination of farmers to adopt the technology in their farming, and agri-related activity are vital. This paper aims to explore the opportunities of BCT in expanding the agriculture sector, ascertain the awareness and intensity of farmers' knowledge of the effect of BCT, and develop the mean difference in the opinion of the farmers towards the utilization of BCT in the relevant field of agriculture. A structured interview schedule was administered with 360 sample farmers from the Delta regions of three states located in the southern part of India, such as Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamilnadu, using a purposive sampling technique intending. Irrespective of the age, gender, land capacity, possession, education level, learned procedures, and abundant experience helped the farmers demand a new technology interface to improve their income level and register their sustainability.
      PubDate: June 2022
  • Ubiquitous on-demand Water Reservoir Tracking System for Smart Village

    • Abstract: Publication date:  June 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  3  Indranil Sarkar   Sunil Karforma   Rajesh Bose   and Sandip Roy   One of the natural resources that is vital to our existence as humans is water. Since humans use water in their daily lives, it is essential to check the water level to solve extensive water supply especially during major crisis period. It is the most significant to make it available and avoid wastage. Background study highlights some earlier work on using GSM network services to monitor our system and also specifies the creation of a prepaid water metre system that lets for remote monitoring and charging of water intake without the need for human involvement. In this paper, we proposed a model that is described along with web-based data acquisition platform integrated to retrieve data through cellular networks. Using this technology many people like farmers are aware from time to time of their water level condition especially in summer or dry time in their different urban, semi-urban, or rural areas so that they use their water as per their demand. Our Internet of Things (IoT) based system also gives an automated alarm system that can send a message to its registered user for a drop of water level of any resources at their area. Therefore, our project is to develop an architecture which can measure volume of water in different water bodies along with geographical location. A mobile based application has been developed for real-time search along with water level status. So, it will help to balance our ecosystem. Our long-term goal is to provide a more reliable source of drinking water for the inhabitants of the locality.
      PubDate: June 2022
  • Trends and Conditions for the Formation of Profitability of Agricultural
           Enterprises: A Case Study of Lviv Region, Ukraine

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Tetiana Shmatkovska   Mykola Dziamulych   Nataliia Vavdiiuk   Serhiy Petrukha   Nataliia Koretska   and Andrii Bilochenko   In the article we investigate the problem of determining the main factors of increasing the profitability of agricultural enterprises in order to effectively use the resource potential of agricultural producers. In this study, we used a set of modern scientific methods, among which we highlight such methods as factor analysis, structural analysis, graphical and tabular methods, grouping methods, regression statistical analysis, etc. In particular, grouping methods are used in the study for the distribution of the researched enterprise's totality according to the special features of their functioning. Also in the process of our study regression, a statistical analysis method was used to build a regression model to assess the relationship of profit and revenue from agricultural enterprises with such factors as a capital ratio, the average annual amount of enterprise assets, the labour costs, and the number of material costs per unit of land area. Besides, in order to study the level of profitability of agricultural enterprises in terms of their organizational and legal forms of management, the scope of financial and economic activities as well as the unit of the occupied area, livestock and taking into account the products produced, we used the structural analysis method. According to the results of the study, we found that the profitability of agricultural enterprises in the Lviv region of Ukraine depends on the characteristics of their versatility. Thus, according to the results of the study we proved, that the constructed multifactorial correlation and regression models allow us to make the conclusion about availability of the significant impact on the profitability of the security of the agricultural enterprises in Lviv region of Ukraine and the level of their intensification of the production activities. Based on the study, it can be argued that the profit of agricultural enterprises is a key indicator for the implementation of the process of agricultural production, and is one of the main criteria for the effectiveness of the agricultural sector. It is determined that the activity of agricultural enterprises is significantly influenced by external factors that are not directly related to the production activities of enterprises.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Formulating Agricultural Extension Planning Based on Farmer Achievement:
           The Case of Organic Rice Farming Risk Mitigation in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Ujang Maman   Yusron Razak   Murodi   Asep Saefuddin   Faisal Hendra   Zirmansyah   Nindyantoro   Lilis Imamah Ichdayati   and Junaidi   Currently, more than 65% of Indonesian farmers are at the age of 45 years or older. In next 30 years, it is estimated that Indonesia will experience a farmers' scarcity. The Indonesian government must raise millennial farmers who are relatively educated and have high creativity. But the coming of "new farmer" should be followed by changing agricultural extension model. The top-down extension is no longer suitable with basic characters of youth; they need a dialogical-participatory extension model which is based on their achievements. Therefore, by the case of mitigating organic rice farming system in Indonesia, this research aims to identify ORFS's risk mitigation attributes; achievement of mitigation implementation; and improvement priorities; and finally arrange agricultural extension planning based on this achievement. The sample of this research, by adopting Slovin Formula with less than 7% error probability, is 109 organic rice farmers in West Java, Indonesia. The in-depth interviews prove six mitigation attributes in cultivation and plant maintenance phase. Assisted by important-performance-analysis to determine farmer's achievement in implementation of these attributes, the agricultural extension planning should maintain the implementation of three attributes; remediate two attributes as main program, and extend the performance of one attribute as secondary program. The three attributes include promoting cultivation plant-based pesticide ingredient, training and outreach on manufacture and use of plant-based pesticides, and weeding plants without herbicides. The two attributes consist of socialization not to pollute organic agricultural land; and collaborate with relevant agencies to participate in the success of organic farming pilot project. The one attribute is giving sanctions for farmers who buy and use chemical inputs. The participatory extension model should be applied to implement above three kinds of extension planning.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Assessment of Prioritized Climate Smart Agricultural Practices and
           Technologies of Household Farmers in Southeast, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Igberi C. O.   Osuji E. E.   Odo N. E.   Ibekwe C. C.   Onyemauwa C. S.   Obi H. O.   Obike K. C.   Obasi I. O.   Ifejimalu A. C.   Ebe F. E.   Ibeagwa O. B.   Chinaka I. C.   Emeka C. P. O.   Orji J. E.   and Ibrahim-Olesin S.   The study assessed prioritized climate smart agricultural (CSA) practices and technologies of household farmers in Southeast, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to isolate 326 household farmers who participated on the study. Data collection was done using research instrument (questionnaire). Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. Results indicated that majority of the respondents were females, had secondary education, and had household size of 9 persons with a mean age of 48 years and 19 years of farming experience. Temperature variation (3.85), increase in number of sunny days (3.50), increase in amount of rainfall (3.10), variation in rainfall pattern (3.56), decrease in total rainfall (3.21), increase in frequency of heavy rains (2.85), etc were seriously perceived as climate change effects in the area. Again, various prioritized CSA practices and technologies such as growing a single crop, using a mixture of appropriately chosen genotypes of a given species (46.6%), use of quality seeds and planting materials of well-adapted crops and varieties (77.9%), crop rotation and diversity (41.1%) integrated pest management (47.5%), improved water use and management (26.4%), etc. were adopted by the farmers in mitigating climate change effects. Climate threats identified in the area include, decrease in overall productivity due to increased extreme weather events (0.97), decrease in crop production due to changes in average rainfall (0.94), decrease crop production due to increase in temperatures and rainfall variability (0.79), rapid migration of some pests and diseases (0.72), etc. Lack of access to up to-date information (2.88), access to micro-finance and insurance (2.57), access to agricultural input and output markets (2.14), etc. constrained the adoption of CSA practices. Age, education, occupation, years in farming experience further influenced the adoption of CSA practices and technologies. Policy motions in propagating climate change awareness through the mass media were recommended.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Efficiency of Some Traps to Measure Flux Dust Suspension Particles by Wind

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Omnia M. Wassif  This study was to analyze the efficiency (E) of traps in holding suspended soil particles that cause dust, environmental and agricultural problems by wind erosion in NWCZ, Egypt. These vertical and passive sediment traps with different design in rotary and fixed reservoir box and different methods of measured soil loss. Rotary Distance (RD), Fixed Distance (FD), Rotary Point (RP) and Fixed Point (FP) traps were compared with traditional trap Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE). The variation between traps’ efficiency as a function of height was significantly (P≤0.05) and was as follow: RD, FD, RP, and FP more increase than BSNE. The performance of the trap types as an efficiency of suspension particles (assumed to possess E=1 for suspended particle sizes) was as follow RD> FD> RP> FP> BSNE; 99%, 98%, 88%, 85%, 65% respectively. The efficiency of traps in suspension particles size (100 µm) were significant (P ≤ 0.05) and the best efficient were RD and FD. Therefore, RD and FD traps have direct methods for measuring soil loss by wind erosion and have the most acceptable, accurate, fastest and easiest in soil particle analyzed and therefore the most effective way to discriminate suspension particles.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Evaluation of Financial Viability of Woodlots and Crops in Coast Region of

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Wekesa L.   Muema K.   and Muthini J.   Majority of farmers in the Coast Region of Kenya practice the agri-silviculture farming system as a source of their livelihood and well-being. However, most of them grow trees and agriculture crops on smallholdings that are characterized by a limited resource base calling for the adoption of enterprises with the potential of optimizing production and economic returns. Thus, financial assessments were carried out for both the trees and agriculture crops to establish profitable ones. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire to collect data from smallholder farmers with woodlots and field crops selected using stratified random sampling procedures. The results reveal that woodlots were more profitable at their biological rotation than commonly grown field crops. Woodlots had average annual net earnings of US$364.46 per acre spread uniformly over their biological rotation. On the other hand, annual earnings from highly ranked field crops averaged US$177.39 per acre. It was, therefore recommended that farmers be encouraged to engage in woodlots but inter-crop them with field crops at the initial stages of establishment to help diversify, and optimize their incomes and food self-sufficiency at the farm level. Farmers are also advised to mechanize and use other technologies that minimize labour usage that was observed to be the highest cost component in woodlot establishment.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Maximization of Strategic Crops Production in Iraq with Fuzzy Goal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Mohd Kamal Mohd Nawawi   Ibrahim Zeghaiton Chaloob   Jehan Saleh Ahmed   Razamin Ramli   and Suliadi Firdaus Sufahani   The need to increase agricultural production has become a challenging task for most countries. Generally, many resource factors affect the deterioration of production level, such as low water level, desertification, soil salinity, low on capital, lack of equipment, the impact of export and import of crops, lack of fertilizers, pesticide, and the ineffective role of agricultural extension services which are significant in this sector. The main objective of this research is to develop fuzzy goal programming (GP) model to improve agricultural crop production, leading to increased agricultural benefits (more tons of produce per acre) based on the minimization of the main resources (water, fertilizer, and pesticide) to determine the weight in the objectives function subject to different constraints (land area, irrigation, labor, fertilizer, pesticide, equipment, and seed). Fuzzy GP (FGP) and GP were utilized to solve multi-objective decision-making (MODM) problems. From the results, this research has successfully presented a new alternative method that introduced multi-interval weights in solving a multi-objective FGP and GP model problem in a fuzzy manner, in the current uncertain decision-making environment for the agricultural sector. The significance of this research lies in the fact that some of the farming zones have resource limitations while others adversely impact their environment due to misuse of resources.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Ecosystem Carbon Stocks of Restored Mangroves and Its Sequestration in
           Northern Sumatra Coast, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Bambang Suprayogi   J. Purbopuspito   Meilinda Suriani Harefa   G.Y. Panjaitan   and Z. Nasution   The 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 30-year restored mangroves were studied through non-destructive method by measuring their stem diameter and tree height. Two allometric references: (a) stem diameter (D30) and (b) combined quadratic stem diameter and tree height (D302H) were used to estimate aboveground and belowground vegetation carbon stocks. The soil samples were collected from different depth and analysed in laboratory for soil carbon. The objective of this study was to estimate ecosystem carbon stocks of restored mangroves and its sequestration. The growth of restored mangroves induced an increase of tree biomass and a corresponding increase in vegetation carbon stocks from 3.7 MgC ha-1 at 2-year to 136.8 MgC ha-1 at 30-years. However, soil carbon stocks among restored mangrove plots spread randomly and didn't follow the sequence of mangrove tree ages. Average (2-30 years) mangrove ecosystem carbon in Northern Sumatra estimated by D302H allometry (362.0 MgC ha-1) was higher than that estimated by D30 allometry (344.1 MgC ha-1). This higher trend was also followed by its carbon sequestration with values of 41.1 MgCO2e ha-1 yr-1 estimated by D302H allometry and 31.5 MgCO2e ha-1 yr-1 estimated by D30 allometry. It is concluded that the values of ecosystem carbon stock of restored mangroves and its sequestration estimated by combined quadratic stem diameter and tree height (D302H) are higher than if it is estimated by stem diameter (D30). The D302H value is higher because this allometry calculates the volume of the tree stem, while D30 allometry only calculates the surface of the stem. The range values of average ecosystem carbon sequestration of this study may be better used as a reference for Afforestation, Reforestation and Re-vegetation (ARR) verification than what has been used as default/conservative values.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Accelerating Strategies in Developing Superior Agricultural Commodities in
           Maybrat, West Papua Province

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Mesak Iek   and Marsi Adi Purwadi   The objectives of conducting research on the acceleration of the development of superior agricultural commodities are to make an inventory and a map of the leading commodities in the agricultural sector in Maybrat Regency, West Papua, Indonesia, as well as designing and formulating a model for accelerating the development of superior agricultural commodities by taking into account the criteria for leading commodities. The analysis tool is the Model Composite Performance Index (CPI). From the results of the analysis, it was found that the commodities analyzed are commodities that farmers have cultivated for a long time, but some commodities are introduced by outsiders in Maybrat Regency, West Papua, Indonesia. In addition, it was found that the five main aspects of developing superior agricultural commodities in Maybrat are: increasing local government interventions, improvement of production facilities and infrastructure, increasing market opportunities, encouraging an increase in business capital, and production continuity improvement. The low application of agricultural zone development programs, the lack of implementation efforts to produce fresh competition, and the implementation of harmonious agricultural zone industrial ties hinder the development of agricultural zones. So that the role of the government in accelerating the development of superior commodities in the agricultural sector becomes important and strategic; without government intervention, efforts to accelerate the development of superior commodities will run in place. However, it should also be understood that farmers/breeders/fishermen as business actors in the agricultural sector also have a strategic role in the intended acceleration effort.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • Evaluation of the Concentration of Phytotoxic Chemicals and Microbial Load
           of the Vermicompost Prepared from Coffee Processing Waste

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Lalitha Soumya   Kurian Raphael Poovathingal   G. Prakash Williams   Naveen Chandra D.   and Soonu Vadakke Kunnummal   Coorg, a district in the Indian state of Karnataka, is well known for producing and exporting coffee and is also known as the "Coffee Land of India". Industries that process coffee produce enormous amounts of waste, including coffee husk and pulp. The disposal of this waste is a significant problem. The simplest method of waste disposal is tossing it into landfills, resulting in serious eco-toxicological issues such as the leaching of phytotoxic chemicals such as caffeine, tannins, and polyphenols. Additionally, the microbial load of the plant growth-promoting microorganisms in the contaminated soil gets diminished due to these toxic substances. The current study aimed to determine the feasibility of reducing the phytotoxic chemicals in the soil contaminated with coffee processing waste by generating compost and vermicompost. This study analyzed three treatments of soil: first treatment comprised soil polluted with coffee processing waste; in the second treatment the soil polluted with coffee processing waste was treated with cow dung, weeds and chopped banana leaves, native soil in the ratio 6;2;1;1 and the natural compost was generated. Treatment 3 was prepared by keeping treatment 2 for 15 days for pretreatment and it was inoculated with adult earthworm Eudrilus eugiensis and vermicompost was prepared. All treatments were kept for 90 days. The concentration of phytotoxic compounds such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and tannins in three treatments was examined, every 15 days over the course of 90 days. Triplicates of the measurements were done and the average values were taken for conclusions. It was found that the concentration of caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and tannins dramatically decreased from 1.25, 0.66, and 0.35 mg/gm to 0.05, 0.0523, and 0.02 mg/gm respectively after vermicomposting. Also, the treatment was found to have a gradual increase in the microbial load of plant growth-promoting microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, starch hydrolyzing microorganisms, pectinolytic and chitinolytic microorganisms. Thus, the research proved that composting and vermicomposting are the best options for recycling coffee processing waste.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • Prospects for the Development of Coconut and Oil Palm Commodities in
           Community Plantations in North Aceh Regency

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Mawardati   Jullimursyida   Suryadi   Emmia Tambarta Kembaren   and Irada Sinta   This study discusses commodities of oil palm and coconut plantation in North Aceh Regency. This study aims to analyze the prospect for the development of oil palm and coconut commodities using cost and profit analysis methods and financial feasibility analysis. The results of the analysis show that the production cost of oil palm plantations is higher than that of coconut commodities. This is due to differences in garden maintenance costs. Coconut farmers almost never maintain the plantation, while oil palm farmers maintain their plantation even though it is not recommended. The results of the profit analysis show that both businesses provide profits to farmers. Furthermore, the results of the feasibility analysis show that both businesses are feasible, as indicated by the value of NPV> 0, Net B/C> 1 and IRR> of the prevailing interest rate and the BEP is still in the economic life of the plant. However, overall oil palm plantations are more profitable than coconut plantations. In addition to having considerable potential, oil palm and coconut plantations contribute to regional economic development by increasing farmers’ incomes and providing employment and business opportunities for the majority of the local community. Therefore, oil palm and coconut plantations have great prospects to be developed in North Aceh Regency.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • Behavior Analysis of Farmers in Tidal Swamp Land towards Agricultural

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Muhammad Alif   Sumardjo   Sarwititi Sarwoprasodjo   and Anna Fatchiya   In many studies, communication and social cognitive theories have been used to investigate people’s behaviors toward agricultural insurance programs resulting in varied conclusions on how and why people react to such programs. However, few of them have explicitly investigated the role of social cognitive theory in escalating insurance literacy levels on agriculture and cultural factors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the behavioral factors of tidal swampland farmers in Barito Kuala Regency, South Kalimantan province, towards agricultural insurance in the perspective of analyzing farmers' knowledge of agricultural insurance products and determinants of community behavior. Under the instrumental case-study research design, the data were collected through interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) with 35 informants, consisting of the Head of the South Kalimantan Provincial Agriculture Service and the Barito Kuala District Agriculture Service, opinion leaders, academics, representatives of farmer groups, and farmers. Documentation data related to the implementation of the agricultural insurance program were used to complete the interview and FGDs data. The results of this study indicate that tidal swampland farmers are trapped in hoax information or negative issues related to Agricultural Insurance which makes them reluctant to participate in agricultural insurance. Farmers prefer to be resigned and surrender to the state of their agricultural land than to participate in agricultural insurance. Besides, farmers feel there is no point in participating in agricultural insurance, especially those who think the registration and insurance claim process is convoluted. Low insurance literacy is a key problem of the misinformation that is formed.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • Identification and in vitro Characterization of Plant Growth-promoting
           Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Tomato (Lycopersicum
           esculentum) Plants in Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Muazu Issifu   Edinah K. Songoro   Samuel Niyomukiza   Elijah Miinda Ateka   Justus Onguso   and Victoria Wambui Ngumi   The rhizosphere is a rich environment for microbial communities and plays a crucial role in many plant-microbe interactions. This research aimed to isolate, identify, and in vitro characterize plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species from the rhizosphere of field-grown tomato plants. Twenty-five soil samples were taken from tomato plants grown under various management conditions, isolated with population densities greater than 104 cells g-1 and obtained from N-free semisolid media. Important plant growth-promoting processes in vitro were identified and defined in the ten bacterial strains, which were then phylogenetically classed. Screening for their PGP properties revealed that seven (18%) isolates exhibited nitrogen-fixing ability in solid medium, nine (24%) isolates were able to solubilize phosphate, and five (13%) isolates were able to produce hydrogen cyanide. Only one isolate (3%) was capable of synthesizing IAA. The maximum potassium solubilization was achieved in KCl (16%) and K2SO4 (13%). The isolates showed more comprehensive levels of tolerance to pH (5 to 9), temperature (20℃ to 40℃), and salt (0% to 15%). Based on this, rhizobacterial isolates with numerous plant growth-promoting potentials were discovered based on their 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was evaluated, and all selected isolates as being similar to members of the genus Pseudomonas spp. Therefore, based on the plant growth-promoting properties assessed in vitro, the selected bacterial isolates have the potential to boost plant growth and biofertilizer production.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • Application of Earthworm Manure (EWM) and NPK Fertilizer to Improve the
           Quality of Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS) as a Sweet Corn (Zea mays L)
           Cultivation Land in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Basyaruddin   and Khusrizal   A field trial has been carried out in order to study the use of Earthworm Manure (EWM) and NPK fertilizer to improve the quality of Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS) as a sweet corn (Zea mays L) cultivation land in North Sumatra. The experiment was a Factorial Randomized Block Design. Factors studied were Earthworm Manure (EWM) and NPK fertilizer. The EWM treatment was arranged in 4 doses consisting of: Control (0 kg EWM / plot), 0.4 kg EWM / plot; 0.8 kg EWM / plot; and 1.2 kg EWM/plot. NPK treatment was given in 4 doses consisting of: control (0 kg NPK / plot); 5 g NPK / plot; 10 g NPK / plot; and 15 g NPK / plot. The treatment of EWM material was applied by mixing EWM with topsoil of ASS at a depth of about 5 cm evenly in each trial plot when it was 1 week before sweet corn plant was planted. While NPK fertilizer treatment was given between the rows of plants when the plants are 2 weeks old. Each treatment was given in each trial plot with a size of 100 cm x 100 cm and was repeated 3 times. The plant spacing was set at 60 cm x 70 cm, the distance between replications was 50 cm, and the distance between treatment plots was 30 cm. Variables observed include some soil properties, growth and crop yields. Soil properties were measured consisting of: pH (H2O), total N (Kjeldahl), P (Bray II), Exchangeable-K (K-ex) (NH4OAc pH 7.0). Growth and yield of plants were also determined including: plant height, stem diameter, and crop yield. The results obtained showed that the application of EWM could improve the quality of ASS properties shown by the increase in the total N content, available P, exchangeable-K, and ASS pH and plant growth based on stem diameter growth. NPK application increases total N content, available P, and K-ex, but does not increase growth in height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and crop yields. Application of EWM increases pH, whereas NPK has no effect on ASS pH. The effects of EWM and NPK interact positively on total N content where the application of EWM increases the effect of NPK on total N content; the effect of EWM was better in improving the chemical properties (N, P, K, and pH) of ASS and plant stem diameter growth compared with NPK application. EWM can be used to improve the quality of chemical properties (N, P, K, and pH) and partially or completely substitute NPK sweet corn plants in ASS so as to save on the use of NPK fertilizer. Therefore, EWM has the potential as an alternative agrobiotechnology product that has the opportunity to be used to overcome the problem of ASS as agricultural land.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • An Empowerment Model for Traditional Pitalah Duck Farmers in Riau

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Kiagus Muhammad Zain Basriwijaya   Dwi Sunarti   Titik Ekowati   and Wulan Sumekar   The purpose of this research is to create a model to enable traditional duck farmers to increase their income. The data in this study consisted of primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through a questionnaire about farmer’s attitude toward livestock business and income of the business of Pitalah ducks. Secondary data were collected from libraries and official sources related to the research. Respondents were 180 Pitalah duck breeders from 7 sub-districts. The research data were analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression after a Classic Assumption Test was performed to meet the criteria of BLUE (Best Linear Unbiased Estimator). The lowest revenue received from the business is Rp.10,647,082 while the highest revenue received is Rp. 24,852,811. This range of revenue is due to differences in the revenue received from the sale of eggs (including those consumed) and the final value they have. Real revenue is received from selling Pitalah Duck’s eggs. The results of the regression analysis showed that X1 (knowledge) and X2 (attitude) did not affect the level of income. The value of X3 affected the level of income because of the efforts to increase the income of the farmers, to select the seeds produced, to provide feed and drink, to be responsive whenever there is sick cattle, and to accept new technology in order to increase the income of farmers.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • An Economy of Reeling, Spinning, and Weaving in Vanya Silk with Reference
           to Muga and Eri Silk

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Mridula Devi   and Konita Basumatary   This paper aims to analyze the economy of reelers, spinners, and weavers who are an integral part of the silk industry. The study used both primary and secondary data. Primary data has been collected from 572 respondents from five (5) major handloom-producing districts namely Kamrup Rural, Nalbari, Dhemaji, Kokrajhar, and Udalguri districts of Assam. The income determination of different groups of workers is analyzed by taking the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) method. The study found differences in income among reeler and spinner, reeling and spinning in the machine and traditional device. Income of the reeler is also found to have negatively increased by age whereas experience is found to influence the income positively. In the case of spinner education, age, and experience are not found to influence their income. The study also shows differences in income among Muga weavers and Eri weavers, and on the basis of different products. Education and training are found to be insignificant and have no role in the determination of the income of weavers. Age is found to be negatively significant, indicating an increase in income at a diminishing rate. The results also show the income of the weaver to be determined positively by design since the wage rate for products with design is higher.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • Exploration and Development of Measurement Items of Innovation for New
           Technology Adoption among Small Farmers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Uzairu Muhammad Gwadabe   Nalini Arumugam   and Noor Aina Amirah   The current global food challenge necessitates the need to increase agricultural production. Farmers' innovative mindset is unavoidable for successful and sustainable agriculture. Precision agriculture, through novel technology like big data, is an effective solution that can exponentially increase agricultural productivity and quality. Innovativeness among food growers is a significant determinant for adopting new technologies. For this reason, the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) technique was used in this research to construct a reliable and valid instrument that measures innovativeness. Data was collected from small-scale farmers in Terengganu, Malaysia. The questionnaire was developed on a scale of one to ten. With the help of IBM SPSS Statistics version 25.0, the EFA was carried out using the principal component extraction method with Varimax Rotation. The study assessed Bartlett's Test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) to determine the adequacy of the sample. Bartlett's test revealed a significant result (0.000), and the KMO value was excellent (0.726). The findings of the EFA revealed two components and eight items with Cronbach's Alpha values of more than 0.7, all of which were found to be significant. As a result, the results demonstrated the instrument's accuracy and dependability. This research contributes to developing items that assess innovativeness in the context of small farming in Malaysia.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • CROP Rotation and Diversity Practices among Rural Farmers in Ebonyi State,

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Christiana Ogonna Igberi   Sikiru Ibrahim-Olesin   Chinyere Philis Nnorom   Anthony Oko-Isu   Micheal Olatunji Olaolu   Patricia Ngozi Egwu   Chidiebere Prince Osuji Emeka   and Emeka Emmanuel Osuji   Crop rotation has been identified as a practice that enhances soil fertility and healthy foods, but its awareness and adoption among rural farmers of Ebonyi State, who need the knowledge of best agronomic practices owing to the high cost of fertilizer, remain unknown. To bridge this gap, 180 rural farmers were selected for this study using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Data for the study was obtained using a structured interview schedule, and was analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics, chi-square, and probit regression. The results showed that the mean age of the farmers was 55, and the majority of them (72.22%) were males. However, the majority (87.78%) of the rural farmers were not aware of crop rotation and diversity practices, and a significant difference existed in the average mean annual income of the same land size for adopters (N886, 848.68) and non-adopters (N455, 055.60). The probit regression result showed that marital status, educational level, farm size, cropping system practiced, and access to extension services by the respondents increased the likelihood of farmers' adoption of crop rotation and diversity practices. Intercropping was used more by farmers, and it was found that more extension support and access to education, among other things, would make it more likely that rural farmers would use the method.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Some Factors on Coffee Producers towards
           Sustainable Rural Development in Lagawe, Ifugao of Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  6  Client William M. Malinao   Rural development requires harnessing existing community assets and expanding local economies while pushing local capabilities to be more efficient and innovative. The current conditions and external factors affecting local coffee producers in Lagawe, Ifugao were investigated as a foundation for a comprehensive framework for a sustainable rural development strategy. A multi-method in a convergent parallel research design with a participatory rural approach was employed to address the research objectives. Data were collected from registered local coffee producers through purposeful-criterion sampling approach, local government unit officials, and government agency representatives through key informant interviews and researcher-made questionnaire administration. Using frequency counts, percentage distribution, and mean, and careful analysis, findings revealed that products produced by local producers are in a good state in terms of the One Town One Product criteria. Coffee producers can access technology, market, and social infrastructures from different government agencies. Areas for improvement were identified based on the OTOP criteria. Finally, a comprehensive framework was proposed to establish sustainable coffee industry viable business for rural development.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
  • Variety of Approaches for Generating Volume of Aquara-6 Sunflower Seeds

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  4  Pakwan Riyapan   and Muhammad-Alawee Buku   Sunflower is a major oilseed crop in the world. Its seeds are applied to extract oil which gives high nutritional value and can be kept longer than other vegetable oils. In this article, we focus on Aquara-6 sunflower in order to study the way for generating volume of seeds on each head. The distinctive features for this type of sunflower are high yield and large flowers. The aims of this study are to present five ways to calculate the volumes of Aquara-6 sunflower seeds for each head and to compare these methods to volume measurement by replacing them with water of all seeds. This is collected from the physical grain, including width, length, and thickness, of each sunflower head in order to prepare data for calculating volumes of five methods. After that they are estimated via five methods from three regions on sunflower heads and on the whole heads. Moreover, we analyze the comparison between the estimated volumes and the actual volumes of fifteen sunflower heads. The results show that the best way to approximate the volume of seeds on each head is the square pyramid's formular and the second way is the circular cylinder's formular. These methods can be alternative ways to generate the volume of sunflower seeds in the future. In addition, this can be helpful to study the moisture content, especially in the drying process.
      PubDate: Aug 2022
  • Standalone Smart Irrigation System: An Analysis of Reliability
           Incorporating BPNN Technique under Various Failures

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  4  Nitin Kumar Sharma   SachinKumar   Pradeep Kumar Yadav   and Ekata   Observing the huge requirements of water and energy for traditional irrigation and contracting resources, the utility of a smart irrigation system has become necessary. A system that is capable of saving water depends on renewable energy resources for power requirements and runs automatically. Water-saving automatic irrigation systems powered by renewable energy could be a solution to India's rising demand for energy and water. In the current paper, the author has proposed an analysis of a standalone smart irrigation system for its reliability and functional behaviour under various operational events of failures and repairs. The authors have implemented an intelligent computational method because of the increased degradation in system function due to the complex structure of the proposed irrigation system. The system's mathematical formulation is stated in terms of neural networks, and a back propagation neural network technique is applied for fast and comparatively better outcomes. The author has determined state probabilities and other reliability parameters by means of neural networks in the proposed smart irrigation system. To improve the accuracy and consistency of reliability parameters, a Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN) is applied. FFBPNN's learning mechanism can optimize the values of parameters by modifying neural weights. The MATLAB codes are used by the authors to demonstrate the numerical examples, and iterations are repeated until the precision in error tends to 0.0001. The sensitivity and cost of the system are also analyzed, which can help in managing the real-time operations of the system.
      PubDate: Aug 2022
  • Impact of Climate Change and Economic Activity on Philippine Agriculture:
           A Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  4  Jennifer Madonna G. Dait   Climate change impact is particularly severe in developing countries like the Philippines mainly because of low incomes, geographic state or condition, dependence on climate-sensitive sectors and inadequate capability to adapt to global warming. This paper aimed at analyzing the risk posed by climate change using climatic variables on Philippine agriculture. Likewise, it focused on the empirical measurement of the hypothesized relationship between agricultural output and the condition or predicted economic variables. This paper employed not only the Cobb-Douglas production function using time series data from 1980 to 2014 but also the modeling techniques - Cointegration and Granger causality to simulate the impact of changes of the aforementioned variables on output of Philippine agriculture. Results show that only three variables indicated considerable significance on agricultural production in the Philippines based on their respective t-ratios: Agricultural Employment (EA), temperature (TEMP), and La Nina (D1). Other things equally, a 1% rise in agricultural employment paves a 0.2% increase in agricultural production. On the other hand, a 1% increase in temperature, cet. par., decreases agricultural production by 0.08%. Correspondingly, the incidence of El Nino, other things equally, deceases agricultural output by 0.02%. The other variables are not statistically significant but are interpreted in the same way. With this, government expenditure should be redirected toward R&D in agriculture to improve resilience, competence and sustainability of the agriculture sector.
      PubDate: Aug 2022
  • Characterization and Classification of Citrus reticulata var. Keprok Batu
           55 Using Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  4  Aimmatuz Zakiyyah   Zainuri Hanif   Dina Wahyu Indriani   Zaqlul Iqbal   Retno Damayanti   and Dimas Firmanda Al Riza   Citrus reticulata var. Keprok Batu 55 is one of the superior varieties of citrus originating from Batu City, East Java, which has a slightly sour-sweet taste with a sweetness level of 10-12obrix. Prediction of citrus maturity as a monitoring activity for pre- and post-harvest quality management is still done manually, whereas human judgment of the maturity level is subjective. One alternative to increase the monitoring productivity is the development of a portable system with image processing and destructive measurements of physico-chemical properties such as hardness, brix, and pH. This study aims to develop an image-based classification model and characterize the quality parameters of citrus. Measurement of maturity on Citrus reticulata var. Keprok Batu 55 has been carried out for image analysis with color index (RGB, L*a*b. and HSV). The image of citrus will be taken with the camera, which will later be taken partially (cropping) on the skin, which will then extract the color characteristics and calculate the level of color content from RGB and then converted it to HSV. A sufficient number of images with various conditions are needed to train the artificial intelligent model so that it can perform segmentation, calculation, and grade classification. A prediction model then was developed using color features and several machine learning modeling approaches.
      PubDate: Aug 2022
  • The Strategy of Organic Farming Implementation through Waste

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  4  Titisari E.Y.   Azizah S.   Kurniawan S.   Ridjal A.   and Yuniarti R.   To increase the economic resilience due to the Covid-19 pandemic and raise the environmental quality, it is important to conduct a community-based development program based on an integrated strategy. This study aimed to formulate Kampung Baran Edu-tourism strategies, Kampung Baran was one of Madura Pendalungan's urban-periphery settlements in Malang City. First, the (local) characteristics based on terraphilia paradigms were identified. The characteristics contain local potentials and their problems. At the second stage, we used SWOT analysis to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats and formulate strategies to develop Baran edu-tourism. The organic Integrated Farming concept was chosen as the development model. It started from organic-fertilizer production through organic waste bio-conversion (we chose vermicompost and liquid organic fertilizer). The implementation of organic-waste bio-conversion should be conducted through mentoring, counseling, innovators coaching, and FGDs to enrich local people's knowledge about modern organic farming, and strengthen social participation, socio-economic institutions, and networks.
      PubDate: Aug 2022
  • Enhanced Diffusion and Scaling of Seed, Varietal Knowledge through
           Comparative, Experiential Learning

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  4  Swati Nayak   Ritesh Dwivedi   Manzoor Dar   and Sk Mosharaf Hossain   Comparative farmer field trials can be an important channel for the successful evaluation, reliable evidence, and acceptance of agricultural technologies. Farmer-managed comparative trials reinforce the agricultural extension system as they validate new technologies in farmers' field conditions. Thus, on-farm comparative trials allow the farmers to evaluate the differentiable impact of tested technology in their settings. The ingrained concept of "learning by doing" in such trials creates or improves the knowledge of farmers, and enhanced knowledge cascades into the scaling of technology. Climate resilient high yielding rice varieties are considered the most efficient solution against stagnating yields and recurrent abiotic stresses to consolidate the nation's food security. Despite the development and availability of several new varieties, farmers in South Asia, including India, continue to cultivate older varieties owing to poor varietal awareness and knowledge, especially among small and marginal farmers with less resource endowment. Therefore, awareness of the benefits of modern varieties among farmers is likely to motivate them. This concept has been ascertained by the present study. It verifies the positive effect of comparative learning of varieties through on-farm trials in the popularization of new stress-tolerant rice varieties (STRVs). Further, the impact of the gender and institutional linkage-based (through women self-help groups (SHG)) introduction of STRVs on scaling is also proven. The analysis and inferences are based on the findings of a randomized control experiment conducted in the state of Odisha in India using the STRV, BINA Dhan 11 in Head-to-Head (H2H) trials.
      PubDate: Aug 2022
  • Efficiency and Productivity Analysis of the Indian Agriculture Sector
           Based on the Malmquist-DEA Technique

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  4  Vishal Chaubey   Deena Sunil Sharanappa   Kshitish Kumar Mohanta   Vishnu Narayan Mishra   and Lakshmi Narayan Mishra   This article evaluated the agricultural performance of 31 states and union territories (UTs) in India from 2012 to 2017. The best agricultural productivity states and UTs in India were obtained using Malmquist based DEA technique and the efficiency score for each year was found using CCR model. The input parameter is taken as annual rainfall, total population, GDP, Workers, and net cultivated area, and the output parameter is taken as production of rice, wheat, coarse cereals, pulses, oil seeds, and sugarcane. The productivity of the states and UTs are compared, as well as the increase or decrease in productivity is calculated. Total productivity change was calculated using cumulative Malmquist index (CMI). As a result, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, and Uttar Pradesh are the most efficient states throughout the year, while Kerala and Goa are the least efficient. Maximum states and UTs advanced 61.25% in 2015-16, whereas maximum states and UTs declined 62.52% in 2012-13. The overall productivity change in Madhya Pradesh increases perfectly while Nagaland's is almost decreasing. Other factors that may have an influence on state and UTs agriculture productivity include capital investment and fertiliser use. Additional social and environmental performance criteria, such as contribution to local community development and harmful emission measurement, can be integrated as output criteria for sustainability performance analysis.
      PubDate: Aug 2022
  • The Aboveground Biomass Allometry and Carbon Stocks of Serial Age Planted
           Rhizophora apiculata in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  4  Bambang Suprayogi   Joko Purbopuspito   Meilinda S. Harefa   Grace Y. Panjaitan   and Zulkifli Nasution   The biomass and carbon stocks of 2, 6 and 10 year planted mangroves were studied through destructive method of weighting each tree component. The objective was to establish new allometries and carbon production of R. apiculata. Two aboveground biomass allometries of R. apiculata have been developed based on D30 (AGBD = 0.1224 D302.3380) and D302H (AGBDH=0.1508 D302H0.7793). Accuracy level of aboveground biomass estimation was 85.40% to the actual values of destructive calculation. Each biomass allometric equation can be applied accurately when the estimated mangrove ecosystem has similarity in species, age, tree-density, wood-density and growth factors of mangrove ecosystem where allometry is established. The allometric equation of above-ground carbon stock AGCD=0.0368D302.5996 (based on stem diamater) and AGCDH=0.0422D302H0.8730 (based on combined stem diameter and tree height) can be used to estimate the R. apiculata carbon stocks of non-destructive measurement. However, the accuracy level of AGCD and AGCDH allometries used to estimate non-destructive R. apiculata carbon stocks was 60.14% and 79.72% to the actual carbon value of destructive study. The average aboveground carbon stocks of 2 – 10 year R. apiculata were 37.2 MgC ha-1 (destructive actual value), 30.2 MgC ha-1 (D302H), and 29.9 MgC ha-1 (D30) respectively. It is concluded that the estimated allometric values of aboveground biomass and carbon productions of restored mangroves are closely related to the growth of stem diameter and tree height, but its values are lower than destructive actual value.
      PubDate: Aug 2022
  • Morphological Characteristics of Abaca (Musa textilis Nee') Cultivars
           Grown in Two Municipalities of Aklan, Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Gene T. Señeris   Evelyn P. Vedasto   Malco M. Teodosio   Melba L. Ragaas   and Lelisa J. Teodosio   The present study identified the different abaca (Musa textilis Nee) cultivars grown in the 34 identified abaca producing barangays of Madalag and Libacao, Aklan, Philippines, and evaluated the morphological characteristics of the matured abaca plant such as plant height, number of suckers, number of leaves, the circumference of pseudostem and length of stalks. Stratified random sampling was conducted. From the two municipalities, there were 34 abaca-producing barangays identified, and three abaca plantations were randomly selected to obtain the morphological characteristics of the different abaca cultivars using the prescribed measurement procedures. Distribution of the cultivars determined through geospatial mapping using Geographic Information System (GIS). Statistical analyses employed were single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and T-test to determine significant differences among groups/cultivars at α = 0.05 level of significance. The findings showed that there were four identified abaca cultivars commonly grown in Madalag and Libacao. These were Bisaya, Tabukanon, Agbayanon and Negro cultivars. Moreover, the morphological performance of the different cultivars responded differently. The study will provide relevant data on the distribution and morphological characteristics of abaca cultivars in the province. It could enhance programs and interventions in achieving the local and global demand for high-quality abaca fiber.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Varietal Diversity, Seed Security and Adoption Dynamics of Rice Farmers in
           Eastern India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Swati Nayak   Ritesh Dwivedi   Sk Mosharaf Hossain   Kuntal Das   and Monika Saxena   Rice in Indian state Odisha can contribute more to the agrarian economy if existing low productivity is ameliorated through varietal diversity, improved seed security, and a higher varietal turnover. This exploratory study has found 63% of farmers acquire seeds from farm-managed seed sources. The rice area is dominated by only four mega varieties and a low level of varietal diversity (0.311) was observed. In low land flood-prone areas, such diversity is relatively low (0.25) whereas upland areas have shown higher diversity (0.349). The diversity level increases with the increase in farmers' landholding size. Inter-region variation in varietal diversity is also noticeable indicating gaps in choices and access across regions. Farmers who participated in the varietal demonstration adopted varieties as indicated by increased acreage under those varieties in subsequent years. Farmer to farmer knowledge and seed sharing was found to be strongly present. In respect of varietal traits yield, grain quality, cooking quality, and diseases and pest tolerance are most considered by farmers for variety adoption. Even though seed availability is satisfactory in the state, the seed security dimensions like access, quality, varietal choice, and seed system stability need improvement to better the overall rice seed security at the farm level.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Agro-Morphological Evaluation of Gamma Irradiated Oil Palm (Elaeis
           guineensis, Jacq.) M2 Population at the Nursery Stage

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Samuel Adu Osei   Daniel Agyei-Dwarko   Johnny Sackitey Ossom   Enoch Sapey   Wonder Nunekpeku   and Dickson Osei Darkwah   Morphological characterization is one of the steps that are considered important in the description and classification of cultivated crops. A field evaluation of gamma irradiated oil palm second generation (M2) progenies was carried out at Council for Scientific and Industrial Research – Oil Palm Research Institute (CSIR-OPRI), Kusi, Ghana. This experiment aimed to determine the agro-morphological performances of M2 population at the nursery stage. The entries were made up of eight (8) M2 progenies and a control, using randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, butt circumference, chlorophyll content of the leaves and stomatal conductance. All the characters studied exhibited significant (P < 0.05) variability among genotypes. The mean value (58.45 cm) of plant height for all the M2 progenies studied was 24% lower than that of the check (76.86 cm) and this is an indication of suspected dwarf trait which can be useful in crop improvement programmes. Progeny 14 performed significantly better in leaf production (9.60) and butt circumference (13.24 cm). The performance of progeny 15 was high with respect to leaf area (2135 cm2) and chlorophyll content (32.93 ug/g) while progeny 16 exhibited low stomatal conductance (5.90 m2s/mol), an indication of low transpiration rate and possible drought traits could be exploited in the development of drought tolerant materials.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • The Efficiency of Technical and Economic Utilization of Cagayan Valley
           Green Dairy Technologies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Diosdado C. Cañete   and Ma. Teresa S. Alvarez   The Philippine dairy business, worth Php100 billion, has a far way toward meeting the country's dairy demands. Local dairy farmers fulfill 1% of the need, despite yearly imports of $800 million in dairy goods. Dairy is the third most imported agricultural item, with 85 percent of the country importing it in powder form, which is subsequently processed into a liquid for household usage. Milk manufacturing has a number of environmental consequences. Dairy cows and their dung create greenhouse gases including methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide, which contribute to climate change. The study assessed the technical and economic efficiency of green dairy technology utilization in the Cagayan Valley. Specifically, it analyzed the determinants that affect dairy farmers' technical and economic efficiency by utilizing green technologies. It gathered data and information via a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were processed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis. The majority of the 11 dairy farmers surveyed were male, older farmers, with greater household size, who obtained their 9 years of school and had a lower monthly income of Php13,863.91. The productivity model reveals that the material costs that contributed to increasing milk productivity are significant. The lower cost of materials was due to the adoption of green technologies like silage making, vermiculture/composting, and recycling of farm wastes. The number of dairy animals, pre/post-harvest labor costs, and investment were all negative coefficients that did not affect milk productivity. Furthermore, age, household size, and agricultural years were among the technical inefficiencies that had a substantial impact. Dairy producers' technical inefficiency is aggravated by their age and years of farming. These farmers are getting older, starting at an age of 55.54, deteriorating their technical efficiency performance attributed to physical strength to perform dairying activities, while years of farming experience of 23.32 and above dairy farmers are attributed to their resistance to adopting green technologies. A household with four or fewer family members has fewer technical inefficiencies. The number of workers is usually drawn from the family members that contribute to better technical efficiency performance.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Consumers' Acceptance of Isabela State University-Science and Technology
           (S&T) Based Chevon Products in Baguio City: Market Opportunities and

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Universal Journal of Agricultural Research  Volume  10  Number  2  May B. Cayaban   and Ma. Teresa S. Alvarez   In the Philippines, the goat business is very significant to the country's agriculture. Farmers can supplement their income by raising goats for a small investment. The purpose of this study was on consumer acceptance of ISU-S&T chevon products, notably in Baguio City, to provide baseline data for ISU-CVSRRC, private sector, and goat raisers to determine the market potential of canned chevon in the Philippines. Specifically, the demographic profile, level of consumer acceptance in terms of product appearance, flavor, aroma, texture, packaging, and price, and level of influence of health, economic, accessibility, and social factors on the consumer's acceptability of the chevon products were considered by 109 selected respondents. The descriptive-correlational design was used. Frequency and percentage distribution, mean and standard deviation were computed for the profiling of the respondents, and description of the levels of consumer acceptability and its influencing factors, respectively. The inferential part consisted of the computations of correlation coefficients, particularly the Pearson-r, Spearman rho, and eta coefficients, to establish relationships among variables evaluated at 0.05 level of significance. Most of the respondents finished college, were government employees, and were in their twenties. Generally, the chevon products were moderately acceptable to males, with the greatest influencing factors being those related to the health benefits of the chevon products. The least concern of the respondents for its acceptability was the price. Likewise, those with lower income tend to have a higher level of acceptance of the product's appearance compared with those with higher income. The economic and accessibility factors had significant relationships with the acceptability of the chevon products. With the right market value and campaign, the ISU-S&T-based chevon products have the potential to prosper in the market.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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