Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 963 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (662 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (662 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted by number of followers
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nature Plants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
New Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Italian Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
EU Agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Cubana de Ciencia Agrícola     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Apicultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progressive Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RIA. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Jurnal Agroteknologi     Open Access  
Perspectivas Rurales Nueva Época     Open Access  
Organic Farming     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Landtechnik : Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Agriculture System     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Pastura : Journal Of Tropical Forage Science     Open Access  
Journal of Citrus Pathology     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de las Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports     Open Access  
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Fave : Sección ciencias agrarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Review of Agrarian Studies     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nigeria Agricultural Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nativa     Open Access  
SAARC Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrosearch     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access  
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
Ceiba     Open Access  
Research in Sierra Leone Studies : Weave     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Encuentro     Open Access  
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Landbohistorisk Tidsskrift     Open Access  
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologia Postcosecha     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Bioagro     Open Access  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access  
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Journal of Apicultural Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.345
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1643-4439 - ISSN (Online) 2299-4831
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [371 journals]
  • Role of Entomophily and Artificial Pollination in Enhancing Quality and
           Yield of Seed Onion ( L.) in Indian Himalayas

    • Abstract: Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a highly cross pollinated crop that needs insect pollination (entomophily) for optimum seed set. In the present study, more than 120 insect species were noted to visit onion flowers, out of which fifty-nine species were collected through in-situ sampling technique and identified up to species level. The Indian bee (Apis cerana indica) was the most abundant insect pollinator visiting onion flowers in the study location. The pollination behaviour and foraging activity of A. c. indica were assessed, and the pollen foragers were observed to be swift flyers visiting a significantly higher number of flowers per minute during the peak flowering period and spending less time per flower (3 seconds) to collect nectar from deep seated nectaries of the flowers. The seed yield enhancement assessed through entomophily and artificial pollination methods showed that the open pollinated flowers recorded the highest yield statistically, followed by A. c. indica and A. mellifera pollinated flowers. However in artificial pollination treatments, sponge puff pollinated flowers recorded significantly high seed yield per hectare and percentage seed set per umbel, followed by camel brush, hand gloves (cloth) and hand gloves (rubber). In conclusion, all the cross pollination treatments were statistically significant on the closed pollination treatment concerning to the entire yield parameters calculated.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Surveillance of Viruses in Samples Collected from Honey Bee Colonies in
           Ontario, Canada, between 2015 and 2019

    • Abstract: Varroa destructor parasitism is associated with extreme honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony losses in the northern hemisphere. Varroa destructor causes severe damage, including a decrease in bee longevity and immunosuppression, and acts as a vector for viruses, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV-A). The surveillance of viral pathogens in V. destructor samples is essential to assess risks of emerging virulent viral variants (such as VDV-1) and evaluate their impact on honey bee health. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify viral pathogens in V. destructor and honey bee samples collected in Ontario, Canada, from 2015 to 2019 with the use of metagenomics and real time PCR (qPCR). DWV-A and VDV-1 had the highest abundance of viral transcripts (7.5 log2 and 5.72 log2, respectively). Acute bee paralysis virus (APBV) and Bee macula virus were also identified. Viral identification and quantification in V. destructor samples using metagenomics will facilitate the surveillance of viral pathogens. This surveillance technique will assist diagnostic laboratories in delivering timely and accurate diagnoses and risk assessments, which in turn will help honey bee producers to take adequate measures to mitigate the damage caused by V. destructor and associated viruses.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Factors Affecting Quality of Honey Bee Venom

    • Abstract: Honeybee venom (HBV) is an important product of beehives, and its benefits for health have been rediscovered by modern medicine. Since HBV has the potential to treat some diseases, its quality and production conditions require a detailed investigation. The objective of this study is to understand how season, harvesting time (day or night), harvesting site of beehives (inside or entrance) and geographic location affects quality through the analysis of apamin, melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) content. Each set of six colonies were used to understand the differences in these components when HBV is harvested in the daytime either from the entrance or inside of the hives and nighttime from the inside of the hives. The experiment also investigated seasonal differences as the samples were harvested each month from May to August 2019 in our apiary. Furthermore, the effect of geographic location on quality was examined through the comparison of the data obtained from twenty-seven samples collected by beekeepers using the same device, located in the Turkish cities of Manisa, Muğla, Balıkesir, Düzce and Mersin. The results demonstrated that statistically significant differences in the amounts of analyzed components were not dependent on harvesting time, collection site on the beehives or season. On the other hand, region samples significantly differed in the amounts of all three components, ranging from 1.28% to 3.81% for apamin, 19.51–64.03% for melittin and 7.22%–28.18% for PLA2. However, beekeepers’ improper practices during harvesting and storing might be the most critical parameters that determine the quality of HBV.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Occurrence and Molecular Phylogeny of Economically Relevant Viruses
           Infecting Honey Bees ( L.) of Bingöl Province, Turkey

    • Abstract: In this study, we conducted a six-month survey to evaluate the current status of three common honey bee viruses (black queen cell virus [BQCV], acute bee paralysis virus [ABPV], and sacbrood virus [SBV]) in Turkey’s Bingöl region and revealed their phylogenetic relationships with the same types of viruses in other parts of the world. We randomly sampled 384 worker honey bees from a total of 128 apiaries from different locations of this region. Molecular tests confirmed the presence of SBV and BQCV, with infection rates of 7.03% and 11.7%, respectively, but ABPV could not be detected in any of the surveyed apiaries. In addition, double infection was detected in an apiary with an infection rate of 0.78%. The sequences of a partial polyprotein gene region of a randomly selected isolate from each detected virus were collected and registered in GenBank under the accession numbers MZ357971 and MZ357972 for SBV and MZ357974 for BQCV. The nucleotide sequence similarity of Turkish BQCV and SBV isolates was 75.71–96.58% and 85.96–92.98%, respectively. A comparison of the phylogenetic tree of Bingöl honey bee viral genomes with other isolates from around the world revealed that Bingöl SBV isolates were closely related to another Turkey isolate while Bingöl BQCV isolate to France, Italy, Australia, and Brazil isolates. To our knowledge, the presence and phylogenetic affinity of SBV and BQCV viruses detected in the present study is the first recording for Turkey’s Bingöl province.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pathogen Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Murray in South Korea

    • Abstract: The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida Murray, is a parasite of honey bee colonies and causes the fermentation of honey as well as colony collapse. Outbreaks have been confirmed in Africa, America, Europe as well as Asia, where an outbreak was reported in the Philippines and South Korea in 2014 and 2017, respectively. In South Korea, in September 2016, this honey bee parasite was first identified in apiaries in Miryang, Gyeongnam Province. However, the invasion pathway of SHB has not been identified, and honey bee pathogens harbored by SHB have not been well characterized. Therefore, phylogenetic analysis of SHB with the use of COI gene and detection of fourteen common honey bee pathogens were conducted in this study. The confirmation of the fourteen honey bee pathogens in SHB showed that this beetle carries black queen cell virus and deformed wing virus. Therefore, SHB could have a role in the spread of these viruses. The way of entry of the SHB to South Korea remains undetermined, but the phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene revealed that it was most similar to species found in the USA. There is an urgent need for national-level monitoring and quarantine measures for preventing the spread of SHB infestation in South Korea.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Simulated Climate Warming Influenced Colony Microclimatic Conditions and
           Gut Bacterial Abundance of Honeybee Subspecies and

    • Abstract: Ectothermic organisms including insects are highly vulnerable to climate warming which not only influences their biology, ecology and physiology but also affects their symbiotic gut microbiota. This study determined the impact of ambient (control) and simulated warmer (heating) climatic conditions on the microclimate of brood nest and gut bacterial abundance of two Apis mellifera subspecies i.e. A. mellifera ligustica and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan. For both subspecies, brood nest temperature and relative humidity under the heating treatment were significantly different (p≤0.001) than those under the control treatment. Quantitative PCR data revealed that the abundance of gut bacteria (16S rRNA gene copy numbers) of A. mellifera ligustica and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan larvae was significantly higher (P≤0.05), 1.73 and 5.32 fold higher respectively, during the heating treatment than those in control conditions. Although gut bacterial abundance of A. mellifera ligustica (1.67 × 107 copies g−1 fw) and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan (1.7 × 107 copies g−1 fw) larvae was similar during the control treatment, A. mellifera sinisxinyuan larvae exhibited three times greater gut bacterial abundance than A. mellifera ligustica during the heating treatment. Similarly, adult A. mellifera sinisxinyuan bees harboured significantly greater bacterial abundance during the heating treatment than control. These findings elucidate that climate warming may significantly affect the honeybee colony microclimate and their gut bacterial abundance. However, further studies are needed to better understand how gut microbial community may influence the learning, physiological and behavioural mechanisms of the host bees in a climate warming scenario.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Influence of the Type of Pollen Diet on the Survival, Body Weight, and
           Immune Response in the African Honeybee

    • Abstract: Pollen nutrition is critical for the development and well-being of the honeybee. Previous studies have compared the effect of pollen and carbohydrate-only diet on honeybee physiology. The effect of a monofloral versus polyfloral diet on the African honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) is poorly understood. This knowledge is critical as diversity-rich habitats are being altered to less diverse environments through increased urbanization and intensified agricultural activities, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we report how lowly diverse (LD) and highly diverse (HD) pollen diets influence honeybee life-history traits and physiology. To achieve this, we fed caged bees with the two pollen diets and tested their effects on the parameters of survival, body weight, pollen consumption, and immune response. HD-fed bees had significantly higher survival and greater pollen consumption than LD-fed bees. However, LD-fed bees were heavier than HD-fed bees. The correlation between body weight gain and pollen consumption was expressed strongly in HD-fed bees than in LD-fed bees. Overall, our findings reveal the benefits that the highly diverse polyfloral diets provide to honeybee workers. This study shows how pollen diversity influences honeybee life-history traits, thus informing the need for conserving the biodiversity of environments for safeguarding the health of honeybees and other pollinators.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Morphometric and Genetic Characterization of Honey Bees ( L.) From Thrace
           Region of Turkey

    • Abstract: A detailed morphological and genetic characterization of honey bees from the Thrace and west Anatolian regions of Turkey was surveyed. A total of 1650 worker bee samples (110 colonies) were evaluated with the forty-one morphological characters and 217 honey bee samples were analyzed via DNA sequencing of the tRNAleu-cox2 region. In this study, three different populations, Thrace (Tekirdağ, Kırklareli and Edirne provinces), Island Gökçeada, and western Anatolia were formed based on morphometrics, since the Marmara Sea has taken a very strong barrier role in this formation. The morphological similarity of the Thrace population was supported by the genetic analysis. The sequencing of the tRNAleu-cox2 region revealed twenty-two different haplotypes, sixteen of which are novel. The C2d, macedonica-like haplotype, was the most widely found haplotype (48%) all around the Thrace region. Along with the C2d haplotype, previously published C2s, C2v, C2i, C2j, and C2h haplotypes, and the newly found haplotypes were also observed but less frequently. In this study, Thrace honey bees were found to more similar to A. m. macedonica through the mtDNA sequence analysis, whereas carnica-like honey bees were only found near the Istranca mountain ridges, Kırklareli province and macedonica-like honey bees all around the Thrace region. According to our results, some of the Thrace honey bee populations may be both A. m. carnica and A. m. macedonica but the assignment to the latter subspecies seems more likely due to its geographic range.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Use of L. for Pollination of Mill. Cultivated in Greenhouse Environment
           During Winter Period

    • Abstract: In this study, the pollinating potential of the red mason bee (Osmia bicornis syn. O. rufa) in seed production of a major ornamental plant - Persian cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum), was evaluated under horticultural farm conditions. The study was conducted under a greenhouse environment for five months, from October to the end of February. The juvenile hormone analogue methoprene supported the termination of bee diapause. Experimental results from Osmia pollination plots were compared with control plots that applied the hand-pollination method. Plants with flowers pollinated by the solitary bee had significantly more fruits than those pollinated by the hand method in November, December and February. In addition, significantly more seeds per capsule were produced by plants pollinated by O. bicornis from December to February. Finally, plants pollinated by Osmia bees produced more seeds than those hand-pollinated at all experimental months. These results showed that if the diapause of O. bicornis is successfully broken, this bee can be a very efficient pollinator in greenhouse environments, even during winter.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Flowering, Forage Value, and Insect Pollination in Borage ( L.) Cultivated
           in Se Poland

    • Abstract: The three-year study on borage was conducted in Lublin, SE Poland. The aims were to investigate the flowering pattern and abundance, and the attractiveness (in terms of nectar and pollen production) for flower-visiting insects, mainly bees. Insect visitation and the effect of pollinators on fruit set and seed set were assessed as well. Flowering of borage started in the latter half of June and lasted eight weeks. The mean number of flowers · m−2 of the crop was 4570 per season. A borage flower produced on average 4.0 mg of nectar with a mean sugar concentration of 31.5%. The mean total sugar amount secreted in nectar was 1.2 mg. The pollen amount · flower−1 was 1.1 mg. A borage plant can supply insects with 1.1 g of nectar sugars and 1.1 g of pollen. The estimated nectar sugar yield and pollen yield per 1 m2 of the crop were similar, i.e. 5.2 g. Bees accounted for 73.0% of all insect visits to the borage flowers. The presence of insect pollinators increased the fruit set by 43.3% and seed set by 26.8%.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Radiation Disinfestation of Honeybee Combs Infested with Greater Wax Moth

    • Abstract: The sensitivity of different developmental stages of greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L.) eggs to gamma irradiation was examined. Eggs, 25 to 144 h-old, were exposed at 48 h intervals to gamma radiation dosages (50 to 400 Gy), and the effects on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence were investigated. The developmental rate of irradiated-egg larvae and pupae to adult stage was also studied. Results showed that the irradiation sensitivity of G. mellonella eggs decreased with increased age of the eggs when irradiated. In 25–48 h-old eggs, 50 Gy dose significantly reduced egg hatch and at 200 Gy dose no egg hatch was observed. Eggs 73–96 h-old were slightly more tolerant to irradiation treatment; hatching completely ceased at 250 Gy dose. Sensitivity to gamma irradiation reached its lowest level however when 121–144 h-old eggs (few h. before egg hatch) were irradiated. 350 Gy dose reduced egg hatch to about 3%, and at 400 Gy no egg hatch was noted. Survival to the adult stage was also negatively affected. At the most radio-tolerant stage (121–144 h-old), 100 Gy dose significantly reduced larval survival to the adult stage and 300 Gy completely prevented it. The development rate of larvae and pupae resulting from irradiated eggs was also negatively affected.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comparison of Different Pollen Substitutes for the Feeding of Laboratory
           Reared Bumble Bee () Colonies

    • Abstract: In bumble bee colonies, pollen is the only protein source for larval feeding and its shortage causes a distress in larval development. Adult bumble bees need pollen for the development of glands and the reproductive system. In bumble bee rearing, honey bee collected pollen is used as the main protein source, either as fresh-frozen or dried pellets, and pollen provisioning is the most problematic and expensive aspect of mass rearing. In honey bee breeding, pollen substitutes are used during the period of food shortage or to stimulate colony strength. We tested different protein diets (five commercial pollen substitutes and two natural protein sources) for the maintenance of bumble bee colonies in captivity. We further mixed Feedbee®, one of the substitutes that gave the best results, with different amounts of pollen to evaluate the optimal amount needed for the whole colony development. Although none of the pure protein diets alone were adequate, diets with a 1 to 1 and 1 to 3 ratio of Feedbee to pollen were both suitable for colony development and queen production. The colony consumed between 2 and 4 g per day of the Feedbee mixed diets, corresponding to a protein consumption of 0.75–0.85 g day−1. Nevertheless, the consumption rate of the pure pollen showed that a mean amount of protein between 0.4 and 0.5 g day−1 was enough to allow colony development indicating the suitability of Feedbee mixed diets.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sudden and Prevalent Deaths of Foraging Honey Bees in Early Spring During

    • Abstract: Between 2013 and 2018, there was an outbreak of sudden foraging honey bee deaths in Turkey’s Çukurova Region from the beginning of February to the middle of March, a period of time when the sowing of maize seeds occurs in the region. Upon returning, the affected bees were unable to enter the hive because of unbalanced flying and walking. Deaths were seen at apiaries located on plains or near plains where maize seeds were sowed. When winds blew from the direction of the plains towards the hives, honey bee deaths increased, but when the weather was rainy, honey bee deaths decreased or stopped. Honey bee losses were mainly between 30% and 80%. Investigations related to the honey bee deaths were carried out in the affected apiaries using on-site inspection and laboratory tests. The main reason of deaths would be linked to the clothianidin coated maize seeds used in the plain during sowing period. No remarkable correlation with any bee pathogens was detected related to the sudden and prevalent honey bee deaths.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • As Third Parasite Gastrointestinal Tract of Honey Bees Living in Tree

    • Abstract: Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) inhabiting trees in forests are not managed by humans or treated for pathogens; therefore, many researchers and beekeepers believe that viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases may lead to their decline. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. passim and Nosema spp. in feral colonies by real-time PCR. This study was performed on twenty-six samples of honey bees inhabiting tree trunks in north-eastern Poland. One sample consisted of sixty worker bee abdomens collected from hollow trees. Honey bees were sampled only from naturally colonized sites. Amplicons of the three evaluated pathogens were detected in twenty of the twenty-six tested samples. A significant correlation was observed between infection with three pathogens (N. apis, N. ceranae, L. passim) (r = 0.84) compared to infection with only two pathogens (N. apis and N. ceranae) (r = 0.49). N. ceranae was the predominant pathogen, but infections with various severity caused by L. passim were also noted in fourteen of the twenty-six tested samples. In view of the general scarcity of epidemiological data concerning coinfections with Nosema spp. and L. passim in honey bees in tree trunks in other countries, further research is needed to confirm the effect of concurrent pathogenic infections on the decline of bee colonies.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Optimization of Protein Feed Fermentation Process for Supplementation of
           Apis Mellifera Honeybees

    • Abstract: An alternative to natural food shortage for honeybees is the provision of supplements. The objective of this research was to develop a method with ideal conditions for the fermentation of a protein supplement for honeybees. The microorganisms used were Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Saccharomyces and the inulin prebiotic. There was an increase in lactic acid and a decrease in pH over a five-day fermentation period. The amount of acid bacteria present was 108–109 CFU/g of supplement. In the first phase the temperature and the humidity had significantly affected the fermentation but the variables inulin and probiotic didn’t. In the second phase, the lower temperatures and higher humidity produced the best effects on the fermentative responses. It was concluded that an ideal environment with temperature, humidity, inulin and probiotics could be created which allowed the fermentation of the protein supplement in five days obtaining final product fermentative characteristics close to bee bread.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Modified Standardized Method to Extract and Store Insect Hemolymph with
           Use of a Glass Capillary

    • Abstract: Hemolymph is the “blood” circulating in the entire insect body. Analysis of this fluid gives information about the condition of the insect. The most precise analyses are conducted on insects’ hemolymph suspended in 0.6% physiological saline (NaCl). Most current hemolymph extraction methods are either difficult or do not provide pure material, the contamination of collected insect “blood” can change results. This study aimed to develop a technique for extract hemolymph, both easy and without risk of contaminating derived material. The presented method is a modification of available ways to extract, store and transport hemolymph with the use of a glass capillary. For the development of this technique, adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were used. The method required such basic equipment as a glass capillary, sterile tweezer, Eppendorf tube and physiological saline. The collected hemolymph were frozen and hence sent in a glass capillary to another laboratory for analysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Prospects and Validity of Laboratory Cage Tests Conducted in Honeybee
           Research Part Two: New Possibilities for Use of Laboratory Cage Tests in
           Response to Challenges Revealed at the Turn of the 20 and 21 Centuries

    • Abstract: Nowadays, cell cultures are a standard tool in animal biotechnology, but the problem with honeybees is the constant lack of appropriate cell lines to be used in in vitro research. Until the imperfections of bee tissue cultures are resolved, researchers have to conduct experiments on bees in laboratory cage tests (LCTs).At the turn of the 21st century many new hazards for beekeeping appeared. An early recognized problem was the Colony Collapse Disorder and Honey Bee Depopulation Syndrome, which were associated with the harmfulness of pesticides and strictly linked with a decline in bee immunity. Such problems in LCTs were attempted to be resolved through research on the interactions between biostimulators and antiparasitic drugs. LCTs allow the relationship between the dose of a specific factor and its impact to be determined, which can be used in the establishment of reference values. Furthermore, LCTs may be a useful tool in understanding the function and role of bee gut flora.Using the honeybee as an animal model is possible thanks to knowledge of the honeybee genome and bee biology and the similarity between some physiological and biochemical processes and those occurring in humans. So far, LCTs have been used to understand better human aging, learning and gene expression regulating. This is facilitated by the advanced development of medicine and molecular genetics, and in the future the use of honeybees may become a standard in biochemical or gerontological research.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Foraging Behavior of Honeybees ( L.) and Ground Bumblebees ( L.) and its
           Influence on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Oil Tree Peony Cultivar
           ‘Fengdan’ ( T. Hong et J. X. Zhang)

    • Abstract: Oil peony (Paeonia spp.) is a new type of woody oil crop in China with a large cultivation area. Inadequate pollination is one of the main reasons for low seed yield. A pollination net room was built at an oil tree peony base, the numbers of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and ground bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were artificially increased and the foraging behaviors and daily activities of the two bees on the plants were observed. Four different pollination methods (honeybee pollination, ground bumblebee pollination, natural field pollination and pollination without insects) were applied. The visit interval, single-flower visit time, number of single-flower visits, number of flowers visited per minute and number of stigma contacts were compared. Meanwhile, the effects of honeybee and bumblebee pollination on the oil yield and quality of peony seeds were compared. There were noticeable differences in daily activity between honeybees and ground bumblebees. Significant differences in the single-flower visit time, visit interval and visit frequency were also observed; honeybee and ground bumblebee pollination increased the seed yield of oil tree peony by 78.74% and 31.88%, respectively. Therefore, both honeybees and ground bumblebees are effective pollinators of oil tree peony. These results provide a theoretical basis for further utilization of bee resources for oil tree peony pollination.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of Bacterial Cell-Free Supernatant on Nutritional Parameters of
           and Their Toxicity Against

    • Abstract: Apis mellifera L. is an essential pollinator that is currently being affected by several stressors that disturb their ecological function and produce colony losses. Colonies are being seriously affected by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. The relationship between stressors and bee symbionts is being studied in order to enhance bee health. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii AJ5, Enterococcus faecium SM21 and Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Mori2 on A. mellifera nutritional parameters and their toxicity against V. destructor. Toxicity and survival bioassays were conducted on adult bees with different concentrations of CFSs. Nutritional parameters such as soluble proteins and fat bodies in abdomens were measured. Varroa destructor toxicity was analyzed by a contact exposure method and via bee hemolymph. At low concentrations, two of CFSs tends to enhance bee survival. Remarkably fat bodies maintained their levels with all CFS concentrations in the abdomens, and soluble protein increased at a high concentration of two CFSs. Toxicity against V. destructor was observed only via hemolymph, and results were in agreement with the treatment that produced an increase in bee proteins. Finally, CFS produced by L. johnsonii AJ5 could be a promising natural alternative for strengthening bee health.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Histochemical Staining of Acetylcholinesterase in Carnolian Honeybee ()
           Brain after Chronic Exposure to Organophosphate Diazinon

    • Abstract: Organophosphate insecticides are known to inhibit the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase. They affect olfactory learning and memory formation in honeybees. These insecticides cause mushroom body inactivation in honeybees, but their influence on other brain regions involved in olfactory perception and memory is unknown. The goal of this study was to study the effects of organophosphate insecticide diazinon on carnolian honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) acetylcholinesterase activity in the olfactory brain regions of antennal lobe, mushroom body and lateral procerebrum (lateral horn). The lamina, medulla and lobula of optic lobes were also analyzed. The level of acetylcholinesterase activity was visualized using the histochemical staining method. Densitometric analysis of histochemical signals indicated that diazinon inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity only in the lip of calyces of mushroom body, but not in other analyzed olfactory regions, antennal lobe and lateral procerebrum. The visual brain system optic lobes were also unaffected. This is in accordance with the literature reporting that mushroom body is the main brain center for olfactory learning and memory formation in honeybees.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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