Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control     Open Access  
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EU Agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Farm Engineering and Automation Technology Journal     Open Access  
Fave : Sección ciencias agrarias     Open Access  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Florea : Jurnal Biologi dan Pembelajarannya     Open Access  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Oecologica     Open Access  
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science     Open Access  
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental and Applied Agriculture     Open Access  
Future Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Gema Agro     Open Access  
Geoderma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture & Health Sciences     Open Access  
Gontor Agrotech Science Journal     Open Access  
Hacquetia     Open Access  
Health Economics, Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Heliyon     Open Access  
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Horticultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IDESIA : Revista de Agricultura en Zonas Áridas     Open Access  
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Extension Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access  
Innovare Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations in Agriculture     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Dairy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture Innovation, Technology and Globalisation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Dairy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Fruit Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Green Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Pest Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of the Economics of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Vegetable Science     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources : IJ-FANRES     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Multidisciplinary Research Journal     Open Access  
International Review of Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Scientific Journal of Engineering and Technology (ISJET)     Open Access  
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Irrigation Australia: The Official Journal of Irrigation Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal (Australian Native Plants Society. Canberra Region)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal für Kulturpflanzen     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agrarian Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Production     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Agromedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science, Biology and Bioeconomy     Open Access  
Journal of Apicultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Communications     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biosystems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cereal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cereal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Citrus Pathology     Open Access  
Journal of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Cotton Research     Open Access  
Journal of Dairy Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Economic Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Extension Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Halal Product and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Horticultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Horticulture and Postharvest Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Hemp     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Integrative Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Modern Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Agricultural Extension
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2311-8547 - ISSN (Online) 2311-6110
Published by eSci Journals Publishing Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Farmer Knowledge and Practices on Technology Transfer and Farm
           Mechanization in Rural Areas of Southern Punjab

    • Authors: Muhammad Z. Kazmi; Falak Sher, Muhammad Musa, Iftikhar Haider
      Abstract: Modern agricultural technologies have much potential in increasing the crop yield. The purpose of the study was to measure knowledge of the farmers and practices towards technology transfer and farm mechanization. The study was conducted during January 2020 in two districts of South Punjab (Layyah and Dera Ghazi Khan). 120 farmers were selected randomly by using a multistage cluster sampling technique. Majority of the respondents agreed that cost of technology, educational level and lack of knowledge of farmers were the main hindrance towards technology transfer and farm mechanization. Extension workers also need to be equipped with modern and updated agricultural technologies. Scarcity of water was also a limiting factor for successful crop production. Although hybrid seed was popular, but promotion of Bt-cotton needs due attention. Modern irrigation techniques like sprinkler, drip irrigation system and solar water pump system needs to be promoted in raising crop yield and saving a lot of water. Growing of off-season vegetable in tunnels is a profitable technique but more that 50% farmers were unaware of this technology. ICT also needs due attention in the study area as maximum farmers had no idea of it.Modern agricultural technologies have much potential in increasing the crop yield. The purpose of the study was to measure knowledge of the farmers and practices towards technology transfer and farm mechanization. The study was conducted during January 2020 in two districts of South Punjab (Layyah and Dera Ghazi Khan). 120 farmers were selected randomly by using a multistage cluster sampling technique. Majority of the respondents agreed that cost of technology, educational level and lack of knowledge of farmers were the main hindrance towards technology transfer and farm mechanization. Extension workers also need to be equipped with modern and updated agricultural technologies. Scarcity of water was also a limiting factor for successful crop production. Although hybrid seed was popular, but promotion of Bt-cotton needs due attention. Modern irrigation techniques like sprinkler, drip irrigation system and solar water pump system needs to be promoted in raising crop yield and saving a lot of water. Growing of off-season vegetable in tunnels is a profitable technique but more that 50% farmers were unaware of this technology. ICT also needs due attention in the study area as maximum farmers had no idea of it.                                                   
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 22:26:30 +000
       
  • Evaluation of differnt sowing methods for enhancing productivity and water
           use efficiency of wheat under limited water condition

    • Authors: Atif Riaz; Mudassir Aziz, Abdul Ghaffar, Wazir Ahmed, Khuram Mubeen, Muhammad Usman
      Abstract: Drought is a serious threat for food security worldwide. Wheat is most popular staple crop of world severely affected by drought at water sensitive crop growth stages. Selection of appropriate sowing method is very important for improving water use efficiency. A field trial was conducted in winter season of 2018-19 to investigate the impact of different sowing methods on water use efficiency of spring wheat exposed to water deficit at anthesis. Wheat was sown with three different sowing methods viz. broadcast sowing, drill sowing and augmented furrow sowing and two different irrigation regimes i.e. normal irrigation and water deficit at anthesis stage. All agronomic practices were kept uniform throughout the experiment. Different sowing methods and irrigation regimes significantly affected grain and straw yield of wheat. Among different sowing methods, wheat crop sown with augmented furrow method produced maximum plant height (111 cm), no. of tillers per m2 (427),  1000 grain weight (37.93 g), grain yield (4.73 t ha-1) and straw yield (4.24 t ha-1). Maximum irrigation water use efficiency (17.72 kg ha-1 mm-1) and benefit cost ratio (1.34) was recorded in augmented furrow method of sowing of wheat exposed to water deficit at anthesis stage. 
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 22:25:11 +000
       
  • Participatory extension and advisory services (PEASS) as an extension
           approach to achieve food security in Egypt: Lessons learned from 5
           governorates

    • Authors: Emad M. El-Shafie; Abdel-Shafi Azam, Reda H. Ibrahim
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of implementing a PEAS approach that involves all service providers in integrated efforts to provide Small Producers (SPs) with need-oriented advisory services. The study is a qualitative study conducted in 5 Governorates in Egypt by a multi-disciplinary research team. Selected extension methods secured proper and timely application of best-fit practices in each agricultural activity. Qualitative data were collected from regional technical reports from the five Governorates. Results confirmed the possibility of implementing PEAS, to help SPs in proper and timely application of best-fit practices for promoting production, with positive impacts including SPs' strong willingness to be active partners through high participation in the implemented activities. However, several challenges were identified, including a lack of scientific information about different pests and diseases and the best-fit practices to avoid and control them, applying traditional bad agricultural practices, that have negative impacts on the quantity and quality of production. Lessons learned to include a) the importance of bringing different services providers together, in collaborative work. b) encouraging each partner to effectively contribute to help SPs to understand and properly and timely apply the best-fit production and marketing practices, and c) securing reciprocal communication and constructive dialogue among all partners. Recommendations include: establishing partnerships among relevant stakeholders and service providers to facilitate and encourage SPs to establish their own autonomous civil society organizations. 
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 11:30:29 +000
       
  • Analysis of constraints faced by gram growers regarding improved gram
           production practices in southern region of Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Luqman; Zia Ur Rehman, Mudassar Yaseen, Shoaib Nasir, Muhammad U. Mehmood, Muhammad Yaseen, Tariq Mehmood
      Abstract: This study explored different constraints being faced by the gram growers in Thal and Barani regions of Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, two districts from each region were selected and 30-gram growers from each of the selected districts were selected purposively, thereby making a sample size of 120 farmers. Data were collected using a structured and validated interview schedule and collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Constraints were grouped into (i) technical (ii) physical and (iii) and financial constraints. Among technical constraints, fertilizer management, less awareness about recommended practices and weeds management were prominent constraints. Non-availability of labour, water shortage and costly labor were leading physical constraints. Lack of finance, credit and limited access to inputs due to inadequate finance were some prominent financial constraints. All the constraints had an adverse impact on the production of grams in the study area. This study concludes that gram production cannot be enhanced unless the constraints are not removed through the synergistic working of agriculture and allied departments to facilitate the gram growers. 
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 10:48:33 +000
       
  • Hand pollination exercise and cocoa farmers’ perceived change in
           livelihood: implications for extension practice in Ghana

    • Authors: Enoch K. Tham-Agyekum; John-Eudes A. Bakang, Mary Quansah, Maxwell Asiamah, Philip Kokonu, Fred Nimoh
      Abstract: Using data collected from 384 cocoa farmers through the multi-stage sampling technique, the study assessed the hand pollination exercise and its perceived influence on cocoa farmers’ livelihood. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation and paired sample t-tests were used to analyse the data. The results show that majority of the cocoa farmers agreed that the hand pollination exercise was a good programme. The adoption of hand pollination significantly improved the production and income of cocoa farmers. Cocoa farmers perceived that their livelihoods had improved as a result of participating in the hand pollination exercise. The highest perceived livelihood change was observed in financial capital. The majority of the cocoa farmers were affected by the lack of rain during hand pollination periods. The study recommends that apart from the financial capital of cocoa farmers, extension agents should expand their efforts to encourage the practice of hand pollination in cocoa in order to improve the other essential livelihood capitals of cocoa farmers.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 21:38:27 +000
       
  • Impact assessment of plant clinics on farm income of farmers in the
           Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Zahid Hassan; Babar Shahbaz, Shoukat Ali, Muhammad Nazam
      Abstract: Plant clinics are a novel channel of providing low-cost and regular plant health services to farmers in developing countries. Limited research has been conducted on the assessment of plant clinics in Pakistan. The plant clinics are playing an effective role in agricultural development through the dissemination of technical guidance to the farmers. This study was conducted in the Punjab province of Pakistan to assess the impact of plant clinics on the income of farmers. A total of 353 randomly selected farmers were interviewed from the two districts of Punjab province, Gujranwala and Multan through a face-to-face interview technique. Collected data were analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Along with the descriptive analysis, the Ordinal Logistics Regression (OLR) model was applied to estimate the impact of plant clinics on the income of the farmers. Findings indicated that advisory services served by plant doctors were useful for the farmers. Plant protection relate services were more useful as compared to the agronomic attributes of the crops. Perhaps, the services rendered helped farmers to curtail their cost of production. Later, the OLR analysis confirmed an increase in income of those farmers who perceived the usefulness of providing advisory services to a high level. This study urged plant doctors to pay more attention to the agronomic attributes of the crops.  
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 20:51:55 +000
       
  • Farm mechanization and its impact on labour use among rice farming
           households: an experience from thai binh province in Vietnam

    • Authors: Hai N.N. Thi
      Abstract: This study uses the primary data collected from 40 rice farming households in Thai Binh province principles to evaluate the current situation of farm mechanization and its impact on labour use in rice farming households. By combining quantitative and qualitative methods, this study bases on the small sample of rice farming households to analyze the situation of rice production including rice cultivation area, rice yield, production cost, and machinery application in rice farming activities. Moreover, with the application of a multiple regression model, this study affirms that farm mechanization encourages households to enlarge their rice farming scale as it helps to compensate for the shortage of farm labour as well as increase land productivity. At the same time, the movement of labour from the farm sector to the non-farm sector and land consolidation are some of the driving forces that speed up the farm mechanization process. In Thai Binh province, farm mechanization also plays a significant role in increasing farmer income as it supports family labourers to spend less time on farming but more time in doing off-farm work with higher earnings. Finally, based on the results of the analysis, this paper provides four policy implications that expect to the development of farm mechanization in Thai Binh particularly as well as in Vietnam generally.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 18:43:21 +000
       
  • An empirical study on the members’ perspectives regarding agricultural
           cooperative societies in the Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Syed K.H. Gillani; Babar Shahbaz, Shoukat Ali, Muhammad T. Siddiqui
      Abstract: Cooperatives are recognized as symbols of social, cultural, and economic development in many developed and developing countries. This study was conducted to explore the satisfaction of the members regarding services provided by the agricultural cooperative societies. A total of 384 members of the societies and 50 key informants, who were employees of the agricultural cooperatives participated in the study. The study used a mix-method research technique, i.e. both quantitative and qualitative methods of research were used to collect data. The descriptive statistics indicated that the majority of the respondents (64.4%) was ordinary member of the societies. There were no standard criteria of the societies for acquiring their membership. However, agricultural landholding size (x̅=3.67), social networking (x̅=3.39) and financial status (x̅=3.16) were regarded as the criteria to become a member of a cooperative society. Regarding the provision of services and satisfaction of the recipients, guidance regarding farm management and information about the commodity marketing had a statistically significant mean difference (P<0.05). Though, farmers were more satisfied with the loan scheme (x̅=2.69) and access to inputs (x̅=2.67). the regression analysis showed that age, education, the status of membership and land size had a statistically significant impact (P<0.05) on the satisfaction of the farmers. This study urges, the involvement of educated people in agricultural cooperatives, democracy in decisions, strengthening the loan schemes and supporting cooperative farming among farming communities.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 May 2022 13:08:42 +000
       
  • Problems of integrated farming systems: a comparative analysis of Punjab
           state of India and rangpur division of Bangladesh

    • Authors: Md. Mohiuddin Sheikh; Tejinder Riar, Loveleesh Garg, A. K. M. Kanak Pervez
      Abstract: The present study was carried out in the Punjab Province of India and the Rangpur Division of Bangladesh. This study aims to identify and analyze the problems faced by the farmers in practicing Integrated Farming Systems (IFS). The problems were analyzed by computing the Problem Facing Index (PFI) score by the farmers and the expert members.  Lack of marketing products from various IFS components had the farmers' perception of the highest PFI (285 and 52). From the expert members in Punjab part, the same problem was ranked 3rd by the farmers and expert members in Bangladesh.  Lack of coordinated extension services was ranked 1st both by the farmers (PFI, 295) and expert members (PFI, 54) in Bangladesh part which was rated 7th by the farmers (6th by the expert members) in the Punjab. The problem is the lack of IFS model demonstrations ranked 2nd by the farmers (5th ranking by expert members) in the Punjab, which had 4th ranking by the farmers and the expert members in the Bangladesh side. Besides, the high initial cost was rated 3rd by the farmers (2nd by the expert members) in Punjab study areas, which was ranked 2nd most important problems by the farmers and expert members from the Bangladesh part. Component-wise problems were also assessed and rated separately. It was suggested that developing location-specific IFS models through research activities, the establishment of agro-processing industries, coordinated extension services, proper marketing channels, and ensuring product price would support important initiatives for improving IFS.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 May 2022 12:25:01 +000
       
  • Impact of socio-economic characteristics of farmers on their awareness
           regarding livestock extension services rendered by livestock and dairy
           development department

    • Authors: Saleem Sheikh; Shoukat Ali, Aqeela Saghir, Muhammad Q. Bilal
      Abstract: This study assessed the impacts of socio-economic characteristics of livestock farmers on their level of awareness regarding different services rendered by the Livestock and Dairy Development Department. A total of 383 randomly selected farmers were interviewed trough face to face. Collected data were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).  Results showed that the educational level of respondents, income, land size and several animals had a statistically significant (P<0.05) association with awareness about the services provided. This implies that educated farmers were likely to have more awareness of the services as compared to less educated farmers. Similarly large farmers i.e. farmers with large herd sizes and landowners were more aware of the services. This study recommended that the Livestock department should consider the socio-economic profile of livestock farmers while developing and disseminating livestock production services. Moreover, this study urges more emphasis on small farmers and those who are less resourceful. 
      PubDate: Wed, 04 May 2022 11:16:38 +000
       
  • Perceived effect of knowledge management capacity on performance of cocoa
           health and extension division in Ghana

    • Authors: Ebenezer O. Jones; Joseph A. Kwarteng, Martin Bosompem, Enoch K. Tham-Agyekum
      Abstract: The study assessed community extension agents’ perceived effect of knowledge management capacity on the performance of the Cocoa Health and Extension Division (CHED) in Ghana. A descriptive correlation survey design was used. A 166 randomly sampled Cocoa Extension Agents (CEA) from thirty (30) Districts in three (3) Cocoa Regions of Ghana took part in the study. Data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation, correlation coefficients and ordinary least square regression. A statistically significant relationship (P<5%) was found between organizational performance and both knowledge management process and knowledge management infrastructure. The best predictors of organizational performance were knowledge management culture (r=0.36), knowledge management acquisition (r=0.05), sex (r=0.06), level of education (r=0.03) and knowledge management application (r=0.01). The study concluded that, the overall rating of the knowledge management process, knowledge management infrastructure and leadership style were high in CHED. The study recommends CHED should boost its knowledge management technology infrastructure, develop a unique knowledge management culture, improve its knowledge management acquisition process by revamping its ICT units, intensifying on-the-job training, inspiring self-search and discovery, encouraging knowledge sharing and minimizing bureaucratic structure. 
      PubDate: Tue, 03 May 2022 14:33:04 +000
       
  • Smallholder farmers’ attitude towards organic farming and factors
           influencing their attitude: the case of kwazulu-natal province, South
           Africa

    • Authors: Tsion T. Kidane; Elliot F. Zwane
      Abstract: This study assessed the South African farmer’s attitude towards organic farming. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 270 sampled smallholder farmers. The attitude was measured against statements that specifically focused on aspects of organic farming and its environmental and cost-benefit aspects. The five-point Likert scale was the instrument used to measure farmers’ perceptions. To check the survey questionnaire reliability, a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated and found to be equal to 0.8. To explore the relationship between the variables correlation coefficient (r2) was computed using STATA statistical software. The Tobit Regression test showed that farmers' age (negatively), farming experience (positively) and distance from the nearest town (positively influenced smallholders’ attitudes toward organic farming. The nested regression result indicated that the age and product type of the respondents had a negative and statistically significant (P<0.05) effect on farmers' attitudes towards the environmental benefits of organic farming. Farming experience and distance from the nearest town had a positive and significant (P<0.01) effect on smallholders’ attitudes toward environmental and cost-benefit aspects of organic agriculture. In conclusion, the age of farmers had negative and significant (P<0.05) effects on organic farming while the experience of farmers had a positive influence on their attitude toward the farmers. Environmental and cost-benefit aspects were negatively correlated with age while on the other hand the farmers' experience was found to be positively correlated with these factors. 
      PubDate: Tue, 03 May 2022 11:07:46 +000
       
  • Determining the role of agriculture towards urbanization: testing the
           hypothesis

    • Authors: Noman Riaz; Waseem Akram, Iqbal Javed
      Abstract: The current study has examined the role of agriculture in urbanization. The study used time series data from 1983-2017. The order of integration of data suggested the estimation of an autoregressive distributed lag model for analysis. The study also used (Bayer and Hanck, 2012) combine cointegration to check the consistency of the cointegration relationship between agriculture growth and urbanization in the presence of other regressors. The empirical results showed that growth in the agriculture sector decreased urbanization. Whereas, problematic urbanization can be controlled through the development of the agriculture sector of the economy. The government can improve the agriculture sector by providing incentives to the farming community in the selected potential areas of agriculture, Like value addition and livestock. Improvement of the agricultural financial system of Pakistan can play a significant role. 
      PubDate: Tue, 03 May 2022 10:00:01 +000
       
  • Physiochemical comparison of black and green grapes varieties and sensory
           evaluation of jam in punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Rimsha Umer; Ambreen Naz, Kashif Razzaq, Nighat Raza, Umar Farooq, Misbah Sharif, Nosheen Naz, Shabbir Ahmad, Ummara Waheed
      Abstract: To achieve food security, the contribution of fruits is viewed as equally important to major crops. Because fruits are rich in nutrients too. In this study, two varieties of grapes i.e., green (Sundarkhani) and black (NARC Black) are compared through their proximate, antioxidant, and total phenolic content determination through respective methods. Afterward, the analyzed grape varieties were subjected to Jam development. The produced jams from both varieties were assessed for total soluble solids, pH and acidity. Considering the implications for the dietary intake, a sensory evaluation was conducted on a fortnightly basis for the period of two months. Findings regarding physiochemical comparison showed that both varieties were statistically different in terms of moisture, crude fat, crude fiber, total phenolic content, titratable acidity, and Ph and TSS. Findings regarding, sensory comparison of products proved that black grapes jam was more acceptable in general public as compared to green grapes jam. Black grapes jam depicted higher acceptance because of its higher overall acceptability, and maximum textural and flavour properties.   Sensory characteristics appearance, texture, color, flavor, aroma, and overall acceptability of jam appeared to decrease with storage. This implies that the byproducts of the grapes can be helping farmers to achieve food security and also earn capital by domesticating the by-products on households level. However, this objective cannot be achieved without the synergic working of institutes like horticulture, post-harvest and agricultural extension, who are the front-line workers for the farmers' assistance. 
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 13:00:52 +000
       
  • Potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis for agro forestry and energy
           plantation on problem soils

    • Authors: Nasim I. But; Amer Saleem, Sarwat N. Mirza, Muhammad Haneef
      Abstract: Pakistan is facing an energy and water crisis, and on the other hand, the prominent acreage of land is unsuitable for the cultivation of crops because of salinity and waterlogging. Thus, eucalyptus could be the most suited option in those soils which are currently unused. This study was conducted in Mochiwala plantation (Chak 178/JB) having normal soil and Shorkot irrigated forest plantation having saline and water-logged soil situated in district Jhang. The major objectives of the study were to explore the potential of eucalyptus species for agroforestry and energy plantation on problem soils. For this study, successive surveys were conducted to collect data from the farmers regarding the agro-forestry potential of eucalyptus. Whereas, calorific values of the wood samples were calculated through the bomb cylinder and bucket technique. Further, the thermal properties of the wood samples were also examined. The findings indicated that Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Farash (Tamarix aphylla), Kikar (Vachellia nilotica) and Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) were the dominating species cultivated by the farmers for agroforestry purposes. About 72.5% of respondents had cultivation of these trees around the boundary of their land. Agro-forestry was significantly contributing economically to the farmers as they were getting Rs. 40000/- to Rs. 50000/- per annum from these trees in addition to major crops i.e. rice, Moong, Wheat and Corn. The highest calorific value of Eucalyptus camaldulensis is reported as 4900 K. cal/gm in normal soil, 4909 K. cal/gm in treated saline soil and 4750 K. cal/gm in treated water-logged soil. This implies that treated saline and treated waterlogged soils have strong potential for energy plantations.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Apr 2022 12:10:06 +000
       
  • Comparing the information deficiency among registered and non-registered
           vegetables growers in peri-urban areas of District Lahore

    • Authors: Shafiq-ur-Rehman Zia, Ijaz Ashraf, Khalid Mahmood Ch; Chaudhary M. Ayub
      Abstract: Information is augmented as much needed for the farmers in the process of making decisions and adopting recommended production technologies. Therefore, we compared the information deficiency among registered and non-registered vegetable farmers in the peri-urban areas of district Lahore. The study was quantitative and a total of 360 vegetable growers (180 registered and 180 non-registered growers) participated in this study as respondents. The respondents were interviewed face to face on a validated and structured interview schedule. The collected data were analyzed with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). T-statistics were applied to the data to compare the information deficiency. T-statistics indicated that information regarding seed rate, seed section, sowing methods and land preparation had a statistically highly significant mean difference (P=0.000) between the registered and non-registered growers. Nursery raising, irrigation application, fertilizer application and varieties were statistically significant (P<0.05). Whereas, sowing time, transplanting, maintenance of plant population, insect/pests/disease identification, insect/pest management and harvesting were statistically non-significant (P0.05) indicating no mean difference. As for as constraints were concerned, lack of participation of farmers in extension activities, access to resources and lack of motivation were the significant (P<0.05) constraints in wake of accessing information. This study concludes that information deficiency was existing among farmers, which needs to be alleviated through the integration of modern information dissemination tools, increased access to extensions services and giving motivation to the farmers by increasing their involvement in extension activities in particular. 
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Apr 2022 11:21:00 +000
       
  • Training needs of agricultural extension agents regarding climate change
           in Egypt

    • Authors: Tamer G. I. Mansour; Mahmoud A.M. Al-Ruwaini
      Abstract: This study aimed to identify the training needs of agricultural extension agents in the Kafr El-Sheikh governorate regarding climate changes, their sources of knowledge, the role they played, and the challenges that hindered their role coping with climate changes. Data were collected through a questionnaire from 105 respondents from August to September 2021. Findings unveiled that 55.2% of the respondents fell into the age group 48-54 years, 81.9% of respondents had University Education, and 81.9% of respondents were specialized in agricultural extension. Colleagues were the most important sources of information about climate changes for the respondents., Newspapers, magazines, and radio programs came in lagging ranks as an information source. The results further showed that the respondents had good knowledge about climate change. Agricultural extension agents have undertaken many activities to reduce the negative effects of climate change including, raising farmers' awareness about the dangers of burning agricultural waste 67.6%, the importance of preserving and maintaining natural resources 61%, and the importance of planting adapted varieties to climate change 2.55%. The most important obstacles facing the respondents were the difficulty of accessing weather information promptly, lack of training courses, and lack of a clear extension policy to confront this phenomenon. 
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Mar 2022 11:46:14 +000
       
  • Agricultural extension systems response to covid-19 outbreak in Egypt and
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Ola M.S. Elkashef; Tamer G. I. Mansour, Oyediran W. Oyeleke
      Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has brought setbacks to all human endeavours globally, in the sectors of health, education, tourism, and agriculture. African agriculture is greatly affected by the pandemic and lockdown, in particular the peasant farmers. In this regard, the agricultural extension service which has been responsible for the dissemination of innovation to the farmers becomes an indispensable platform to sensitize farmers on COVID-19 and preventive measures. Hence, this paper aimed to investigate the agricultural extension systems' response to the COVID-19 outbreak in Egypt and Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to 200 extension agents randomly selected from the government institutions in Egypt and Nigeria. The results showed that the degree of agricultural extension staff commitment to the precautionary measures for the COVID-19 epidemic in Nigeria (x̄ = 6.32) was higher than that in Egypt (x̄= 2.59). Nigerian agricultural extension agents recorded a higher contribution (x̄=8.82) at reducing the spread of COVID-19 than Egyptian counterparts (x̄ = 5.52). Although the demand for agricultural extension service in Nigeria is twice that of Egypt, extension service delivery during COVID-19 in the two countries was affected by frequent changes in the operating plans, poor funding, and inconsistent internal work system. The study recommends, establishing an electronic extension platform and coordinating agricultural extension services (AES) actors including private and public sectors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), producer organizations (POs) and the ministry of health (MOH) to face this crisis, especially in Egypt.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2022 18:24:39 +000
       
  • Socio-economic, farm, and information variables influencing farmer’s
           decision to adopt a sustainable way of cotton production

    • Authors: Hafiz Z. Mehmood; Azhar Abbas, Sarfraz Hassan, Raza Ullah
      Abstract: Conventional cotton production in Pakistan is viewed as no more productive due to the increasing costs of production and environmental degradation. The better cotton initiative (BCI) is one of the eminent sustainable ways of producing cotton in Pakistan. Although, the majority of cotton growers are still associated with conventional farming. This study examined the socio-economic factors affecting the participation of farmers in a better cotton initiative program. A survey of cotton growers, using multistage random sampling technique, was conducted in three cotton-growing districts of Punjab from three different agro-ecological zones. Primary as well as secondary (where necessary) data were taken from a sample of a total of 399 farmers (BCI as well as non-BCI) and WWF-P respectively for analysis. IBM SPSS statistics 20 was used for statistical and econometric estimations. Results indicate that farmers’ education, farming experience, the area under cotton, contact with BCI staff, contact with BCI registered farmers, perceptions about the higher cost of production, more price than conventional cotton production have a significant positive effect on the adoption of ‘Better cotton’ (BC) production. Land ownership and age of respondents were statistically non-significant with adoption. Poor health status also has a significant positive relationship with the adoption of BC farming. The study findings imply that adoption of BC can be accelerated by increasing farmers' education, training, and communication with the BCI team, and, most significantly, by pricing BC produce fairly.
      PubDate: Sat, 05 Mar 2022 07:15:21 +000
       
  • Yield and quality assessment of grapevine cultivar Sultnina at different
           geographic locations of Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Naveeda Anjum; Muhammad A. Feroze, Safia N. Malik, Bushra Zulfiqar, Rizwan Rafique, Monis H. Shah, Anjum Javed, Muhammad Asif, Saeed Ahmad, Chaudhary M. Ayub, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Azam
      Abstract: The yield potential of Grape is heavily dependent on climatic and various other edaphic factors. The present study is focused on the adaptability of Spanish grapes variety Sultanina in comparison with commercial cultivar Abassin in different regions of Punjab for further recommendation to local farmers to get better yield and profitability. Propagation material as cuttings of Sultanina was imported from Spain in 2012. Vines of Sultanina and Abbasin were planted at a distance of 6×10 feet during the year 2013 at six locations in different regions of Punjab to evaluate adaptability and yield potential. The present study aims at evaluating the performance of the new variety Sultanina against Abbasin based on berry physical and quality traits. Sultanina performed better in the highlands of Punjab with average cluster weight (292.46g), appearance (7.1) average fruit yield (11.67 kg/Plant), shelf life (92.34 Hr) and acidity (0.30%) were highest in Chakwal Region (CHK-I and II), while TSS (20.04%) were observed higher in hotter regions of RYK and BWP. Sultanina is better adapted in highlands of Punjab such as Chakwal and Attock regions and hence it is recommended for better yield and quality.

      PubDate: Sat, 12 Feb 2022 09:14:30 +000
       
  • Contemporary trends of agroforestry in desert areas of the Punjab,
           Pakistan

    • Authors: Amjad Saeed; Gulfam Hassan, Ijaz Ashraf, Shabbir Ahmad, Sadia Aslam
      Abstract: Pakistan imported raw wood and wood products worth $37 million during 2019-20. This import bill can easily be curtailed by exploiting the potential of agroforestry. This study was conducted to analyze the contemporary trends of agroforestry in the deserts of Punjab province. Total 120 respondents were identified and chosen purposively from sub-district Noor Pur Thal of district Khushab for the face-to-face interviews on a validated and pre-tested questionnaire. The study was purely quantitative and based on the descriptive cross-sectional survey research design. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive techniques on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results indicated that the educational level of respondents in the desert area was not so good as around half of respondents had no formal education. Of the different tree species, Farash (Tamarix aphylla), Sufeda (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and Sheesham (Dalbergia sissoo) were the most profitable and well-adjusted trees in the desert areas. Of the total respondents, 32.5% agreed that trees reduced soil erosion and around one fifth (19.2%) of respondents perceived an increase in soil fertility due to trees plantation. About one-fourth of respondents had a concern that trees were competing with the other crops for nutrients especially when the areas are water-scarce. This implies that agroforestry has a promising future in the desert areas, however, the special initiatives on the promotion of agroforestry are much needed. Government agencies should consider the potential of agroforestry while planning for the future tree plantation drive.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jan 2022 19:14:04 +000
       
  • Using Wastewater for Agriculture in Faisalabad: Appraisal of
           Socio-Cultural and Economic Outcomes

    • Authors: Waseem Nawaz; Falak Sher, Zahira Batool, Muhammad Musa, Sadaf Mahmood
      Abstract: The urban slums deprived of basic human needs like drinking water, and sanitation facilities are spreading in major cities like Faisalabad, Karachi, and Lahore. The wastewater generated in houses and foul water of rain is being thrown away directly into open channels or in covered sewers. The wastewater collected at disposal stations either after treatment or as such is being used for agriculture purposes by farmers placed in surrounding villages. The reuse of wastewater for agriculture is influencing the physical ecosystem as well as cultural and socio-economic situations of the community. The study was carried out to appraise cultural and socio-economic outcomes of using wastewater for agriculture in Department of Sociology, Government College University Faisalabad during January-March 2020. The data were collected both from primary and secondary sources. Certain transact walks in area of the study were made and consultative meetings with key informants were also held. 60 farmers who were using wastewater for agriculture, were selected by simple random sampling techniques. The appraisal of data revealed that reuse of wastewater for agriculture activities had positive impacts on cultural and socio-economic aspects of the rural community. The results indicated that reuse of wastewater for agriculture activities had many positive impacts on cultural and socio-economic aspects of the rural population. Price of agricultural land, rent of land, and households’ monthly income were increased. Employment opportunities were also generated. The perception of community about most of the environmental improvement was better. However, perception of farmers about impact on public health, soil structure and groundwater resources were medium or low.  It is also concluded that use of wastewater for agriculture is a beneficial source of plant nutrients and organic matter required for retaining the richness and output levels of soil that enhance living standards of inhabitants and lessen poverty.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 12:00:59 +000
       
  • Agricultural Subsidies: Curse or Boon' -A review

    • Authors: Lal Priyanka; Sapna Jarial, Balwant S Chandel
      Abstract: In the literature, analysis of agricultural policy instruments captures economic or political interests indicating agricultural subsidies serve farmers by making unaffordable inputs inexpensive. However, there are positive and negative sides of the agricultural subsidy. The novelty of this paper is to review the existing literature and provide a conceptual framework on agricultural subsidies with a particular focus on livestock subsidies. The review summarises the evidence of past literature by first classifying the components on which subsidies were given, followed by establishing the relation between investment and subsidies, afterwards, its effect on farm households, and lastly on the long-term impact of subsidies. In India, subsidies safeguard agricultural food security and national security; aide farmers, yet a substantial portion of it supports the business and farmers in wealthier regions, causing variation in interstate agricultural growth through inequitable distribution. In the long run, subsidies will hurt sustainable development unless targeted appropriately. Ironically, the direct effect of subsidies on agriculture was positive which brought food sufficiency and indirectly it decelerated the investment in agriculture. In nutshell, the positive effect of subsidies cannot sustain; therefore, reinvestment in agriculture is encouraged. 
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jan 2022 18:04:30 +000
       
  • Response of rice to nitrogen rate and inter-row spacing at guraferda and
           gojeb south western Ethiopia

    • Authors: Ashenafi Abriham; Nibras Nazib
      Abstract: Rice is a major cereal crop in Gojeb and Guraferda areas. However, the crop yield is low due to lack of site-specific recommendations on Nitrogen rate and inter-row spacing. Accordingly, a field experiment was conducted at Gojeb and Guraferda, southern Ethiopia, in 2019 to evaluate the response of rice to Nitrogen rate (0,32, 64, and 96kg) and inter-row spacing (20cm, 25cm and 30cm) during the rainy season. The treatments laid out on Randomized complete block design with three replications. The phenological and yield related parameters were recorded. Analysis of variance done by using SAS version 9.3 and mean separation for significant treatments were done by least significant difference. Results of the study indicated that both Nitrogen fertilizer rate and inter-row spacing had a significant effect on growth and yield parameters. As a result, total number of tillers and grain yield were highly significantly (p<0.01) affected by main effects of Nitrogen fertilizer rate and inter-row spacing. However, days to maturity and plant height were significantly (p<0.01) affected by Nitrogen fertilizer rate. Generally, 96kg of Nitrogen fertilizer was found to be suitable for production of the highest grain yield (4090.5 kg ha-1). Inter-row spacing at 25 cm and 30 cm inter-row spacing had given the highest yield. Therefore, the outcome of this study revealed that the Nitrogen fertilizer rate of 96kg ha-1and inter-row spacing of 25 cm could be feasible and can be recommended for the study area with the assistance of extension field staff. 

      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jan 2022 17:59:44 +000
       
  • Climatic variability during cropping seasons in agroecological zones of
           Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad H. Abdullah; Adeel Ahmad, Abdul Saboor, Muhammad Aftab, Irfan A. Baig, Muhammad Iftikhar, Jawad Hussain
      Abstract: This study aimed at assessing the climatic temperature and precipitation across agroecological zones during cropping seasons. Moreover, climatic variations in Pakistan for both parameters were gauged across defined Agroecological zones comprising both cropping seasons traditionally known as Rabi (Winter/Wheat growing) and Kharif (Autumn/Rice growing). Targeting comprehensive analysis, each season further disintegrated in the three stages i.e. sowing, flowering and harvesting stages. We incorporated meteorological data from 1961 to 2017, further climatic parameters extracted by employing a 30-years moving average of monthly means. The study revealed that the three zones having rugged topography were highly vulnerable during Rabi (Winter/Wheat growing) Season having +0.5oC variation in climatic temperature, whereas more than 20mm steep rise in climatic precipitation, it may cause increased or frequent flooding in lower plains. While the zones having smooth and plane topography are much susceptible during Kharif (Autumn/Rice growing) Season having + 0.75oC variation in climatic temperature, whereas more than 10mm decline in climatic precipitation which may lead to drought conditions. Vulnerability in climatic parameters become uncertain and intense which leads to extreme events. However, variation of climatic parameters elevated from +1oC to +1.75oC and from + 25mm to + 40mm respectively during last five decades. It indicates severe threats for agriculture production particularly and sustainability in general. There is a dire need of promoting adaptation strategies to mitigate the risk for the growing population of Pakistan. 
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jan 2022 17:09:30 +000
       
  • Growth performance of the huntsman spider (spariolenus aratta) based on
           different feed sources

    • Authors: Tehillah Mwale; Calleb Olweny, Andika Darius
      Abstract: Spiders, though not heavily researched, hold the possible key to new and innovative development, by not only being a source of biological control for farmers aiding in the reduction in the use of pesticides and insecticides on farms. But also, by playing a role in food security. However, in spite of this potential, arachnids (spiders) have not been traditionally included into the formal scientific education as a feed source despite their abundance, familiarity and ease of maintenance in captivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected feed sources on the performance of huntsman spider (Spariolenus aratta). The spiders were reared for a period of 14 weeks, with a total of 90 spiders under observation, fed on three feed sources; crickets, black soldier fly and fruit flies. The experimental design was completely randomized block design, replicated 3 times, with 10 spiders per experimental unit. The results were analyzed through the use of R software with least significant test and Pearson correlation test performed in order to determine the significant difference between the types of feed. Analysis for association was undertaken to determine if there was a relationship between the leg span and abdominal length and width during the period of the study (6 weeks). Results showed that spiders fed on crickets had significantly (P≤0.05) higher growth rate in comparison with those that were fed on black soldier fly larva and fruit flies. Additionally, there was positive association (r = 1) between feed in relation to; leg span growth, abdominal length as well as abdominal width during the period of the study. In conclusion based on the three feeds supplied to the spiders’, crickets were best in achieving leg and abdominal growth with means; 0.46cm for leg span, 0.34cm for abdominal length and 0.16cm for abdominal width.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jan 2022 16:53:32 +000
       
 
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