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AGRICULTURE (662 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
RURALS : Review of Undergraduate Research in Agricultural and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SAARC Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Science and Technology Indonesia     Open Access  
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Agricola     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Seed Science Research     Hybrid Journal  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Semiárida     Open Access  
Siembra     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Smart Agricultural Technology     Open Access  
Social & Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Economic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stiinta Agricola     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Tropical Technology Journal     Open Access  
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weed Biology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weed Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Welwitschia International Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World's Poultry Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.171
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1870-0462
Published by Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Cover Vol. 26, No. 1

    • Authors: . .
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Ramiro Gaibor Fernández, Sergio Rodríguez Rodríguez, Juan José Reyes- Pérez, César Miguel Guevara Avilés, Paula Plaza Zambrano
      Abstract: Background. Corn cultivation – one of the main crops in the world – is important in Ecuador for human and animal nutrition, but one of the main limitations in production is the damage caused by the insect pest Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Objective. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness over time of three bio-insecticides on pest incidence in maize hybrid INIAP H601 in Mocache, Los Ríos, Ecuador in the dry season. Methodology. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and four replicates: (1) Natural neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract in doses of 1.88 L; (2) Bassigeos (Beauveria bassiana) in doses of 5 L; (3) Neem + B. bassiana mix in doses of 7 L; (4) Chemical bait in doses of 80 kg.ha-1; and (5) Control group without application, processed by a linear model of repeated measures.  Results. A significant variation was observed in the treatments due to the influence of time. Implications. Corn agricultural production has a long tradition and importance in Ecuador, especially in the Province of Los Ríos where productions are affected by S. frugiperda whose major control is by using polluting chemical products.  Conclusions. Because the effect of the applied bio-insecticide treatments changes overtime, pest incidence is modified through a linear model of repeated measures. The lowest incidence percentages are achieved with the use of B. bassiana (Bb), A. indica (neem) and Bb + Neem mix after day 15, whereas the chemical control group achieves it throughout the evaluated time interval.
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.3958
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Ariadna Linares-Gabriel, Nereida Orozco Rodríguez, Mario Alejandro Hernández-Chontal
      Abstract: Background: Heliconias are commercially important flowers due to its abundance of shapes, sizes, and colors. In Mexico, however, this ornamental crop is not considered in the statistical yearbook of agricultural production. In addition, there is no research regarding the context of tropical floriculture. Objective: To explore all scientific contributions related to the cultivation of heliconias. Methodology: A bibliographic search was conducted in Redalyc, SciELO, Scopus and Google Scholar with the key word “heliconia.” After cleansing the database of similar results, we generated a final compilation of 42 papers, which were then subject to an analysis of textual content by using Nvivo 12 Plus software to identify the contributions by means of the following categories of analysis: Production, post-harvesting, and commercialization. The species of heliconias were also identified. Results: The content analysis showed that 73.71% of all scientific contributions correspond to the production category, 12.5 % to post-harvesting, and 13.88% to commercialization. For each category, different topics which guide the contributions were identified. We found 43 species of heliconias that were used for research purposes in the three categories of analysis. Implications: The analysis was limited only to scientific contributions explored. An analysis that considered other sources of information could have strengthened this analytical exercise. Conclusion: The scientific contributions regarding the cultivation of heliconias are mainly oriented to the production category, which demonstrates that the focus is on the improvement of the production process. On the contrary, the contributions on post-harvesting and commercialization are incipient; therefore, it is important to address these topics in future research. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4446
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Faduma Abdullahi Abdirahman, Raphael Githaiga Wahome, Catherine Kaluwa, Jemimah Oduma, Jynette Jynette Nkatha, Angella Adhiambo, Kitoga Byalungwa Kyotos, Brigitte Bagnol, Marieke Rosenbaum, Janetrix Hellen Amuguni
      Abstract: Background. Traditionally, poultry is kept and reared by women in extensive production systems. In Kenya and most developing countries, smallholder poultry productivity is constrained by diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND), which is preventable via a vaccine, yet contributes to significant morbidity and mortality among flocks primarily owned and managed by women in villages. Objective. This study aimed to map the Newcastle disease vaccine value chain stakeholders and identify the barriers and opportunities for women's engagement along the Newcastle disease vaccine value chain. Methodology. Qualitative data were collected with 15 key informant interviews and four focus group discussions with a total of 42 poultry farmers in Machakos Town sub-county, Kenya. Results. The majority of the vaccine value chain consumers were women, and limited information was one of the root causes for not vaccinating their chickens. Vaccines were considered expensive and difficult to access as the production areas were remote from the agrovet shops that retail vaccines. Implication. The study showed that women farmers had no financial control to enable vaccine procurement. Conclusion. Based on the results the government using the Extension service providers should train smallholder farmers on how to use the ND vaccine. Furthermore, manufacturers of thermo-stable ND vaccines should furnish Agrovet shops with data to enable its adoption in remote areas where the cold chain is unreliable.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.3915
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: José Roberto Aguilar Jiménez, Carlos Ernesto Aguilar Jiménez, Francisco Guevara Hernández, José Galdámez Galdámez, Franklin Berlán Martínez Aguilar, Manuel Alejandro La O Arias, Hernán Orbelin Mandujano Camacho, Mario Alberto Abarca Acero, José Nahed Toral
      Abstract: Background: In recent decades, many peasant regions of southeastern Mexico, have undergone an expansion of cattle raising. This has led to farmers transitioning from crop agriculture toward mixed production or specializing in cattle raising. Characterizing livestock systems using a multidimensional perspective allows for identifying strategies for increasing their sustainability. Objective: To classify and characterize family cattle farming systems (FCFS) of the Frailesca region of Chiapas, Mexico taking into account the contribution of cattle raising to family income, and using a multidimensional perspective. Methodology: Eighty family units in two areas of the Frailesca region - valley (40) and highlands (40) - were evaluated. Information was obtained through application of questionnaires to farmers. According to the percentage of contribution of cattle raising to family income, a K-means clustering analysis was carried out in each area to differentiate FCFS. Average values of technical, economic, environmental, and social indicators were compared among systems using ANOVA or Kruskall Wallis tests. Results: Two FCFS were identified in each of two areas of the Frailesca region: (I) mixed family systems (MFS) and (II) family systems specialized in cattle raising (FSSC). Average percentages of contribution of cattle raising to family income were: (1) valley MFS = 32.5%; (2) valley FSSC = 80.5%; (3) highland MFS = 38.5%; and (4) highland FSSC = 71.7%.  The valley FSSC followed an intensive-technified cattle raising with high use of external inputs and had the highest values of the economic indicators: calves produced per ha, milk production per cow, and net margin per hectare. The valley MFS practiced semi-intensive-technified cattle raising with low use of external inputs which led it had lower economic profitability than that of the valley FSCC. In both highland systems, farmers followed extensive cattle raising with low use of external inputs. For the economic dimension, these were similar to that of the valley MFS. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension both highland systems were better (diversity of grasses, backyard animals, cattle breeds, and woody fodder crops) than the valley systems. Particularly, the highlands MFS had the greatest proportion of forested land and grasslands with scattered trees, as well as the abundance of wild fauna. For the social dimension, both the FSSC had a higher level of technical assistance and training, less dependence on subsidies, and a greater capacity to cover their basic purchased-food costs than the two MFS. The highlands MFS had the highest number of family beneficiaries, while the highlands FSSC had a higher level of membership in farmers´ organizations than did both types of valley systems. Implications: The valley farmers should reduce their environmental impacts and maintain and even increase productivity, in the case of the mixed family system. The highlands farmers should increase productivity, and reduce their dependence on subsidies. Conclusions: In order to overcome the multidimensional limitations and increase the sustainability of family cattle raising systems, it is necessary that external social actors promote agroecology and silvopastoral systems, as well as the famers´ co-responsibility and active participation along the process. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4131
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)
           COLOMBIA, 1990-2018

    • Authors: Julián Augusto Vivas García, Álvaro Acevedo Osorio
      Abstract: Background: In recent years, especially since the beginning of the Peace Process between the Colombian government and the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) guerrillas, an increase in peasant, indigenous and Afro-descendant mobilizations throughout the territory has become visible. national. Within this context, the place that agroecology has begun to occupy as an important element of the different repertoires of popular mobilization deserves to be analyzed. Objective: To analyze the nature of the relationship between peasant mobilizations and agroecology in a critical period in the country's history in which rural communities have had to face the economic, environmental and political crisis generated by the agrarian development model. that is imposed within a context of violence to help understand the possibilities that agroecology brings with it in the construction of technical, economic, political and cultural alternatives to the dominant political regime in Colombia. Hypothesis: Agroecology is rooted in the environmental, economic and sociocultural logic of traditional Colombian communities, where it reappears today as a practice and a living discourse to maintain and strengthen their historical ways of life. Methodology: the study is based on primary, spatial, quantitative and qualitative information that allows identifying the place that the country's peasants have given to agroecology within their discourses in the search for a dignified life, and therefore for a decent agriculture. and a fairer society. Results: The incipient formation of a social mobilization in favor of agroecology in Colombia that, in coordination with other actors from the academy, NGOs, and even State institutions, is configured with the purpose of transforming the historical obstacles for the positioning of agroecology in the different territories. Implications: The approaches of agroecology offer peasant organizations an ideological and discursive platform that maintains identity with the different types of struggles that peasants must undertake in defense of their territories. Conclusions: There is an unprecedented and diverse social process in Colombia in which agroecology begins to position itself on the public agenda hand in hand with a series of public policy proposals that are built through the various peasant mobilizations.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4291
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Nestor Jorge Rojas Victoria, José Alberto Salvador Escalante Estrada, Cid Aguilar Carpio
      Abstract: Background. The ayocote bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is a leguminous native of the temperate zones of the Mexican territory, with great potential for use and exploitation by the population. However, information on its growth and mineral nutrition for its production is scarce. Objective. Determine the dynamics of growth, biomass production, grain yield and its components in the cultivation of runner beans in a cultivation system with nitrogen fertilization. Methodology. The trial was carried out under field conditions, under a rainfall regime during 2014 in Montecillo, State of México, México; with temperate clime. The purple runner bean cultivar was sown with applications of 0, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 of nitrogen fertilization. Variables were recorded as number of green leaves, leaf area index, total biomass and grain yield with its components. The study was developed using an experimental design that was randomized complete blocks with four replications. Results. With the treatment of 150 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, the highest values were obtained, such as the number of green leaves, 240 m2; leaf area index, 7.75; leaf area length, 277 days; total biomass, 566 g m2 and grain yield 363 g m2 with respect to the control. With the same treatment, the organs with the highest accumulation of dry matter were: grain and stem with 39%. Implications. Whit the supply of nitrogen, the biomass and the yield of the runner bean can be increased. This contribution can help the producers of this crop. Conclusions. The application of nitrogen to the soil increases the leaf area index, its duration, growth rate, biomass and crop yield. The highest profitability in runner beans is achieved with the application of 150 kg ha-1 of nitrogen.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4306
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Guillermo Vargas-Martínez, Rebeca Betancourt-Galindo, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado, Miriam Sánchez-Vega, Alberto Sandoval-Rangel, Alonso Méndez-López
      Abstract: Background. Sustainable agriculture promotes the use of mineral and biological origin inputs that act as plant growth stimulants, such as zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPsZnO) and rhizospheric microorganisms, which have positively intervened in the physiological response of plants, due to their unique properties. Objective. To evaluate the effects of NPsZnO applied via foliar and drench, and of rhizospheric microorganisms on the vegetative growth and biomass of tomato plants. Methodology. The doses of nanoparticles were applied at: 0, 10 and 30 mg·L-1 and in microorganisms 0 and 10 spores·mL-1. The variables evaluated were: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, root length and volume, and total biomass. Results. It was observed that plant height, stem diameter and number of leaves were higher with the interaction of 10 mg·L-1 of NPsZnO and the microbial consortium. The root length decreased 25.88% with the foliar application of 30 mg·L-1 NPsZnO. Root volume decreased 18.49% with the drench application of 30 mg·L-1 NPsZnO and decreased 29.55% with the foliar application of 10 mg·L-1 NPsZnO. The total biomass increased 15.65% and 28.81%, respectively with the foliar application of 30 mgL-1 of nanoparticles and when 30 mg·L-1 of NPsZnO was applied in interaction with the microbial consortium. Implications. Although root length and volume had a negative effect with the application of NPsZnO, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and total biomass structural components for fruit production in tomato plants were promoted by the application of NPsZnO in interaction with rhizospheric microorganisms by generating synergism. Conclusion. The dose of the nanoparticles, the application method and the microorganisms in the substrate showed positive synergism in the growth and biomass of tomato plants.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4332
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Gerardo Montiel Vicencio, Mario Alfonso Urías López, Nain Peralta Antonio, Andrés Rebolledo Martínez, Héctor Daniel Inurreta Aguirre
      Abstract: Background. White mango scale (WMS) is present at any physiological stage of the mango tree, can remain on leaves and fruits, and affects photosynthesis and fruit aesthetics. Knowing the population fluctuation of WMS and its natural enemies over time will help to design efficient control strategies. Objective. To determine the annual population fluctuation of WMS and its natural enemies in three mango-producing areas, in Veracruz, Mexico. Methodology. In three mango orchards cv. 'Manila' in productive stage, located in the municipalities of Actopan, Medellín, and Tierra Blanca (one orchard at each municipality), the number of female individuals and male colonies of WMS, and its natural enemies Chilocorus cacti, Scymnus spp., Azya orbigera, Ceraeochrysa spp. and Pentilia spp., were monitored for 12 consecutive months. Results. Higher densities of WMS and Ceraeochrysa spp. were found in the Actopan orchard. The density of natural enemies changed according to species and time of year. The density of Pentilia spp., Scymnus spp., and Ceraeochrysa spp. correlated with the WMS density, with a higher and lower density of individuals per leaf in December-May and June-October, respectively. Implications. The time when the highest and lowest populations of WMS and its natural enemies occur in different 'Manila' mango-producing areas in Veracruz were identified. This knowledge will help to define the most appropriate timing and strategy for WMS control. Conclusion. The greater WMS population coincides with the fruiting stage, so its control should start in winter, during the flowering stage. Considering that the population of C. cacti, Pentilia sp., Scymnus spp., and Ceraeochrysa spp. present positive correlation with the WMS, it is recommended to reduce the use of broad-spectrum pesticides and to increase the use of cultural practices to benefit the population of these natural enemies.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4349
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: R.M. Aroña, A. Longinos Muñoz, H. Hernandez, R. Ungerfeld, M. Keller, P. Chemineau, Jose Alberto Delgadillo
      Abstract: Background. Anestrous goats can cycle and become pregnant after the introduction of sexually active bucks, but some of them become anestrus probably because they have been fertilized and early embryonic death occurred or because they have not been fertilized and become refractory to the stimulation of bucks. Objective. Determine whether goats that were mated by bucks become anestrus probably because of an early embryonic death or refractoriness to buck stimulation. Methodology. Vasectomized (n = 2) and intact (n = 2) bucks were rendered sexually active by exposure to artificially long days (16 h of light per day) followed by natural variations of photoperiod. Bucks were introduced into two groups of anestrous goats (n = 15 each) and remained with them for 53 days. Estrous behavior, ovulation and pregnancy rate were determined. Results. All goats came into estrus, ovulated and were mated by bucks at least once during the study. The proportions of females that displayed estrus with or without ovulation did not differ between the two groups within 9 days after the introduction of bucks. However, the proportion of goats that came into estrus with or without ovulation was greater in goats mated by vasectomized bucks from 20 to 28 and from 50 to 53 days after introducing the bucks (P < 0.05). Finally, the proportion of goats that ovulated after the introduction of the bucks, but later returned to anestrus did not differ in goats mated by vasectomized or intact bucks (14% vs 33%; P > 0.05). Implications. These results indicate that in nonpregnant goats, refractoriness to the continuous presence of the same bucks may explain at least in part, the return to anestrus of most goats that stop cycling after an initial sexual response to the introduction of bucks. Conclusion. Nonpregnant goats mated by sexually active bucks become in anestrus, probably because they become refractory to the presence of the same males.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4403
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Teresa Alfaro Reyna, Josue Delgado-Balbuena, Fernando Arellano-Martín, Aixchel Maya-Martínez, Xavier García-Cuevas, Yameli Aguilar-Duarte, Carlos Alberto Aguirre-Gutierrez
      Abstract: Background: The Yucatan Peninsula is covered mainly by semi-humid forests associated with karstic zones. These landscapes show high rates of endemism, and although they are resilient ecosystems, climatic variations place them as highly susceptible areas to climate change. Objective: To identify environmental and anthropogenic risk factors in the semi-humid forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, and to evaluate the vulnerability to climate change of 25 forest species with economic importance in this region. Methodology: A multi-criteria analysis was carried out to rank edaphic and climatic variables, changes in potential distribution due to climate change, species density and growing rate. These variables were integrated into a matrix and each variable was valued from 0 to 4, weighted between parameters, the higher the value, the greater the susceptibility. Four percent of the species were classified into the high-risk susceptibility and 84 % as medium risk and the rest as low. These species have a low density per hectare, have a restricted distribution, are slow growing and are over shallow soils. Implications: Species that can develop in a wide range of environmental conditions and have rapid growth rates were less susceptible to the risk factors analyzed here. Conclusions: The greatest risk factor was due to the effect of climate change, followed by the proximity to the Caribbean coast and the type of soil, which suggests that more conservation actions for forest species are needed, which will also ensure the provision of environmental services to human populations.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4516
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Amaury Martín Arzate Ferández, Rodrigo Rosas Chávez, Tomás Héctor Norman Mondragón, María del Carmen Corona Rodríguez, José Luis Piña Escutia
      Abstract: Background: Phalaenopsis is an orchid of economic importance worldwide. Its natural reproduction is slow due to its monopodial growth (a single apical meristem). Therefore, it is necessary to make in vitro propagation protocols more efficient. Objectives: 1. To evaluate three concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in combination with three of 6-Benzyl Adenine (BA) in the in vitro induction of protocormic like bodies (PLBs) at from leaf explants of Phalaenopsis sp. var. Dudu, under three periods of darkness, 2. To test the effect of four concentrations of honey water and fermented sap, as organic complexes (CO), on the in vitro multiplication rate of PLBs. Methodology: Two tests were carried out: Test 1. Three concentrations of 2,4-D (3, 4, 5 mgL-1) and three of BA (1, 2, 3 mgL-1) were evaluated in leaf explants of Phalaenopsis sp., combined with three periods of darkness 14, 21, 28 days in a completely randomized design with a trifactorial arrangement (27x10). Test 2. Four concentrations of honey water and fermented sap (0, 10, 50, 100 mlL-1) were evaluated, arranged in a completely random design (8x10). Results: The best combination of plant growth regulators (PGR) for the formation of PLBs (14 PLBs/explant) was with 5 mgL-1 of 2,4-D and 2 mgL-1 of BA, during 21 days of darkness. Regarding the use of CO, the addition of 10 mlL-1 of fermented sap and 50 mlL-1 of honey water induced the highest rates of multiplication of PLBs/explant (41.4 and 39.6 PLBs). The regeneration of Phalaenopsis sp. from PLBs occurred in 225 days. Implications: The results obtained in the two trials are the basis for establishing a protocol for the multiplication of Phalaenopsis sp. Conclusions: The combination of 5 mgL-1 of 2,4-D and 2 mgL-1 of BA produced the highest number of PLBs/explant (14) at 21 days of darkness and subsequent light exposure for six weeks. On the other hand, the addition of 10 mlL-1 of fermented sap and 50 mlL-1 of honey water as CO induced the highest rates of PLBs multiplication (41.4 and 39.6 PLBs, respectively). 100% survival of seedlings was observed after 21 days of acclimatization, under greenhouse conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.3981
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)
           Vanilla planifolia FRUIT YIELD

    • Authors: Guadalupe Andrade-Andrade, Adriana Delgado-Alvarado, Braulio Edgar Herrera-Cabrera, Angel Bustamante-González, Ramón Marcos Soto-Hernández, Cecilia Guízar-González
      Abstract: Background: Fruit yield in vanilla cultivation depends on climatic and genetic factors and management practices; however, studies on the influence of the environment on management systems for vanilla production are still limited. Objective: To evaluate the yield of vanilla fruit in three different management systems in correlation with their climate parameters. Methodology: 16 fruit yield components were evaluated in at least 10 repetitions; in addition, temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation, and accumulated precipitation were recorded during the production cycle. The analysis of variance, Tukey´s test (α=0.05), and canonical correlation between yield components and climate parameters were performed under a randomized complete block design. Results: Vanilla fruit yield was influenced by the management system. The intensive system in shade mesh with an inert tutor (Barriles) had the highest yield of three evaluated sites, however, its fruits had lower weight and size than the system in acahual (20 Soles) and shade mesh with a living tutor (Solteros de Juan Rosas). The acahual system had a middle yield and the largest and heaviest fruits. The cultivation in shade mesh with living tutors in Solteros had low yield, attributable to high relative humidity and low photosynthetically active radiation during the cultivation cycle due to excessive shading of living tutors that as a whole could cause low floral induction and environmental stress promoting the development of diseases and premature fruit drop. Nevertheless, the fruits harvested in Solteros had physical characteristics similar to those of acahual (20 Soles). The effect of climate parameters was mainly reflected in inflorescences and fruit density. Implications: The incorporation of more study sites and cultivation cycles are necessary to extend the research, however, the information provided may be useful for producers to modify some of their management practices. Conclusions: The yield and size of vanilla fruits is influenced by the management system, since the highest yield occurred in the intensive system of shade mesh with inert tutors. The presence of diseases is a factor that could influence low fruit yield. Relative humidity and photosynthetically active radiation are the climate parameters with the greatest influence on fruit yield, particularly on fruits and inflorescences density in vanilla cultivation.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4177
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: María de los Angeles Fonseca Flores, F. Guevara, A. García, C. Márquez, M. Parra
      Abstract: Background: In studies of local maize diversity, conservation is often identified as a linear process, related to the limited analysis of the implications of technological change, especially improved commercial seed, on local maize potential and its conservation. This generates increasing socio-technical complexity Objective: To characterize the potential of local maize present in two ejidos of the Frailesca region of Chiapas, considering the farmers' knowledge about them and the configurations they adopt together with other maize in the context of technological change. Methodology: Using the snowball technique, peasant domestic production units that conserve local maize (LM) were identified and samples were collected. The ethnographic method was used to deepen the farmers' knowledge of the local varieties and the configurations they share with other maize. The characteristics of the ear and kernel of the collected LM were described. Results: In the selected peasant domestic production units farmers maintain 15 varieties of LM based on a broad knowledge of these varieties; the basis of the selection process, conservation and adaptation to the conditions where they preserve them. According to the parameters of grains and cobs the LM collected are concentrated in three groups and form non-linear configurations with improved maize and other local varieties, in correspondence with the homogenizing technological flow typical of the Frailesca region. Implications: This productive environment where the conservation of LM is developed makes evident the importance of an integrative approach to capture their growing socio-technical complexity. Conclusions: The LM potential evidenced permanence and morphological variability despite the homogenizing effect of technological change in the study area, where the socio-technical framework of LM conservation becomes more complex and the broad expert knowledge of farmers on the management of maize diversity acquires greater relevance. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4397
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Kabiru Alani Shittu, Omotayo Babawande Adeboye, Durodoluwa Joseph Oyedele, Wasiu Agunbiade Lamidi, Moses Kayode Babatunde, Abdul-Salam Murtadha Mosobalaje
      Abstract: Background: Tillage is one of the major threats to soil health which often results into soil physical degradation if not properly managed. Zero tillage is an alternative option from both economic and environmental protection of our soil resources points of view. Objective. To evaluate responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) yield and evapotranspiration to different tillage practices. Methodology. The study was conducted in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Osun State, Nigeria using a replicated randomized complete block design with treatments consisting of Zero-tillage (ZT), Reduced tillage (RT), Conventional tillage + Mulch (CT + ML) and Conventional tillage (CT). Results. Soil penetration resistance (SPR) increased with the degree of soil manipulation during tillage practices. Penetration resistance (PR) across 15-30 cm in 2019 alone resulted in higher PR of 2.26 MPa for RT compared to 0.71, 0.72 and 0.79 MPa for ZT, CT + (ML and CT), respectively, approximately 218 %, 213 % and 186 % greater in RT than ZT, CT + ML and CT respectively. Implications. Cowpea production on sandy loam soil can be optimized with Zero tillage. Conclusion. Over a period of two years, ZT practice had the highest profit margin of $ 573, among the practices.  
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4401
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Ramon Jaimez, Cesar Cañarte, Victor Márquez
      Abstract: Background. Maintenance pruning is an essential activity in cacao in order to maintain height, avoid intersections of branches between trees, and generate new foliar shoots. Usually, fertilization is applied at the same time as pruning, but there are little information when it should be applied to synchronize with the metabolic events triggered when pruning. The application of N, its effectiveness and the effect of different doses is very important, but there is very little known. Objective. To evaluate the effect of the fertilization of two doses of N (50 and 110 g per tree) before, during and after pruning on flushing, number of cherelles (pods smaller than 5 cm in length) and pods, fresh weight and numbers of almonds in trees which are 8 years old. Methodology. a split-plot design was established. Main plot was assigned to pruning (pruning and without pruning) and sub plots the doses of nitrogen fertilization and the time of application factor. One week after fertilization, the number of flushing emissions, cherelles and number of pods in different stages were counted weekly in 4 trees per treatment until week 20. Mature pods also were harvested and the number of almonds and fresh weight were counted. Results. Pruning affected the flushing, shortening the periods between maximum emissions. The application of N in doses of 110 g/tree one week after pruning leads to a higher and significant number of flushing number of cherelles and number of pods. Implications Pruning does not influence the production parameters, but the greater availability of N given in the higher applied dose leads to a greater number of pods and fresh weight. The greater availability of N after pruning leads to a more efficient use for the formation of new pods. greater number of almonds and greater fresh weight. Conclusion. These results show that nitrogen fertilization carried out after pruning is a feasible strategy to achieve a number of flushing, pods and production.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4421
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Félix David Murillo Cuevas, Jacel Adame García, Héctor Cabrera Mireles, Jazmín Villegas Narváez, Andrés Vásquez Hernández
      Abstract: Background. Microbial biostimulants in plants allow to improve nutrition and quality in crop fruits. Insecticides based on entomopathogenic fungi and state-of-the-art insecticides control pests in vegetables effectively. Objective. To evaluate three biostimulants and three biorational insecticides in eggplant cultivation under macrotunnel protected conditions. Methodology. The biostimulant treatments were: Genifix®, T22®, Mix® and control; for insecticides were: Movento®, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria javanica and control. They were evaluated in eggplant under macrotunnel conditions. Results. There was a significant effect of biostimulants on the increase in weight and dimensions of eggplant fruits, highlighting Genifix®, followed by T22® and Mix®. Movento® reduced more whiteflies compared to B. bassiana and I. javanica. Implications. The evaluated products can be applied in a biorational management of eggplant, reducing the excessive use of synthetic fertilizers and insecticides. Conclusions. The potential of the biostimulant Genifix®, T22® and Mix® to improve the development of eggplant fruits was demonstrated, as well as the insecticide Movento® to control the pest Bemisia tabaci in eggplant. The bioinsecticide B. bassiana can be used effectively in integrated management of whitefly in eggplant.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4501
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)
           PETRI'S DISEASE

    • Authors: Javier Javier-Alva, Amelia Lopez-Castillo, L.A Álvarez, Roger Chanduvi-García, Ricardo Peña-Castillo, René Aguilar-Anccota, Carlos Granda-Wong, Miguel Galecio-Julca, Sandro Condori-Pacsi, Arturo Morales-Pizarro
      Abstract: Background: Peru has become the leading exporter of table grapes focusing its production in the Piura and Ica regions. However, most of the young vineyards (<5 years) in the Piura region have been showing symptoms of Petri's disease. Objective: To isolate, identify and pathogenicity evaluation of fungi associated with Petri disease. Methodology: Isolates were obtained from necrotic streaks in vascular bundles in plants with symptoms of the Petri disease. Identification was performed with the keys proposed by Mostert, by means of macro and microscopic observations. Pathogenicity tests were also performed by measuring the advancement of the length of the necrotic streak (LNE). Results: By their cultural and microscopic characteristics, the following were identified: Phaeoacremonium spp, P. krajdenii, P. inflatipes, P. parasiticum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. All the selected isolates were pathogenic in pathogenicity tests 75 days post inoculation (DPI), being the Phaeoacremonium species the ones that presented higher LNE compared to Pa. chlamydospora, which demonstrates their capacity for colonization of vascular bundles and wood degradation. Implications: The pathogens Phaeoacremonium spp, P. krajdenii, P. inflatipes, P. parasiticum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora are related to Petri's disease in the Piura-Peru region. Conclusion: Phaeoacremonium species showed higher pathogenicity than Pa. chlamydospora 75 DPI. Also, P. inflatipes was morphologically identified in the Piura region requiring molecular identification for corroboration.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4505
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)
           THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne javanica

    • Authors: José Córdova-Campos, Pedro G Calle-Ulfe, Erick Suarez-Peña, Sandra Mendez-Farroñan, David Enrique Lindo-Seminario, Savina Gutiérrez Calle, Arturo Morales-Pizarro, Virna Cedeño-Escobar, Eric Mialhe-Matonnier, Carlos Condemarín-Montealegre
      Abstract: Background: The main problem in grapevine cultivation is root-attachment nematodes cause serious yield problems in most crops worldwide. Through their different infection mechanisms these nematodes synthesize and secrete a mixture of protein-based effectors that they use to penetrate the root, migrate and develop into giant root feeding cells in host plants. The use of new molecular tools such as MALDI TOF/TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time-Of-Flight) mass spectrometry and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) technique have allowed us to know these proteins and genes in different microorganisms. Objective: To characterize the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene from infected root samples and the effector proteins of juvenile (J2) and adult (J4) stage of M. javanica by MALDI TOF/TOF shotgun proteomics dual mass spectrometry. Methodology: Infected roots of grapevine crop were collected to extract fresh galls and J2 of M. javanica, then inoculated on tomato plants. J4 of M. javanica were used for genomic DNA extraction and sequencing at the 18S rRNA gene level. The J2 and J4 stages of M. javanica were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) and sterile distilled water for protein extraction and analysis with MALDI-TOF/TOF. Finally, the sequences obtained were processed with ProteinPilot™ and Protein BLAST software for the identification of effector proteins of M. javanica. Results: The nematode M. javanica was molecularly identified by PCR amplification of the 18S rDNA gene M. javanica with an identity percentage of 98% from infected root samples and by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, effector protein sequences were identified such as: Beta-1,4-endoglucan and polygalaturonase, identified from J2, and expansin B2, CLAVATA3/ESR, Pectate lyase and Chorismato mutase from J4, involved in the different infection processes. In addition, we were able to identify 49 nematode non-effector proteins in both stages related to conserved biological development. Implications: The results indicate the existence of effector proteins related to root gill formation. Conclusions: This study confirms that dual mass spectrometry methodology provides in a rapid and reproducible way a proteomic profile that the galls nematode synthesizes to infect root cells and that can be used in other types of pathogens.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4518
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Randy Atencio Valdespino, Sugeys Torres Moreno, Candelario Olivares Torres, Melvin Jaén, Anovel Barba Alvarado
      Abstract: Background. Floral visitor insects constitute part of the diversity of arthropods associated with flowers of angiosperm plants such as palms of the Arecaceae family, specifically Bactris gasipaes Kunth, known in Panama as pifá. Objective. Identify flower-visiting insects on inflorescences of B. gasipaes in Panama. Methodology. The study was carried out from March to June 2022, where 10 plots of one hectare were selected with at least 10 adult pifá plants, within which two palms were selected to sample an inflorescence in each plant, at six hours after the inflorescence opening. For sampling, a dried bamboo stalk and a transparent plastic bag were used to capture the insects in the inflorescence. The captured insects were preserved in a plastic container with 70% alcohol and were taken to laboratory conditions for their identification and to estimate the capture percentage of the relevant species. Results. The capture of 721,899 insect specimens was reported, of which 99.95% (721,563) of the specimens belonged to seven species of flower-visiting insects and 0.05% (336) corresponded to the phytophagous species known as the pifá fruit weevil Palmelampius heinrichi O´Brien. Implications. This implies the importance of identifying and separating floral-visiting insects from pest insects. Conclusions. The taxonomic groups of floral visitors in pifá constantly captured in the present study represent more than 99.95%, compared to a low percentage (0.05%) of insect pests that corresponded to the pifá fruit weevil, Palmelampius heinrichi.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4526
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Silvia Quirino-Huaxcuautli, César Omar Montoya-García, César del Ángel Hernández-Galeno, David Heriberto Noriega-Cantú, Teolincacihuatl Romero-Rosales, Elías Hernández-Castro, Antonio Hernández-Polito, Rocío Toledo-Aguilar
      Abstract: Background. Mexico has a great diversity of chili peppers, especially in C. annuum L., which includes local morphotypes that have been little studied. Apaxtleco chili pepper is only found in Guerrero State, Mexico, and it is important in Apaxtla region due to economic resources it generates, and because it is used in preparation of typical mole in this region; however, its morphological diversity has not been described and this visualizes the state of this plant genetic resource to define use and conservation strategies. Objective. To analyze and describe morphological diversity of a group of Apaxtleco chili pepper populations, identify characteristics that most support its diversity and establish similarity relationship between the populations studied. Methodology. Twenty-four populations of apaxtleco chili pepper collected from Apaxtla de Castrejón, Guerrero were evaluated under randomized complete block experimental design, with four replications. The evaluation was carried out under greenhouse conditions at Tuxpan Unit of Autonomous University of Guerrero. Sowing was carried out in July 2020 in polyethylene pots with 16 L capacity. Fifty-nine morphological variables from IPGRI descriptors for Capsicum were recorded, and variance, discriminant, principal components (CP) and conglomerated analysis were performed by SAS V9.3 software. Results. Statistical significant differences were found in 72.9 % of variables registered and seventeen were selected by its contribution to variation according discriminant analysis, which were mostly fruits characteristics. In CP, with the first six, 76 % of total morphological variation was explained; length fruit and pedicel, width seed, weight fruit per plant, color of fruit at intermediate stage, number fruits per plant, width fruit, fruit and seed texture, filament color, number seeds per fruit and shape fruit appendage had greater contribution to total morphological diversity and were useful to differentiate populations under study. As well, four groups of apaxtleco chili pepper with different fruit, vegetative and flower characteristics were identified, however, it was possible to group them by shape and texture of fruits. Implications. Contribute to description of diversity of local populations of apaxtleco chili, native to Guerrero, Mexico, and that allows the establishment of use and conservation mechanisms for food security. Conclusion. Morphological diversity of native apaxtleco chili of Guerrero is presented mainly in fruit characteristics and lesser degree in vegetative and seed traits, which were useful to explain greater total variation in this local chili. The shape and texture fruits were important characteristics in grouping.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4531
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)
  • Spodoptera frugiperda MANAGEMENT IN Zea mays L. USING VINASSE AND

    • Authors: Ramiro Gaibor-Fernández, Sergio Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Juan José Reyes-Pérez, María Jiménez-Pizarro, Beatriz González-Rosales, Liliana Jacas-Vega, Tomás Rivas-García, Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel
      Abstract: Background: Soil cover with crop residues is an ancient tradition that is gaining momentum in conservation agriculture´s current trends. Objective: The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of soil mulching with corn-mulberry on Spodoptera frugiperda management in corn Zea mays variety Tuson after imbibition in vinasse. Methodology: The first part of the experiment evaluates the effect on germination with seed previously soaked in vinasse in 1:15 ratio under controlled conditions for 30 min. The second part was developed in the Unidad Empresarial de Base “Antonio Maceo” Yara, Granma, Cuba under field conditions, which consisted of two treatments: (T1) corn-mulberry soil mulching 2 t ha-1 before planting and (T2) control group without cover. The percentage of maize plants were evaluated from 1 to 3 and from 4 to 5 degrees in damage at 30 days, in addition to agricultural yield at 150 days. Both experimental stages were performed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Results: The results showed that germination percentages increased by using 1:15 vinasse, whereas the corn-mulberry soil cover decreased S. frugiperda incidence at the same time and increased agricultural yields. Implications: Future studies should find an equilibrium point that guarantees the use of crop residuals as agroecological practices in soil protection and conservation, as well as in animal feed sources in places and season where natural forage is affected. Conclusion: Soil cover with corn-mulberry mulching from leaf waste before sowing decreases S. frugiperda incidence and corn yield increases. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4541
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Cintli Martínez-Ortiz-de-Montellano, Claudia Cecilia Márquez-Mota, Leslie Mariella Montes-Carreto, Rosa Estela Quiroz-Catañeda, Edgar Dantán-González, Hugo Oswaldo Toledo-Alvarado
      Abstract: Background: The excess of antimicrobials and anthelmintics cause important dysbiosis processes in equines, as well as resistance phenomena mainly in the communities of bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and helminths. The study of the equine microbiome is becoming more and more relevant to understand the biotic processes of the gastrointestinal tract. In colon and cecum, the role of cyathostomins as part of the microbiome is still unexplored. While interaction with certain bacterial groups may be key to the understanding of parasitism. Objective: To characterize the microbiota in feces of yearling naturally infected with cyathostomins in a quarter-horse farm in Sierra de Lobos, Guanajuato, Mexico. Methodology: Weights were measured and obtained the parasite burden in feces, from which samples were transfer and processing in the laboratory for DNA extraction and later sent for sequencing and analysis. Results: Average weight of the colts was 399 kg, and the average weight of the fillies was 432 kg. All horses were high shedders:  1,390 ± 698 egg per gram of feces. Alpha and beta diversity analyses indicated no differences within the microbial community between colts and fillies. Main bacteria at Phyla in both groups (females; males) were Bacteroidetes (37%; 37%), Firmicutes (46%; 37%), Verrucomicrobia (4%; 10%), Spirochaetes 5%; 4%) and Proteobacteria (1%; 3%). At Class level the principal identified groups were Bacteroidia (31%; 31%), Clostridia (43%; 35%), at Order level are Bacteroidales (31%; 31%) and Clostridiales (43%; 35%). Main bacteria at Family level were Ruminococcaceae (19%; 11%), Lachnospiraceae (15%; 6%) and non-assigned family Bacteriodales (19%; 21%). The most abundant non-assigned bacterial Genra were Bacteroidales (26%; 27%), Ruminococcaceae (10%; 5%) y Lachnospiraceae (9%; 6%); the assigned bacterial Genra were Clostridium (5%; 9%) and Treponema (4% y 3%).  The most abundant non-assigned bacterial Species were Methanocorpusculaceae sp (19%; 22%), Pedobacter sp (10%; 5%), Bacteroidales sp (9% y 6%) and Prevotella sp (4% y 3%); the assigned bacterial species were Fibrobacter succinogenes (2%; 1%), Succinispira mobilis (1%; 1%).  Implications: It is suggested that environmental factors and feeding are aspects that regulate the parasitic burden and the bacterial composition in this studied population. This is a short communication of the finding of the components of the microbiota and is relevant in Mexico for future studies, however it is imperative to explore the composition of the metacommunity of a horse free of cyathostomines. Conclusion: Considering that these nematodes are in the cecum and colon, where this microbiota was inferred, and that it is not known whether this interaction is beneficial or detrimental, the study of the microbiome is imperative. In the study, no horse presented clinical signs or colic due to the presence of nematodes.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4546
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)
           ON THE GERMINATION OF ROSELLE (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

    • Authors: Mario Francisco Santoyo de la Cruz, Abdul Khalil Gardezi, Guillermo Carrillo Castañeda, Hector Manuel Ortega Escobar, Oscar Raul Mancilla Villa, Juan Enrique Rubiños Panta, Jose Abel Lopez Buenfil, Mario Ulises Larque Saavedra, Gabriel Haro Aguilar, Cristian Alejandro Ali Gamboa
      Abstract: Background: Heavy metals are perceived as the most persistent and dangerous. Cu is essential for plants, in excess it causes detrimental effects on plants and human health. Plant growth promoting bacteria have been mainly used in agriculture to promote seed germination, plant vigor and growth, and improve crop yields. Objective: To analyse the effect of germination in two roselle varieties that were inoculated with extracellular plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Pseudomonas and in seven solutions of copper sulphate pentahydrate. Methodology: Roselle seeds were germinated in copper sulphate solutions, the seeds were inoculated with bacterial suspensions of two strains of Pseudomonas M40 and M67, the germination percentages were determined and vigour tests were also carried out. Results: The effect of copper sulphate on germination was significant in the interaction between main factors, but no significance was found in the effect of the strains and their interaction with the varieties. In the vigour tests, significance was detected between factors of stem dry weight, root and stem length, and strains. Implications: The tolerance of the seeds to copper sulphate, to know if it has an effect of promoting germination or, on the contrary, inhibits it. Conclusion: copper sulphate has the effect of promoting the germination of roselle seeds. Jamaica has a potential effect of phytoremediation of metals in combination with the inoculation of rhizobacteria that promote plant growth.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4286
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Bosco Kidake Kisambo, Bryan Peter Ogillo, David Musyimi
      Abstract: Background: Weeds are a common occurrence and challenge in different crops eventually influencing crop development and yields. Weed control and management are key in enhancing the productivity of cultivated pastures. In semi-arid Kenyan drylands, the main methods employed for weed management are manual cultural practices and recently, the application of commercial herbicides. Objective: To evaluate the effects of two weed control methods on weed characteristics and productivity of four rangeland grasses commonly used in reseeding and pasture improvement in a semi-arid environment. Methodology: In a randomized complete block design in a field experiment, we determined the effects of two weed control methods (manual and herbicide use) in four rangeland cultivated grasses. These are Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Horsetail grass (Chloris roxburghiana), Masaai love grass (Eragrostis superba) and Bush rye (Enteropogon macrostachyus). Weed characteristics (species, density, diversity and weed biomass,) were evaluated, as well as the effectiveness of the weed control methods in the grasses. Results: Broad-leaved weeds and annual grasses were prevalent in the established grasses. Generally, higher grass dry matter yields were obtained in Cenchrus ciliaris grasses (2.05 t h-1) while lowest yields were in Chloris roxburghiana (1.2 ton ha-1). Weed management interventions increased biomass production in the grasses by a mean of 19% in general. The mean yield increase varied with species and weed control method ranging from 8-39%. Weed control methods significantly reduced weed density, diversity and eventually weed biomass within the grass species. The efficacy of manual weed control and chemical application was in the range of 27-74%.  Implications: Weed control is, therefore, necessary if one is to realize higher productivity and returns in cultivated pasture and fodder systems in semi-arid environments. Conclusion: Both chemical and manual control methods of weed control are important and effective approaches to manage weeds in pasture systems in semi-arid environments.
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4494
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Jorge Alejandro Velasco-Trejo, Enrique Alarcón-Gutiérrez, José Antonio García-Pérez, María del Rosario Pineda-López, Norma Flores-Estévez
      Abstract: Background. The results of a review on the factors that affect nitrogen fixation in the Inga-café system are presented. The nitrogen contribution that the Inga Miller tree genus provides to shade coffee plantations and the factors that affect its stability in biological nitrogen fixation are scarcely recognized. This work delves into the ecological factors and glyphosate herbicides that can affect the symbiosis of Inga spp. with diazotrophic bacteria in their roots (rhizobia), which form nodules and carry out biological nitrogen fixation. Methodology. Different information sources such as EBSCO, Scopus and Google Schoolar were reviewed, with logical or Boolean data search. 183 papers were used to address the factors that affect the symbiosis between trees of the Inga genus and rhizobia. The findings were organized in: Inga Miller taxonomy, shade coffee plantations with Inga spp., symbiosis between Inga spp. and Bradyrhizobium spp., ecological factors that affect the functioning of the Inga spp.-rhizobia symbiosis and the agrochemical factor: glyphosate herbicide. Results. The genus Inga is recognized as a clade Mimosoideae nested in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. Shade coffee plantations with Inga are established below 23º N and 30º S, up to 3,100 m.a.s.l. and the symbiont genus is predominantly Bradyrhizobium spp. whose ecological limits of Inga spp-rhizobia were: altitude [988.7-1,381.5 m.a.s.l.], annual precipitation [2,048.4-2,064.36 mm], temperature [20.39-21.93 ºC] and soil pH [4.88-5.42 pH]. Glyphosated herbicides, as an external stimulus, can reduce the benefit of biological nitrogen fixation and erode the soil by keeping it devoid of vegetation. Additionally, some Bradyrhizobium spp. (thiO gene), which oxidizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), could be a potential glyphosate degrader in the soil. Implications. Shade coffee plantations with 205-250 trees per hectare of Inga spp. allow fixing around 45 kg of N ha-1 year-1. This review may allow the adoption of new observational or experimental studies of the Inga spp.-rhizobia symbiosis, to approach the performance that favors the biological fixation of nitrogen in shade coffee plantations. Conclusions. The review indicates that there is a specific association between Inga spp. and Bradyrhizobium spp., that ecological factors, including the agronomic management with glyphosated herbicides can decrease nitrogen fixation performance during the symbiosis between Inga spp. and rhizobia. No systematic studies of the symbiosis-environment-agrochemical interaction in shade coffee plantations were found.
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4317
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: León Alejandro Cañez-Cota, Carlos Gabriel Borbón-Morales, Jesus Francisco Laborin-Alvarez, Hector Abelardo Gonzalez-Ocampo, Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente
      Abstract: Background: In protected natural areas (PNA), as units for the management and conservation of natural ecosystems, the challenge of economically valuing their environmental services sometimes makes it difficult to improve the design of their conservation plans and prevents a correct estimation of economic and social impacts on the well-being of present and future generations. Therefore, indirect estimation methods of the recreational value are used. Objective: Systematically analyze the advances in the estimation of the recreational value of the PNA, through the travel cost method (TCM). Methodology: A systematic literature review was carried out, based on SALSA (Search, AppraisaL, Synthesis, Analysis) and the PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses), in the following databases: Scopus, Science Direct, JSTOR, Springer Link, Dialnet, Google Scholar. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for studies carried out in PNA at a national and international level, in the period from 2010 to 2020. Main findings. Regarding the different approaches of the travel cost method, the individual approach provides more realistic estimates and has greater statistical support than the zonal approach; since it obtains the data directly from tourists through surveys, which allows estimating the real expenses they made during their trip. Implications: Derived from the complexity of estimating the value of an intangible, such as these areas of environmental services. The economic valuation exercise results in the estimation of the price of the service from the consumer's demand and not from its offer. In this sense, the TCM seeks to estimate the use value of the PNA, and not their market value as such. Hence, such assessment is a support tool for the managers of these sites, in order to: estimate adequate access fees; evaluate investments in the valued area; as well as expose specific approaches and techniques for data processing. Conclusions: The variables that influence the recreational value are: age, income level, distance traveled from the tourist's place of residence to the PNA, transportation costs, lodging, food costs, visits to other sites, perception of environmental quality, and willingness to pay (WTP) for the service. It is recommended to delve into intangible valuation techniques, so that society becomes aware of the benefit that PNA represent for a nation, and in this way public and private investments in this area are promoted; since in addition to improving the protection of biodiversity, it contributes to regional development.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4389
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Leslie Arbeli Cruz-Lujan, Benito Albarran-Portillo, Xochitl Jasso-Arriaga, Anastacio Garcia-Martinez
      Abstract: Background. Despite the fact that it is an indigenous species and of great cultural significance for rural areas of Mexico, breeding and production of turkey is an economic activity that has currently lost importance and is at risk of disappearing, due to structure and management, flock health and social factors Objective. Typifying production units (PU) of native backyard turkey in the Municipality of Temascaltepec, State of Mexico. Methodology. The information was obtained through a structured survey to holders of 20 PU of backyard turkey. PU were typified using multivariate statistics; a principal component analysis (PCA), to standardize information and with the regressions of the original variables on the new factors obtained, a cluster analysis (CA) to classify PU based on intrinsic characteristics that defined them and extrinsic characteristics that differentiated them. Results. The PU are characterized by the presence of small families, small flocks managed by women over 59 years old, who speak nahuatl native language and have primary education. The PU began by buying birds, they have a traditional backyard management, whose food base is corn and kitchen waste. Production is low and is used for self-consumption through the preparation of traditional dishes such as mole. To a lesser extent, both turkey and meat are sold in local markets to improve family income. The continuity of the activity is compromised, in small PU mainly, due to low interest and generational change. Implications. The work made it possible to identify the PU trends and the factors that favor production, as well as those factors that compromise the continuity of the family activity. Conclusion. There is a diversity of backyard turkey PU, the flocks are small managed by women, the diet is based on grains and kitchen waste, the products obtained are for self-consumption from traditional dishes and their continuity depends on the experience in the activity and the family size.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4348
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Emile B. Bolou-Bi, Mamadou Chérif, Edwige-Gwladys Kawojou Gnimassoun, Laurence Ayaba Adjalla
      Abstract: Background. In West Africa, the eggplant crop participates in the fight against rural poverty, hunger and malnutrition due to their higher nutritional contents.  However, this crop is faced with several constraints including poor soils and low yielding cultivars. It is known that mycorhization of plants improves plant nutrition while preserving them from certain pests. Objective. To evaluate the combination of mycorhization and vermicompost effect on eggplant plants growth and yield. Methodology. A consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) from forest soils was trapped using maize roots and used as inoculum for eggplant, Djamba F1 variety. A trial using this inoculum combined or not to vermicompost was carried out for 90 days under a greenhouse. Selected soil properties, eggplant growth and yield indicator were recorded at the end of trial. Results. As expected, soil vermicompost alone or combined to inoculum displayed an increase of soil parameter such as pH, exchangeable base cations, total organic matter, total nitrogen compared to control and soil with AM alone. Soil with AM alone had a limited impact on the growth and yield of eggplant. In contrast, all treatments including vermicompost (vermicompost alone and vermicompost + AM) showed a significant increase of eggplant growth parameters and yield’s indicators. Implications. These results highlighted a need to carry out a screening of mycorrhizal fungi from eggplant production areas to isolate and identify the efficient strains of mycorrhizal fungi for symbiosis with eggplant under tropical conditions. Conclusion. The vermicompost significantly improved the growth of the eggplant. Its coupling with a consortium of spores of the genera results in better plant growth and yield. This combination has a significant effect on the studied parameters (height, crown diameter, biomass and yield). 
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4180
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Dawit Mamo Zegeye, Mohammed Beyan Ahmed, Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss
      Abstract: Background: In Ethiopia, commercial farms have increased in farm size, and the majority of the large-scale poultry farms are concentrated around Addis Ababa the capital city of Ethiopia. Objective: To assess poultry production, map value chains and identify major production challenges in Northern Ethiopia. Methodology: A multistage sampling technique along with a proportionate sample size determination method was used to fix the sample size. Accordingly, 147, 109 and 64 poultry producers were selected from semi-intensive, small-scale, and medium-scale farms, respectively. Nine focus group discussions comprising relevant stakeholders were conducted. Result: The earlier age at first egg-laying in weeks was reported as 16.7 ± 0.93 in the medium-scale production system. A high laying percentage of 85.47 ± 5.01 was recorded in the medium-scale and the highest mortality 23.5 ± 8.8 was in semi-intensive. The price of eggs varied by about +38% in November 2019/2020 and negatively changed price by -22% in May 2019/2020. In a ranking exercise, feed cost, feed quality, product marketing, disease, predator, and lack of information and training were ranked top five. Further risk factors were ranked, accordingly, lack of vaccine, poor biosecurity measures, and management were ranked as major causes. Implication: The government and private sector should promote improving the feeding habit of the community and improve the management practice. Conclusion: The high price of feed ingredients, limited access to veterinary services, poor market linkages in the value chain, poor feeding habits, and poor extension services aggravated by a lack of awareness of producers were the most important challenges affecting commercial production.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4354
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Carlos Julián Ramírez Gómez, Holmes Rodriguez Espinosa, Fernando Restrepo Betancur
      Abstract: Background. The current challenges of agrifood chains make it necessary for them to be efficient from the point of view of production. This demands greater attention to the farmer's technological adoption process and to some aspects that may affect it. Objective. In this study a multivariate cluster analysis method was used, with the aim of identifying the influence of a farmer’s profile and their teaching–learning environment on the adoption of technology in avocado farming. Methodology. The investigation was conducted with 94 farmers in two rural municipalities, located in the same rural region. The questionnaire that was used included profile variables, learning styles, farmer learning preferences, and extension agent teaching methods. Results. Three clusters of adopters were formed and the technology adoption index was analyzed in seven categories, including 37 technologies and technological practices. The case study showed that the high adoption cluster included profiles of older farmers with experience and membership to producer organizations; this cluster was also the only group comprising a combination of farmers’ learning styles and preferences. However, the disconnection between an extension agent's teaching methods and the farmers’ learning is evident in all clusters. Implications. Our results provide important evidence regarding the importance of linking the profile, style, and learning preference in contextualized teaching methods, allowing for better development of farmers’ capacities for the adoption of technologies and practices. Conclusions. The analysis of clusters of adopters allowed farmers to be classified into high, medium and low rates of adoption of technology and technological practices. Each cluster presented certain differences in terms of learning styles and preferences, as well as a disconnection in the teaching-learning relationship.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4434
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Carlos Daniel Vecco - Giove, Hitler Panduro Salas, Milton Francisco Ubeda-Olivas, Basilia Miriam Fernández Argudín, Ileana . Miranda Cabrera
      Abstract: Background: Sampling for monitoring commercial production of kingworm (Zophobas spp.) requires knowledge about optimal sample sizes and methods for projecting yields. Hypothesis and objective: A sequential enumerative sampling (SES) based on larval weight records should present significant levels of productivity prediction under known margins of error and precision. To verify this, it was proposed to evaluate the performance of an SES method in two kingworm’s farms in Tarapoto, Peruvian Amazon. Methodology: Means (m) and respective variances (s2) of larvae number and weight since six sample units (SU) of 500 ml from 35 production units (PU) of 48 l were obtained. Log-transformed data were fitted to Taylor’s Power Law TPL (log s2 =log a +b. log m). A Morisita’s index transformation was applied with original larvae number data to obtain an independent measure of intra-sample spatial arrangement. TPL elements constituted the Green's function optimal sample size for three margins of error E. Sequential sampling simulations were carried out, whose means predicted yields comparing two methods of weight relationship between SU and PU (w/W, linear function), with their respective census. Results: Number of larvae (s2 =1.06 m1.61) and weights (s2 =0.79 m1.53) showed highly significant adjustments in TPL, with aggregation coefficients corresponding crowded spatial arrangement. Larval density and Ip index showed close correlation. Although simulations provided a lower hit frequency than expected, the mean precision increased highly significantly while increasing the error margin, with detection levels of 0.25, 2.23 and 12.57 g to E 50, 30 and 20 %, respectively. Implications: Applying SES, kingworm’s breeders should standardize substrate volume contained in each UP and adjust their w/W conversion factor to avoid plus sampling efforts. Conclusion: The SES suits the needs of productivity monitoring, where using of w/W ratio and 50 % margins of error are associated with greater effectiveness and precision with a sample size of ni<3. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4442
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)

    • Authors: Maribel Reyes Osornio, Marco A. Guzman-Moreno, Gusman Catari-Yujra, Hipolito Hernandez-Hernandez, J. Orbelin Gutierrez-Hernandez
      Abstract: Background: the agronomic yield of crops of importance for rural households in the humid tropics, such as banana, cultivated in association with leguminous trees, such as Inga spp., must be studied because of the little available information on that association, especially with regards to yield response to the application of P and K under agroforestry systems, and the interaction between organic (leguminous residues) and inorganic sources of nutrients. Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of lady finger banana alley cropped with Inga spp., under several levels of natural fertilizers such as K2SO4 + Mg, and phosphoric rock (RF). Methodology: Yield response of lady finger banana (Musa acuminata Colla) under an alley cropping system with guama (Inga spp.). Prior to the establishment of the crop, dolomitic lime (Ca3(PO4)2CaF2) at a rate of 2 ton ha-1 was applied. In addition, phosphoric rock (RF) was added to the crop at diverse levels (0, 20, 40, 80 kg ha-1), and potassium sulphate and magnesium (K2SO4 + Mg) at three levels (0, 45, 90 kg ha-1) with five replicates in a total of 35 alleys for treatments. Inga spp. trees provided with nitrogen (N). Two crop cycles were evaluated, cycle 1 (2015) and cycle 2 (2017). Results: the highest average weight per bunch were obtained with 80 FP and 0 RF in the first cycle, and with 90 K and 45 K in the second cycle, which were significantly higher than other levels. The highest yield on yearly basis was 45 K among the treatments during the first cycle, and the highest yields during the second cycle were obtained with 45 y 90 K2SO4 + Mg. Implications: There are no prior studies for lady finger banana crop associated with Inga spp. trees under alley cropping, this reflects that the study is an original contribution to nutrient-response studies under agroforestry system with Inga. Conclusion: the highest yields were obtained with 90 and 45 kg ha-1 of potassium sulphate and magnesium. The application of dolomitic lime promoted P and K availability for the crop, and better use of applied K2SO4 + Mg and of RF in the treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4197
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2023)
           TEST AGAINST Haemonchus contortus

    • Authors: Jetzabelt Ambrosio-Bautista, Marilem Rodríguez-Labastida, Jose Ernesto Sanchez-Vázquez, Juan Felipe de Jesús Torres-Acosta, Gloria Sarahi Castañeda-Ramirez, Liliana Aguilar-Marcelino
      Abstract: Background. Worldwide, gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) cause losses in livestock production, because in some animals they can cause weight loss or death. Combating these GIN has been based on the use of anthelmintics. However, the misuse of these treatments has caused anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, there is currently a search for new biological alternatives for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes. One of these alternatives is the use of fungal extracts for nematode control. Objectives. To utilize the in vitro larval exsheathment inhibition test to evaluate organic extracts of edible fungi Pleurotus eryngii, P. djamor and Lentinula edodes, against Haemonchus contortus (L3). Methodology. Extracts were prepared from the basidiomes of the fungal species mentioned. In the case of P. eryngii and P. djamor, they were placed in a hydroalcoholic mixture (methanol/water 70:30). On the other hand, L. edodes basidiomes were macerated with distilled water for 24 hours. The extracts were filtered with a cotton/gauze system and through Whatman paper (#4) and were concentrated using a rotary evaporator until the liquid residue was removed and kept at -4 °C until use. To determine the percentage of larval exsheathment inhibition, larvae were exposed to different concentrations (156.25, 312.5, 625, 1250, and 2500 µg/mL) with their respective negative controls (PBS) for 60 minutes. The effective concentration 50% (EC50) was calculated by means of probit analysis. Results. The extracts with the best activity were P. djamor and L. edodes with an effective concentration (EC50) of 533.3 and 558.5 µg/mL, respectively. Implications. This in vitro evaluation provides results that suggest the need for further in vitro studies with more fungi species and other types of extraction procedures. Conclusion. The present study demonstrated that the use of extracts of P. eryngii, P. djamor and L. edodes was shown to have in vitro anthelmintic activity against the larval exsheathment of H. contortus.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.56369/tsaes.4142
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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