Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 201 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control     Open Access  
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EU Agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Farm Engineering and Automation Technology Journal     Open Access  
Fave : Sección ciencias agrarias     Open Access  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Florea : Jurnal Biologi dan Pembelajarannya     Open Access  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Oecologica     Open Access  
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science     Open Access  
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental and Applied Agriculture     Open Access  
Future Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Gema Agro     Open Access  
Geoderma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture & Health Sciences     Open Access  
Gontor Agrotech Science Journal     Open Access  
Hacquetia     Open Access  
Health Economics, Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Heliyon     Open Access  
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Horticultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IDESIA : Revista de Agricultura en Zonas Áridas     Open Access  
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Extension Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Horticulture     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access  
Innovare Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations in Agriculture     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Dairy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture Innovation, Technology and Globalisation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Dairy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Fruit Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Green Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Pest Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of the Economics of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Vegetable Science     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources : IJ-FANRES     Open Access  
International Letters of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Multidisciplinary Research Journal     Open Access  
International Review of Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Scientific Journal of Engineering and Technology (ISJET)     Open Access  
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Irrigation Australia: The Official Journal of Irrigation Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal (Australian Native Plants Society. Canberra Region)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal für Kulturpflanzen     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agrarian Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Production     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Agromedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science, Biology and Bioeconomy     Open Access  
Journal of Apicultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Communications     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205)
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biosystems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cereal Research     Open Access  
Journal of Cereal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Citrus Pathology     Open Access  
Journal of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Cotton Research     Open Access  
Journal of Dairy Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Economic Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Extension Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Halal Product and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Horticultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Horticulture and Postharvest Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Hemp     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Integrative Agriculture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Modern Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Journal of Apicultural Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.345
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1643-4439 - ISSN (Online) 2299-4831
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Flowering, Forage Value, and Insect Pollination in Borage ( L.) Cultivated
           in Se Poland

    • Abstract: The three-year study on borage was conducted in Lublin, SE Poland. The aims were to investigate the flowering pattern and abundance, and the attractiveness (in terms of nectar and pollen production) for flower-visiting insects, mainly bees. Insect visitation and the effect of pollinators on fruit set and seed set were assessed as well. Flowering of borage started in the latter half of June and lasted eight weeks. The mean number of flowers · m−2 of the crop was 4570 per season. A borage flower produced on average 4.0 mg of nectar with a mean sugar concentration of 31.5%. The mean total sugar amount secreted in nectar was 1.2 mg. The pollen amount · flower−1 was 1.1 mg. A borage plant can supply insects with 1.1 g of nectar sugars and 1.1 g of pollen. The estimated nectar sugar yield and pollen yield per 1 m2 of the crop were similar, i.e. 5.2 g. Bees accounted for 73.0% of all insect visits to the borage flowers. The presence of insect pollinators increased the fruit set by 43.3% and seed set by 26.8%.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Radiation Disinfestation of Honeybee Combs Infested with Greater Wax Moth
           Eggs

    • Abstract: The sensitivity of different developmental stages of greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L.) eggs to gamma irradiation was examined. Eggs, 25 to 144 h-old, were exposed at 48 h intervals to gamma radiation dosages (50 to 400 Gy), and the effects on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence were investigated. The developmental rate of irradiated-egg larvae and pupae to adult stage was also studied. Results showed that the irradiation sensitivity of G. mellonella eggs decreased with increased age of the eggs when irradiated. In 25–48 h-old eggs, 50 Gy dose significantly reduced egg hatch and at 200 Gy dose no egg hatch was observed. Eggs 73–96 h-old were slightly more tolerant to irradiation treatment; hatching completely ceased at 250 Gy dose. Sensitivity to gamma irradiation reached its lowest level however when 121–144 h-old eggs (few h. before egg hatch) were irradiated. 350 Gy dose reduced egg hatch to about 3%, and at 400 Gy no egg hatch was noted. Survival to the adult stage was also negatively affected. At the most radio-tolerant stage (121–144 h-old), 100 Gy dose significantly reduced larval survival to the adult stage and 300 Gy completely prevented it. The development rate of larvae and pupae resulting from irradiated eggs was also negatively affected.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Comparison of Different Pollen Substitutes for the Feeding of Laboratory
           Reared Bumble Bee () Colonies

    • Abstract: In bumble bee colonies, pollen is the only protein source for larval feeding and its shortage causes a distress in larval development. Adult bumble bees need pollen for the development of glands and the reproductive system. In bumble bee rearing, honey bee collected pollen is used as the main protein source, either as fresh-frozen or dried pellets, and pollen provisioning is the most problematic and expensive aspect of mass rearing. In honey bee breeding, pollen substitutes are used during the period of food shortage or to stimulate colony strength. We tested different protein diets (five commercial pollen substitutes and two natural protein sources) for the maintenance of bumble bee colonies in captivity. We further mixed Feedbee®, one of the substitutes that gave the best results, with different amounts of pollen to evaluate the optimal amount needed for the whole colony development. Although none of the pure protein diets alone were adequate, diets with a 1 to 1 and 1 to 3 ratio of Feedbee to pollen were both suitable for colony development and queen production. The colony consumed between 2 and 4 g per day of the Feedbee mixed diets, corresponding to a protein consumption of 0.75–0.85 g day−1. Nevertheless, the consumption rate of the pure pollen showed that a mean amount of protein between 0.4 and 0.5 g day−1 was enough to allow colony development indicating the suitability of Feedbee mixed diets.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sudden and Prevalent Deaths of Foraging Honey Bees in Early Spring During
           

    • Abstract: Between 2013 and 2018, there was an outbreak of sudden foraging honey bee deaths in Turkey’s Çukurova Region from the beginning of February to the middle of March, a period of time when the sowing of maize seeds occurs in the region. Upon returning, the affected bees were unable to enter the hive because of unbalanced flying and walking. Deaths were seen at apiaries located on plains or near plains where maize seeds were sowed. When winds blew from the direction of the plains towards the hives, honey bee deaths increased, but when the weather was rainy, honey bee deaths decreased or stopped. Honey bee losses were mainly between 30% and 80%. Investigations related to the honey bee deaths were carried out in the affected apiaries using on-site inspection and laboratory tests. The main reason of deaths would be linked to the clothianidin coated maize seeds used in the plain during sowing period. No remarkable correlation with any bee pathogens was detected related to the sudden and prevalent honey bee deaths.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • As Third Parasite Gastrointestinal Tract of Honey Bees Living in Tree
           Trunk

    • Abstract: Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) inhabiting trees in forests are not managed by humans or treated for pathogens; therefore, many researchers and beekeepers believe that viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases may lead to their decline. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. passim and Nosema spp. in feral colonies by real-time PCR. This study was performed on twenty-six samples of honey bees inhabiting tree trunks in north-eastern Poland. One sample consisted of sixty worker bee abdomens collected from hollow trees. Honey bees were sampled only from naturally colonized sites. Amplicons of the three evaluated pathogens were detected in twenty of the twenty-six tested samples. A significant correlation was observed between infection with three pathogens (N. apis, N. ceranae, L. passim) (r = 0.84) compared to infection with only two pathogens (N. apis and N. ceranae) (r = 0.49). N. ceranae was the predominant pathogen, but infections with various severity caused by L. passim were also noted in fourteen of the twenty-six tested samples. In view of the general scarcity of epidemiological data concerning coinfections with Nosema spp. and L. passim in honey bees in tree trunks in other countries, further research is needed to confirm the effect of concurrent pathogenic infections on the decline of bee colonies.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Optimization of Protein Feed Fermentation Process for Supplementation of
           Apis Mellifera Honeybees

    • Abstract: An alternative to natural food shortage for honeybees is the provision of supplements. The objective of this research was to develop a method with ideal conditions for the fermentation of a protein supplement for honeybees. The microorganisms used were Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Saccharomyces and the inulin prebiotic. There was an increase in lactic acid and a decrease in pH over a five-day fermentation period. The amount of acid bacteria present was 108–109 CFU/g of supplement. In the first phase the temperature and the humidity had significantly affected the fermentation but the variables inulin and probiotic didn’t. In the second phase, the lower temperatures and higher humidity produced the best effects on the fermentative responses. It was concluded that an ideal environment with temperature, humidity, inulin and probiotics could be created which allowed the fermentation of the protein supplement in five days obtaining final product fermentative characteristics close to bee bread.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A Modified Standardized Method to Extract and Store Insect Hemolymph with
           Use of a Glass Capillary

    • Abstract: Hemolymph is the “blood” circulating in the entire insect body. Analysis of this fluid gives information about the condition of the insect. The most precise analyses are conducted on insects’ hemolymph suspended in 0.6% physiological saline (NaCl). Most current hemolymph extraction methods are either difficult or do not provide pure material, the contamination of collected insect “blood” can change results. This study aimed to develop a technique for extract hemolymph, both easy and without risk of contaminating derived material. The presented method is a modification of available ways to extract, store and transport hemolymph with the use of a glass capillary. For the development of this technique, adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were used. The method required such basic equipment as a glass capillary, sterile tweezer, Eppendorf tube and physiological saline. The collected hemolymph were frozen and hence sent in a glass capillary to another laboratory for analysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Prospects and Validity of Laboratory Cage Tests Conducted in Honeybee
           Research Part Two: New Possibilities for Use of Laboratory Cage Tests in
           Response to Challenges Revealed at the Turn of the 20 and 21 Centuries

    • Abstract: Nowadays, cell cultures are a standard tool in animal biotechnology, but the problem with honeybees is the constant lack of appropriate cell lines to be used in in vitro research. Until the imperfections of bee tissue cultures are resolved, researchers have to conduct experiments on bees in laboratory cage tests (LCTs).At the turn of the 21st century many new hazards for beekeeping appeared. An early recognized problem was the Colony Collapse Disorder and Honey Bee Depopulation Syndrome, which were associated with the harmfulness of pesticides and strictly linked with a decline in bee immunity. Such problems in LCTs were attempted to be resolved through research on the interactions between biostimulators and antiparasitic drugs. LCTs allow the relationship between the dose of a specific factor and its impact to be determined, which can be used in the establishment of reference values. Furthermore, LCTs may be a useful tool in understanding the function and role of bee gut flora.Using the honeybee as an animal model is possible thanks to knowledge of the honeybee genome and bee biology and the similarity between some physiological and biochemical processes and those occurring in humans. So far, LCTs have been used to understand better human aging, learning and gene expression regulating. This is facilitated by the advanced development of medicine and molecular genetics, and in the future the use of honeybees may become a standard in biochemical or gerontological research.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Foraging Behavior of Honeybees ( L.) and Ground Bumblebees ( L.) and its
           Influence on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Oil Tree Peony Cultivar
           ‘Fengdan’ ( T. Hong et J. X. Zhang)

    • Abstract: Oil peony (Paeonia spp.) is a new type of woody oil crop in China with a large cultivation area. Inadequate pollination is one of the main reasons for low seed yield. A pollination net room was built at an oil tree peony base, the numbers of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and ground bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were artificially increased and the foraging behaviors and daily activities of the two bees on the plants were observed. Four different pollination methods (honeybee pollination, ground bumblebee pollination, natural field pollination and pollination without insects) were applied. The visit interval, single-flower visit time, number of single-flower visits, number of flowers visited per minute and number of stigma contacts were compared. Meanwhile, the effects of honeybee and bumblebee pollination on the oil yield and quality of peony seeds were compared. There were noticeable differences in daily activity between honeybees and ground bumblebees. Significant differences in the single-flower visit time, visit interval and visit frequency were also observed; honeybee and ground bumblebee pollination increased the seed yield of oil tree peony by 78.74% and 31.88%, respectively. Therefore, both honeybees and ground bumblebees are effective pollinators of oil tree peony. These results provide a theoretical basis for further utilization of bee resources for oil tree peony pollination.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of Bacterial Cell-Free Supernatant on Nutritional Parameters of
           and Their Toxicity Against

    • Abstract: Apis mellifera L. is an essential pollinator that is currently being affected by several stressors that disturb their ecological function and produce colony losses. Colonies are being seriously affected by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. The relationship between stressors and bee symbionts is being studied in order to enhance bee health. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii AJ5, Enterococcus faecium SM21 and Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Mori2 on A. mellifera nutritional parameters and their toxicity against V. destructor. Toxicity and survival bioassays were conducted on adult bees with different concentrations of CFSs. Nutritional parameters such as soluble proteins and fat bodies in abdomens were measured. Varroa destructor toxicity was analyzed by a contact exposure method and via bee hemolymph. At low concentrations, two of CFSs tends to enhance bee survival. Remarkably fat bodies maintained their levels with all CFS concentrations in the abdomens, and soluble protein increased at a high concentration of two CFSs. Toxicity against V. destructor was observed only via hemolymph, and results were in agreement with the treatment that produced an increase in bee proteins. Finally, CFS produced by L. johnsonii AJ5 could be a promising natural alternative for strengthening bee health.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Histochemical Staining of Acetylcholinesterase in Carnolian Honeybee ()
           Brain after Chronic Exposure to Organophosphate Diazinon

    • Abstract: Organophosphate insecticides are known to inhibit the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase. They affect olfactory learning and memory formation in honeybees. These insecticides cause mushroom body inactivation in honeybees, but their influence on other brain regions involved in olfactory perception and memory is unknown. The goal of this study was to study the effects of organophosphate insecticide diazinon on carnolian honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) acetylcholinesterase activity in the olfactory brain regions of antennal lobe, mushroom body and lateral procerebrum (lateral horn). The lamina, medulla and lobula of optic lobes were also analyzed. The level of acetylcholinesterase activity was visualized using the histochemical staining method. Densitometric analysis of histochemical signals indicated that diazinon inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity only in the lip of calyces of mushroom body, but not in other analyzed olfactory regions, antennal lobe and lateral procerebrum. The visual brain system optic lobes were also unaffected. This is in accordance with the literature reporting that mushroom body is the main brain center for olfactory learning and memory formation in honeybees.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Pesticide Residues in Honey from Stingless Bee (Meliponini, Apidae)

    • Abstract: The present study aimed to detect pesticide residues in the honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona subnitida. A total of thirty-five samples of honey from M. subnitida were collected from twelve municipalities of the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte state, northeastern Brazil. Of these thirty-five samples, fourteen were from colonies raised in an urban area, while the other twenty-one were from the countryside. The pesticides in the samples were extracted using a modified QuEChERS method. The simultaneous analysis of 116 analytes in the honey samples was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Twenty-five samples (71.4% of samples) were contaminated by some amount of pesticide, and of them twenty-four had just one pesticide and one had three. The detected compounds included organophosphate pesticides (OPP) monocrotophos (24 samples), trichlorfon (6 samples) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (2 samples). In conclusion, the honey produced by the stingless bee M. subnitida may be contaminated by pesticides, which emphasizes the need for food monitoring before commercialization.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Integration of NDVI Imagery and Crop Coverage Registration System for
           Apiary Schedule

    • Abstract: Beekeepers need to establish migratory apiaries to benefit from pollen and nectar source plants as in order to increase honey yield. Thus, following the flowering seasons of honey source plants has vital importance when deciding the route of migration. In this study, MODIS imagery was used to generate weekly NDVI data between 1st April to 31st August 2018, when beekeeping activities start and end in the study area. Although MODIS images have high temporal resolution, low spatial resolution (250 meters) makes them insufficient when deciding the crop types and plants. While detecting plants in natural plant areas requires high spatial resolution NDVI, Crop Coverage Registration System (CCRS) parcel-based crop coverage records can enrich the NDVI data without increasing spatial resolution in agricultural lands. Thus, the CCRS data were integrated with NDVI images for migratory beekeeping in agricultural areas as an innovation. To generate both high temporal and spatial resolution, NDVI and CCRS data were integrated together with a beekeeping suitability map to generate the apiary schedule. The results were verified with 176 existing apiary locations and production dates retrieved from field studies which revealed the existence of three seasons in the study area as early and late apiaries (in natural plant areas) and apiaries in agricultural lands. Accuracy analysis showed that 82% of the apiaries intersected with suitable locations and that apiaries in agricultural areas were detected five days earlier than in field studies and obtained more accurately than natural plant apiaries.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Biochemical Isolation and Characterization of Hyaluronidase Enzyme from
           Venom of Egyptian Honey Bee

    • Abstract: The hyaluronidase enzyme has been used in many such fields of medicine as ophthalmology, orthopaedia, internal medicine, gynecology, surgery, oncology and dermatology. In this study, the hyaluronidase enzyme was purified and characterized for the first time from Egyptian bee venom homogeneously using DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 columns. Bee venom hyaluronidase specific activity was 411.7 units/mg protein with 49.9% yield and 3.23-fold purification. The molecular weight of the purified bee venom hyaluronidase native form was 37 kDa. The purified enzyme was found homogeneous on native PAGE and SDS-PAGE, with two congruent subunits of 18.4 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 8.6–8.8. The enzyme was found to be stable over a wide range of temperature (20–60°C) and pH (4.5–6.5), and its optimum activity at 37°C, pH 5.4 and 0.15 M NaCl. Km for bee venom hyaluronidase was 0.029 mg/ml hyaluronic acid and its activity was elevated in presence of MgCl2 and ZnCl2 and lowered in presence of FeCl2. Heparin inhibited the hyaluronidase enzyme noncompetitively with a Ki value of 2.9 units heparin and one binding site on the enzyme molecule.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dynamics of and Co-Infection Seasonally in Honey Bee ( L.) Colonies

    • Abstract: Nosema apis is a pathogen spesific for the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L., while Nosema ceranae is specific for the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana. Turkey provides different environmental and host conditions for both Nosema species. The aim of the study is to determine the dynamic of N. cerenae and N. apis seasonal infection. A number of samples were collected from different apiaries between 2009-2016 years. The samples were kept at −20°C in the laboratory. Light microscopy was used for spore counting and molecular techniques were used to identify the Nosema species. The results showed that winter season had an impact on the type of Nosema as well as on infection rates. The number of N. ceranae spores decreases significantly at low temperatures (≤ 5°C). The winter period was found to be the main factor affecting nosema infection level and dominancy of Nosema ceranae. Furthermore, co-infection of both species is an indicator of the dynamics of N. apis and N. ceranae. This study suggests, that there is a dynamic prevalence among the Nosema species depending of the average winter temperature and not a replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Antioxidative Properties of Selected Polish Honeys

    • Abstract: The antioxidative activities of honeys collected in Poland were screened. The total antioxidant potential (TAP) provides more information about the system than the determination of individual antioxidant. TAP is proportional to the sum of products of concentrations of all antioxidants in the sample and their antioxidant powers (rate constants). To measure, compare and correlate TAPs, we used techniques which we had recently elaborated (i) related to hydroxyl radicals, (ii) RP-HPLC measurements with amperometric detection and (iii) differential pulsed voltammetry (DPV). They were correlated with techniques already described in the literature (i) related to the DPPH radicals, (ii) the total content of phenolic compounds and (iii) color intensity. All assays revealed the following order of obtained TAP values: buckwheat > honeydew > linden > multi-flower> acacia honey. Correlations were found between results obtained using different techniques. There was also a significant correlation with the results obtained by authors using other measurement techniques. Differences in antioxidant properties among individual honeys are inversely proportional to the strength of the radicals in relation to which measurements were performed. This is due to the fact that strong radicals react not only with strong antioxidants but also with weak ones, which are much more common. The darker honeys were also observed to be characterized by higher TAP values.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Preliminary Study on Effect of Agricultural Activities in Pollen Spectrum
           of Argentinean Honey

    • Abstract: Honey floral origin is determined by the harversting region, but anthropogenic factors as agriculture expansion might modify the environmental flora and consequently honey floral origin. Argentina is one of the most important honey producers worldwide which, since the 1990s, has undergone an important agriculture transformation by the adoption of transgenic crops like soybean (Glycine max). However, little is known about the effects of this anthropogenic activity on the floral origin of honey or the statistical tools that could be used to analyse it. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact that these environmental modifications have on the pollen spectrum of honey. In order to achieve this, thirty-two samples of blossom honey were collected from three different ecoregions of the Buenos Aires province: Parana Delta and Islands, Espinal and Pampa, in two different years: 1999 and 2014. The pollen spectrum of honey samples was determined and the data obtained was analysed with multivariate statistical techniques. It could be concluded that the pollen composition of honeys from different ecoregions has significantly changed in the past years because of agriculture expansion and adaptation of transgenic crops (p=0.007). Honey samples harvested in 1999 were characterized by high values of Helianthus annuus, while in 2014 an important presence of Eryngium sp., Gleditsia triacanthos, Baccharis type, Trifolium sp. and Glycine max was observed. The present results show that honey palynological results and multivariate statistical analysis could be used as a preliminary attempt to evaluate environmental modifications.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Comparison of qPCR and Morphological Methods For Detection of in Honey Bee
           Samples

    • Abstract: The honey bee tracheal mite Acarapis woodi is an internal obligate parasite of adult honey bees (Apis mellifera). The small size of the mites and location within the bee’s trachea create a challenge for diagnostic identification. Detailed assessment of low-level mite infestation involves microscopic examination of the bee’s tracheae, but this traditional diagnostic method takes a long time. In recent years, new molecular diagnostic techniques have been developed to identify A. woodi with the use of PCRs. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of microscopic examination and qPCR method for the detection of A. woodi in honey bee samples. Thirty-six samples were analyzed with both methods and qPCR was more sensitive than the microscopic method to detect A. woodi. This work demonstrates the practical application of molecular technology as a support tool for surveys and contingency management and to provide robust surveillance data on the presence or absence of A. woodi in honey bee colonies.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Stingless Bee Propolis
           from Indonesia

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids of propolis from three provinces of Indonesia with two methods of extraction. Stingless bee propolis from Banten, South Kalimantan, and South Sulawesi was prepared through ultrasound-assisted extraction with water and ethanol solvents, separately. Antioxidant activity was measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) methods, respectively. The result showed that the antioxidant activity expressed as IC50 of Indonesian propolis ranged from 452.52 to 1027.29 mg/L. Ethanol extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than water extracts. Total phenolic and flavonoids content detected in the samples ranged from 10.00 to 28.65 mg/g GAE and 0.76 to 3.39 mg/g QE, respectively. The ethanol extract of propolis from South Kalimantan had the highest total phenolic contents, while that from South Sulawesi possessed the highest total flavonoids.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Maternal Inheritance in Hybrids of Three Honey Bee Subspecies

    • Abstract: The identification of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies is often based on the measurements of workers’ fore-wings. The interpretation of the measurements can be difficult because the phenotype of workers is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Moreover, it is not clear how the phenotype is affected by maternal inheritance. We have used the methodology of geometric morphometrics to verify if hybrids of honey bee subspecies and their backcrosses are more similar to either the father or mother colony. The comparison was based on fore-wing venation of three honey bee subspecies: A. m. carnica, A. m. caucasica, A. m. mellifera. First generation hybrids and backcrosses of those subspecies were obtained through instrumental insemination. Workers of the hybrids were compared with their parental colonies. The shape of wing venation was more similar to the maternal than to parental colony. This phenomenon was particularly visible in first generation of hybrids but it was also present in backcrosses. There were also symptoms of genetic dominance of some subspecies but this effect interacted with maternal inheritance and was difficult to interpret.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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